aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}(File:Etymological Relationships Tree.png|thumb|Diagram showing relationships between etymologically-related words)In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.BOOK, Crystal, David, David Crystal, 2011, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th,weblink cognate, Blackwell Publishing, 104, 978-1-4443-5675-5, 899159900, 16 March 2016, Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words (wikt:dish#English|dish) and (wikt:desk#English|desk) and the German word (wikt:Tisch#German|Tisch) ("table") are cognates because they all come from Latin (wikt:discus#Latin|discus), which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words, in some cases appearing to be dissimilar. Some words sound similar, but do not come from the same root; these are called false cognates, while some are truly cognate but differ in meaning; these are called false friends.The word cognate derives from the Latin noun (:wikt:cognatus|cognatus), which means "blood relative"."cognate", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed.: "Latin cognātus: co-, co- + gnātus, born, past participle of nāscī, to be born." Other definitions of the English word include "[r]elated by blood; having a common ancestor" and "[r]elated or analogous in nature, character, or function".


Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English (wikt:starve#English|starve) and Dutch (wikt:sterven#Dutch|sterven) or German (wikt:sterben|sterben) ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, (wikt:Appendix:Proto-Germanic/sterbaną|*sterbaną) ("die"). Discus is from Greek δίσκος (from the verb δικεῖν "to throw"). A later and separate English reflex of discus, probably through medieval Latin desca, is (wikt:desk#English|desk) (see OED s.v. desk).Cognates also do not need to have similar forms: English (wikt:father|father), French (wikt:père#French|père), and Armenian (wikt:հայր|հայր) (hayr) all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr. An extreme case is Armenian (wikt:երկու|երկու) (erku) and English (wikt:two|two), which descend from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (note that the sound change *dw > erk in Armenian is regular).

Across languages

Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night (English), nicht (Scots), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nag (Afrikaans), Naach (Colognian), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish), ночь, noch (Russian), ноќ, noć (Macedonian), нощ, nosht (Bulgarian), ніч, nich (Ukrainian), ноч, noch/noč (Belarusian), noč (Slovene), noć (Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian), nakts (Latvian), naktis (Lithuanian), νύξ, nyx (Ancient Greek, νύχτα/nychta in Modern Greek), nakt- (Sanskrit), natë (Albanian), nos (Welsh, Cornish), noz (Breton), nox/nocte (Latin), nuit (French), noche (Spanish), nueche (Asturian), noite (Portuguese and Galician), notte (Italian), nit (Catalan), nuèch/nuèit (Occitan) and noapte (Romanian), all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European {{PIE|(:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/nókʷts|*nókʷts)}} "night".Another Indo-European example is star (English), starn (Scots), Stern (German), ster (Dutch and Afrikaans), Schtähn (Colognian), stjärna (Swedish), stjerne (Norwegian and Danish), stjarna (Icelandic), stjørna (Faroese), stairno (Gothic), str- (Sanskrit), tara (Hindustani and Bengali), tora (Assamese), setāre (Persian), stoorei (Pashto), estêre or stêrk (Kurdish), astgh (Armenian), ἀστήρ (astēr) (Greek or ἀστέρι/ἄστρο, asteri/astro in Modern Greek), aster (Latin), astre/étoile (French), astro/stella (Italian), stea (Romanian and Venetian), estel (Catalan), estela (Occitan) estrella and astro (Spanish), estrella (Asturian and Leonese), estrela and astro (Portuguese and Galician), seren (Welsh), steren (Cornish) and (:wikt:sterenn#Breton|sterenn) (Breton), from the Proto-Indo-European {{PIE|(:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₂stḗr|*h₂stḗr)}} "star".The Arabic salām, the Hebrew {{Hebrew|שלום}} shalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam ("peace") are also cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic (:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Semitic/šalām-|*šalām-) "peace".Cognates may often be less easily recognised than the above examples, and authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence. The English word (wikt:milk#English|milk) is clearly a cognate of German (wikt:Milch#German|Milch), Dutch (wikt:melk#Dutch|melk), Russian (wikt:молоко#Russian|молоко (moloko)) and Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko, also Montenegrin (wikt:mlijeko#Serbo-Croatian|mlijeko).Compare also Greek (wikt:ἀμέλγω#Ancient Greek|ἀμέλγω) amelgō "to milk". On the other hand, French (wikt:lait#French|lait), Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian (wikt:lapte#Romanian|lapte), Spanish (wikt:leche#Spanish|leche) and (wikt:leite#Portuguese|leite) (Portuguese and Galician) (all meaning "milk") are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek gálaktos (genitive singular of gála, "milk"), a relationship that is more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin (wikt:lac#Latin|lac) "milk" as well as the English word (wikt:lactic#English|lactic) and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European {{PIE|(:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₂melǵ-|h₂melǵ-)}} "milk".Some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word {{Hebrew|חוצפה}} chutzpah means "impudence", its Classical Arabic cognate ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment."BOOK, Wehr, Hans, Hans Wehr, J. Milton Cowan, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 1979, 1994, Spoken Language Services, Inc., Urbana, Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 0-87950-003-4,
Another example is English empathy "understanding of thoughts" and Greek εμπάθεια "malice".

Within the same language

Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are slightly or even totally different. For example, English ward and guard (

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "cognate" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 4:08am EDT - Sun, Sep 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott