North Sea

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North Sea
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{{other uses}}{{short description|marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}

| type = SeaBaltic Sea, Elbe, Weser, Ems (river)>Ems, Rhine/Waal (river), Meuse, Scheldt, River Spey>Spey, River Don, Aberdeenshire, River Dee, Aberdeenshire>Dee, River Tay, River Forth>Forth, River Tyne, River Wear>Wear, River Tees, Humber, River Thames>Thames| outflow = | catchment = | basin_countries = United Kingdom (particularly England and Scotland), Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France 960abbr=on}}580abbr=on}}570000abbr=on}}95abbr=on}}700abbr=on}}54000acre.ft|abbr=on}}| residence_time = | salinity =3.4 to 3.5%| shore = 17F|abbr=on}}6F|abbr=on}}| frozen = | islands = | trenches = | benches = | cities = | reference= weblink" title="">Safety at Sea and Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences}}{{GeoGroupTemplate|article=Geography of the North Sea}}The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom (particularly England and Scotland), Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An epeiric (or "shelf") sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than {{convert|970|km|mi}} long and {{convert|580|km|mi}} wide, with an area of {{convert|570000|km2|sqmi}}.The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery. The sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more recently has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels, wind, and early efforts in wave power.Historically, the North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs, particularly in Northern Europe. It was also important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources. As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars.The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – commonly including overfishing, industrial and agricultural runoff, dredging, and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential.


{{See also|List of rivers discharging into the North Sea}}{{Annotated image | float=right| caption=Sk{{=}}Skagerrak   Ka=KattegatEng Ch=English Channel | image=Nseamap.gif | width=240 | height=313|image-width=250|annotations={{Annotation|106|142|NorthSea}}{{Annotation|81|10|NorwegianSea}}{{Annotation|163|152|Sk}}{{Annotation|188|166|Ka}}{{Annotation|24|280|Eng Ch}}}}The North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the westENCYCLOPEDIA, L.M.A., University of Chicago, Encyclopædia Britannica Macropædia, Europe, Fifteenth, 1985, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 18, U.S.A., 978-0-85229-423-9, 832–835,
and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.BOOK, Ripley
author2=Charles Anderson Dana, The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge,weblink Digitized 11 October 2007 by Google Books online, 26 December 2008, 1883, D. Appleton and company, 499,
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the very north-eastern part of the Atlantic.WEB, Helland-Hansen, Bjørn, Fridtjof Nansen, IV. The Basin of the Norwegian Sea., Report on Norwegian Fishery and Marine-Investigations Vol. 11 No. 2, 1909, Geofysisk Institutt,weblink 9 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2009,
The North Sea is more than {{convert|970|km|mi}} long and {{convert|580|km|mi}} wide, with an area of {{convert|570000|km2|sqmi}} and a volume of {{convert|54000|km3}}.WEB, About the North Sea: Key facts, Safety at Sea project: Norwegian Coastal Administration, 2008,weblink 2 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2008, Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, and the Frisian Islands. The North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea. The largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse.BOOK, Ray, Alanauthor3=Jerry McCormick-Ray
, Coastal-marine Conservation: Science and Policy,weblink 2004, illustrated, 21 January 2009, Digitized by Google Books online, Blackwell Publishing, 978-0-632-05537-1, 262
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas.WEB
, Chapter 5: North Sea
, Environmental Guidebook on the Enclosed Coastal Seas of the World
, International Center for the Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas
, 2003
, 24 November 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 17 December 2008

Major features

For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of {{convert|90|m}}.BOOK, Calow, Peter, Blackwell's Concise Encyclopedia of Environmental Management,weblink 26 December 2008, 1999, Blackwell Publishing, 978-0-632-04951-6,
The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen. It is between {{convert|20|and|30|km|mi}} wide and has a maximum depth of {{convert|725|m}}.WEB, Limits in the seas: North Sea continental shelf boundaries, U.S. Department of State, United States Government, 14 June 1974,weblink 17 June 2013,
The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere {{cvt|15|to|30|m|round=5}} below the surface.BOOK, Ostergren, Robert Clifford, John G. Rice
, The Europeans: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment, Digitized by Google Books online,weblink 2004, Guilford Press, Bath, UK, 10 January 2009, 978-0-89862-272-0, 62
, Maptech Online MapServer
, Dogger Bank
, 1989–2008
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, 11 July 2012
, 20 July 2007
, This feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with roughly uniform depth in fathoms, (forty fathoms and fourteen fathoms or {{cvt|73|and|26|m|disp=or}} deep respectively). These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate,BOOK, Tuckey, James Hingston, Maritime Geography and Statistics ..., Digitized 2 May 2007 by Google Books online,weblink 1815, 10 January 2009, Black, Parry & Co., 9780521311915, 445, which has been alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems.BOOK, Bradford, Thomas Gamaliel, Encyclopædia Americana: A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics, and Biography, Brought Down to the Present Time; Including a Copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the Seventh Edition of the German Conversations-lexicon, Digitized 11 October 2007 by Google Books online,weblink 1838, 10 January 2009, Thomas, Cowperthwait, & co., 9780521311915, 445, The Devil's Hole lies {{convert|200|mi}} east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between {{convert|20|and|30|km|mi}} long, {{convert|1|and|2|km|mi|spell=in|1}} wide and up to {{convert|230|m}} deep.JOURNAL, The Edinburgh Geologist, 14, Autumn 1983, The Devil's Hole in the North Sea, Alan Fyfe,weblink 2 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2008, Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank.


The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows:WEB,weblink Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, 1953, International Hydrographic Organization, 6 February 2010, On the Southwest. A line joining the Walde Lighthouse (France, 1°55'E) and Leathercoat Point (England, 51°10'N).The Walde Lighthouse is {{convert|6|km|0|abbr=on}} east of Calais ({{Coord|50|59|06|N|1|55|00|E|display=inline}}), and Leathercoat Point is at the north end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent ({{Coord|51|10|00|N|1|24|00|E|display=inline}}).On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head (3°22'W) in Scotland to Tor Ness (58°47'N) in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy (58°55'N) on to Breck Ness on Mainland (58°58'N) through this island to Costa Head (3°14'W) and to Inga Ness (59'17'N) in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head (North point of Papa Westray) and on to Seal Skerry (North point of North Ronaldsay) and thence to Horse Island (South point of the Shetland Islands).On the North. From the North point (Fethaland Point) of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness (60°39'N) in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness (1°04'W) and across to Spoo Ness (60°45'N) in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness (60°51'N), on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga ({{coord|60|51|N|0|53|W|display=inline}}) all these being included in the North Sea area; thence up the meridian of 0°53' West to the parallel of 61°00' North and eastward along this parallel to the coast of Norway, the whole of Viking Bank being thus included in the North Sea.On the East. The Western limit of the Skagerrak [A line joining Hanstholm ({{coord|57|07|N|8|36|E|display=inline}}) and the Naze (Lindesnes, {{coord|58|N|7|E|display=inline}})].


File:NorthSeaCurrents.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Ocean currentOcean currentFile:Tiden loc.png|thumb|upright=1.25|• Localization of the tide-gauges listed• (Norwegian Sea#Hydrology|Tide times after Bergen]] (negative = before)• The three amphidromic centers• Coasts:  marshes = green  mudflats = greenish blue  lagoons = bright blue  dunes = yellow  sea dikes= purple  moraines near the coast= light brown  rock-based coasts = grayish brown)
Temperature and salinity
The average temperature in summer is {{convert|17|°C|°F}} and {{convert|6|°C|°F}} in the winter. The average temperatures have been trending higher since 1988, which has been attributed to climate change."North Sea cod 'could disappear' even if fishing outlawed", Global Warming Triggers North Sea Temperature Rise, Agence France-Presse, SpaceDaily.AFP and UPI Wire Stories, 14 November 2006,weblink 1 December 2008,
Air temperatures in January range on average between {{convert|0|to|4|C|F}} and in July between {{convert|13|to|18|C|F}}. The winter months see frequent gales and storms.
The salinity averages between {{convert|34|to|35|g/l|g/usgal|}} of water. The salinity has the highest variability where there is fresh water inflow, such as at the Rhine and Elbe estuaries, the Baltic Sea exit and along the coast of Norway.BOOK, Reddy, M. P. M., Descriptive Physical Oceanography,weblink 3 December 2008, 2001, Taylor & Francis, 978-90-5410-706-4, 114, Annual variation in Surface Salinity,
Water circulation and tides
The main pattern to the flow of water in the North Sea is an anti-clockwise rotation along the edges.WEB, Met Office: Flood alert!, Met office UK government, 28 November 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2006, 2 November 2008, The North Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean receiving the majority of ocean current from the northwest opening, and a lesser portion of warm current from the smaller opening at the English Channel. These tidal currents leave along the Norwegian coast.WEB
, Safety at Sea
, Currents in the North Sea
, 2009
, 9 January 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 9 December 2008
, Surface and deep water currents may move in different directions. Low salinity surface coastal waters move offshore, and deeper, denser high salinity waters move in shore.BOOK, Freestone, David, Ton IJlstra
, The North Sea: Perspectives on Regional Environmental Co-operation,weblink 3 December 2008, 1990, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 978-1-85333-413-9, 66–70, Physical Properties of Sea Water and their Distribution Annual: Variation in Surface Salinity
, The North Sea located on the continental shelf has different waves from those in deep ocean water. The wave speeds are diminished and the wave amplitudes are increased. In the North Sea there are two amphidromic systems and a third incomplete amphidromic system.BOOK, Dyke, Phil, Modeling Coastal and Offshore Processes,weblink 4 December 2008, 1974, Imperial College Press, 978-1-86094-674-5, 323–365, p. 329 tidal map showing amphidromesBOOK, Carter, R. W. G., Coastal Environments: An Introduction to the Physical, Ecological and Cultural Systems of Coastlines,weblink 4 December 2008, 1974, Academic Press, 978-0-12-161856-8, 155–158, p. 157 tidal map showing amphidromes
In the North Sea the average tide difference in wave amplitude is between zero and {{convert|8|m|ft|spell=in}}.
The Kelvin tide of the Atlantic ocean is a semidiurnal wave that travels northward. Some of the energy from this wave travels through the English Channel into the North Sea. The wave still travels northward in the Atlantic Ocean, and once past the northern tip of Great Britain, the Kelvin wave turns east and south and once again enters into the North Sea.BOOK, Pugh, D. T., Changing Sea Levels: Effects of Tides, Weather, and Climate,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 4 December 2008, 2004, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-53218-1, 93, p. 94 shows the amphidromic points of the North Sea{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="padding:6px; spacing:6px;"|+Selected tide ranges! Tidal range m](from calendars) !! Maximal tidalrange [m] !! Tide-gauge !! Geographical and historical features 0.79–1.82 align="center" LerwickTide table for Lerwick: tide-forecast >| Shetland Islands 2.01–3.76 align="center" AberdeenTide table for Aberdeen: tide-forecast >River Dee, Aberdeenshire>River Dee in Scotland 2.38–4.61 align="center" North ShieldsTide table for North Shields: tide-forecast >River Tyne>Tyne estuary 2.31–6.04 align="center" Kingston upon HullTide tables for Kingston upon Hull: Tides Chart and Tide-Forecast >| northern side of Humber estuary 1.75–4.33 align="center" GrimsbyTide table for Grimsby: Tide-Forecast >| southern side of Humber estuary farther seaward 1.98–6.84 align="center" | SkegnessTide tables for Skegness: Visit My Harbour undTide-Forecast || Lincolnshire coast north of the Wash 1.92–6.47 align="center" | King's LynnTide tables for King's Lynn: Visit My Harbour undTide-Forecast || mouth of Great Ouse into the Wash 2.54–7.23 align="center" HunstantonTide tables for Hunstanton: Visit My Harbour >| eastern edge of the Wash 2.34–3.70 align="center" HarwichHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/HARWICH-ENGLAND/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, East Anglian coast north of Thames Estuary 4.05–6.62 align="center" London BridgeHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/LONDON-BRIDGE-ENGLAND/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, inner end of Thames Estuary 2.38–6.85 align="center" DunkerqueTide tables for Dunkerque: Tides Chart and tide forecast >| dune coast east of the Strait of Dover 2.02–5.53 align="center" ZeebruggeTide tables for Zeebrugge: Tides Chart and tide forecast >| dune coast west of Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta 3.24–4.96 align="center" AntwerpHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/ANTWERPEN-BELGIUM/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, inner end of the southernmost estuary of Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta 1.48–1.90 align="center" RotterdamHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/ROTTERDAM-NETHERLANDS/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, borderline of estuary deltaAhnert. F.(2009): Einführung in die Geomorphologie. 4. Auflage. 393 S. and sedimentation delta of the Rhine 1.10–2.03 align="center" KatwijkHTTP://WWW.SURF-FORECAST.COM/BREAKS/KATWIJKAAN-ZEE/TIDES/LATESTWORK=SURF-FORECAST.COM, mouth of the Uitwateringskanaal of Oude Rijn into the sea 1.15–1.72 align="center" Den HelderHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/DEN-HELDER-NETHERLANDS/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, northeastern end of Holland dune coast west of IJsselmeer 1.67–2.20 align="center" Harlingen, Netherlands>HarlingenHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/HARLINGEN-NETHERLANDS/TIDES/LATEST>TITLE=TIDE TIMES AND TIDE CHART FOR HARLINGEN| east of IJsselmeer, outlet of IJssel river, the eastern branch of the Rhine 1.80–2.69 align="center" BorkumHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/BORKUM-GERMANY/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, island in front of Ems river estuary 2.96–3.71 align="center" EmdenTide table for Emden {{webarchive>url= Ems (river)>Ems river estuary 2.60–3.76 align="center" WilhelmshavenHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/WILHELMSHAVEN-GERMANY/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, Jade Bight 2.66–4.01 align="center" BremerhavenHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/BREMERHAVEN-GERMANY/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, seaward end of Weser estuary 3.59–4.62 align="center" Bremen-OslebshausenHTTP://GEZEITEN-KALENDER.DE:9099/LOCATIONS/473.HTML?Y=2014&M=2&D=22AUTHOR=GUIDO GERDINGPorts of Bremen>Bremer Industriehäfen, inner Weser estuary 3.3–4.0 align="center" Bremen Weser barrageHTTP://WWW.BSH.DE/CGI-BIN/GEZEITEN/WAS_TAB.PL?ORT=DE__752P&ZONE=GESETZLICHE+ZEIT+%B9&NIVEAU=NNURL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=GEZEITENVORAUSBERECHNUNG| artificial tide limit of river Weser, 4 km upstream of the city centre 2.6–4.0 Bremerhaven 1879calculated from Ludwig Franzius: Die Korrektion der Unterweser (1898). suppl. B IV.: weekly average tide ranges 1879 before onset of Weser Correction (Weser straightening works) 0–0.3 Bremen city centre 1879 before onset of Weser Correction (Weser straightening works) 1.45 Bremen city centre 1900telephonical advice by Mrs. Piechotta, head of department of hydrology, Nautic Administration for Bremen (WSA Bremen) Große Weserbrücke, 5 years after completion of Weser Correction works 2.54–3.48 align="center" CuxhavenHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/CUXHAVEN-GERMANY/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, seaward end of Elbe estuary 3.4–3.9 align="center" Hamburg St. PauliHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/HAMBURG-GERMANY/TIDES/LATESTWORK=TIDE-FORECAST.COM, HTTP://WWW.BSH.DE/CGI-BIN/GEZEITEN/WAS_TAB.PL?ORT=DE__508P&ZONE=GESETZLICHE+ZEIT+%B9&NIVEAU=KN>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.TODAY/20140217155834/HTTP://WWW.BSH.DE/CGI-BIN/GEZEITEN/WAS_TAB.PL?ORT=DE__508P&ZONE=GESETZLICHE+ZEIT+%B9&NIVEAU=KNARCHIVEDATE=17 FEBRUARY 2014WORK=BSH.DE, St. Pauli Piers, inner part of Elbe estuary 1.39–2.03 align="center" Westerland, Germany>WesterlandHTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/WESTERLAND-GERMANY/TIDES/LATEST>TITLE=TIDE TIMES AND TIDE CHART FOR WESTERLAND| Sylt island in front of Nordfriesland coast 2.8–3.4 align="center" DagebüllHTTP://WWW.BSH.DE/CGI-BIN/GEZEITEN/WAS_TAB.PL?ORT=DE__635P&ZONE=GESETZLICHE%20ZEIT&NIVEAU=KNWORK=BSH.DEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140223104352/HTTP://WWW.BSH.DE/CGI-BIN/GEZEITEN/WAS_TAB.PL?ORT=DE__635P&ZONE=GESETZLICHE%20ZEIT&NIVEAU=KNURL-STATUS=DEAD, coast of Wadden Sea in Nordfriesland 1.1–2.1 align="center" EsbjergHTTP://WWW.DMI.DK/EN/HAV/MAALINGER/TIDAL-TABLES/WORK=DMI.DKARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140316211710/HTTP://WWW.DMI.DK/EN/HAV/MAALINGER/TIDAL-TABLES/URL-STATUS=DEAD, HTTP://WWW.TIDE-FORECAST.COM/LOCATIONS/ESBJERG-DENMARK/TIDES/LATEST>TITLE=TIDE TIMES AND TIDE CHART FOR ESBJERG, DENMARK| northern end of Wadden Sea in Denmark 0.5–1.1 align="center" Hvide Sande >Denmark>Danish dune coast, entrance of Ringkøbing Fjord lagoon 0.3–0.5 align="center" Thyborøn >Denmark>Danish dune coast, entrance of Nissum Bredning lagoon, part of Limfjord 0.2–04 align="center" Hirtshals >| Skagerrak. Hanstholm and Skagen have the same values. 0.14–0.30 align="center" Mandal, Norway>TregdeVannstand – Norwegian official maritime Information → English version {{webarchiveweblink >date=29 April 2015 }} Skagerrak, Southern end of Norway, east of an amphidromic point 0.25–0.60 align="center" Stavanger >| North of that amphidromic point, rhythm of the tides irregular 0.64–1.20 align="center" Bergen >| Rhythm of the tides regular


(File:Wattenmeer-Nordfriesland.jpg|thumb|The German North Sea coast)The eastern and western coasts of the North Sea are jagged, formed by glaciers during the ice ages. The coastlines along the southernmost part are covered with the remains of deposited glacial sediment. The Norwegian mountains plunge into the sea creating deep fjords and archipelagos. South of Stavanger, the coast softens, the islands become fewer. The eastern Scottish coast is similar, though less severe than Norway. From north east of England, the cliffs become lower and are composed of less resistant moraine, which erodes more easily, so that the coasts have more rounded contours.WEB, Development of the East Riding Coastline,weblink East Riding of Yorkshire Council, 24 July 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2007, WEB, Holderness Coast United Kingdom,weblink EUROSION Case Study, 24 July 2007, In the Netherlands, Belgium and in East Anglia the littoral is low and marshy. The east coast and south-east of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) have coastlines that are mainly sandy and straight owing to longshore drift, particularly along Belgium and Denmark.BOOK
, Overview of geography, hydrography and climate of the North Sea (Chapter II of the Quality Status Report).
, Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR)
, 2000
, 4 December 2007
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 10 July 2007

Coastal management

{{further|Afsluitdijk|Delta Works|Flood control in the Netherlands|Thames Barrier|Zuiderzee Works}}File:Afsluitdijk 1031.jpg|thumb|left|The AfsluitdijkAfsluitdijkThe southern coastal areas were originally amphibious flood plains and swampy land. In areas especially vulnerable to storm surges, people settled behind elevated levees and on natural areas of high ground such as spits and geestland.{{rp|[302,303]}} As early as 500 BC, people were constructing artificial dwelling hills higher than the prevailing flood levels.{{rp|[306,308]}} It was only around the beginning of the High Middle Ages, in 1200 AD, that inhabitants began to connect single ring dikes into a dike line along the entire coast, thereby turning amphibious regions between the land and the sea into permanent solid ground.BOOK, Wefer, Geroldauthor3=K. E. Behre, Eystein Jansen
, Climate Development and History of the North Atlantic Realm: With 16 Tables, 2002,weblink 4 December 2008, 2002, Springer, 978-3-540-43201-2, 308–310
, The modern form of the dikes supplemented by overflow and lateral diversion channels, began to appear in the 17th and 18th centuries, built in the Netherlands.WEB, Oosthoek, K. Jan, Environmental History Resources, History of Dutch river flood defences, 2006–2007,weblink 24 July 2007, The North Sea Floods of 1953 and 1962 were impetus for further raising of the dikes as well as the shortening of the coast line so as to present as little surface area as possible to the punishment of the sea and the storms.WEB, Compare Infobase Limited, North Sea Protection Works – Seven Modern Wonders of World, 2006–2007,weblinkarchiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2007, Currently, 27% of the Netherlands is below sea level protected by dikes, dunes, and beach flats.ROSENBERG >FIRST= MATT, – Geography, Dykes of the Netherlands, 30 January 2007,weblink 19 July 2007, Coastal management today consists of several levels.WEB
, Science around us: Flexible covering protects imperiled dikes – BASF – The Chemical Company – Corporate Website
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, 2 January 2013
, 16 January 2009
, The dike slope reduces the energy of the incoming sea, so that the dike itself does not receive the full impact. Dikes that lie directly on the sea are especially reinforced. The dikes have, over the years, been repeatedly raised, sometimes up to {{convert|9|m|ft}} and have been made flatter to better reduce wave erosion.WEB
, Peters
, Karsten
, Magnus Geduhn
, Holger Schüttrumpf
, Helmut Temmler
, Impounded water in Sea Dikes
, 31 August – 5 September 2008
, 16 January 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 5 February 2009
Where the dunes are sufficient to protect the land behind them from the sea, these dunes are planted with beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to protect them from erosion by wind, water, and foot traffic.WEB
, Dune Grass Planting
, A guide to managing coastal erosion in beach/dune systems – Summary 2
, Scottish Natural Heritage
, 2000
, 2 November 2008
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 12 December 2008
, dead

Storm tides

File:Watersnoodramp 1953.jpg|thumb|Zuid-Beveland, North Sea flood of 1953North Sea flood of 1953Storm surges threaten, in particular, the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Denmark and low lying areas of eastern England particularly around The Wash and Fens.Storm surges are caused by changes in barometric pressure combined with strong wind created wave action.BOOK, Ingham, J. K.author3=P. F. Rawson
, Atlas of Palaeogeography and Lithofacies,weblink 15 December 2008, 1999, Geological Society of London, 978-1-86239-055-3, 150, Quaternary
, The first recorded storm tide flood was the Julianenflut, on 17 February 1164. In its wake the Jadebusen, (a bay on the coast of Germany), began to form.A storm tide in 1228 is recorded to have killed more than 100,000 people.WEB
, Morin
, Rene
, Social, economical and political impact of Weather
, EMS annual meeting
, 2 October 2008
, 4 December 2008
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In 1362, the Second Marcellus Flood, also known as the Grote Manndrenke, hit the entire southern coast of the North Sea. Chronicles of the time again record more than 100,000 deaths as large parts of the coast were lost permanently to the sea, including the now legendary lost city of Rungholt.WEB, scinexx | Der Untergang: Die Grote Manndränke – Rungholt Nordsee, MMCD NEW MEDIA, 24 May 2008,weblink German, 4 December 2008,
In the 20th century, the North Sea flood of 1953 flooded several nations' coasts and cost more than 2,000 lives.BOOK
, Investigating Rivers
, Coastal Flooding: The great flood of 1953
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, 26 November 2002
, 24 July 2007
, 315 citizens of Hamburg died in the North Sea flood of 1962.BOOK, Lamb, H. H.url=, Digitized online by Google books, 12 January 2009, illustrated, 1988, Taylor & Francis, 9780415006743, 187, {{rp|[79,86]}}


Though rare, the North Sea has been the site of a number of historically documented tsunamis. The Storegga Slides were a series of underwater landslides, in which a piece of the Norwegian continental shelf slid into the Norwegian Sea. The immense landslips occurred between 8150 BCE and 6000 BCE, and caused a tsunami up to {{convert|20|m|ft}} high that swept through the North Sea, having the greatest effect on Scotland and the Faeroe Islands.AXEL >LAST=BOJANOWSKI, Spiegel Online, Tidal Waves in Europe? Study Sees North Sea Tsunami Risk, 11 October 2006,weblink AUTHOR2 = SUE DAWSON AUTHOR4 = ØYSTEIN LOHNE TITLE = RECORD-BREAKING HEIGHT FOR 8000-YEAR-OLD TSUNAMI IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC VOLUME = 84 PAGES = 289, 293 ACCESSDATE = 15 JANUARY 2007 BIBCODE = 2003EOSTR..84..289B ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070106061146/HTTP://WWW.IBG.UIT.NO/~STEIN/BONDEVIK-AL-03-EOS.PDF, 6 January 2007, The Dover Straits earthquake of 1580 is among the first recorded earthquakes in the North Sea measuring between 5.6 and 5.9 on the Richter scale. This event caused extensive damage in Calais both through its tremors and possibly triggered a tsunami, though this has never been confirmed. The theory is a vast underwater landslide in the English Channel was triggered by the earthquake, which in turn caused a tsunami. The tsunami triggered by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake reached Holland, although the waves had lost their destructive power. The largest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom was the 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake, which measured 6.1 on the Richter magnitude scale and caused a small tsunami that flooded parts of the British coast.BOOK
, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
, A tsunami in Belgium?
, 2005
, 2 November 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 25 April 2014


File:Doggerland.svg|thumb|left|Map showing hypothetical extent of DoggerlandDoggerland(File:North Sea -.jpg|thumb|North Sea from De Koog, Texel island)(File:Mediterranean Rupelian.jpg|thumb|The North Sea between {{ma|34}} and {{ma|28}}, as Central Europe became dry land)Shallow epicontinental seas like the current North Sea have since long existed on the European continental shelf. The rifting that formed the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, from about {{ma|150}}, caused tectonic uplift in the British Isles.JOURNAL, Ziegler, P. A., Geologic Evolution of North Sea and Its Tectonic Frameworkvolume =59, 1975, 10.1306/83D91F2E-16C7-11D7-8645000102C1865D,
Since then, a shallow sea has almost continuously existed between the uplands of the Fennoscandian Shield and the British Isles.See Ziegler (1990) or Glennie (1998) for the development of the paleogeography around the North Sea area from the Jurassic onwards This precursor of the current North Sea has grown and shrunk with the rise and fall of the eustatic sea level during geologic time. Sometimes it was connected with other shallow seas, such as the sea above the Paris Basin to the south-west, the Paratethys Sea to the south-east, or the Tethys Ocean to the south.WEB, Torsvik, Trond H.
author3=Jon L. Mosar author5=Tarjei N. Malme
, Global reconstructions and North Atlantic paleogeography 440 Ma to Recen, November 2004,weblink 19 November 2008,
During the Late Cretaceous, about {{ma|85}}, all of modern mainland Europe except for Scandinavia was a scattering of islands. By the Early Oligocene, {{ma|34|28}}, the emergence of Western and Central Europe had almost completely separated the North Sea from the Tethys Ocean, which gradually shrank to become the Mediterranean as Southern Europe and South West Asia became dry land.SMITH >FIRST= A. G., Atlas of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Coastlines year=2004 pages=27–38,weblinkformat=Digitized by Google Books online, The North Sea was cut off from the English Channel by a narrow land bridge until that was breached by at least two catastrophic floods between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago.GIBBARD >FIRST= P., Palaeogeography: Europe cut adrift volume=448 date=19 July 2007, 10.1038/448259a, 17637645, 7151, 2007Natur.448..259G, (Registration is required)JOURNAL, Gupta, Sanjeev, Collier, Jenny S., Palmer-Felgate, Andy, Potter, Graeme, Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel, Nature, 448, 2007, 342–5, 10.1038/nature06018, 17637667, 7151, 2007Natur.448..342G, Since the start of the Quaternary period about {{ma|2.6}}, the eustatic sea level has fallen during each glacial period and then risen again. Every time the ice sheet reached its greatest extent, the North Sea became almost completely dry. The present-day coastline formed after the Last Glacial Maximum when the sea began to flood the European continental shelf.BOOK, Sola, M. A., D. Worsley, Muʼassasah al-Waṭanīyah lil-Nafṭ, Geological Exploration in Murzuq Basin, A contribution to IUGS/IAGC Global Geochemical Baselines, Elsevier Science B.V., 2000, 9780080532462,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 19 November 2008, In 2006 a bone fragment was found while drilling for oil in the north sea. Analysis indicated that it was a Plateosaurus from 199 to 216 million years ago. This was the deepest dinosaur fossil ever found and the first find for Norway.WEB,weblink Dinosaur of the Deep, Lindsey, Kyle, 25 April 2006, Paleontology Blog, 23 June 2013,


Fish and shellfish

{{See also|List of fish of the North Sea}}File:Bank met ondermeer kokkels mosselen en Japanse oesters in de Waddenzee bij Schiermonnikoog.jpg|thumb|Pacific oysters, blue mussels and cockles in the Wadden SeaWadden SeaCopepods and other zooplankton are plentiful in the North Sea. These tiny organisms are crucial elements of the food chain supporting many species of fish. Over 230 species of fish live in the North Sea. Cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole, mackerel, herring, pouting, sprat, and sandeel are all very common and are fished commercially.WEB, Quality Status Report for the Greater North Sea, Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), 2010,weblinkrabbitfish reside only in small areas of the North Sea.PIET, G. J. AUTHOR3=GREENSTREET, S. P. R. TITLE=MODELLING THE DIRECT IMPACT OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON THE NORTH SEA FISH COMMUNITY TO DERIVE ESTIMATES OF FISHING MORTALITY FOR NON-TARGET FISH SPECIES VOLUME=66 PAGES=1985–1998, 10.1093/icesjms/fsp162, Crustaceans are also commonly found throughout the sea. Norway lobster, deep-water prawns, and brown shrimp are all commercially fished, but other species of lobster, shrimp, oyster, mussels and clams all live in the North Sea. Recently non-indigenous species have become established including the Pacific oyster and Atlantic jackknife clam.


The coasts of the North Sea are home to nature reserves including the Ythan Estuary, Fowlsheugh Nature Preserve, and Farne Islands in the UK and the Wadden Sea National Parks in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.WEB, MarBEF Educational Pullout: The North Sea, Ecoserve, MarBEF Educational Pullout Issue 4,weblink 12 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2009, dead, These locations provide breeding habitat for dozens of bird species. Tens of millions of birds make use of the North Sea for breeding, feeding, or migratory stopovers every year. Populations of black legged kittiwakes, Atlantic puffins, northern fulmars, and species of petrels, gannets, seaducks, loons (divers), cormorants, gulls, auks, and terns, and many other seabirds make these coasts popular for birdwatching.

Marine mammals

File:Bottlenose dolphin with young.JPG|thumb|A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray FirthMoray FirthThe North Sea is also home to marine mammals. Common seals, and harbour porpoises can be found along the coasts, at marine installations, and on islands. The very northern North Sea islands such as the Shetland Islands are occasionally home to a larger variety of pinnipeds including bearded, harp, hooded and ringed seals, and even walrus.WEB,weblink Walrus, Ecomare, 23 June 2013, North Sea cetaceans include various porpoise, dolphin and whale species.BOOK, Whales and dolphins in the North Sea 'on the increase', Newcastle University Press Release, 2 April 2005,weblink 21 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2009,


File:Phytoplankton Bloom in the North Sea.jpg|thumb|PhytoplanktonPhytoplanktonPlant species in the North Sea include species of wrack, among them bladder wrack, knotted wrack, and serrated wrack. Algae, macroalgal, and kelp, such as oarweed and laminaria hyperboria, and species of maerl are found as well. Eelgrass, formerly common in the entirety of the Wadden Sea, was nearly wiped out in the 20th century by a disease.JOURNAL, Nienhuis, P.H., Causes of the eelgrass wasting disease: Van der Werff's changing theories, Aquatic Ecology, 1, 28, 2008, 10.1007/BF02334245, 55–61,
Similarly, sea grass used to coat huge tracts of ocean floor, but have been damaged by trawling and dredging have diminished its habitat and prevented its return.WEB, Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat, Ocean Studies Board (OSB)
United States National Academy of Sciences>National Academy of Sciences, 2008,weblink 2 November 2008,
Invasive Japanese seaweed has spread along the shores of the sea clogging harbours and inlets and has become a nuisance.BOOK, Tait, Ronald Victor, Frances Dipper
, Elements of Marine Ecology,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 27 December 2008, 1998, Butterworth-Heinemann, 9780750620888, 432,

Biodiversity and conservation

Due to the heavy human populations and high level of industrialization along its shores, the wildlife of the North Sea has suffered from pollution, overhunting, and overfishing. Flamingos and pelicans were once found along the southern shores of the North Sea, but became extinct over the 2nd millennium.WEB
, Extinct / extirpated species
, Dr. Ransom A. Myers – Research group website
, Future of Marine Animal Populations/Census of Marine Life
, 27 October 2006
,weblink" title="">weblink
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, 17 December 2008
, doc
, 24 November 2008
Walruses frequented the Orkney Islands through the mid-16th century, as both Sable Island and Orkney Islands lay within its normal range.JOURNAL, Ray, C.E., Trichecodon huxlei (Mammalia: Odobenidae) in the Pleaistocene of southeastern United States., Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1960, 122, 129–142, Gray whales also resided in the North Sea but were driven to extinction in the Atlantic in the 17th centuryWEB
, The Extinction Website – Species Info – Atlantic Grey Whale
, 19 January 2008
, 3 December 2008
, dead
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, 4 January 2009
Other species have dramatically declined in population, though they are still found. North Atlantic right whales, sturgeon, shad, rays, skates, salmon, and other species were common in the North Sea until the 20th century, when numbers declined due to overfishing.WEB, Brown, Paul, North Sea in crisis as skate dies out Ban placed on large areas to stave off risk of species being destroyed, Guardian Unlimited Guardian News and Media Limited, 21 March 2002,weblink 3 December 2008, London,
WEB, Williot, Patrick, Éric Rochard, Ecosystems and territories, Sturgeon, Restoring an endangered species, Cemagref,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2008, 3 December 2008,
Other factors like the introduction of non-indigenous species, industrial and agricultural pollution, trawling and dredging, human-induced eutrophication, construction on coastal breeding and feeding grounds, sand and gravel extraction, offshore construction, and heavy shipping traffic have also contributed to the decline.
For example, a resident killer whale pod was lost in the 1960s, presumably due to the peak in PCB pollution in this time period.Carrington, Damian. "UK’s last resident killer whales 'doomed to extinction'", The Guardian, London, 14 January 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2019.The OSPAR commission manages the OSPAR convention to counteract the harmful effects of human activity on wildlife in the North Sea, preserve endangered species, and provide environmental protection.WEB,weblink 30 November 2008, OSPAR Convention, European Union, 2000, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2009, All North Sea border states are signatories of the MARPOL 73/78 Accords, which preserve the marine environment by preventing pollution from ships.WEB, Official Journal of the European Communities 28.12.2000 L 332/81, DIRECTIVE 2000/59/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 November 2000 on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues,weblink 12 January 2009, "Member States have ratified Marpol 73/78".Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands also have a trilateral agreement for the protection of the Wadden Sea, or mudflats, which run along the coasts of the three countries on the southern edge of the North Sea.WEB
, Wadden Sea Region
, Scottish Natural Heritage: A Review of Relevant Experience in Sustainable Tourism in the Coastal and Marine Environment, Case Studies, Level 1, Wadden Sea Region
, Stevens & Associates
, 1 June 2006
, 1 December 2008
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 17 December 2008
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File:Prima Europe tabula.jpg|thumb|A 1482 recreation of a map from Ptolemy's Geography showing the "Oceanus Germanicus"]]File:Solar eclipse 1715May03 Halley map.png|thumb|Edmond Halley's solar eclipse 1715 map showing The German Sea]]The North Sea has had various names through history. One of the earliest recorded names was Septentrionalis Oceanus, or "Northern Ocean," which was cited by Pliny.BOOK, Roller, Duane W., Through the Pillars of Herakles: Greco-Roman Exploration of the Atlantic,weblink 8 December 2008, 2006, Taylor and Francis, 978-0-415-37287-9, 119, Roman Exploration, Footnote 28. Strabo 7.1.3. The name North Sea – more properly "Northern Ocean." Septentrionalis Oceanus – probably came into use at this time; the earliest extant citation is Pliny, Natural History 2.167, 4.109.,
The name "North Sea" probably came into English, however, via the Dutch "Noordzee", who named it thus either in contrast with the Zuiderzee ("South Sea"), located south of Frisia, or because the sea is generally to the north of the Netherlands. Before the adoption of "North Sea," the names used in English were "German Sea" or "German Ocean", referred to the Latin names "Mare Germanicum" and "Oceanus Germanicus",Hartmann Schedel 1493 map (:File:Schedelsche Weltchronik d 287.jpg): Baltic Sea called "Mare Germanicum", North Sea called "Oceanus Germanicus" and these persisted in use until the First World War.JOURNAL, 10.1080/03085690903319291, 62, 'North Sea or German Ocean'? The Anglo-German Cartographic Freemasonry, 1842–1914, 2009, Imago Mundi, 46–62, Scully, Richard J.,
Other common names in use for long periods were the Latin terms "Mare Frisicum",BOOK, Thernstrom, Stephanauthor3=Oscar Handlin
, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups,weblink Digitized online by Google books, 27 December 2008, 1980, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-37512-3
as well as the English equivalent, "Frisian Sea".BOOK, Looijenga, Tineke, Texts & Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 8 December 2008, 2003, BRILL, 978-90-04-12396-0, 70, Chapter 2 History of Runic Research
, The modern names of the sea in the other local languages are: {{IPA-da|ˈvɛstɐˌhæːˀvəð|}} or Nordsøen {{IPA-da|ˈnoɐ̯ˌsøːˀn̩|}}, , , , , , , Northern Frisian: Weestsiie (literally meaning "West Sea"), {{IPA-no|²nuːrˌʂøːn|}}, , , , , and Zeeuws: Noôrdzeê.


Early history

North Sea has provided waterway access for commerce and conquest. Many areas have access to the North Sea because of its long coastline and the European rivers that empty into it. The British Isles had been protected from invasion by the North Sea waters until the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE. The Romans established organised ports, which increased shipping, and began sustained trade.BOOK, Cuyvers, Luc, The Strait of Dover,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 27 December 2008, 1986, BRILL, 9789024732524, 2,
When the Romans abandoned Britain in 410, the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea during the Migration Period. They made successive invasions of the island.
BOOK, Green, Dennis Howard, Frank Siegmund, The Continental Saxons from the Migration Period to the Tenth Century: An Ethnographic Perspective,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 27 December 2008, 2003, Boydell Press, 9781843830269, 48–50, The Viking Age began in 793 with the attack on Lindisfarne; for the next quarter-millennium the Vikings ruled the North Sea. In their superior longships, they raided, traded, and established colonies and outposts along the coasts of the sea. From the Middle Ages through the 15th century, the northern European coastal ports exported domestic goods, dyes, linen, salt, metal goods and wine. The Scandinavian and Baltic areas shipped grain, fish, naval necessities, and timber. In turn the North Sea countries imported high-grade cloths, spices, and fruits from the Mediterranean region. Commerce during this era was mainly conducted by maritime trade due to underdeveloped roadways.JOURNAL, Smith, H. D., The British Isles and the Age of Exploration – A Maritime Perspective, GeoJournal, 26, 4, 483–487, 1992, 10.1007/BF02665747, In the 13th century the Hanseatic League, though centred on the Baltic Sea, started to control most of the trade through important members and outposts on the North Sea.BOOK, Lewis, H. D., Ross, Archibald, Runyan, Timothy J., European Naval and Maritime History, 300–1500, Digitized by Google Books online, 128, Indiana University Press, 1985,weblink 9780253320827, 17 December 2008,
The League lost its dominance in the 16th century, as neighbouring states took control of former Hanseatic cities and outposts. Their internal conflict prevented effective cooperation and defence.BOOK, Hansen, Mogens Herman, A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Digitized by Google Books online, 305, Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2000,weblink 9788778761774, 27 December 2008,
As the League lost control of its maritime cities, new trade routes emerged that provided Europe with Asian, American, and African goods.BOOK, Køppen, Adolph Ludvig, Karl Spruner von Merz, The World in the Middle Ages,weblink Digitized 29 November 2006 by Google Books online, 1 December 2008, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 3621972, 179, 1854
, BOOK, Ripley, George R, Charles Anderson Dana
, The New American Cyclopædia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge,weblink Digitized 9 June 2008 by Google Books online, 10 February 2016, D. Appleton, New York, 540, 1869

Age of sail

File:Willem van de Velde (II) - De verovering van het Engelse admiraalschip de 'Royal Prince'.jpg|thumb|Painting of the Four Days' Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde the YoungerWillem van de Velde the YoungerThe 17th century Dutch Golden Age during which Dutch herring, cod and whale fisheries reached an all time high saw Dutch power at its zenith.BOOK, Cook, Harold John, Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 8 January 2008, 7, 2007, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-11796-7, BOOK, Findlay, Ronald, Kevin H. O'Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium,weblink Digitized 29 November 2006 by Google Books online, 27 December 2008, Princeton University Press, 9780691118543, 187 and 238, 2007,
Important overseas colonies, a vast merchant marine, powerful navy and large profits made the Dutch the main challengers to an ambitious England. This rivalry led to the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars between 1652 and 1673, which ended with Dutch victories. After the Glorious Revolution in 1688, the Dutch prince William ascended to the English throne. With unified leadership, commercial, military, and political power began to shift from Amsterdam to London.BOOK, MacDonald, Scott, Albert L. Gastmann, A History of Credit and Power in the Western World,weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-0-7658-0833-2, 122–127, 134, 2004
, The British did not face a challenge to their dominance of the North Sea until the 20th century.BOOK, Sondhaus, Lawrence, Naval Warfare, 1815–1914,weblink 3 December 2008, 2001, Routledge, New York, 978-0-415-21478-0, 183,

Modern era

File:Bluecher sinkend.jpg|thumb|German cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.]]Tensions in the North Sea were again heightened in 1904 by the Dogger Bank incident. During the Russo-Japanese War, several ships of the Russian Baltic Fleet, which was on its way to the Far East, mistook British fishing boats for Japanese ships and fired on them, and then upon each other, near the Dogger Bank, nearly causing Britain to enter the war on the side of Japan.During the First World War, Great Britain's Grand Fleet and Germany's Kaiserliche Marine faced each other in the North Sea,BOOK, Halpern, Paul G., A naval history of World War I,weblink 3 December 2008, Routledge, Ontario, 978-1-85728-498-0, 29, 180, 1994,
which became the main theatre of the war for surface action. Britain's larger fleet and North Sea Mine Barrage were able to establish an effective blockade for most of the war, which restricted the Central Powers' access to many crucial resources.
BOOK, Tucker, Spencer, World War I: Encyclopedia, 2005,weblink 1 December 2008, ABC-CLIO, New York, USA, 978-1-85109-420-2, 836–838, Priscilla Mary Roberts, September 2005,
Major battles included the Battle of Heligoland Bight,BOOK, Osborne, Eric W., The Battle of Heligoland Bight,weblink 27 December 2008, Indiana University Press, London, 978-0-253-34742-8, Introduction, 2006
the Battle of the Dogger Bank, and the Battle of Jutland.BOOK, Sondhaus, Lawrence, Navies in Modern World History,weblink 27 December 2008, Reaktion Books, London, 978-1-86189-202-7, 190–193, 256, 2004
, World War I also brought the first extensive use of submarine warfare, and a number of submarine actions occurred in the North Sea.BOOK, Tucker, Spencer, Priscilla Mary Roberts
, World War I: Encyclopedia, 2005,weblink Digitized by Google Books online, 9 January 2009, ABC-CLIO, London, 9781851094202, 165, 203, 312, September 2005
, The Second World War also saw action in the North Sea,BOOK, Frank, Hans, German S-Boats in Action in the Second World War: In the Second World War, 2007,weblink Digitised by Google Books online, 9 January 2009, Naval Institute Press, 9781591143093, 12–30, 15 October 2007,
though it was restricted more to aircraft reconnaissance, and action by fighter/bomber aircraft, submarines, and smaller vessels such as minesweepers and torpedo boats.WEB, Atlantic, WW2, U-boats, convoys, OA, OB, SL, HX, HG, Halifax, RCN ...,,weblink 24 July 2007,
In the aftermath of the war, hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical weapons were disposed of by being dumped in the North Sea.BOOK, Kaffka, Alexander V., Sea-dumped Chemical Weapons: Aspects, Problems, and Solutions,weblink 9 January 2009, Springer, New York, USA, 978-0-7923-4090-4, 49, 1996, North Atlantic Treaty Organization Scientific Affairs Division, After the war, the North Sea lost much of its military significance because it is bordered only by NATO member-states. However, it gained significant economic importance in the 1960s as the states around the North Sea began full-scale exploitation of its oil and gas resources.It was, incidentally, the home of several Pirate Radio stations from 1960 to 1990. BOOK, Johnston, Douglas M., Marine Policy and the Coastal Community, 1976,weblink 1976, Taylor & Francis, London, 978-0-85664-158-9, 49,
The North Sea continues to be an active trade route.WEB, Forth Ports PLC, 2008,weblink 11 November 2007,


File:north sea eez.PNG|thumb|The exclusive economic zoneexclusive economic zone

Political status

Countries that border the North Sea all claim the {{convert|12|nmi}} of territorial waters, within which they have exclusive fishing rights.BOOK, Barry, M., Michael, Elema, Ina, van der Molen, Paul, Governing the North Sea in the Netherlands: Administering marine spaces: international issues, 2006, International Federation of Surveyors (FIG),weblink Frederiksberg, Denmark, 5–17, Ch. 5, 978-87-90907-55-6, 12 January 2009, The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union (EU) exists to coordinate fishing rights and assist with disputes between EU states and the EU border state of Norway.BOOK, European Commission, About the Common Fisheries Policy, 24 January 2008,weblink 2 November 2008, After the discovery of mineral resources in the North Sea, the Convention on the Continental Shelf established country rights largely divided along the median line. The median line is defined as the line "every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of each State is measured."WEB,weblink Text of the UN treaty, The ocean floor border between Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark was only reapportioned after protracted negotiations and a judgement of the International Court of Justice.BOOK, International Court of Justice, North Sea Continental Shelf Casesurl=, 24 July 2007,

Oil and gas

{{further|North Sea oil|List of oil and gas fields of the North Sea}}As early as 1859, oil was discovered in onshore areas around the North Sea and natural gas as early as 1910.BOOK, Glennie, K. W., 1998, Petroleum Geology of the North Sea: Basic Concepts and Recent Advances, Blackwell Publishing, 11–12,weblink 978-0-632-03845-9, Onshore resources, for example the K12-B field in the Netherlands continue to be exploited today.(File:StatfjordA(Jarvin1982).jpg|thumb|Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine)Offshore test drilling began in 1966 and then, in 1969, Phillips Petroleum Company discovered the Ekofisk oil fieldBOOK, Pratt, J. A., T. Priest, & Cas James, Offshore Pioneers: Brown & Root and the History of Offshore Oil and Gas,weblink 8 December 2008, 1997, Gulf Professional Publishing, 978-0-88415-138-8, 222, Ekofisk and Early North Sea Oil,
distinguished by valuable, low-sulphur oil.BOOK, Lohne, Øystein, The Oil Industry and Government Strategy in the North Sea,weblink 1980, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-918714-02-2, 74, The Economic Attraction
Commercial exploitation began in 1971 with tankers and, after 1975, by a pipeline, first to Teesside, England and then, after 1977, also to Emden, Germany.WEB
, TOTAL E&P NORGE AS â€“ The history of Fina Exploration 1965–2000
, About TOTAL E&P NORGE > History > Fina
, 15 January 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 7 October 2006
, The exploitation of the North Sea oil reserves began just before the 1973 oil crisis, and the climb of international oil prices made the large investments needed for extraction much more attractive.BOOK, McKetta, John J., Guy E. Weismantel, Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 67 – Water and Wastewater Treatment: Protective Coating Systems to Zeolite,weblink 1999, CRC Press, 978-0-8247-2618-8, 102, The Offshore Oil Industry, The start in 1973 of the oil reserves by UK allowed them to stop the declining position in the international trade in 1974, and a huge increase after the discovery and exploitation of the huge oil filed of by Phillips group in 1977 as the Brae field.Although the production costs are relatively high, the quality of the oil, the political stability of the region, and the proximity of important markets in western Europe has made the North Sea an important oil-producing region. The largest single humanitarian catastrophe in the North Sea oil industry was the destruction of the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in 1988 in which 167 people lost their lives.NEWS,weblink On This Day 6 July 1988: Piper Alpha oil rig ablaze, BBC, 3 November 2008, 6 July 1988, Besides the Ekofisk oil field, the Statfjord oil field is also notable as it was the cause of the first pipeline to span the Norwegian trench.WEB,weblink Statpipe Rich Gas, Gassco, 3 November 2008, The largest natural gas field in the North Sea, Troll gas field, lies in the Norwegian trench, dropping over {{convert|300|m|ft}}, requiring the construction of the enormous Troll A platform to access it.The price of Brent Crude, one of the first types of oil extracted from the North Sea, is used today as a standard price for comparison for crude oil from the rest of the world.WEB,weblink North Sea Brent Crude, Investopedia ULC, 3 November 2008, The North Sea contains western Europe's largest oil and natural gas reserves and is one of the world's key non-OPEC producing regions.WEB, North Sea, Country Analysis Briefs, Energy Information Administration (EIA), January 2007,weblink 23 January 2008, In the UK sector of the North Sea, the oil industry invested £14.4 billion in 2013, and was on track to spend £13 billion in 2014. Industry body Oil & Gas UK put the decline down to rising costs, lower production, high tax rates, and less exploration.NEWS, Shell to cut 250 onshore jobs at its Scotland North Sea operations,weblink 12 August 2014, 16 December 2014, Yahoo Finance, As of January 2018 The North Sea region contains 184 offshore rigs, which makes it the region with the highest number of offshore rigs in the world.WEB,weblink Number offshore rigs worldwide by region 2018 {{!, Statistic|website=Statista|accessdate=9 July 2018}}


File:Fischkutterquerinhafen.jpg|thumb|A trawler in Nordstrand, GermanyNordstrand, GermanyThe North Sea is Europe's main fishery accounting for over 5% of international commercial fish caught. Fishing in the North Sea is concentrated in the southern part of the coastal waters. The main method of fishing is trawling.BOOK, Sherman, Kennethauthor3=Barry D. Gold
, Large Marine Ecosystems: Stress, Mitigation, and Sustainability,weblink 12 January 2009, 3, illustrated, 1993, Blackwell Publishing, 978-0-87168-506-3, 252–258
, In 1995, the total volume of fish and shellfish caught in the North Sea was approximately 3.5 million tonnes.WEB
, MUMM – Fishing
, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
, 2002–2008
, 29 November 2008
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2 December 2008
, dead
, Besides fish, it is estimated that one million tonnes of unmarketable by-catch is caught and discarded each year.WEB, One Million Tons of North Sea Fish Discarded Every Year, Environment News Service (ENS), 2008,weblink 9 December 2007, In recent decades, overfishing has left many fisheries unproductive, disturbing marine food chain dynamics and costing jobs in the fishing industry.BOOK, Clover, Charles, 2004, The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat, Ebury Press, London, 978-0-09-189780-2, Herring, cod and plaice fisheries may soon face the same plight as mackerel fishing, which ceased in the 1970s due to overfishing.WEB
, North Sea Fish Crisis – Our Shrinking Future
, Part 1
, Greenpeace
, 1997
, 2 November 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 4 July 2007
, The objective of the European Union Common Fisheries Policy is to minimize the environmental impact associated with resource use by reducing fish discards, increasing productivity of fisheries, stabilising markets of fisheries and fish processing, and supplying fish at reasonable prices for the consumer.ANA >LAST=OLIVERT-AMADO, European Parliament Fact Sheets, The common fisheries policy: origins and development, 13 March 2008,weblink 19 July 2007,


Whaling was an important economic activity from the 9th until the 13th century for Flemish whalers.WEB,weblink Cetaceans and Belgian whalers, A brief historical review, Belgian whalers, 13 March 2015, The medieval Flemish, Basque and Norwegian whalers who were replaced in the 16th century by Dutch, English, Danes and Germans, took massive numbers of whales and dolphins and nearly depleted the right whales. This activity likely led to the extinction of the Atlantic population of the once common gray whale.BOOK, Lindquist, O., The North Atlantic gray whale (Escherichtius [sic] robustus): An historical outline based on Icelandic, Danish-Icelandic, English and Swedish sources dating from ca 1000 AD to 1792., 2000, Occasional papers 1. Universities of St Andrews and Stirling, Scotland. 50 p., By 1902 the whaling had ended. After being absent for 300 years a single gray whale returned,JOURNAL, Scheinin, Aviad P, Aviad, P., Kerem, Dan, Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) in the Mediterranean Sea: anomalous event or early sign of climate-driven distribution change?, Marine Biodiversity Records, 2011, 2, e28,weblink 10.1017/s1755267211000042, it probably was the first of many more to find its way through the now ice-free Northwest Passage. Once {{convert|16|m|ft|-1|adj=on}} "fish" were taken in large quantities at the mouth of the River Seine.BOOK, Van Deinse, A.B., Junge, G.C.A., Recent and older finds of the California grey whale in the Atlantic., 1936, Temminckia 2 161-88,

Mineral resources

File:Amber Bernstein many stones.jpg|thumb|Unpolished amberamberIn addition to oil, gas, and fish, the states along the North Sea also take millions of cubic metres per year of sand and gravel from the ocean floor. These are used for beach nourishment, land reclamationand construction.PHUA, C.>AUTHOR2=S. VAN DEN AKKER AUTHOR4=J. VAN DALFSEN
, Ecological Effects of Sand Extraction in the North Sea,weblink University of Porto, 12 January 2009,
Rolled pieces of amber may be picked up on the east coast of England.BOOK, Rice, Patty C., Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages: Fourth Edition,weblink 12 January 2009, 4, illustrated, 2006, Patty Rice, 978-1-4259-3849-9, 147–154,

Renewable energy

{{further|Renewable energy in the European Union|List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea}}Due to the strong prevailing winds, and shallow water, countries on the North Sea, particularly Germany and Denmark, have used the shore for wind power since the 1990s.LTI-RESEARCH GROUP >AUTHOR2=LTI-RESEARCH GROUP, Long-term Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into the European Energy System,weblink 12 January 2009, 1998, Springeroffshore wind farms in the world, Horns Rev 1, completed in 2002. Since then many other wind farms have been commissioned in the North Sea (and elsewhere). As of 2013 the 630 megawatt (MW) London Array is the largest offshore wind farm in the world, with the 504 (MW) Greater Gabbard wind farm the second largest, followed by the 367 MW Walney Wind Farm. All are off the coast of the UK. These projects will be dwarfed by subsequent wind farms that are in the pipeline, including Dogger Bank Wind Farm>Dogger Bank at 4,800 MW, Norfolk Bank (7,200 MW), and Irish Sea (4,200 MW). At the end of June 2013 total European combined offshore wind energy capacity was 6,040 MW. UK installed 513.5 MW offshore windpower in the first half-year of 2013.The European offshore wind industry -key trends and statistics 1st half 2013 EWEA 2013The expansion of offshore wind farms has met with some resistance. Concerns have included shipping collisionsWEB, New Research Focus for Renewable Energies, Federal Environment Ministry of Germany, 2002,weblink 4, 8 December 2008,
and environmental effects on ocean ecology and wildlife such as fish and migratory birds,WEB
, Ecology Consulting
, United Kingdom Department for Business, Enterprise, & Regulatory Reform
, Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds
, 2001
, 16 January 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 5 February 2009
, however, these concerns were found to be negligible in a long-term study in Denmark released in 2006 and again in a UK government study in 2009.Study finds offshore wind farms can co-exist with marine environment. (26 January 2009). Retrieved on 5 November 2011.Future Leasing for Offshore Wind Farms and Licensing for Offshore Oil & Gas and Gas Storage {{webarchive|url= |date=22 May 2009 }}. UK Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment. January 2009 (PDF). Retrieved on 5 November 2011.There are also concerns about reliability,MAGAZINE, Kaiser, Simone, Michael Fröhlingsdorf
, Der Spiegel, Wuthering Heights: The Dangers of Wind Power, 20 August 2007
accessdate =16 January 2009, and the rising costs of constructing and maintaining offshore wind farms.NEWS, BBC News, Centrica warns on wind farm costs, 8 May 2008,weblinkDATE =22 DECEMBER 2008 ACCESSDATE =16 JANUARY 2009, {{dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot North Sea Offshore Grid>transnational power grid in the North SeaGOW>FIRST=DAVID TITLE =GREENPEACE'S GRID PLAN: NORTH SEA GRID COULD BRING WIND POWER TO 70M HOMES URL= HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/ENVIRONMENT/2008/SEP/04/WINDPOWER.RENEWABLEENERGY LOCATION=LONDON, WYNN>FIRST=GERARD TITLE =ANALYSIS – NEW EU POWER GRIDS IN FRAME DUE TO GAS DISPUTE URL=HTTP://UK.REUTERS.COM/ARTICLE/LATESTCRISIS/IDUKLC493972 North Sea Wind Power Hub>new offshore wind farms.HTTP://WWW.TENNET.EU/OUR-KEY-TASKS/INNOVATIONS/NORTH-SEA-INFRASTRUCTURE/ >TITLE= NORTH SEA INFRASTRUCTURE TENNET >DATE= MARCH 2017 ARCHIVE-URL= HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170308233832/HTTP://WWW.TENNET.EU/OUR-KEY-TASKS/INNOVATIONS/NORTH-SEA-INFRASTRUCTURE URL-STATUS= DEAD, Energy production from tidal power is still in a pre-commercial stage. The European Marine Energy Centre has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainlandWEB,weblink Billia Croo Test Site, EMEC, 1 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2008, and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.WEB,weblink Fall of Warness Test Site, EMEC, 1 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2008, Since 2003, a prototype Wave Dragon energy converter has been in operation at Nissum Bredning fjord of northern Denmark.WEB,weblink Prototype testing in Denmark, Wave Dragon, 2005, 1 November 2008,


File:Netherlands-Scheveningen-beach-1900.jpg|thumb|The beach in ScheveningenScheveningenThe beaches and coastal waters of the North Sea are destinations for tourists. The Belgian, Dutch, German and Danish coastsBOOK, Wong, P. P., Tourism Vs. Environment: The Case for Coastal Areas,weblink 27 December 2008, 1993, Springer, 978-0-7923-2404-1, 139, BOOK, Hall, C. Michael, Nordic Tourism: Issues and Cases,weblink 27 December 2008, 2008, Channel View Publications, 978-1-84541-093-3, 170author3=Jarkko Saarinen
are developed for tourism. The North Sea coast of the United Kingdom has tourist destinations with beach resorts and golf courses. Fife in Scotland is famous for its links golf courses. The coastal City of St. Andrews being renowned as the "Home of Golf". The coast of North East England has several tourist towns such as Scarborough, Bridlington, Seahouses, Whitby, Robin Hood's Bay and Seaton Carew. The coast of North East England has long sandy beaches and links golfing locations such as Seaton Carew Golf Club and Goswick Golf Club.
The North Sea Trail is a long-distance trail linking seven countries around the North Sea.WEB
, Welcome North Sea Trail
, European Union
, The North Sea Trail/NAVE Nortrail project
, 2 January 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 1 January 2016
Windsurfing and sailingBOOK, Knudsen, Daniel C.
author3=Michelle Metro-Roland, Anne Soper
, Landscape, Tourism, and Meaning,weblink 27 December 2008, 2008, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-4943-4, 112
are popular sports because of the strong winds. Mudflat hiking,BOOK, Schulte-Peevers, Andrea
author3=Etain O'Carroll author5=Tom Parkinson, Nicola Williams
, Germany,weblink 27 December 2008, 2004, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74059-471-4, 680
recreational fishing and birdwatching are among other activities.
The climatic conditions on the North Sea coast have been claimed to be healthful. As early as the 19th century, travellers used their stays on the North Sea coast as curative and restorative vacations. The sea air, temperature, wind, water, and sunshine are counted among the beneficial conditions that are said to activate the body's defences, improve circulation, strengthen the immune system, and have healing effects on the skin and the respiratory system.BOOK, German National Tourist Board, Büsum: The natural healing power of the sea,weblink 2 November 2008,

Marine traffic

{{see also|List of North Sea ports}}The North Sea is important for marine transport and its shipping lanes are among the busiest in the world. Major ports are located along its coasts: Rotterdam, the busiest port in Europe and the fourth busiest port in the world by tonnage {{As of|2013|lc=on}}, Antwerp (was 16th) and Hamburg (was 27th), Bremen/Bremerhaven and Felixstowe, both in the top 30 busiest container seaports,WEB,weblink World Port Rankings, 2008, American Association of Port Authorities, 25 July 2010, as well as the Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Europe's leading ro-ro port.WEB, Port Authority Bruges-Zeebrugge, MarineTalk a Division of Scientia Technologies Corporation, 1998–2008,weblink 28 December 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2009, dead, File:ECT waalhaven bij nacht.jpg|thumb|RotterdamRotterdamFishing boats, service boats for offshore industries, sport and pleasure craft, and merchant ships to and from North Sea ports and Baltic ports must share routes on the North Sea. The Dover Strait alone sees more than 400 commercial vessels a day.WEB,weblink The Dover Strait, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, 2007, 8 October 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 August 2010, Because of this volume, navigation in the North Sea can be difficult in high traffic zones, so ports have established elaborate vessel traffic services to monitor and direct ships into and out of port.BOOK, Freestone, David, link, The North Sea: Perspectives on Regional Environmental Co-operation,weblink 12 January 2009, 1990, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 978-1-85333-413-9, 186–190, The North Sea coasts are home to numerous canals and canal systems to facilitate traffic between and among rivers, artificial harbours, and the sea. The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea with the Baltic Sea, is the most heavily used artificial seaway in the world reporting an average of 89 ships per day not including sporting boats and other small watercraft in 2009.WEB,weblink Kiel Canal, Kiel Canal official website, 2 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2009, It saves an average of {{convert|250|nmi}}, instead of the voyage around the Jutland peninsula.WEB,weblink 23390-Country Info Booklets Hebridean Spirit The Baltic East, Hebridean Island Cruises, 18 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2008, The North Sea Canal connects Amsterdam with the North Sea.

See also




  • WEB,weblink North Sea Facts, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Management Unit of North Sea Mathematical Models, 15 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2008, dead,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Starkey, David J., Morten Hahn-Pedersen, Bridging troubled waters: Conflict and co-operation in the North Sea Region since 1550, Fiskeri-og Søfartsmuseets, Esbjerg [Denmark], 2005, 978-87-90982-30-0,
  • BOOK, Ilyina, Tatjana P., The fate of persistent organic pollutants in the North Sea multiple year model simulations of [gamma]-HCH, [alpha]-HCH and PCB 153Tatjana P Ilyina;, Springer, Berlin ; New York, 2007, 978-3-540-68163-2,
  • BOOK, Karlsdóttir, Hrefna M., Fishing on common grounds: the consequences of unregulated fisheries of North Sea Herring in the postwar period, Ekonomisk-Historiska Inst., Göteborg Univ., Göteborg, 2005, 978-91-85196-62-3,
  • BOOK, Tiedeke, Thorsten, Werner Weiler, North Sea coast: landscape panoramas, Nelson: NZ Visitor; Lancaster: Gazelle Drake Academic, 2007, 978-1-877339-65-3,
  • BOOK, Rural history in the North Sea area: a state of the art (Middle Ages – beginning 20th century), Brepols, Turnhout, 2007, 978-2-503-51005-7, Erik, Thoen,
  • BOOK, Waddington, Clive, Kristian, Pedersen, Mesolithic studies in the North Sea Basin and beyond: proceedings of a conference held at Newcastle in 2003, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2007, 978-1-84217-224-7,
  • BOOK, Zeelenberg, Sjoerd, Offshore wind energy in the North Sea Region: the state of affairs of offshore wind energy projects, national policies and economic, environmental and technological conditions in Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom, University of Groningen, Groningen, 2005, 71640714,
  • BOOK, Quante, Markus,, North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, Springer, 2016, 978-3-319-39745-0, 10.1007/978-3-319-39745-0, Regional Climate Studies,

External links

{{Wikivoyage}}{{Commons|North Sea}}{{wiktionary|North Sea}} {{List of seas}}{{Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean}}{{Authority control}}

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