Turkish people

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Turkish people
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{distinguish|Turkic peoples}}{{short description|Ethnic group speaking Turkish and native to and primarily living in Republic of Turkey}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2019}}

{{ref labela}}Turkey}} 63,589,988–65,560,701(2008 est. of 2015 pop.)CIA>TITLE=THE WORLD FACTBOOKACCESSDATE=27 JULY 2011, {{flagcountryd}}CIA>TITLE=THE WORLD FACTBOOKARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070612050540/HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/CY.HTMLARCHIVEDATE=12 JUNE 2007ACCESSDATE=14 FEBRUARY 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130927104440/HTTP://WWW.DEVPLAN.ORG/NUFUS-2011/NUFUS%20SON_.PDF, 27 September 2013, Germany}}Kurds in Turkey>Kurds from Turkey)BEVöLKERUNG MIT MIGRATIONSHINTERGRUND - ERGEBNISSE DES MIKROZENSUS - FACHSERIE 1 REIHE 2.2 - 2017 >URL=HTTPS://WWW.DESTATIS.DE/DE/THEMEN/GESELLSCHAFT-UMWELT/BEVOELKERUNG/MIGRATION-INTEGRATION/PUBLIKATIONEN/DOWNLOADS-MIGRATION/MIGRATIONSHINTERGRUND-2010220177004.PDF WEBSITE=STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT LANGUAGE=DE, France}}WEBSITE=FRANCE DIPLOMATIE : : MINISTèRE DE L'EUROPE ET DES AFFAIRES éTRANGèRES, 12 December 2017, | ref2 = United Kingdom}}a}}Home Affairs Committeeloc=38}}THE GUARDIAN>TITLE=UK IMMIGRATION ANALYSIS NEEDED ON TURKISH LEGAL MIGRATION, SAY MPSDATE= 1 AUGUST 2011URL=HTTP://WWW.TURKISHFEDERATIONUK.ORG/EN/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&TASK=VIEW&ID=26&ITEMID=31ACCESSDATE=13 APRIL 2011ARCHIVEDATE=10 JANUARY 2012, dead, Netherlands}}e}}–500,000{{Cref|c}}WEBSITE=OPENDATA.CBS.NL, NETHERLANDS INFO SERVICES>TITLE=DUTCH QUEEN TELLS TURKEY 'FIRST STEPS TAKEN' ON EU MEMBERSHIP ROADACCESSDATE=16 DECEMBER 2008ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090113011501/HTTP://WWW.NISNEWS.NL/PUBLIC/010307_2.HTMURL=HTTP://WWW.DUTCHNEWS.NL/NEWS/ARCHIVES/2007/03/DUTCH_TURKS_SWINDLED_AFM_TO_IN.PHPDATE=6 MARCH 2007, {{Harvnb2008|loc=11}}.Austria}}| pop5 = 350,000–500,000URL=HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/WORLD-EUROPE-11725311DATE=10 NOVEMBER 2010, CBN>TITLE=TURKEY'S ISLAMIC AMBITIONS GRIP AUSTRIAACCESSDATE=16 OCTOBER 2011, Belgium}}| pop6 = 200,000URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=22 DECEMBER 2011, {{Harvnb2008URL=HTTP://WWW.DEMORGEN.BE/DM/NL/989/BINNENLAND/ARTICLE/DETAIL/159126/2008/02/04/KONING-BOUDEWIJNSTICHTING-DOORPRIKT-CLICH-S-ROND-BELGISCHE-TURKEN.DHTMLURL-STATUS=DEADACCESSDATE=15 NOVEMBER 2010, United States}}b}}URL=HTTP://FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?PID=ACS_11_1YR_B04003&PRODTYPE=TABLEURL=HTTP://ECH.CASE.EDU/ECH-CGI/ARTICLE.PL?ID=TIC URL=HTTP://WWW.WASHDIPLOMAT.COM/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&VIEW=ARTICLE&ID=6036:CENSUS-TAKES-AIM-TO-TALLYHARD-TO-COUNT-POPULATIONS-&CATID=205:APRIL-2010&ITEMID=239Farkasloc=40}}.Sweden}}| pop9 = 100,000–150,000URL=HTTP://WWW.SIDA.SE/SVENSKA/LANDER--REGIONER/EUROPA/TURKIET/UTVECKLINGEN-I-TURKIET/ URL-STATUS=DEAD ACCESSDATE=14 APRIL 2011, SWEDISH MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS>TITLE=ANKARA HISTORIAACCESSDATE=14 APRIL 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110722061226/HTTP://WWW.SWEDENABROAD.COM/PAGE____24644.ASPX, 22 July 2011, Switzerland}}e}}Ständige ausländische Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, am Ende des Jahres {{webarchive>url= |date=30 January 2012 }} Swiss Federal Statistical Office, accessed 6 October 2014 Australia}}b}}ACCESS-DATE=13 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=14 JULY 2014URL=HTTP://WWW.SMH.COM.AU/NEWS/WORLD/OLD-FOES-NEW-FRIENDS/2005/04/22/1114152326767.HTML DATE=23 APRIL 2005, PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY>YEAR=2010URL=HTTP://WWW.TCCB.GOV.TR/NEWS/397/49087/TURKEYAUSTRALIA-FROM-CANAKKALE-TO-A-GREAT-FRIENDSHIP.HTMLTITLE=INTERNATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE: MIGRANT EDUCATION POLICIES IN RESPONSE TO LONGSTANDING DIVERSITY: TURKEYPUBLISHER=ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 3, Denmark}}f}}{{Cref|b}}URL=HTTP://STATISTIKBANKEN.DK/STATBANK5A/SELECTVARVAL/DEFINE.ASP?MAINTABLE=FOLK1&PLANGUAGE=0&PXSID=0URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=14 JULY 2012, Canada}}b}}PUBLISHER=STATCAN.GC.CA ACCESSDATE=10 SEPTEMBER 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110115234252/HTTP://WWW40.STATCAN.GC.CA/L01/CST01/DEMO26A-ENG.HTM, 15 January 2011, Italy}}e}}ACCESSDATE=1 MAY 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113203531/HTTP://WWW.ISTAT.IT/IT/ARCHIVIO/129854 DATE=5 AUGUST 2014, Israel}}| pop15 = 22,000Council of Europeloc=131}}.Iraq}}| pop16 = 500,000–3,000,000Parkloc=37}}.{{Harvnb2006YEAR=2016URL=HTTP://WWW.AL-MONITOR.COM/PULSE/ORIGINALS/2016/10/TURKMENS-IRAQ-MOSUL-TAL-AFAR.HTMLAL-MONITOR>QUOTE=TURKMENS ARE A MIX OF SUNNIS AND SHIITES AND ARE THE THIRD-LARGEST ETHNICITY IN IRAQ AFTER ARABS AND KURDS, NUMBERING ABOUT 3 MILLION OUT OF THE TOTAL POPULATION OF ABOUT 34.7 MILLION, ACCORDING TO 2013 DATA FROM THE IRAQI MINISTRY OF PLANNING.ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161017222707/HTTP://WWW.AL-MONITOR.COM/PULSE/ORIGINALS/2016/10/TURKMENS-IRAQ-MOSUL-TAL-AFAR.HTMLl}}Syria}}| pop18 = 100,000TITLE=PEOPLES ON THE MOVE: INTRODUCING THE NOMADS OF THE WORLDACCESSDATE=12 NOVEMBER 2012PUBLISHER=WILLIAM CAREY LIBRARYPAGE=301, Saudi Arabia}}b}}Akarloc=95}}.{{Harvnb2004|loc=12}}.Jordan}}| pop21 = 60,000| ref21 = Lebanon}}| pop22 = 50,000–200,000URL=HTTP://ENGLISH.AL-AKHBAR.COM/CONTENT/LEBANESE-TURKS-SEEK-POLITICAL-AND-SOCIAL-RECOGNITIONARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180620232105/HTTPS://ENGLISH.AL-AKHBAR.COM/CONTENT/LEBANESE-TURKS-SEEK-POLITICAL-AND-SOCIAL-RECOGNITIONURL-STATUS=DEAD, TODAY'S ZAMAN>TITLE=TENSION ADDS TO EXISTING WOUNDS IN LEBANONACCESSDATE=6 APRIL 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120111231644/HTTP://WWW.TODAYSZAMAN.COM/NEWSDETAIL_GETNEWSBYID.ACTION%3BJSESSIONID%3D9D641F96F47DDD54F28B8F8B07FFF815?NEWSID=233911last=Ahmedyear=2015url= 11 October 2016}}SYRIAN OBSERVER>YEAR=2015URL=HTTP://SYRIANOBSERVER.COM/EN/FEATURES/29920/SYRIA_TURKMEN_REFUGEES_FACE_CRUEL_REALITY_LEBANON, 10 October 2016, Libya}}b}}| ref23 = Minorities in the BalkansBulgaria}}| pop24 = 588,318–800,000TITLE=2011 POPULATION CENSUS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA (FINAL DATA)PUBLISHER=NATIONAL STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF BULGARIA, {{Harvnb2011Bokovaloc=170}}.North Macedonia}}| pop25 = 77,959WEBSITE=STAT.GOV.MKRepublic of Macedonia State Statistical Officeloc=34}}.{{Harvnb2005Abrahamsloc=53}}.Greece}}g}}WEBSITE=MINELRES.LVWORK=EUROPEAN UNION NATIONAL LANGUAGESPUBLISHER=HUMAN RIGHTS WATCHPUBLISHER=HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 3 January 2018, Romania}}| pop27 = 27,700"Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011", at the 2011 Romanian census site; accessed 11 July 2013{{Harvnb>Phinnemoreloc=157}}.{{HarvnbGoschin2008|loc=59}}.Kosovo}}| pop28 = 18,738| ref28 = 2011 census in the Republic of KosovoRussia}}| pop29 = 109,883–150,000Ryazantsevloc=172}}.Kazakhstan}}h}}WEBSITE=STAT.GOV.KZAydıngünHoover2006|loc=13}}.Kyrgyzstan}}h}}URL=HTTP://WWW.IRINNEWS.ORG/REPORT.ASPX?REPORTID=28663DATE=9 JUNE 2005, Azerbaijan}}h}}DATE=30 NOVEMBER 2012URL-STATUS=BOT: UNKNOWNARCHIVEDATE=30 NOVEMBER 2012, {{Harvnb1999URL=HTTP://WWW.NATO-PA.INT/DEFAULT.ASP?SHORTCUT=683URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=8 MARCH 2012, Turkish language>Turkish| religions = Predominantly IslamWEB,weblink Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life Survey, September 2007, Konda Arastirma, 24 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, dead, WEB,weblink IHGD - Soru Cevap - Azınlıklar,, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink THE ALEVI OF ANATOLIA: TURKEY'S LARGEST MINORITY,, 18 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2012, WEB,weblink Shi'a, 18 March 2015, (Sunni{{·}}Alevi{{·}}Bektashi{{·}}Twelver Shia) Minority irreligiousWEB,weblink ReportDGResearchSocialValuesEN2.PDF,, 12 December 2017, {{·}}Christianityname="">WEB,weblink TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening,, 18 March 2015, NEWS,weblink BBC News - When Muslims become Christians,, 18 March 2015, 21 April 2008, {{·}}JudaismWEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency,, 12 December 2017, en|}} The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations.Uzbekistan}}| pop33 = 15,000–20,000Council of Europeloc=23}}.{{Harvnb2005|loc=8}} Ukraine}}| pop34 = 8,844URL=HTTP://WWW.UKRCENSUS.GOV.UA/ENG/RESULTS/NATIONALITY_POPULATION/NATIONALITY_1/ URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=1 MAY 2008, 10,000 Meskhetian Turks (academic estimates){{HarvnbTrierloc=20}}.{{HarvnbHardingKuznetsovloc=14}}. plus 5,394 Turkish nationals (2009)ÇALışMA VE SOSYAL GüVENLIK BAKANLığı >TITLE=YURTDIŞINDAKİ VATANDAŞLARIMIZLA İLGİLİ SAYISAL BİLGİLER (31.12.2009 TARIHI ITIBARıYLA) ACCESSDATE=27 SEPTEMBER 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120310234552/HTTP://WWW.CSGB.GOV.TR/CSGBPORTAL/DIYIH.PORTAL?PAGE=YV&ID=1, 10 March 2012, | related = }}Turkish people or the Turks (), also known as Anatolian Turks (), are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe.Turks arrived from Central Asia and Western China and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia. The region then began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society.BOOK, Sahadeo, Jeff, Zanca, Russell, Everyday life in Central Asia : past and present, 2007, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 978-0253013538, 22–3,weblink Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East (excluding Iran), and North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy. The Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned. Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks.Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition.BOOK, Okur, Samim Akgönül ; translated from Turkish by Sila, The minority concept in the Turkish context : practices and perceptions in Turkey, Greece, and France, 2013, Brill, Leiden [etc.], 978-9004222113, 136,weblink BOOK, Bayir, Derya, Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law, 978-1317095798,weblink 22 April 2016, However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent.WEB,weblink Turkey, The World FactbookThe World Factbook, 13 October 2016, The vast majority of Turks are Muslims.

Etymology and ethnic identity

{{Turkish people}}The ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' (c. 484–425 BC) reference to Targitas, a king of the Scythians;{{Harvnb|Leiser|2005|loc=837}}. furthermore, during the first century AD., Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. The first definite references to the "Turks" come mainly from Chinese sources in the sixth century. In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue" ({{zh|c=|w=T’u-chüe|mc=*duət̚ kɨut̚}}), which referred to the Göktürks.{{Harvnb|Stokes|Gorman|2010|loc=707}}.{{Harvnb|Findley|2005|loc=21}}.In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers. The Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks.(Kushner 1997: 219; Meeker 1971: 322) In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.(Kushner 1997: 220–221)During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or even Alevis may be considered non-Turks.(Meeker 1971: 322) On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks".(Meeker 1971: 323) s:Constitution of the Republic of Turkey|Article 66]] of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship."WEB,weblink Turkish Citizenship Law, 29 May 2009, 17 June 2012, It is believed by Robert Fisk that circa two million Turks may have an Armenian grandmother.NEWS, Erdogan has released the genealogy of thousands of Turks – but what is his motive?,weblink Independent, 1 March 2018,


{{see also|History of Turkey|History of the Turkic peoples}}

Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages

{{further|Turkic peoples|Oghuz Turks|Ancient Anatolians}}Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, and in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.{{Harvnb|Stokes|Gorman|2010|loc=721}}.{{Cref|j}} After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, and by the first century BC it is generally thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct.BOOK, Theo van den Hout, The Elements of Hittite,weblink 24 March 2013, 27 October 2011, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-50178-1, 1, BOOK, Sharon R. Steadman, Gregory McMahon, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE),weblink 23 March 2013, 15 September 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-537614-2, The early Turkic peoples lived somewhere in northern China, specifically in western Manchuria, as agricultural group, but later started their migration to Central Asia and Siberia with a predominantly nomadic life style.WEB,weblink Transeurasian ancestry: A case of farming/language dispersal, ResearchGate, en, live, 12 September 2019, In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, and include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages.{{Harvnb|Findley|2005|loc=39}} Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather, carpets, and horses for wood, silk, vegetables and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were also adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism.Frederik Coene, The Caucasus-An Introduction, p.77 Taylor & Francis, 2009 However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests. The Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries, Sufis, and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle. As the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops.

Seljuk era

{{See also|Great Seljuq Empire|Sultanate of Rum}}File:Seljuqs Eagle.svg|thumb|upright=0.7|Drawing of a 13th-century relief of a double-headed eagle; under the name Öksökö (taken from Yakut and Dolgan folklore) this has been popularly described{{by whom|date=December 2017}}{{year needed|date=December 2017}} as dynastic symbol of the Seljuk TurksSeljuk Turks During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia.{{Harvnb|Duiker|Spielvogel|2012|loc=192}}. When the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them.{{Harvnb|Darke|2011|loc=16}}. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.{{Harvnb|Chaurasia|2005|loc=181}}.{{Harvnb|Bainbridge|2009|loc=33}}. Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and gradually spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.In dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade.{{Harvnb|Duiker|Spielvogel|2012|loc=193}}. Once the Crusaders took Iznik, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum from their new capital, Konya, in 1097. By the 12th century the Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region "Turchia" or "Turkey", meaning "the land of the Turks".{{Harvnb|Ágoston|2010|loc=574}}. The Turkish society of Anatolia was divided into urban, rural and nomadic populations;{{Harvnb|Delibaşı|1994|loc=7}}. the other Turkoman (Turkmen) tribes who had also swept into Anatolia at the same time as the Seljuk Turks were those who kept their nomadic ways. These tribes were more numerous than the Seljuk Turks, and rejecting the sedentary lifestyle, adhered to an Islam impregnated with animism and shamanism from their central Asian steppeland origins, which then mixed with new Christian influences. From this popular and syncretist Islam, with its mystical and revolutionary aspects, sects such as the Alevis and Bektashis emerged. Furthermore, the intermarriage between the Turks and local inhabitants, as well as the conversion of many to Islam, also increased the Turkish-speaking Muslim population in Anatolia.{{Harvnb|International Business Publications|2004|loc=64}}By 1243, at the Battle of Köse Dağ, the Mongols defeated the Seljuk Turks and became the new rulers of Anatolia, and in 1256, the second Mongol invasion of Anatolia caused widespread destruction. Particularly after 1277, political stability within the Seljuk territories rapidly disintegrated, leading to the strengthening of Turkoman principalities in the western and southern parts of Anatolia called the "beyliks".{{Harvnb|Somel|2003|loc=266}}.

Beyliks era

File:Anadolu Beylikleri.png|thumb|A map of the independent beyliksbeyliksOnce the Seljuk Turks were defeated by the Mongols' conquest of Anatolia, the Turks became the vassal of the Ilkhans who established their own empire in the vast area stretching from present-day Afghanistan to present-day Turkey. As the Mongols occupied more lands in Asia Minor, the Turks moved further to western Anatolia and settled in the Seljuk-Byzantine frontier.{{Harvnb|Ágoston|2010|loc=xxv}}. By the last decades of the 13th century, the Ilkhans and their Seljuk vassals lost control over much of Anatolia to these Turkoman peoples. A number of Turkish lords managed to establish themselves as rulers of various principalities, known as "Beyliks" or emirates. Amongst these beyliks, along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched the beyliks of Karasi, Saruhan, Aydin, Menteşe and Teke. Inland from Teke was Hamid and east of Karasi was the beylik of Germiyan.To the north-west of Anatolia, around Söğüt, was the small and, at this stage, insignificant, Ottoman beylik. It was hemmed in to the east by other more substantial powers like Karaman on Iconium, which ruled from the Kızılırmak River to the Mediterranean. Although the Ottomans were only a small principality among the numerous Turkish beyliks, and thus posed the smallest threat to the Byzantine authority, their location in north-western Anatolia, in the former Byzantine province of Bithynia, became a fortunate position for their future conquests. The Latins, who had conquered the city of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, established a Latin Empire (1204–61), divided the former Byzantine territories in the Balkans and the Aegean among themselves, and forced the Byzantine Emperors into exile at Nicaea (present-day Iznik). From 1261 onwards, the Byzantines were largely preoccupied with regaining their control in the Balkans. Toward the end of the 13th century, as Mongol power began to decline, the Turcoman chiefs assumed greater independence.{{Harvnb|Kia|2011|loc=1}}.

Ottoman Empire

File:OttomanEmpireIn1683.png|left|thumb|The Ottoman EmpireOttoman EmpireFile:Muhajir.jpg|thumb|right|The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th century, and then the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, resulted in Turkish refugees, known as "Muhacirs", from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern ThraceEastern ThraceUnder its founder, Osman I, the nomadic Ottoman beylik expanded along the Sakarya River and westward towards the Sea of Marmara. Thus, the population of western Asia Minor had largely become Turkish-speaking and Muslim in religion. It was under his son, Orhan I, who had attacked and conquered the important urban center of Bursa in 1326, proclaiming it as the Ottoman capital, that the Ottoman Empire developed considerably. In 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and established a foothold on the Gallipoli Peninsula while at the same time pushing east and taking Ankara.{{Harvnb|Fleet|1999|loc=5}}.{{Harvnb|Kia|2011|loc=2}}. Many Turks from Anatolia began to settle in the region abandoned by the inhabitants who had fled Thrace before the Ottoman invasion.{{Harvnb|Köprülü|1992|loc=110}}. However, the Byzantines were not the only ones to suffer from the Ottoman advancement for, in the mid-1330s, Orhan annexed the Turkish beylik of Karasi. This advancement was maintained by Murad I who more than tripled the territories under his direct rule, reaching some {{convert|100,000|sqmi}}, evenly distributed in Europe and Asia Minor.{{Harvnb|Ágoston|2010|loc=xxvi}}. Gains in Anatolia were matched by those in Europe; once the Ottoman forces took Edirne (Adrianople), which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, they opened their way into Bulgaria and Macedonia in 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa.{{Harvnb|Fleet|1999|loc=6}}. With the conquests of Thrace, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, significant numbers of Turkish emigrants settled in these regions. This form of Ottoman-Turkish colonization became a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans. The settlers consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants, dervishes, preachers and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel.{{Harvnb|Eminov|1997|loc=27}}.In 1453, Ottoman armies, under Sultan Mehmed II, conquered Constantinople. Mehmed reconstructed and repopulated the city, and made it the new Ottoman capital.{{Harvnb|Kermeli|2010|loc=111}}. After the Fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion with its borders eventually going deep into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.{{Harvnb|Kia|2011|loc=5}}. Selim I dramatically expanded the empire's eastern and southern frontiers in the Battle of Chaldiran and gained recognition as the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.{{Harvnb|Quataert|2000|loc=21}}. His successor, Suleiman the Magnificent, further expanded the conquests after capturing Belgrade in 1521 and using its territorial base to conquer Hungary, and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács as well as also pushing the frontiers of the empire to the east.{{Harvnb|Kia|2011|loc=6}}. Following Suleiman's death, Ottoman victories continued, albeit less frequently than before. The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.{{Harvnb|Quataert|2000|loc=24}}. However, after its defeat at the Battle of Vienna, in 1683, the Ottoman army was met by ambushes and further defeats; the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, which granted Austria the provinces of Hungary and Transylvania, marked the first time in history that the Ottoman Empire actually relinquished territory.{{Harvnb|Levine|2010|loc=28}}.By the 19th century, the empire began to decline when ethno-nationalist uprisings occurred across the empire. Thus, the last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Muslim refugees (Turks and some Circassians, Bosnians, Georgians, etc.) from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.{{Harvnb|Karpat|2004|loc=5–6}}. By 1913, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress started a program of forcible Turkification of non-Turkish minorities.BOOK, Century of Genocide, 2012, Routledge, 978-1135245504,weblink Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, 118–124, "By 1913 the advocates of liberalism had lost out to radicals in the party who promoted a program of forcible Turkification., BOOK, Jwaideh, Wadie, The Kurdish national movement : its origins and development, 2006, Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, NY, 978-0815630937, 104,weblink 1., With the crushing of opposition elements, the Young Turks simultaneously launched their program of forcible Turkification and the creation of a highly centralized administrative system.", By 1914, the World War I broke out, and the Turks scored some success in Gallipoli during the Battle of the Dardanelles in 1915. During World War I, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress continued with its Turkification policies, which affected non-Turkish minorities, such as the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide and the Greeks during various campaigns of ethnic cleansing and expulsion.BOOK, Akçam, Taner, The Young Turks' crime against humanity: the Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire, 2012, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 978-0691153339,weblink 29, JOURNAL, Bjornlund, Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification, Journal of Genocide Research, March 2008, 10, 1, 41–57, 1462-3528, "In 1914, the aim of Turkification was not to exterminate but to expel as many Greeks of the Aegean region as possible as not only a "security measure," but as an extension of the policy of economic and cultural boycott, while at the same time creating living space for the muhadjirs that had been driven out of their homes under equally brutal circumstances.", 10.1080/14623520701850286, BOOK, Akçam, Taner, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide, 2005, Zed Books, London, 9781842775271, 115, Taner Akçam, ...the initial stages of the Turkification of the Empire, which affected by attacks on its very heterogeneous structure, thereby ushering in a relentless process of ethnic cleansing that eventually, through the exigencies and opportunities of the First World War, culminated in the Armenian Genocide., BOOK, Rummel, Rudolph J., Death By Government, 1996, Transaction Publishers, 9781412821292, 235, Rudolph Rummel, Through this genocide and the forced deportation of the Greeks, the nationalists completed the Young Turk's program-the Turkification of Turkey and the elimination of a pretext for Great Power meddling., BOOK, America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915, 2003, Cambridge University Press, New York, 9780511163821, 60, J.M. Winter, The devising of a scheme of a correlative Turkification of the Empire, or what was left of it, included the cardinal goal of the liquidation of that Empire’s residual non-Turkish elements. Given their numbers, their concentration in geo-strategic locations, and the troublesome legacy of the Armenian Question, the Armenians were targeted as the prime object for such liquidation., In 1918, the Ottoman Government agreed to the Mudros Armistice with the Allies.The Treaty of Sèvres —signed in 1920 by the government of Mehmet VI— dismantled the Ottoman Empire. The Turks, under Mustafa Kemal, rejected the treaty and fought the Turkish War of Independence, resulting in the abortion of that text, never ratified,BOOK,weblink The Turkish Straits, 18 March 2015, 978-9024734641, Rozakēs, Chrēstos L, 31 August 1987, and the abolition of the Sultanate. Thus, the 623-year-old Ottoman Empire ended.{{Harvnb|Levine|2010|loc=29}}.

Modern era

{{See also|History of the Republic of Turkey}}Once Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish War of Independence against the Allied forces that occupied the former Ottoman Empire, he united the Turkish Muslim majority and successfully led them from 1919 to 1922 in overthrowing the occupying forces out of what the Turkish National Movement considered the Turkish homeland.{{Harvnb|Göcek|2011|loc=22}}. The Turkish identity became the unifying force when, in 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed and the newly founded Republic of Turkey was formally established. Atatürk's presidency was marked by a series of radical political and social reforms that transformed Turkey into a secular, modern republic with civil and political equality for sectarian minorities and women.{{Harvnb|Göcek|2011|loc=23}}.Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Turks, as well as other Muslims, from the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta (Hatay), the Middle East, and the Soviet Union continued to arrive in Turkey, most of whom settled in urban north-western Anatolia.{{Harvnb|Çaǧaptay|2006|loc=82}}.{{Harvnb|Bosma|Lucassen|Oostindie|2012|loc=17}} The bulk of these immigrants, known as "Muhacirs", were the Balkan Turks who faced harassment and discrimination in their homelands. However, there were still remnants of a Turkish population in many of these countries because the Turkish government wanted to preserve these communities so that the Turkish character of these neighbouring territories could be maintained.{{Harvnb|Çaǧaptay|2006|loc=84}}. One of the last stages of ethnic Turks immigrating to Turkey was between 1940 and 1990 when about 700,000 Turks arrived from Bulgaria. Today, between a third and a quarter of Turkey's population are the descendants of these immigrants.

Geographic distribution

Traditional areas of Turkish settlement


File:Peaceful daytime demonstrations heading towards Taksim park. Events of June 3, 2013-2.jpg|thumb|Turkish people in IstanbulIstanbulIn the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuks began settling in the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, beginning the enlargement of their empire and sphere of influence in Anatolia; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Anatolia and gradually spread over the region.Melek Tekin: Türk Tarihi Ansiklopedisi, Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul, 1991, p. 237. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.BOOK, Rafis Abazov, Culture and Customs of Turkey, {{Google books, yes, kx-hnRY6E94C, |accessdate=25 March 2013|year=2009|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-34215-8|p=1071}}Ethnic Turks make up between 70% to 75% of Turkey's population.


The Turkish Cypriots are the ethnic Turks whose Ottoman Turkish forebears colonised the island of Cyprus in 1571. About 30,000 Turkish soldiers were given land once they settled in Cyprus, which bequeathed a significant Turkish community. In 1960, a census by the new Republic's government revealed that the Turkish Cypriots formed 18.2% of the island's population.{{Harvnb|Hatay|2007|loc=22}}. However, once inter-communal fighting and ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974 occurred between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots, known as the "Cyprus conflict", the Greek Cypriot government conducted a census in 1973, albeit without the Turkish Cypriot populace. A year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the Turkish Cypriot population was 118,000 (or 18.4%).{{Harvnb|Hatay|2007|loc=23}}. A coup d'état in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greeks and Greek Cypriots favouring union with Greece (also known as "Enosis") was followed by military intervention by Turkey whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island.WEB, United Nations, UNFICYP: United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus,weblink Hence, census's conducted by the Republic of Cyprus have excluded the Turkish Cypriot population that had settled in the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Between 1975 and 1981, Turkey encouraged its own citizens to settle in Northern Cyprus; a report by CIA suggests that 200,000 of the residents of Cyprus are Turkish.


Ethnic Turks continue to inhabit certain regions of Greece, North Macedonia, Kosovo, Romania, and Bulgaria since they first settled there during Ottoman period.

Modern diaspora

Western Europe

{{see also|Turks in Europe}}File:Turkisch-day-in-Berlin.jpg|thumb|right|The Turks in Germany number about 4 million,{{Harvnb|Kötter|Vonthein|Günaydin|Müller|2003|loc=55}}.{{Harvnb|Haviland|Prins|Walrath|McBride|2010|loc=675}}. which constitutes the largest Turkish community in Western Europe, as well as the largest within the Turkish diasporaTurkish diasporaFile:Turkish people in Belgium.jpg|thumb|Turks in Brussels, Belgium]]After World War II, West Germany began to experience its greatest economic boom ("Wirtschaftswunder") and in 1961 invited the Turks as guest workers ("Gastarbeiter") to make up for the shortage of workers. The concept of the Gastarbeiter continued with Turkey bearing agreements with Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 1964, with France in 1965; and with Sweden in 1967.{{Harvnb|Abadan-Unat|2011|loc=12}}.Current estimates suggests that there are approximately 9 million Turks living in Europe, excluding those who live in Turkey.{{Harvnb|Sosyal|2011|loc=367}}. Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe began with Turkish Cypriots migrating to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia during the Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967.{{Harvnb|Akgündüz|2008|loc=61}}.{{Harvnb|Kasaba|2008|loc=192}}.{{Harvnb|Twigg|Schaefer|Austin|Parker|2005|loc=33}} More recently, Bulgarian Turks, Romanian Turks, and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.

North America

Compared to Turkish immigration to Europe, migration to North America has been relatively small. According to the US Census Bureau and Statistics Canada, 196,222 Americans in 2013 and 24,910 Canadians in 2011 were of Turkish descent. However, the actual number of Turks in both countries is considerably larger, as a significant number of ethnic Turks have migrated to North America not just from Turkey but also from the Balkans (such as Bulgaria and Macedonia), Cyprus, and the former Soviet Union.{{Harvnb|Karpat|2004|loc=627}}. Hence, the Turkish American community is currently estimated to number about 500,000 while the Turkish Canadian community is believed to number between 50,000–100,000. The largest concentration of Turkish Americans are in New York City, and Rochester, New York; Washington, D.C.; and Detroit, Michigan. The majority of Turkish Canadians live in Ontario, mostly in Toronto, and there is also a sizable Turkish community in Montreal, Quebec. With regards to the 2010 United States Census, the U.S government was determined to get an accurate count of the American population by reaching segments, such as the Turkish community, that are considered hard to count, a good portion of which falls under the category of foreign-born immigrants. The Assembly of Turkish American Associations and the US Census Bureau formed a partnership to spearhead a national campaign to count people of Turkish origin with an organisation entitled "Census 2010 SayTurk" (which has a double meaning in Turkish, "Say" means "to count" and "to respect") to identify the estimated 500,000 Turks now living in the United States.


{{See also|Turkish Australian}}A notable scale of Turkish migration to Australia began in the late 1940s when Turkish Cypriots began to leave the island of Cyprus for economic reasons, and then, during the Cyprus conflict, for political reasons, marking the beginning of a Turkish Cypriot immigration trend to Australia.{{Harvnb|Hüssein|2007|loc=17}} The Turkish Cypriot community were the only Muslims acceptable under the White Australia Policy;{{Harvnb|Cleland|2001|loc=24}} many of these early immigrants found jobs working in factories, out in the fields, or building national infrastructure.{{Harvnb|Hüssein|2007|loc=19}} In 1967, the governments of Australia and Turkey signed an agreement to allow Turkish citizens to immigrate to Australia.{{Harvnb|Hüssein|2007|loc=196}} Prior to this recruitment agreement, there were fewer than 3,000 people of Turkish origin in Australia.{{Harvnb|Hopkins|2011|loc=116}} According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, nearly 19,000 Turkish immigrants arrived from 1968 to 1974. They came largely from rural areas of Turkey, approximately 30% were skilled and 70% were unskilled workers.{{Harvnb|Saeed|2003|loc=9}} However, this changed in the 1980s when the number of skilled Turks applying to enter Australia had increased considerably. Over the next 35 years the Turkish population rose to almost 100,000. More than half of the Turkish community settled in Victoria, mostly in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne. According to the 2006 Australian Census, 59,402 people claimed Turkish ancestry;WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex Australia,weblink 13 July 2011, however, this does not show a true reflection of the Turkish Australian community as it is estimated that between 40,000 and 120,000 Turkish CypriotsWEB, TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Briefing Notes on the Cyprus Issue,weblink 3 October 2010, WEB, Kibris Gazetesi, Avustralya'daki Kıbrıslı Türkler ve Temsilcilik...,weblink 31 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, WEB, BRT, AVUSTURALYA'DA KIBRS TÜRKÜNÜN SESİ,weblink 18 July 2011, WEB, Star Kıbrıs, Sözünüzü Tutun,weblink 10 September 2012, and 150,000 to 200,000 mainland TurksNEWS, The Sydney Morning Herald, Old foes, new friends,weblink 26 December 2008, 23 April 2005, NEWS, Milliyet, Avustralyalı Türkler'den, TRT Türk'e tepki,weblink 16 May 2012, live in Australia. Furthermore, there has also been ethnic Turks who have migrated to Australia from Bulgaria,WEB, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, 2006, Community Information Summary:Bulgaria,weblink Australian Government, 2, Greece,WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census Ethnic Media Package,weblink 13 July 2011, 27 June 2007, Iraq,WEB, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, 2006, Community Information Summary:Iraq,weblink Australian Government, 1, and North Macedonia.

Former Soviet Union

The Turkish presence in the Meskheti region of Georgia began with the Turkish military expedition of 1578.{{Harvnb|Aydıngün|Harding|Hoover|Kuznetsov|2006|loc=4}}. However, due to the ordered deportation of over 115,000 Meskhetian Turks from their homeland in 1944, during the Second World War, the majority settled in Central Asia.{{Harvnb|UNHCR|1999b|loc=20}}. According to the 1989 Soviet Census, which was the last Soviet Census, 106,000 Meskhetian Turks lived in Uzbekistan, 50,000 in Kazakhstan, and 21,000 in Kyrgyzstan. However, in 1989, the Meshetian Turks who had settled in Uzbekistan became the target of a pogrom in the Fergana valley, which was the principal destination for Meskhetian Turkish deportees, after an uprising of nationalism by the Uzbeks. The riots had left hundreds of Turks dead or injured and nearly 1,000 properties were destroyed; thus, thousands of Meskhetian Turks were forced into renewed exile. The majority of Meskhetian Turks, about 70,000, went to Azerbaijan, whilst the remainder went to various regions of Russia (especially Krasnodar Krai), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine.{{Harvnb|UNHCR|1999b|loc=21}}. Soviet authorities recorded many Meskhetian Turks as belonging to other nationalities such as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek".{{Harvnb|Aydıngün|Harding|Hoover|Kuznetsov|2006|loc=1}} Hence, official census's have not shown a true reflection of the Turkish population; for example, according to the 2009 Azerbaijani census, there were 38,000 Turks living in the country;WEB, The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Population by ethnic groups,weblink 16 January 2012, yet in 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees stated that there were 100,000 Meskhetian Turks living in the country.{{Harvnb|UNHCR|1999a|loc=14}}. Furthermore, in 2001, the Baku Institute of Peace and Democracy suggested that there was between 90,000 and 110,000 Meskhetian Turks living in Azerbaijan.


{{Further|Culture of Turkey|Turkey#Culture}}

Arts and Architecture

File:Safranbolu traditional houses.jpg|thumb|left|Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.]]{{Further|Turkish arts|Turkish literature|Poetry of Turkey|Music of Turkey|Turkish folk music|Architecture of Turkey}}{{See also|Ottoman architecture}}{{listen
| filename = KatibimUskudaraGiderIken-SafiyeAyla.ogg

| title = "Kâtibim (Üsküdar'a Gider iken)"

| description = An example of Turkish classical music.

| format = Ogg
}}Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period. Ottoman architecture, influenced by Seljuk, Byzantine and Islamic architecture, came to develop a style all of its own.BOOK,weblink Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 12, Necipoğlu, Gülru, 33228759, 1995, Leiden : E.J. Brill, 7 July 2008, 60, 9789004103146, Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as a synthesis of the architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.BOOK,weblink Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 3, Grabar, Oleg, 978-9004076112, 1985, Leiden : E.J. Brill, 7 July 2008, As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.BOOK, Ibrahim Kaya, Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience,weblink 12 June 2013, 2004, Liverpool University Press, 978-0-85323-898-0, 57–58, The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.NEWS,weblink Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize, BBC, 12 December 2006, 12 October 2006, Traditional Turkish music include Turkish folk music (Halk Müziği), Fasıl and Ottoman classical music (sanat music) that originates from the Ottoman court.BOOK, Martin Dunford, Terry Richardson, The Rough Guide to Turkey,weblink 25 July 2013, 3 June 2013, Rough Guides, 978-1-4093-4005-8, 647–, Contemporary Turkish music include Turkish pop music, rock, and Turkish hip hop genres.


{{See also|Turkish philosophy}}

Notable individuals

Notable individuals include Nureddin, Yunus Emre, Mihrimah Sultan, Takiyüddin, Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, Bâkî, Hayâlî, Haji Bektash Veli, Ali Kuşçu, Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi, Lagâri Hasan Çelebi, Piri Reis, Namık Kemal, İbrahim Şinasi, Hüseyin Avni Lifij, Faik Ali Ozansoy, Mimar Kemaleddin, İştirakçi Hilmi, Mustafa Suphi, Ethem Nejat, Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı, Latife Uşşaki, Feriha Tevfik, Fatma Aliye Topuz, Keriman Halis Ece, Cahide Sonku, Süleyman Seyyid, Abdülhak Hâmid Tarhan, Besim Ömer Akalın, Orhan Veli Kanık, Abidin Dino, Ahmet Ziya Akbulut, Nazmi Ziya Güran, Tanburi Büyük Osman Bey, Vecihi Hürkuş, Bedriye Tahir, Halide Edib Adıvar, Fethullah Gülen, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mehmet Emin Yurdakul, Tevfik Fikret, Nâzım Hikmet, Hulusi Behçet, Nuri Demirağ, Fahrelnissa Zeid, Leyla Gencer, Ahmet Ertegün, Fikri Alican, Feza Gürsey, Ismail Akbay, Oktay Sinanoğlu, Gazi Yaşargil, Behram Kurşunoğlu, Mehmet Öz, Tansu Çiller, Cahit Arf, CZN Burak and Aziz Sancar.


{{see also|Cypriot Turkish}}File:Ataturk-September 20, 1928.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Atatürk introducing the Turkish alphabet to the people of KayseriKayseriThe Turkish language also known as Istanbul Turkish is a southern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey, Balkans, the island of Cyprus, Meskhetia, and other areas of traditional settlement that formerly, in whole or part, belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Turkish is the official language of Turkey. In the Balkans, Turkish is still spoken by Turkish minorities who still live there, especially in Bulgaria, Greece (mainly in Western Thrace), Kosovo, North Macedonia, Romania (mainly in Dobruja) and the Republic of Moldova (mainly in Gagauzia).{{Harvnb|Johanson|2011|loc=734–738}}. The Turkish language was introduced to Cyprus with the Ottoman conquest in 1571 and became the politically dominant, prestigious language, of the administration.{{Harvnb|Johanson|2011|loc=738}}.One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic alphabet based Ottoman script. Over time, this change, together with changes in Turkey's system of education, would lead to more widespread literacy in the country.Lester 1997; Wolf-Gazo 1996 Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul.BOOK, George L. Campbell, Concise Compendium of the World's Languages,weblink 28 July 2013, 1 September 2003, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-11392-2, 547–, Nonetheless, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s.{{Harvnb|Johanson|2001|loc=16}}. The terms ağız or şive often refer to the different types of Turkish dialects.There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Turkey: the West Anatolian dialect (roughly to the west of the Euphrates), the East Anatolian dialect (to the east of the Euphrates), and the North East Anatolian group, which comprises the dialects of the Eastern Black Sea coast, such as Trabzon, Rize, and the littoral districts of Artvin.{{Harvnb|Brendemoen|2002|loc=27}}.{{Harvnb|Brendemoen|2006|loc=227}}. The Balkan Turkish dialects are considerably closer to standard Turkish and do not differ significantly from it, despite some contact phenomena, especially in the lexicon.{{Harvnb|Friedman|2003|loc=51}}. In the post-Ottoman period, Cypriot Turkish was relatively isolated from standard Turkish and had strong influences by the Cypriot Greek dialect. The condition of coexistence with the Greek Cypriots led to a certain bilingualism whereby Turkish Cypriots knowledge of Greek was important in areas where the two communities lived and worked together.{{Harvnb|Johanson|2011|loc=739}}. The linguistic situation changed radically in 1974, when the island was divided into a Greek south and a Turkish north (Northern Cyprus). Today, the Cypriot Turkish dialect is being exposed to increasing standard Turkish through immigration from Turkey, new mass media, and new educational institutions. The Meskhetian Turks speak an Eastern Anatolian dialect of Turkish, which hails from the regions of Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin.{{Harvnb|Aydıngün|Harding|Hoover|Kuznetsov|2006|loc=23}} The Meskhetian Turkish dialect has also borrowed from other languages (including Azerbaijani, Georgian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Russian, and Uzbek), which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian and Soviet rule.


{{see also|Religion in Turkey|Secularism in Turkey|}}{{Pie chart| thumb = rightDATE = ACCESSDATE = 4 APRIL 2015, | label1 = Islam| value1 = 96.5| color1 = Green| label2 = Christianity| value2 = 0.3| color2 = Blue| label3 = other/none| value3 = 3.2| color3 = yellow}}According to the CIA factbook, 99.8% of the population in Turkey is Muslim, most of them being Sunni (Hanafi). The remaining 0.2% is mostly Christian and Jewish.WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook, March 2011, 3 March 2011, CIA, There are also some estimated 10 to 15 million Alevi Muslims in Turkey.BOOK, The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition, David, Shankland, Routledge (UK), 2003, 978-0-7007-1606-7,weblink Christians in Turkey include Assyrians/Syriacs,BOOK, Pieter H. Omtzigt, Markus K. Tozman, Andrea Tyndall, The Slow Disappearance of the Syriacs from Turkey: And of the Grounds of the Mor Gabriel Monastery,weblink 2012, LIT Verlag Münster, 978-3-643-90268-9, Armenians, and Greeks.Religious Freedom Report U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 September 2009. Jewish people in Turkey include those that descend from Sephardic Jews who escaped Spain in 15th century and Greek-speaking Jews from Byzantine times.BOOK,weblink The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 978-0-521-86960-7, 145–, Judith R. Baskin, Kenneth Seeskin, Judith R. Baskin, There is an ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community most of them came from recent Muslim Turkish backgrounds, rather than from ethnic minorities.WEB,weblink TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening,, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom - The Christian Century, The Christian Century, 18 March 2015, BOOK,weblink Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink TURKEY: Protestant church closed down - Church In Chains - Ireland 🆚 An Irish voice for suffering, persecuted Christians Worldwide,, 18 March 2015, According to KONDA research, only 9.7% of the population described themselves as "fully devout," while 52.8% described themselves as "religious."JOURNAL, KONDA, 2007, Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life Survey, Konda Arastirma, 24 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009,weblink dead, 69.4% of the respondents reported that they or their wives cover their heads (1.3% reporting chador), although this rate decreases in several demographics: 53% in ages 18–28, 27.5% in university graduates, 16.1% in masters-or-higher-degree holders. Turkey has also been a secular state since the republican era.BOOK, Ahmet T. Kuru, Alfred C. Stepan, Democracy, Islam, and secularism in Turkey,weblink 2012, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-53025-5, According to a poll, 90% of respondents said the country should be defined as secular in the new Constitution that is being written.NEWS, More secular, green Turkey wanted: Poll,weblink Hürriyet Daily News, 23 November 2012, 22 May 2013,


{{further|Genetic studies on Turkish people}}The extent to which gene flow from Central Asia's original Turkic peoples has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people of Turkey, and the question regarding the role of the 11th century settlements by Turkic people in Anatolia, has been the subject of various studies. Previous studies concluded that pre-Turkified, pre-Islamized groups are the primary genetic source of the present-day Turks of Turkey (i.e. Turkish people).JOURNAL, 12392505, 2002, Arnaiz-Villena, A, Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective, Tissue Antigens, 60, 2, 111–21, Gomez-Casado, E, Martinez-Laso, J, 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2002.600201.x, JOURNAL, 10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101, Who Are the Anatolian Turks?, Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia, 50, 6–42, 2014, Yardumian, Aram, Schurr, Theodore G, {{Cref|k}}JOURNAL, 11078479, 10.1086/316890, Rosser, Z., Zerjal, T., Hurles, M., Adojaan, M., Alavantic, D., Amorim, A., Amos, W., Armenteros, M., Arroyo, E., Barbujani, G., Beckman, G., Beckman, L., Bertranpetit, J., Bosch, E., Bradley, D. G., Brede, G., Cooper, G., Côrte-Real, H. B., De Knijff, P., Decorte, R., Dubrova, Y. E., Evgrafov, O., Gilissen, A., Glisic, S., Gölge, M., Hill, E. W., Jeziorowska, A., Kalaydjieva, L., Kayser, M., Kivisild, T., Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 6, 1526–1543, 2000, 1287948, weblinkJOURNAL, Cinnioglu, C., King, R., Kivisild, T., Kalfoğlu, E., Atasoy, S., Cavalleri, G. L., Lillie, A. S., Roseman, C. C., Lin, A. A., 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, Prince, K., Oefner, P. J., Shen, P., Semino, O., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Underhill, P. A., Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, Human Genetics, 114, 2, 127–148, 2004, 14586639, weblinkJOURNAL, Arnaiz-Villena, A., Karin, M., Bendikuze, N., Gomez-Casado, E., Moscoso, J., Silvera, C., Oguz, F. S., Sarper Diler, A., De Pacho, A., Allende, 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004308.x, L., Guillen, J., Martinez Laso, J., HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans, Tissue Antigens, 57, 4, 308–317, 2001, 11380939, JOURNAL, Wells, R. S., Yuldasheva, N., Ruzibakiev, R., Underhill, P. A., Evseeva, I., Blue-Smith, J., Jin, L., Su, B., Pitchappan, R., 10.1073/pnas.171305098, Shanmugalakshmi, S., Balakrishnan, K., Read, M., Pearson, N. M., Zerjal, T., Webster, M. T., Zholoshvili, I., Jamarjashvili, E., Gambarov, S., Nikbin, B., Dostiev, A., Aknazarov, O., Zalloua, P., Tsoy, I., Kitaev, M., Mirrakhimov, M., Chariev, A., Bodmer, W. F., The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 18, 10244–10249, 2001, 11526236, 56946, 2001PNAS...9810244W, A study in 2003 looking into allele frequencies suggested that there was a lack of genetic relationship between the Mongols and modern Anatolian Turks, despite the historical relationship of their languages (The Turks and Germans were equally distant to all three Mongolian populations).JOURNAL, Machulla, H. K. G., Batnasan, D., Steinborn, F., Uyar, F. A., Saruhan-Direskeneli, G., Oguz, F. S., Carin, M. N., Dorak, M. T., 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00043.x, Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks, Tissue Antigens, 61, 4, 292–299, 2003, 12753667, According to American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2008), today's Turkish people are more closely related with Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations,BERKMAN > FIRST1 = C. C. FIRST2 = H. FIRST3 = C. FIRST4 = I., Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans, 10.1002/ajpa.20772, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 136, 1, 11–18, 2008, 18161848, The recent studies, however, mention a mixed heritage. For example, the study about autosomal dna of Turks in 2014 by Can Alkan found that the East Asian impact on modern Turkey was 21.7%Alkan et al. (2014), BMC Genomics 2014, 15:963, Whole genome sequencing of Turkish genomes reveals functional private alleles and impact of genetic interactions with Europe, Asia and Africa and a Y-DNA study in 2017 by Heraclides shows that the Turkish population of Anatolia is a hybrid population comprising the original Anatolians, Turkic peoples and other ethnicities from regions that the Ottomans controlled.Heraclides et al. (2017), Y-chromosal analysis of Greek Cypriots reveals a primarily common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry with Turkish Cypriots{{Dead link|date=June 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} A study in 2015 found that "Previous genetic studies have generally used Turks as representatives of ancient populations from Turkey. Our results show that Turks are genetically shifted towards Central Asians, a pattern consistent with a history of mixture with populations from this region".JOURNAL, Chris, Tyler-Smith, Pierre, Zalloua, Paolo, Gasparini, David, Comas, Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations, European Journal of Human Genetics, 2016, 1476-5438, 931–936, 24, 6, 10.1038/ejhg.2015.206, 26486470, 4820045, Yali, Xue, Massimo, Mezzavilla, Marc, Haber, A study involving mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine-era population, whose samples were gathered from excavations in the archaeological site of Sagalassos, found that the Byzantine population of Sagalassos might have left a genetic signature in the modern Turkish populations.JOURNAL, Ottoni, C., Ricaut, F. O. X., Vanderheyden, N., Brucato, N., Waelkens, M., Decorte, R., 10.1038/ejhg.2010.230, Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19, 5, 571–576, 2011, 21224890, 3083616, Modern-day samples from the nearby town of Ağlasun showed that lineages of East Eurasian descent assigned to macro-haplogroup M were found in the modern samples from Ağlasun. This haplogroup is significantly more frequent in Ağlasun (15%) than in Byzantine Sagalassos.JOURNAL, Comparing maternal genetic variation across two millennia reveals the demographic history of an ancient human population in southwest Turkey, Royal Society Open Science, 3, 2, 150250, 10.1098/rsos.150250, 26998313, 4785964, 2016, Ottoni, Claudio, Rasteiro, Rita, Willet, Rinse, Claeys, Johan, Talloen, Peter, Van De Vijver, Katrien, Chikhi, Lounès, Poblome, Jeroen, Decorte, Ronny, 2016RSOS....350250O, One study found that results pointed out that language (Turkish) in Anatolia might not have been replaced by the elites, but by a large group of people, which means there was no elite assimilation in Anatoliaweblink Another study found the Circassians are closest to the Turkish population among sampled European (French, Italian, Sardinian), Middle Eastern (Druze, Palestinian), and Central (Kyrgyz, Hazara, Uygur), South (Pakistani), and East Asian (Mongolian, Han) populations.JOURNAL, Hodoğlugil, U. U., Mahley, R. W., 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x, Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations, Annals of Human Genetics, 76, 2, 128–141, 2012, 22332727, 4904778,

Y-DNA haplogroup distributions in Turkey

(File:Turkey Y chromosome(in 20 haplogroups).png|thumb|upright=1.6|Y chromosome Haplogroup distribution of Turkish people.)According to Cinnioglu et al., (2004)WEB,weblink Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148, Springer-Verlag 2003, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2006, there are many Y-DNA haplogroups present in Turkey. Some of the percentages identified were:
  • J2=24% – J2 (M172) Typical of the West Mediterranean, Caucasian, Western, Central Asia and South Asia.
  • R1b=14.7% Widespread in western Eurasia, with distinct 'west Asian' and 'west European' lineages.
  • G=10.9% – Typical of people from the Caucasus and to a lesser extent the Middle East, southern parts of Central Asia, and Europe.
  • E3b-M35=10.7% (E3b1-M78 and E3b3-M123 accounting for all E representatives in the sample, besides a single E3b2-M81 chromosome). E-M78 occurs commonly, and is found in northern and eastern Africa, western Asia.JOURNAL, Cruciani, F., La Fratta, R., Torroni, A., Underhill, P. A., Scozzari, R., Molecular dissection of the Y chromosome haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A posteriori evaluation of a microsatellite-network-based approach through six new biallelic markers, 10.1002/humu.9445, Human Mutation, 27, 8, 831–2, 2006, 16835895, Haplogroup E-M123 is found in both Africa and Eurasia.
  • J1=9% – Typical amongst people from the Arabian Peninsula and Dagestan (ranging from 3% from Turks around Konya to 12% in Kurds).
  • R1a=6.9% – Common in various Central Asian, South Asian, and Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European populations.
  • I=5.3% – Common in Scandinavia, Sardinia, among Kurds and Eastern Europe.
  • K=4.5% – Typical of Asian populations and Caucasian populations.
  • L=4.2% – Typical of Indian Subcontinent and Khorasan populations. Found sporadically in the Middle East and the Caucasus.
  • N=3.8% – Typical of Uralic, and Siberian populations.
  • T=2.5% – Typical of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, Northeast African and South Asian populations
  • Q=1.9% – Typical of Paleosiberian populations.
  • C=1.3% – Typical of Mongolic and Siberian populations
  • R2=0.96% Typical of South Asian population
Others markers than occurs in less than 1% are H, A, E3a, O, R1*.

See also


{{Cnote|a|According to the Home Affairs Committee this includes 300,000 Turkish Cypriots.{{Harvard citation no brackets|Home Affairs Committee|2011|loc=Ev 34}} However, some estimates suggest that the Turkish Cypriot community in the UK has reached between 350,000WEB
, İngiltere'deki Türkler
, Armin
, Laschet
, Hürriyet Daily News
, 17 September 2011
, 27 September 2011
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 19 January 2012
, dead
, dmy
, to 400,000.WEB, Olmalı mı Olmamalı mı?,weblink Gözde, Akben, Star Kıbrıs, 11 February 2010, 21 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2011, live, WEB, Dıştaki gençlerin askerlik sorunu çözülmedikçe…,weblink Akay, Cemal, Kıbrıs Gazetesi, 2 June 2011, 17 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, dead, }}{{Cnote|b|Includes people of mixed ethnic background.}}{{Cnote|c|A further 10,000–30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority are Bulgarian Turks and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.WEB, The Sophia Echo, Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in The Netherlands,weblink 26 July 2009, }}{{Cnote|d|This includes Turkish settlers. 2,000 of these Turkish Cypriots currently reside in the southern part of the island, the rest on the northern.{{Harvnb|Hatay|2007|loc=40}}.}}{{Cnote|e|This figure only includes Turkish citizens. Therefore, this also includes ethnic minorities from Turkey; however, it does not include ethnic Turks who have either been born and/or have become naturalised citizens. Furthermore, these figures do not include ethnic Turkish minorities from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania or any other traditional area of Turkish settlement because they are registered as citizens from the country they have immigrated from rather than their ethnic Turkish identity.}}{{Cnote|f|In addition to Turkish citizens, this figure includes people with ancestral background related to Turkey, so it includes ethnic minorities of Turkey.}}{{Cnote|g|This figure only includes Turks of Western Thrace. A further 5,000 live in the Rhodes and Kos.{{Harvnb|Clogg|2002|loc=84}}. In addition to this, 8,297 immigrants live in Greece.WEB, MigrantsInGreece, Data on immigrants in Greece, from Census 2001, Legalization applications 1998, and valid Residence Permits, 2004,weblink 26 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, }}{{Cnote|h|These figures only include the Meskhetian Turks. According to official census's there were 38,000 Turks in Azerbaijan (2009), 97,015 in Kazakhstan (2009),WEB, Агентство РК по статистике, ПЕРЕПИСЬ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН 2009 ГОДА,weblink 10, 13 February 2011, dead,weblink 12 December 2010, 39,133 in Kyrgyzstan (2009),WEB, National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, Population and Housing Census 2009,weblink 26 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 July 2012, 109,883 in Russia (2010),WEB, Демоскоп Weekly, Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации,weblink 30 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 May 2012, and 9,180 in Ukraine (2001).State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian) A further 106,302 Turks were recorded in Uzbekistan's last census in 1989WEB, Демоскоп Weekly, Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР,weblink 5 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, although the majority left for Azerbaijan and Russia during the 1989 pogroms in the Ferghana Valley. Official data regarding the Turks in the former Soviet Union is unlikely to provide a true indication of their population as many have been registered as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek".{{Harvnb|Aydıngün|Harding|Hoover|Kuznetsov|2006|loc=1}}. In Kazakhstan only a third of them were recorded as Turks, the rest had been arbitrarily declared members of other ethnic groups.{{Harvnb|Khazanov|1995|loc=202}}.{{Harvnb|Babak|Vaisman|Wasserman|2004|loc=253}}. Similarly, in Azerbaijan, much of the community is officially registered as "Azerbaijani"BOOK, Meskhetian Turks: Solutions and Human Security, Chapter Two: Contemporary Conditions and Dilemmas,weblink Arthur C., Helton, Open Society Institute, 1998, 17 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2007, even though the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported, in 1999, that 100,000 Meskhetian Turks were living there.}}{{Cnote|i|A further 30,000 Bulgarian Turks live in Sweden.{{Harvnb|Laczko|Stacher|von Koppenfels|2002|loc=187}}.}}{{Cnote|j|"The history of Turkey encompasses, first, the history of Anatolia before the coming of the Turks and of the civilizations—Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine—of which the Turkish nation is the heir by assimilation or example. Second, it includes the history of the Turkish peoples, including the Seljuks, who brought Islam and the Turkish language to Anatolia. Third, it is the history of the Ottoman Empire, a vast, cosmopolitan, pan-Islamic state that developed from a small Turkish amirate in Anatolia and that for centuries was a world power."WEB,weblink Turkey: Country Studies, Steven A. Glazer, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 22 March 2011, 15 June 2013, }}{{Cnote|k|The Turks are also defined by the country of origin. Turkey, once Asia Minor or Anatolia, has a very long and complex history. It was one of the major regions of agricultural development in the early Neolithic and may have been the place of origin and spread of lndo-European languages at that time. The Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly lndo-European-speaking population (Greek being the official language of the Byzantine empire), and genetically there is very little difference between Turkey and the neighboring countries. The number of Turkish invaders was probably rather small and was genetically diluted by the large number of aborigines.""The consideration of demographic quantities suggests that the present genetic picture of the aboriginal world is determined largely by the history of Paleolithic and Neolithic people, when the greatest relative changes in population numbers took place."BOOK, L. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo, Menozzi, Alberto, Piazza, The history and geography of human genes,weblink 14 May 2013, 1994, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-08750-4, 243, 299, }}{{Cnote|l|Iraqi Turkmen groups claim a figure of 3,000,000}}




  • {{citation |last=Abadan-Unat|first=Nermin|year=2011|title=Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen|publisher=Berghahn Books|isbn=978-1-84545-425-8}}.
  • {{citation |last=Abazov|first=Rafis|year=2009|title=Culture and Customs of Turkey|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0313342158}}.
  • {{citation|last=Akar|first=Metin|year=1993|title=Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler|journal=Türklük AraÅŸtırmaları Dergisi|volume=7|issue=|pages=91–110}}
  • {{citation |last=Abrahams|first=Fred|year=1996|title=A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia|publisher=Human Rights Watch|isbn=978-1-56432-170-1}}.
  • {{citation |last=Ágoston|first=Gábor|year=2010|chapter=Introduction|title=Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire|editor1-last=Ágoston|editor1-first=Gábor|editor2-last=Masters|editor2-first=Bruce Alan|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1438110257}}.
  • {{citation|last=Akar|first=Metin|year=1993|title=Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler|journal=Türklük AraÅŸtırmaları Dergisi|volume=7|pages=91–110}}
  • {{citation |last=Akgündüz|first=Ahmet|year=2008|title=Labour migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960–1974: A multidisciplinary analysis|publisher=Ashgate Publishing|isbn=978-0-7546-7390-3}}.
  • {{citation|last1=Aydıngün|first1=AyÅŸegül|last2=Harding|first2=ÇiÄŸdem Balım|last3=Hoover|first3=Matthew|last4=Kuznetsov|first4=Igor|last5=Swerdlow|first5=Steve|year=2006|title=Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences|url=|publisher=Center for Applied Linguistics|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=29 October 2013}}
  • {{citation |last1=Babak|first1=Vladimir|last2=Vaisman|first2=Demian|last3=Wasserman|first3=Aryeh|year=2004|title= Political Organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Sources and Documents|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-7146-4838-5}}.
  • {{citation|last=Baedeker|first=Karl|year=2000|title=Egypt|publisher=Elibron|isbn=978-1402197055}}.
  • {{citation |last=Bainbridge|first=James|year=2009|title=Turkey|publisher=Lonely Planet|isbn=978-1741049275}}.
  • {{citation |last=Baran|first=Zeyno|year=2010|title=Torn Country: Turkey Between Secularism and Islamism|publisher=Hoover Press|isbn=978-0817911447}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Bennigsen|first1=Alexandre|last2=Broxup|first2=Marie|year=1983|title= The Islamic threat to the Soviet State|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-7099-0619-3}}.
  • {{citation|last=Bokova|first=Irena|year=2010|chapter=Recontructions of Identities: Regional vs. National or Dynamics of Cultrual Relations|title=From Palermo to Penang: A Journey Into Political Anthropology|editor1-last=Ruegg|editor1-first=François|editor2-last=Boscoboinik|editor2-first=Andrea|publisher=LIT Verlag Münster|isbn=978-3643800626}}
  • {{citation |last=Bogle|first=Emory C.|year=1998|title=Islam: Origin and Belief|publisher=University of Texas Press|isbn=978-0292708624}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Bosma|first1=Ulbe|last2=Lucassen|first2=Jan|last3=Oostindie|first3=Gert|year=2012|chapter=Introduction. Postcolonial Migrations and Identity Politics: Towards a Comparative Perspective|title=Postcolonial Migrants and Identity Politics: Europe, Russia, Japan and the United States in Comparison|publisher=Berghahn Books|isbn=978-0857453273}}.
  • {{citation |last=Brendemoen|first=Bernt|year=2002|title=The Turkish Dialects of Trabzon: Analysis|publisher=Otto Harrassowitz Verlag|isbn=978-3447045704}}.
  • {{citation |last=Brendemoen|first=Bernt|year=2006|chapter=Ottoman or Iranian? An example of Turkic-Iranian language contact in East Anatolian dialects|title=Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects|editor1-last=Johanson|editor1-first=Lars|editor2-last=Bulut|editor2-first=Christiane|publisher=Otto Harrassowitz Verlag|isbn=978-3447052764}}.
  • {{citation|last1=Brizic|first1=Katharina|last2=YaÄŸmur|first2=Kutlay|year=2008|chapter=Mapping linguistic diversity in an emigration and immigration context: Case studies on Turkey and Austria|title=Mapping Linguistic Diversity in Multicultural Contexts|editor1-last=Barni|editor1-first=Monica|editor2-last=Extra|editor2-first=Guus|publisher=Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-3110207347|page=248}}.
  • {{citation |last=Brozba|first=Gabriela|year=2010|title=Between Reality and Myth: A Corpus-based Analysis of the Stereotypic Image of Some Romanian Ethnic Minorities|publisher=GRIN Verlag|isbn=978-3-640-70386-9}}.
  • {{citation |last=Bruce|first=Anthony|year=2003|title=The Last Crusade. The Palestine Campaign in the First World War|publisher=John Murray|isbn=978-0719565052}}.
  • {{citation |last=Çaǧaptay|first=Soner|year=2006|title=Islam, Secularism, and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0415384582}}.
  • {{citation |last=Çaǧaptay|first=Soner|year=2006|chapter=Passage to Turkishness: immigration and religion in modern Turkey|title=Citizenship And Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-state|editor1-last=Gülalp|editor1-first=Haldun|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0415368971}}.
  • {{citation |last=Campbell|first=George L.|year=1998|title=Concise Compendium of the World's Languages|publisher=Psychology Press|isbn=978-0415160490}}.
  • {{citation |last=Cassia|first=Paul Sant|year=2007|title=Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus|publisher=Berghahn Books|isbn=978-1845452285}}.
  • {{citation |last=Chaurasia|first=Radhey Shyam|year=2005|title=History Of Middle East|publisher=Atlantic Publishers & Dist|isbn=978-8126904488}}.
  • {{citation |last=Cleland|first=Bilal|year=2001|chapter=The History of Muslims in Australia|title=Muslim Communities in Australia|editor1-last=Saeed|editor1-first=Abdullah|editor2-last=Akbarzadeh|editor2-first=Shahram|publisher=University of New South Wales|isbn=978-0-86840-580-3}}.
  • {{citation |last=Clogg|first=Richard|year=2002|title=Minorities in Greece|publisher=Hurst & Co. Publishers|isbn=978-1-85065-706-4}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Constantin|first1=Daniela L.|last2=Goschin|first2=Zizi|last3=Dragusin|first3=Mariana|year=2008|title=Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania|journal=Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies|volume=7|issue=20|pages=28–41}}
  • {{citation |last=Cornell|first=Svante E.|year=2001|title= Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-7007-1162-8}}.
  • {{citation |last=Darke|first=Diana|year=2011|title=Eastern Turkey|publisher=Bradt Travel Guides|isbn=978-1841623399}}.
  • {{citation |last=Delibaşı|first=Melek|year=1994|chapter=The Era of Yunus Emre and Turkish Humanism|title=Yunus Emre: Spiritual Experience and Culture|publisher=Università Gregoriana|isbn=978-8876526749}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Duiker|first1=William J.|last2=Spielvogel|first2=Jackson J.|year=2012|title=World History|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-1111831653}}.
  • {{citation |last=Elsie|first=Robert|year=2010|title=Historical Dictionary of Kosovo|publisher=Scarecrow Press|isbn=978-0-8108-7231-8}}.
  • {{citation |last=Eminov|first=Ali|year=1997|title=Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers|isbn=978-1-85065-319-6}}.
  • {{citation|last1=Ergener|first1=Rashid|last2=Ergener|first2=Resit|year=2002|title=About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture|publisher=Pilgrims Process|isbn=978-0971060968}}.
  • {{citation |last=Evans|first=Thammy|year=2010|title=Macedonia|publisher=Bradt Travel Guides|isbn=978-1-84162-297-2}}.
  • {{citation |last=Farkas|first=Evelyn N.|year=2003|title=Fractured States and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, Ethiopia, and Bosnia in the 1990s|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|isbn=978-1403963734}}.
  • {{citation |last=Faroqhi|first=Suraiya|year=2005|title=Subjects Of The Sultan: Culture And Daily Life In The Ottoman Empire|publisher=I.B.Tauris|isbn=978-1850437604}}.
  • {{citation |last=Findley|first=Carter V.|year=2005|title=The Turks in World History|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0195177268}}.
  • {{citation |last=Fleet|first=Kate|year=1999|title=European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0521642217}}.
  • {{citation |last=Friedman|first=Victor A.|year=2003|title=Turkish in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology and other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus|publisher=Otto Harrassowitz Verlag|isbn=978-3447046404}}.
  • {{citation |last=Friedman|first=Victor A.|year=2006|chapter=Western Rumelian Turkish in Macedonia and adjacent areas|title=Turkic Languages in Contact|editor1-last=Boeschoten|editor1-first=Hendrik|editor2-last=Johanson|editor2-first=Lars|publisher=Otto Harrassowitz Verlag|isbn=978-3447052122}}.
  • {{citation|last=Gogolin|first=Ingrid|year=2002|url=|title=Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe: From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education|publisher=Council of Europe}}.
  • {{citation |last=Göcek|first=Fatma Müge|year=2011|title=The Transformation of Turkey: Redefining State and Society from the Ottoman Empire to the Modern Era|publisher=I.B.Tauris|isbn=978-1848856110}}.
  • {{citation |last=Hatay|first=Mete|year=2007|url=|title=Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?|publisher=International Peace Research Institute|isbn=978-82-7288-244-9}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Haviland|first1=William A.|last2=Prins|first2=Harald E. L.|last3=Walrath|first3=Dana|last4=McBride|first4=Bunny|year=2010|title=Anthropology: The Human Challenge|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-0-495-81084-1}}.
  • {{citation |last=Hizmetli|first=Sabri|year=1953|title=Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir'in EÄŸitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış|url=|journal=Ankara Ãœniversitesi Ä°lahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi|volume=32|pages=1–12}}
  • {{citation |last1=HodoÄŸlugil|first1=UÄŸur|last2=Mahley|first2=Robert W.|year=2012|title=Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations|journal=Annals of Human Genetics|volume=76|issue=2|pages=128–141|doi=10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x|pmid=22332727|pmc=4904778}}
  • {{citation |last=Home Affairs Committee|year=2011|title=Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union|url=|publisher=The Stationery Office|isbn=978-0-215-56114-5}}
  • {{citation |last=Hopkins|first=Liza|year=2011|title=A Contested Identity: Resisting the Category Muslim-Australian|journal=Immigrants & Minorities|volume=29|issue=1|pages=110–131|doi=10.1080/02619288.2011.553139}}.
  • {{citation |last=Hüssein|first=Serkan|year=2007|title=Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia|publisher=Serkan Hussein|isbn=978-0-646-47783-1}}.
  • {{citation |last=Ä°hsanoÄŸlu|first=Ekmeleddin|year=2005|chapter=Institutionalisation of Science in the Medreses of Pre-Ottoman and Ottoman Turkey|title=Turkish Studies in the History And Philosophy of Science|editor1-last=Irzik|editor1-first=Gürol|editor2-last=Güzeldere|editor2-first=Güven|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1402033322}}.
  • {{citation|last=Ilican|first=Murat Erdal|year=2011|chapter=Cypriots, Turkish|title=Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia|editor-last=Cole|editor-first=Jeffrey|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-1598843026}}.
  • {{citation |last=International Business Publications|year=2004|title=Turkey Foreign Policy And Government Guide|publisher=International Business Publications|isbn=978-0739762820}}.
  • {{citation|last=International Crisis Group|year=2008|url=|title=Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?|place=Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008|publisher=International Crisis Group|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=12 January 2011}}
  • WEB, International Crisis Group, 2010, Cyprus: Bridging the Property Divide,weblink International Crisis Group, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 November 2011, .
  • {{citation |last=Jawhar|first=Raber Tal’at|year=2010|chapter=The Iraqi Turkmen Front|chapter-url=|title=Returning to Political Parties?|editor1-last=Catusse|editor1-first=Myriam|editor2-last=Karam|editor2-first=Karam|publisher=The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies|pages=313–328|isbn=978-1-886604-75-9|series=Co-éditions}}.
  • {{citation |last=Johanson|first=Lars|year=2001|url=|title=Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map|place=Stockholm|publisher=Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul}}
  • {{citation |last=Johanson|first=Lars|year=2011|chapter=Multilingual states and empires in the history of Europe: the Ottoman Empire|title=The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Volume 2|editor1-last=Kortmann|editor1-first=Bernd|editor2-last=Van Der Auwera|editor2-first=Johan|publisher=Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-3110220254}}
  • {{citation |last=Kaplan|first=Robert D.|year=2002|chapter=Who Are the Turks?|title=Travelers' Tales Turkey: True Stories|editor1-last=Villers|editor1-first=James|publisher=Travelers' Tales|isbn=978-1885211828}}.
  • {{citation|last=Karpat|first=Kemal H.|year=2000|chapter=Historical Continuity and Identity Change or How to be Modern Muslim, Ottoman, and Turk|title=Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays|editor-last=Karpat|editor-first=Kemal H.|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-9004115620}}.
  • {{citation|last=Karpat|first=Kemal H.|year=2004|title=Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays |publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-9004133228}}.
  • {{citation |last=Kasaba|first=ReÅŸat|year=2008|title=The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-62096-3}}.
  • {{citation |last=Kasaba|first=ReÅŸat|year=2009|title=A Moveable Empire: Ottoman Nomads, Migrants, and Refugees|publisher=University of Washington Press|isbn=978-0295989488}}.
  • {{citation |last=Kermeli|first=Eugenia|year=2010|chapter=Byzantine Empire|title=Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire|editor1-last=Ágoston|editor1-first=Gábor|editor2-last=Masters|editor2-first=Bruce Alan|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1438110257}}.
  • {{citation |last=Khazanov|first=Anatoly Michailovich|year=1995|title= After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States|publisher=University of Wisconsin Press|isbn=978-0-299-14894-2}}.
  • {{citation |last=Kia|first=Mehrdad|year=2011|title=Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-0313064029}}.
  • {{citation|last=King Baudouin Foundation|year=2008|chapter-url=|archive-url=|url-status=dead|archive-date=25 February 2009|chapter=Diaspora philanthropy – a growing trend|title=Turkish communities and the EU|publisher=King Baudouin Foundation}}.
  • {{citation |last=KiriÅŸci|first=Kemal|year=2006|chapter=Migration and Turkey: the dynamics of state, society and politics|title=The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World|editor-last=Kasaba|editor-first=ReÅŸat|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0521620963}}.
  • {{citation|last=Knowlton|first=MaryLee|year=2005|title=Macedonia|publisher=Marshall Cavendish|isbn=978-0-7614-1854-2|url=}}.
  • {{citation |last=Köprülü|first=Mehmet Fuat|year=1992|title=The Origins of the Ottoman Empire|publisher=SUNY Press|isbn=978-0791408209}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Kötter|first1=I|last2=Vonthein|first2=R|last3=Günaydin|first3=I|last4=Müller|first4=C|last5=Kanz|first5=L|last6=Zierhut |first6=M|last7=Stübiger|first7=N|year=2003|chapter=Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study|title=Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528|editor-last=Zouboulis|editor-first=Christos|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-0-306-47757-7}}.
  • {{citation|last1=Kurbanov|first1=Rafik Osman-Ogly|last2=Kurbanov|first2=Erjan Rafik-Ogly|year=1995|chapter=Religion and Politics in the Caucasus|title=The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia|editor-last=Bourdeaux|editor-first=Michael|publisher=M.E. Sharpe|isbn=978-1-56324-357-8|chapter-url=}}.
  • JOURNAL, Kushner, David, 1997, Self-Perception and Identity in Contemporary Turkey, Journal of Contemporary History, 32, 2, 219–233, 10.1177/002200949703200206,
  • {{citation|last1=Laczko|first1=Frank|last2=Stacher|first2=Irene|last3=von Koppenfels|first3=Amanda Klekowski|year=2002|title= New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe |publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-9067041539|page=187}}.
  • {{citation |last=Leiser|first=Gary|year=2005|chapter=Turks|title=Medieval Islamic Civilization|editor-last=Meri|editor-first=Josef W.|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0415966900|chapter-url=|page=837}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Leveau|first1=Remy|last2=Hunter|first2=Shireen T.|year=2002|chapter=Islam in France|title=Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape|editor1-last=Hunter|editor1-first=Shireen|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0275976095}}.
  • {{citation |last=Levine|first=Lynn A.|year=2010|title=Frommer's Turkey|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-0470593660}}.
  • {{citation |last=Minahan|first=James|year=2002|title=Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: L-R|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-32111-5}}.
  • JOURNAL, Meeker, M. E., 1971, The Black Sea Turks: Some Aspects of Their Ethnic and Cultural Background, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 2, 4, 318–345, 10.1017/s002074380000129x,
  • {{citation |last=National Institute of Statistics|year=2002|url=|title=Population by ethnic groups, regions, counties and areas|publisher=Romania – National Institute of Statistics}}
  • {{citation |last=Oçak|first=Ahmet Yaçar|year=2012|chapter=Islam in Asia Minor|title=Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: Vol.3: The Spread of Islam Throughout the World|editor1-last=El Hareir|editor1-first=Idris|editor2-last=M'Baye|editor2-first=Ravane|publisher=UNESCO|isbn=978-9231041532}}.
  • {{citation|last=Orhan|first=Oytun|year=2010|url=|title=The Forgotten Turks: Turkmens of Lebanon|publisher=ORSAM|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=3 March 2016}}.
  • {{citation |last=OSCE|year=2010|chapter-url=|chapter=Community Profile: Kosovo Turks|title=Kosovo Communities Profile|publisher=Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe}}.
  • {{citation |last=Oxford Business Group|year=2008|title=The Report: Algeria 2008|publisher=Oxford Business Group|isbn=978-1-902339-09-2}}.
  • {{citation|last=Özkaya|first=Abdi Noyan|year=2007|url=|title=Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti'nin Politikaları|journal=Review of International Law and Politics|volume=2|issue=8|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=24 January 2011}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Öztürkmen|first1=Ali|last2=Duman|first2=Bilgay|last3=Orhan|first3=Oytun|year=2011|url=|title=Suriye'de deÄŸiÅŸim ortaya çıkardığı toplum: Suriye Türkmenleri|publisher=ORSAM}}.
  • {{citation |last=Pan|first=Chia-Lin|year=1949|title=The Population of Libya|journal=Population Studies|volume=3|issue=1|pages=100–125|doi=10.1080/00324728.1949.10416359}}
  • {{citation |last=Park|first=Bill|year=2005|title=Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-38297-7}}
  • {{citation |last=Phillips|first=David L.|year=2006|title=Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco|publisher=Basic Books|isbn=978-0-465-05681-1}}
  • {{citation |last=Phinnemore|first=David|year=2006|title=The EU and Romania: Accession and Beyond|publisher=The Federal Trust for Education & Research|isbn=978-1-903403-78-5}}.
  • {{citation |last=Polian|first=Pavel|year=2004|title=Against Their will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR|publisher=Central European University Press|isbn=978-963-9241-68-8}}.
  • {{citation|last=Quataert|first=Donald|year=2000|title=The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0521633284}}.
  • {{citation |last=Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office|year=2005|title=Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 |url=|publisher=Republic of Macedonia – State Statistical Office}}
  • {{citation |last=Romanian National Institute of Statistics|year=2011|url=|title=Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului PopulaÅ£iei ÅŸi LocuinÅ£elor – 2011|publisher=Romania-National Institute of Statistics}}
  • {{citation |last=Ryazantsev|first=Sergey V.|year=2009|title=Turkish Communities in the Russian Federation|url=|journal=International Journal on Multicultural Societies|volume=11|issue=2|pages=155–173}}.
  • {{citation |last=Saeed|first=Abdullah|year=2003|title=Islam in Australia|publisher=Allen & Unwin|isbn=978-1-86508-864-8}}.
  • {{citation |last=Saunders|first=John Joseph|year=1965|chapter=The Turkish Irruption|title=A History of Medieval Islam|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0415059145}}.
  • {{citation |last=Scarce|first=Jennifer M.|year=2003|title=Women's Costume of the Near and Middle East|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0700715602}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Seher|first1=Cesur-Kılıçaslan|last2=TerzioÄŸlu|first2=Günsel|year=2012|chapter=Families Immigrating from Bulgaria to Turkey Since 1878|title=Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe: Historical and Cultural Aspects, Volume 1|editor1-last=Roth|editor1-first=Klaus|editor2-last=Hayden|editor2-first=Robert |publisher=LIT Verlag Münster|isbn=978-3643108951}}.
  • {{citation |last=Shaw|first=Stanford J.|year=1976|title=History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0521291637}}.
  • {{citation |last=Somel|first=Selçuk AkÅŸin|year=2003|title=Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire|publisher=Scarecrow Press|isbn=978-0810843325}}.
  • {{citation|last=Sosyal|first=Levent|year=2011|chapter=Turks|title=Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia|editor-last=Cole|editor-first=Jeffrey|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-1598843026}}.
  • {{citation |last=Stansfield|first=Gareth R. V.|year=2007|title=Iraq: People, History, Politics|publisher=Polity|isbn=978-0-7456-3227-8}}.
  • {{citation|last=Stavrianos|first=Leften Stavros|year=2000|title=The Balkans Since 1453|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers|isbn=978-1850655510}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Stokes|first1=Jamie|last2=Gorman|first2=Anthony|year=2010|chapter=Turkic Peoples|title=Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1438126760}}.
  • {{citation |last=Taylor|first=Scott|year=2004|title=Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq|publisher=Esprit de Corps Books|isbn=978-1-895896-26-8}}.
  • {{citation |last1=Stokes|first1=Jamie|last2=Gorman|first2=Anthony|year=2010|chapter=Turks: nationality|title=Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1438126760}}.
  • {{citation |last=Tomlinson|first=Kathryn|year=2005|chapter=Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia|title=Writing History, Constructing Religion|editor1-last=Crossley|editor1-first=James G.|editor2-last=Karner|editor2-first=Christian|publisher=Ashgate Publishing|isbn=978-0-7546-5183-3}}.
  • {{citation|last=Turkish Embassy in Algeria |year=2008 |url= |title=Cezayir Ãœlke Raporu 2008 |publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=29 September 2013 }}.
  • {{citation|last1=Twigg|first1=Stephen|last2=Schaefer|first2=Sarah|last3=Austin|first3=Greg|last4=Parker|first4=Kate|year=2005|title=Turks in Europe: Why are we afraid?|url=|publisher=The Foreign Policy Centre|isbn=978-1903558799|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=9 July 2011}}
  • {{citation |last=UNHCR|year=1999|title=Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Azerbaijan|url=|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees}}.
  • {{citation |last=UNHCR|year=1999|title= Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Georgia|url=|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees}}.
  • {{citation |last=Whitman|first=Lois|year=1990|title=Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece|publisher=Human Rights Watch|isbn=978-0-929692-70-8}}.
  • Wolf-Gazo, Ernest. (1996) weblink" title="">"John Dewey in Turkey: An Educational Mission". Retrieved 6 March 2006.
  • JOURNAL, Yardumian, Aram, Schurr, Theodore G., 2011, Who Are the Anatolian Turks? A Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence, Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia, 50, 1, 6–42, 10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101,weblink {{dead link|date=May 2018 |bot=GreenC |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • {{citation |last=Yiangou|first=Anastasia|year=2010|title=Cyprus in World War II: Politics and Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean|publisher=I.B.Tauris|isbn=978-1848854369}}.
  • {{citation|last1=ZeytinoÄŸlu|first1=GüneÅŸ N.|last2=Bonnabeau|first2=Richard F.|last3=EÅŸkinat|first3=Rana|year=2012|chapter=Ethnopolitical Conflict in Turkey: Turkish Armenians: From Nationalism to Diaspora|title=Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives|editor1-last=Landis|editor1-first=Dan|editor2-last=Albert|editor2-first=Rosita D.|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1461404477}}.

External links

  • {{commons category-inline|People of Turkey}}
{{Demographics of Turkey}}{{European Muslims}}{{Turkish people by country}}{{Turkic peoples}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Turkish people" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:31am EST - Wed, Nov 13 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott