aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date =March 2017}}{{Coord|46|07|N|14|49|E|display= title}}

| image_flag = Flag of Slovenia.svg| image_coat = Coat of Arms of Slovenia.svg''Anthem of the Slovene nation'' (){{efn-lrStanko Premrl.{{#tag:ref>As defined by the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation ("Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi") from 1994 and published on the web page of the National Assembly (Slovenia).HTTP://WWW.PISRS.SI/PREDPIS.ASPX?ID=ZAKO365&POGLED=OSNOVNI PUBLISHER= PISRS.SI LANGUAGE= SLOVENIAN FIRST= DRAGAN DATE= 3 NOVEMBER 2010 ISSN= 1854-6544, The question whether the entire Zdravljica or only its seventh stanza constitutes the Slovenian national anthem remains unresolved. Whereas the Constitution of Slovenia determines the title of the poem, the act about the anthem specifically determines its seventh stanza. It has been argued{{by whomConstitutional Court of Slovenia>Slovenian Constitutional Court.HTTP://WWW.DELO.SI/NOVICE/POLITIKA/ZDRAVLJICA-V-POLITICNEM-IN-PRAVNEM-PRIMEZU.HTML >TITLE= ZDRAVLJICA V POLITIčNEM IN PRAVNEM PRIMEžU LAST= Å KRINJAR DATE= 3 SEPTEMBER 2012 TRANS-TITLE= ZDRAVLJICA IN THE POLITICAL AND LEGAL VICE, center)| image_map = EU-Slovenia.svglocation_color=dark green Europe >region_color=dark grey European Union >subregion_color= green}}| image_map2 = Slovenia - Location Map (2013) - SVN - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Ljubljana46N30type:city}}| largest_city = capitalSlovene language>Slovene{{efn-lrHungarian language>Hungarian and Italian are co-official in some municipalities.}}Catholicism in Slovenia>CatholicismHTTPS://KATOLISKA-CERKEV.SI/LETNO-POROCILO-KATOLISKE-CERKVE-V-SLOVENIJI-2018>TITLE=SLOVENIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH: OFFICIAL YEAR REPORT 2017ACCESSDATE=22 JANUARY 2019, 2.4% Islam in SloveniaHTTP://WWW.IJESD.ORG/PAPERS/29-D438.PDFPUBLISHER=IJESD.ORGSerbian Orthodox Church>Serbian Orthodoxy0.9% Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in SloveniaHTTPS://WWW.DELO.SI/ZGODBE/NEDELJSKOBRANJE/SLOVENSKI-EVANGELICANI-Z-NOVIM-SKOFOM-PO-GEZI-GEZA.HTMLPUBLISHER=DELO (NEWSPAPER)>ACCESSDATE=2 SEPTEMBER 2019, Slovene, | ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| 83% Slovenes
| 2% Serbs
| 1.8% Croats
| 1% Bosniaks
| 12% Others (including Istrian Italians){{}}Unspecified
PUBLISHER= STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA, 2 February 2011, Slovenes>SloveneUnitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentaryconstitutional republic}}President of Slovenia>President| leader_name1 = {{Current president of Slovenia}}Prime Minister of Slovenia>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Marjan Å arecSlovenian Parliament>ParliamentNational Council (Slovenia)>National CouncilNational Assembly (Slovenia)>National Assembly State of Slovenes,Croats and Serbsbecomes independent}}| established_date1 = 29 October 1918Kingdom of Serbs,Croats and Slovenes(Kingdom of Yugoslavia)}}| established_date2 = 4 December 1918Slovene National Liberation Committee>Slovene statehood| established_date3 = 19 February 1944Democratic Federal Yugoslavia>Yugoslavia becomes a republic| established_date4 = 29 November 1945| established_event5 = Independence from Yugoslavia| established_date5 = 25 June 1991| established_event6 = Brioni Agreement| established_date6 = 7 July 1991Constitution of Slovenia>Current constitution| established_date7 = 23 December 1991United Nations Security Council Resolution 754>Admitted to the United Nations| established_date8 = 22 May 1992Joined the European Union}}| established_date9 = 1 May 2004| area_km2 = 20,273| area_rank = 151st | area_sq_mi = 7,827 TRANS-TITLE= SURFACE AREA AND LAND COVER DETERMINED PLANIMETRICALLY, 2005 PUBLISHER= STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA, 2 February 2011, TITLE= POPULATION ACCESSDATE= 2019-04-01, | population_census = 1,964,036| population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 144th| population_census_year = 2002| population_density_km2 = 102| population_density_sq_mi = 262 | population_density_rank = 106thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=15 MAY 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 93rd| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $38,634| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 37th| GDP_nominal = $55 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 80th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $26,621| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 34th| Gini = 23.7 | Gini_year = 2017| Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESS-DATE=7 MARCH 2019, | Gini_rank = 1st| HDI = 0.896 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseTITLE= KEY TO HDI COUNTRIES AND RANKS, 2015ACCESSDATE= 2017-08-03, | HDI_rank = 25thEuro (Euro sign>€){{efn-lr| Slovenian tolar prior to 2007.}}| currency_code = EURCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Central European Summer Time>CESTAnno Domini>AD)| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Slovenia>{{efn-lr> Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.}}| footnotes = {{notelist-lr}}weblink}}}}Slovenia ({{IPAc-en|audio= en-us-Slovenia.ogg|s|l|oÊŠ|ˈ|v|iː|n|i|É™|,_|s|l|É™|-}}BOOK, Wells, John C., 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 9781405881180, BOOK, Roach, Peter, 2011, Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 9780521152532, {{respell|sloh|VEE|nee-É™}}; {{IPA-sl|slɔˈʋèːnija|}}),WEB, Slovenski pravopis 2001: Slovenija,weblink officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: {{Audio| Sl-Republika Slovenija.oga|Republika Slovenija}},{{IPA-sl|ɾɛˈpùːblika slɔˈʋèːnija}}. Source: WEB, Slovenski pravopis 2001: Republika Slovenija,weblink abbr.: RS{{IPA-sl|ɾəˈsə́}}. Source: WEB, Slovenski pravopis 2001: Republika Slovenija,weblink ), is a country located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes.JOURNAL,weblink Gateway to Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe, Andrej, ÄŒerne, 127, Slovenia: A Geographical Overview, Orožen Adamič, Milan, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, 2004, 961-6500-49-X, For centuries, the territory of Slovenia has been crossed by traditional transportation routes connecting northern Europe with southern, eastern, and western Europe. Slovenia's location in the northwestern part of the Mediterranean's most inland bay on the Adriatic Sea where the Alps, the plateaus of the Dinaric Alps, and the western margins of the Pannonian Basin meet gives [it] a relatively quite advantageous traffic and geographical position distinguished by its transitional character and the links between these geographical regions. In the wider macroregional sense, this transitional character and these links have not changed since prehistoric times., BOOK,weblink Introducing the National Context: Brief Presentation of the National Context, 5, InÅ¡titut za ekonomska raziskovanja [Institute for Economic Research], Ljubljana, SWOT Analysis: Status of the Creative Industries in Ljubljana, Murovec, Nika, KavaÅ¡, Damijan, December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2016, dmy-all, For millennia, Slovenia has been at the crossroads of trade and cultural routes leading from north to south, from east to west., It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.BOOK,weblink Europe beyond 2000: the enlargement of the European Union towards the East, Nicoll, William, Schoenberg, Richard, 1998, Whurr Publishers, 978-1-86156-064-3, 121, It covers {{convert|20,273|km2|sp=us}} and has a population of 2.07 million.WEB,weblink About Slovenia: Republic of Slovenia,, Government of Slovenia, Republic of Slovenia, 25 November 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2012, dead, One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republicBOOK,weblink Doing Business with Slovenia, Political Overview, Biljana, Radonjić, Reuvid, Jonathan, 2005, 978-1-905050-70-3, and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO.WEB,weblink Slovenia First 20 Years, Slovenia: South Australia Newsletter, 58, Winter 2010–2011, 1448-8175, 25 November 2012, The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.BOOK,weblink Statistični portret Slovenije v EU 2011, Slovenian, English, Statistical Portrait of Slovenia in the EU 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Vojka, Vuk Dirnberk, Tomaž Valantič, 1854-5734, 2 February 2011, Slovenia has a mostly mountainous terrainJOURNAL,weblink Slovenia at the Junction of Major European Geographical Units, Drago, Perko, 2008, The Slovenian, Vse Slovenski Kulturni Odbor [The All Slovenian Cultural Committee], Toronto, with a mainly continental climate,BOOK,weblink Slovenia, Environment, Steve, Fallon, Lonely Planet, 2007, 5, 978-1-74104-480-5, 40, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate.BOOK,weblink Darko, Ogrin, Modern Climate Change in Slovenia, 45, Slovenia: A Geographical Overview, Orožen Adamič, Milan, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, 2004, 961-6500-49-X, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2013, dmy-all, Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity,WEB,weblink Endangered Species, Blažič, Mateja, Arih, Andrej, Nartnik, Irena, Turk, Inga, 26 March 2008, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 8 March 2012, BOOK,weblink 13, Characteristics of Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia, Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia: An Overview, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2001, Hlad, Branka, Skoberne, Peter, 961-6324-17-9, Ljubljana, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2012, dmy-all, is one of the most water-rich in Europe,WEB,weblink World Water Day 2011, 18 March 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karst underground watercourses.WEB,weblink Country Introduction, European state of the environment 2010 – contributions from Slovenia, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 8 March 2012, Over half of the territory is covered by forest.WEB,weblink Slovenian Forest in Figures, Slovenia Forest Service, February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2012, dmy-all, The human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.BOOK,weblink Drago, Kladnik, Modern Climate Change in Slovenia, 93, Slovenia: A Geographical Overview, Orožen Adamič, Milan, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, 2004, 961-6500-49-X, Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages and cultures.WEB,weblink SOER: Country Introduction, 3 February 2011, Environment Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, BOOK,weblink Medkulturni dialog kot temeljna vrednota EU, Slovenian, English, Intercultural Dialogue as the Fundamental Value of the EU, 2008, Faculty of Humanities Koper, University of Primorska, Jonatan, Vinkler, 978-961-92233-2-1, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2012, WEB,weblink Resolution on the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia, 21 June 2001, 3 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2010, Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority.BOOK,weblink Jernej, Zupančič, Ethnic Structure of Slovenia and Slovenes in Neighbouring Countries, 87, Slovenia: A Geographical Overview, Orožen Adamič, Milan, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, 2004, 961-6500-49-X, The South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country,BOOK,weblink Odnos med državo in religijo v Sloveniji, The Relationship Between the State and Religion in Slovenia, Maja, MartinÅ¡ek, 2007, Faculty of Humanities, University of Ljubljana, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have significantly influenced its culture and identity.BOOK,weblink Primerjava narodne, verske in jezikovne sestave Slovenije: diplomsko delo, Slovenian, Comparison of Ethnic, Religious and Ethnic Structure of Slovenia: Diploma Thesis, Dejan, Å trubelj, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, 2006, 29 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, dmy-all, The economy of Slovenia is small, open and export-orientedJOURNAL,weblink Corporate Strategies In The Post-Transition Economy: The Case Of Slovenian Companies, The Journal of Applied Business Research, Matej, Lahovnik, 27, 1, January–February 2011, 0892-7626, {{COBISS, 19878374, |pages= 61–68 |access-date= 8 March 2012 |archive-url=weblink" title="">weblink |archive-date= 23 February 2013 |url-status=dead |df= dmy-all }} and is thus strongly influenced by the conditions of its exporting partners' economies.BOOK,weblink Analiza modela gospodarske diplomacije Republike Slovenije, Slovenian, English, Analysis of the Economic Diplomacy Model of the Republic of Slovenia, Andreja, Banutai, 2011, Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, 5, It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.BOOK,weblink Tabela 2b: Dodana vrednost po dejavnostih in bruto domači proizvod, Slovenian, Table 2b: Added Value by Activities and Gross Domestic Product, Jesenska napoved gospodarskih gibanj 2011: statistična priloga, Autumn Prediction of Economic Movements 2011: Statistical Appendix, Ljubljana, September 2011, Fajić, Lejla, Institute for Macroeconomic Analysis and Development (UMAR/IMAD), Republic of Slovenia, 45, Historically, the current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire, and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of the First French Empire of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929).During World War II (1939–1945) Germany, Italy, and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia (1941–1945), with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state.NEWS,weblink Mejo so zavarovali z žico in postavili mine, Slovenian, They Protected the Border with Wire and Set up Mines,, Ernest, Sečen, 16 April 2005, In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was initially allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement.In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent sovereign state.BOOK,weblink Succession of States, Mojmir, Mrak, Recognition of States and Its (Non-)Implication on State Succession: The Case of Successor States to the Former Yugoslavia, 5, Mirjam, Å krk, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999, 9789041111456, In 2004, it entered NATO and the European Union; in 2007 became the first formerly communist country to join the Eurozone;BOOK,weblink Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia at Peace and at War: Selected Writings, 1983–2007, Sabrina, P. Ramet, 2008, Democratization in Slovenia – The Third Stage, 978-3-03735-912-9, LIT Verlag Münster, 272, and in 2010 it joined the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries.BOOK,weblink The United States of Europe: European Union and the Euro Revolution, 31, Historical Progression of the EU, Manoranjan, Dutta, 9781780523149, 2011, 9781780523149,
Slovenia is a high-income advanced economyWEB,weblink Country and Lending Groups,, WEB,weblink Advanced economies, IMF, 22 June 2019, with a very high Human Development Index.WEB,weblink - Human Development Reports,,


Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages. It is thus a cognate of the words Slavonia, Slovakia and Slavia. The etymology of {{wikt-lang|en|Slav}} itself remains uncertain.The reconstructed autonym is usually derived from the word slovo ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i. e. people who understand each other. This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely {{wikt-lang|sla-pro|*nÄ›mÑŒcÑŒ}}, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic {{wikt-lang|sla-pro|*nÄ›mÑŠ}} "mute, mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root {{wikt-lang|ine-pro|*ḱlew-}} ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek ({{grc-tr|κλέος}} "fame"), as in the name Pericles, Latin {{wikt-lang|la|clueo}} ("be called"), and English {{wikt-lang|en|loud}}.The modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee (SNOS) held on 19 February 1944. They officially named the state as Federal Slovenia (), a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia (Ljudska republika Slovenija).JOURNAL,weblink Mesto kot upravnoteritorialna enota 1945–1955, Slovenian, English, A Town as an Administrative–Territorial Unit, Janez, Kopač, 2007, 30, 2, Arhivsko druÅ¡tvo Slovenije, {{COBISS, 914293, |page=83 |journal=Arhivi |issn=0351-2835}} It retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia ().JOURNAL,weblink Ustava Socialistične republike Slovenije z dne 9. aprila 1963, Slovenian, The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia from 9 April 1963, Janez, Kopač, Arhivi, 2001, XXIV, 1, 1, On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia; it remained a part of the SFRY until 25 June 1991.{| class="wikitable" style="float:center; clear:right;"|+Official names! scope="col" | Date! scope="col" | Name! scope="col" | NotesSlovene National Liberation Committee>Federal Slovenia Part of the Democratic Federal YugoslaviaPeople's Republic of Slovenia >|Socialist Republic of Slovenia >|Republic of Slovenia >|


Prehistory to Slavic settlement


File:Flûte paléolithique (musée national de Slovénie, Ljubljana) (9420310527).jpg|thumb|upright|A pierced cave bear bone, possibly a flute, from Divje BabeDivje BabePresent-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago.WEB,weblink Milestones -,, A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, and possibly the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.BOOK,weblink The Land Between: A History of Slovenia, From Prehistory to the End of the Ancient World, 15, Oto, Luthar, 2008, Peter Lang, 978-3-631-57011-1, In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, and a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave.WEB,weblink Potočka zijavka,, Palaeolithic Research Centre, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2012, dmy-all, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Potočka zijalka, Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem – DEDI, Irena, Debeljak, Matija, Turk, Å mid Hribar, Mateja Torkar, Gregor Golež, Mateja Podjed, Dan. Drago Kladnik, Drago. Erhartič, Bojan Pavlin, Primož. Jerele, Ines., 12 March 2012, Slovenian,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2012, dead, dmy-all, In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world.WEB,weblink The oldest wooden wheel in the world: Virtual exhibition, 4 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 January 2013, dmy-all, It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe.WEB, World's Oldest Wheel Found in Slovenia,weblink March 2003, Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Alexander Gasser, 19 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2012, dmy-all, In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, the "Town of Situlas".JOURNAL,weblink Application for the Title of the European Capital of Culture 2012, City Municipality of Maribor, 2008, {{dead link|date=August 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}

Roman era

File:Emona v Ljubljani (6).jpg|thumb|Roman EmonaEmonaThe area that is present-day Slovenia was in Roman times shared between Venetia et Histria (region X of Roman Italia in the classification of Augustus) and the provinces Pannonia and Noricum. The Romans established posts at Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj), and Celeia (Celje); and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was subject to invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy. A part of the inner state was protected with a defensive line of towers and walls called Claustra Alpium Iuliarum. A crucial battle between Theodosius I and Eugenius took place in the Vipava Valley in 394.BOOK, Wolfram, Herwig, The Roman Empire and Its Germanic Peoples, 1997, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 92, BOOK, Singleton, Fred, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, 1989, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2,

Slavic settlement

The Slavic tribes migrated to the Alpine area after the westward departure of the Lombards (the last Germanic tribe) in 568, and under pressure from Avars established a Slavic settlement in the Eastern Alps. From 623 to 624 or possibly 626 onwards, King Samo united the Alpine and Western Slavs against the Avars and Germanic peoples and established what is referred to as Samo's Kingdom. After its disintegration following Samo's death in 658 or 659, the ancestors of the Slovenes located in present-day Carinthia formed the independent duchy of Carantania,BOOK,weblink Na stičišču svetov: slovenska zgodovina od prazgodovinskih kultur do konca 18. stoletja, Peter, Štih, Slovenian, At the Junction of the Worlds: Slovene History from the Prehistoric Cultures to the End of the 18th Century, 978-961-241-375-0, Modrijan Publishing House, 33, 2009, and Carniola, later duchy Carniola. Other parts of present-day Slovenia were again ruled by Avars before Charlemagne's victory over them in 803.File:Klagenfurt Landhaus Großer Wappensaal Fürstenstein 19072006 6295.jpg|thumb|The Prince's Stone, symbol of the Duchy of Carantania ]]

Middle Ages

The Carantanians, one of the ancestral groups of the modern Slovenes, particularly the Carinthian Slovenes, were the first Slavic people to accept Christianity. They were mostly Christianized by Irish missionaries, among them Modestus, known as the "Apostle of Carantanians". This process, together with the Christianization of the Bavarians, was later described in the memorandum known as the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, which is thought to have overemphasized the role of the Church of Salzburg in the Christianization process over similar efforts of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.File:Kaernten herzogeinsetzung.jpg|thumb|left|A depiction of an ancient democratic ritual of Slovene-speaking tribes, which took place on the Prince's Stone in the Slovene languageSlovene languageIn the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians, who began spreading Christianity. Three decades later, the Carantanians were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into the Carolingian Empire. During the same period Carniola, too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised from Aquileia. Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Liudewit at the beginning of the 9th century, the Franks removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish feudal system reached the Slovene territory.After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars in 955, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the Duchy of Carinthia in 976.By the 11th century, the Germanization of what is now Lower Austria, effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from the other western Slavs, speeding up the development of the Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola into an independent Carantanian/Carniolans/Slovene ethnic group. By the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola, Styria, Carinthia, Gorizia, Trieste, and Istria developed from the border regions and were incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, and were led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim, the Counts of Gorizia, the Counts of Celje, and, finally, the House of Habsburg. In a parallel process, an intensive German colonization significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas. By the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory was reduced to its present size.WEB,weblink About Slovenia – Culture of Slovenia,, 2 June 2012, In the 14th century, most of the territory of present-day Slovenia was taken over by the Habsburgs, the Hungarian clan Záh administering the territories connecting Slovenia with Slovakia and Moravia was exterminated in 1330 and the Slovenes permanently lost the connection with their Slovak kinsmen. The counts of Celje, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state princes, were Habsburgs' powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century. Patria del Friuli ruled present western Slovenia until Venetian takeover in 1420.File:Boj s Turki-Valvasor.jpg|thumb|The Ottoman army battling the Habsburgs in present-day Slovenia during the Great Turkish WarGreat Turkish WarAt the end of the Middle Ages, the Slovene Lands suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids. In 1515, a peasant revolt spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.

Early modern period

The Republic of Venice was dissolved by France and Venetian Slovenia was passed to the Austrian Empire in 1797. The Slovene Lands were part of the French-administered Illyrian provinces established by Napoleon, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. Slovenes inhabited most of Carniola, the southern part of the duchies of Carinthia and Styria, the northern and eastern areas of the Austrian Littoral, as well as Prekmurje in the Kingdom of Hungary.JOURNAL,weblink Note: The Terms Wende – Winde, Wendisch – Windisch in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands, Rado, Lenček, Rado Lenček, 1990, Slovene Studies, 12, 1, 94, Industrialization was accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization was limited.Due to limited opportunities, between 1880 and 1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e. 1 in 6) emigrated to other countries,BOOK,weblink Independent Slovenia: Origins, Movements, Prospects, In the Beginning: The Slovenes from the Seventh Century to 1945, Jill, Benderly, Evan, Kraft, Palgrave Macmillan, 1996, 978-0-312-16447-8, 9–11, mostly to the US, but also to South America (the main part to Argentina), Germany, Egypt, and to larger cities in Austria-Hungary, especially Vienna and Graz. The area of the United States with the highest concentration of Slovenian immigrants is Cleveland, Ohio. The other locations in the United States where many Slovenians settled were areas with substantial industrial and mining activities: Pittsburgh, Chicago, Pueblo, Butte, northern Minnesota, and the Salt Lake Valley. The men were important as workers in the mining industry, because of some of the skills they brought from Slovenia. Despite this, the Slovene population increased significantly. Literacy was exceptionally high, at 80–90%.The 19th century also saw a revival of culture in the Slovene language, accompanied by a Romantic nationalist quest for cultural and political autonomy. The idea of a United Slovenia, first advanced during the revolutions of 1848, became the common platform of most Slovenian parties and political movements in Austria-Hungary. During the same period, Yugoslavism, an ideology stressing the unity of all South Slavic peoples, spread as a reaction to Pan-German nationalism and Italian irredentism.

World War I

{{See also|Italian Campaign (World War I)|Battles of the Isonzo|Treaty of London (1915)|Corfu Declaration}}File:Eingebaute Mannschaftsunterstände am Monte Sabotino.jpg|thumb|The Battles of the IsonzoBattles of the IsonzoWorld War I brought heavy casualties to Slovenes, particularly the twelve Battles of the Isonzo, which took place in present-day Slovenia's western border area with Italy. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from Gorizia and Gradisca were resettled in refugee camps in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918.Petra Svoljšak, Slovenski begunci v Italiji med prvo svetovno vojno (Ljubljana 1991). Entire areas of the Slovene Littoral were destroyed.The Treaty of Rapallo of 1920 left approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes in Italy.Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. {{ISBN|978-961-231-871-0}}Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 4 After the fascists took power in Italy, they were subjected to a policy of violent Fascist Italianization. This caused the mass emigration of Slovenes, especially the middle class, from the Slovenian Littoral and Trieste to Yugoslavia and South America. Those who remained organized several connected networks of both passive and armed resistance. The best known was the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR, formed in 1927 in order to fight Fascist oppression of the Slovene and Croat populations in the Julian March.Mira Cencič, TIGR (Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1997)Tatjana Rejec, Pričevanja o TIGR-u (Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, 1995)

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

{{See also|Creation of Yugoslavia|Carinthian Plebiscite|Rudolf Maister}}File:KongressfallofAH.jpg|thumb|left|The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress SquareCongress SquareThe Slovene People's Party launched a movement for self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independent South Slavic state under Habsburg rule. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement, followed.BOOK, Kranjec, Silvo, Korošec Anton, Slovenski biografski leksikon,weblink 1925–1991, Online, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 24 July 2010, Slovenian, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2011, dmy-all, This demand was rejected by the Austrian political elites; but following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the First World War, the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs took power in Zagreb on 6 October 1918. On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs.(File:Treaty of Rapallo.png|thumb|upright=1.5|The map showing the present territory of Slovenia, with traditional regional boundaries; the Slovene-speaking areas annexed by Italy after WWI are shown in stripes)On 1 December 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Serbia, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; in 1929 it was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main center of industrial production: Compared to Serbia, for example, Slovenian industrial production was four times greater; and it was 22 times greater than in North Macedonia. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with rapid economic growth in the 1920s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the 1929 economic crisis and Great Depression.Following a plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria. With the Treaty of Trianon, on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary.Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states—Italy, Austria, and Hungary—were subjected to assimilation.

World War II

Slovenia was the only present-day European nation that was trisected and completely annexed into both Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during World War II.Gregor Joseph Kranjc (2013).To Walk with the Devil, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, p. introduction 5 In addition, the Prekmurje region in the east was annexed to Hungary, and some villages in the Lower Sava Valley were incorporated in the newly created Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia (NDH).{| class="infobox" style="width: 90px;"image=Provincia di Lubiana1941-1943.jpg|width=350}}{{Image label small|x=0.345|y=0.105|scale=350|text=Nazi-annexedAustria}}{{Image label small|x=0.899|y=0.058|scale=350|text=Hungary}}{{Image label small|x=0.021|y=0.465|scale=350|text=FascistItaly}}{{Image label small|x=0.815|y=0.454|scale=350|text=IndependentState ofCroatia}}Nazi Germany and Hungary annexed northern areas (brown and dark green areas, respectively), while Fascist Kingdom of Italy>Italy annexed the vertically hashed black area (solid black western part being annexed by Italy already with the Treaty of Rapallo). Some villages were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia. After 1943, Germany took over the Italian occupational area, as well.File:Bundesarchiv Bild 121-0721, Marburg-Drau, Adolf Hitler.jpg|thumb|Adolf Hitler and Martin Bormann visiting MariborMariborAxis forces invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941 and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Ljubljana, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Nazis had a plan of ethnic cleansing of these areas,Haar, I., Fahlbusch, M. (2006): German Scholars and Ethnic Cleansing, 1919–1945, Berghahn Books, {{ISBN|9781845450489}}, p. 115 and they resettled or expelled the local Slovene civilian population to the puppet states of Nedić's Serbia (7,500) and NDH (10,000). In addition, some 46,000 Slovenes were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families.Lukšič-Hacin, M., Mlekuž J. (2009): Go Girls!: When Slovenian Women Left Home, Založba ZRC SAZU, {{ISBN|9789612541705}}, p. 55Zdravko Troha (2004). Kočevski Nemci – partizani [fotografije Zdravko Troha, Pokrajinski muzej Kočevje, Arhiv Slovenije]. Ljubljana: Slovensko kočevarsko društvo Peter Kosler. {{ISBN|961-91287-0-2}} At the same time, the ethnic Germans in the Gottschee enclave in the Italian annexation zone were resettled to the Nazi-controlled areas cleansed of their Slovene population.Lumans, V.O. (1993):Himmler's Auxiliaries: The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933–1945, Univ of North Carolina Press, {{ISBN|9780807820667}}, p. 175Around 30,000 to 40,000 Slovene men were drafted to the German Army and sent to the Eastern front. The Slovene language was banned from education, and its use in public life was limited to the absolute minimum.In south-central Slovenia, annexed by Fascist Italy and renamed the Province of Ljubljana, the Slovenian National Liberation Front was organized in April 1941. Led by the Communist Party, it formed the Slovene Partisan units as part of the Yugoslav Partisans led by the Communist leader Josip Broz Tito.Jeffreys-Jones, R. (2013): In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|9780199580972}}Adams, Simon (2005): The Balkans, Black Rabbit Books, {{ISBN|9781583406038}}(File:Boji za Trst in Slovensko primorje.jpg|thumbnail|Partisans fighting for Trieste and Primorje region, 1945)After the resistance started in summer 1941, Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well. The Italian authorities deported some 25,000 people to the concentration camps, which equaled 7.5% of the population of their occupation zone. The most infamous ones were Rab and Gonars. To counter the Communist-led insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed mostly by the local conservative Catholic Slovene population that resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans. After the Italian armistice of September 1943, the Germans took over both the Province of Ljubljana and the Slovenian Littoral, incorporating them into what was known as the Operation Zone of Adriatic Coastal Region. They united the Slovene anti-Communist counter-insurgence into the Slovene Home Guard and appointed a puppet regime in the Province of Ljubljana. The anti-Nazi resistance however expanded, creating its own administrative structures as the basis for Slovene statehood within a new, federal and socialist Yugoslavia.BOOK, Jozo, Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration, 2, Stanford University Press, 2001, San Francisco, 0-8047-3615-4,weblink Tomasevich_2001, 96–97, BOOK, Rusinow, Dennison I., The Yugoslav experiment 1948–1974, University of California Press, 1978, 2, 0-520-03730-8, In 1945, Yugoslavia was liberated by the partisan resistance and soon became a socialist federation known as the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership.Approximately 8% of the entire Slovene population died during World War II. The small Jewish community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje region, perished in 1944 in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews. The German speaking minority, amounting to 2.5% of the Slovenian population prior to WWII, was either expelled or killed in the aftermath of the war. Hundreds of Istrian Italians and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the foibe massacres, and more than 25,000 fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria in the aftermath of the war.WEB,weblink Slovene-Italian Relations 1880–1956 – Report of the Slovene-Italian historical and cultural commission,

Socialist period

File:Razgledanje spomenika u Dražgošama.jpg|thumb|Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj (left) in DražgošeDražgošeFollowing the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito–Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc countries. In 1947, the Slovene Littoral and the western half of Inner Carniola, which had been annexed by Italy after World War One, were annexed to Slovenia.After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from 1949–53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management, was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj, the main ideologue of the Titoist path to socialism. Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to Goli otok.The late 1950s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere, as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again. Until the 1980s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito, together with other leaders, founded the Non-Aligned Movement. Particularly in the 1950s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised. With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965–66, Slovenia's domestic product was 2.5 times the average of Yugoslav republics.Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in 1980, when the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained. Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.

Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence

In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia.BOOK,weblink Razvoj parlamentarizma: funkcije sodobnih parlamentov, Slovenian, The Development of Parliamentarism: The Functions of Modern Parliaments, Drago, Zajc, 109, Publishing House of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, 2004, 961-235-170-8, NEWS,weblink Osamosvojitveni akti Republike Slovenije, Slovenian, Office for Legislation, Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 27 December 2011, On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia".WEB, Innovatif and ORG.TEND,weblink Year 1990 | Slovenia 20 years,, 14 May 1992, 2 June 2012, NEWS,weblink Odlok o razglasitvi ustavnih amandmajev k ustave Socialistične Republike Slovenije, Slovenian, Uradni list Republike Slovenije, 16 March 1990, 27 December 2011, In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious.File:Teritorialci so z armbrustom zadeli tank v križišču pred MMP Rožna Dolina..jpg|thumb|left|Slovenian Territorial Defense Units counterattacking the Yugoslav National Army tank who entered Slovenia during the Ten-Day WarTen-Day WarThe initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On 23 December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia.CONFERENCE,weblink Prevzem arhivskega gradiva plebiscitnega referenduma o samostojnosti Republike Slovenije, Slovenian, English, Suzana, Felicijan Bratož, 6. zbornik referatov dopolnilnega izobraževanja s področja arhivistike, dokumentalistike in informatike v Radencih od 28. do 30. marca 2007,weblink 453–458, 2007, Regional Archives Maribor, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2012, BOOK,weblink Statistični letopis 2011, Volitve, Elections, 108, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Statistical Yearbook 2011, 2011, 15, 1318-5403, On 25 June 1991, Slovenia became independent through the passage of appropriate legal documents.BOOK,weblink Democratic Transition in Slovenia: Value Transformation, Education, And Media, Sabrina, P. Ramet, Danica, Fink-Hafner, Changing Concepts of Rights, Anna, Jonsson, 75, 2006, Texas A&M University Press, 978-1-58544-525-7, On 27 June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, which led to the Ten-Day War.BOOK,weblink "Dan prej" – 26. junij 1991: diplomsko delo, Slovenian, Helena, Race, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, 2005, 3 February 2011, WEB,weblink About the Slovenian Military Forces: History, Slovenian Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, 3 February 2011, On 7 July, the Brijuni Agreement was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence.BOOK,weblink Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences, Christopher, Bennett, Slovenia Fights, 159, 1995, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 978-1-85065-232-8, At the end of the month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia.In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted, followed in 1992 by the laws on denationalisation and privatization.BOOK,weblink The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook, Matjaž, Klemenčič, Mitja, Žagar, Democratization in the Beginning of the 1990s, 298, 978-1-57607-294-3, ABC-CLIO, 2004, The members of the European Union recognised Slovenia as an independent state on 15 January 1992, and the United Nations accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992.BOOK,weblink Slovenia: From Yugoslavia to the European Union, Mojmir, Mrak, Matija, Rojec, Carlos, Silva-Jáuregui, 2004, World Bank Publications, 978-0-8213-5718-7, Institutional Setting for the New Independent State, Neven, Borak, Bistra, Borak, 58, Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June 2004. In 2004 Slovenia also joined NATO. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone (the first transition country to do so) on 1 January 2007. It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. On 21 July 2010, it became a member of the OECD.WEB,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, Slovenia's accession to the OECD, 21 July 2010, 22 July 2016, The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests.Joachim Becker: "Nujno je treba zavreti poglabljanje neoliberalizma v Evropski uniji, saj je to slepa ulica", an interview with Joachim Becker, Mladina, 23 November 2012 In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by the official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, legal experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness.A Symposium of Law Experts. Political arbitrariness has gone wild. (In Slovene: "Posvet pravnikov. Samovolja politikov presega vse meje"), Dnevnik, 18 Januar 2013.{{context needed|date=January 2017}}


{{See also|Protected areas of Slovenia}}(File:General map of slovenia.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|A topographic map of Slovenia)File:Triglav.jpg|thumb|Mount TriglavTriglavSlovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. It lies between latitudes 45° and 47° N, and longitudes 13° and 17° E. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east.NEWS,weblink O pomenu meridiana 15° vzhodno od Greenwicha, Slovenian, Marjan, Jenko, 2005, Geodetski vestnik, 49, 4, 637–638, 5 January 2010, The Geometrical Center of the Republic of Slovenia is located at coordinates 46°07'11.8" N and 14°48'55.2" E.WEB,weblink Simboli in sestavine, Slovenian, GEOSS Society, 12 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2012, dead, dmy-all, It lies in Slivna in the Municipality of Litija.BOOK,weblink Geografske koordinate skrajnih točk, Slovenian, English, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 12 February 2012, Slovenia's highest peak is Triglav ({{cvt|2,864|m|ft|0|disp=or}}); the country's average height above sea level is {{cvt|557|m|ft|0}}.Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean. Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea near the Mediterranean Sea, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The Alps—including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karawank chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with Austria. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately {{convert|47|km|mi|0}}BOOK,weblink Tomaž, Valantič, Slovenija v številkah, 2010, Slovenian, English, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2 February 2011, 1318-3745, from Italy to Croatia.The term "Karst topography" refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, the majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of the surface {{cvt|200|m|ft|0}} or more above sea level.Over half of the country ({{convert|11,823|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}) is covered by forests.NEWS,weblink In 2016, forest covered 58.3% of Slovenia, 27 September 2017, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, This makes Slovenia the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden. The areas are covered mostly by beech, fir-beech and beech-oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity.WEB,weblink Forestation and variety of forests, Slovenia Forest Service, 2009, 2 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2011, dead, dmy-all, Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers {{cvt|5,593|km2|sqmi|0}} and fields and gardens ({{cvt|954|km2|sqmi|0|disp=or}}). There are {{cvt|363|km2|sqmi|0}} of orchards and {{cvt|216|km2|sqmi}} of vineyards.


File:Žlebiči.jpg|thumbnail|right|Solution runnels (also known as rillenkarren) are a (:en:Karst topography|karst) feature on the Karst Plateau, as in many other karst areas of the world.]]Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate, which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise.WEB,weblink Seismology, 30 July 2008, Thus the country is at the junction of three important geotectonic units: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east. Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate ground, and an extensive subterranean system has developed.

Natural regions

The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions:NEWS,weblink Drago, Perko, The Regionalization of Slovenia, Geografski zbornik, 1998, 38, 11–57, {{COBISS, 10668077, |issn=0373-4498 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=1 June 2013 |df=dmy-all }}File:Strunjan bay (24209577441).jpg|Slovenian coast with thumb According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate).WEB,weblink PDF, Modern climate change in Slovenia, 1 April 2008, Ogrin, Darko, August 2004, Slovenia: a geographical overview, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2006, These are often quite interwoven.Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. There are 286 Natura 2000 designated protected areas, which comprise 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states.WEB,weblink Natura 2000 in Slovenia,, 1 February 2011, Additionally, according to Yale University's Environmental Performance Index, Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 5 May 2012, 2012 EPI :: Rankings | Environmental Performance Index,, 25 November 2012,


(File:Climate types Slovenia 1970-2000.JPG|thumb|upright=1.5|Climate types Slovenia 1970–2000 and climograms for selected settlements.)Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-Mediterranean climate. The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is visible also up the Soča valley, while a severe Alpine climate is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.WEB,weblink Climate of Slovenia at Glance, Tanja Cegnar,, 25 November 2012, WEB,weblink National Meteorological Service of Slovenia – Archive,, 2 June 2012, Precipitation, often coming from Gulf of Genoa,WEB, Kotišče ciklonov v zavetrju Alp,weblink 19 August 2015, varies across the country as well, with over {{convert|3500|mm|0|abbr=on}} in some western regions and dropping down to {{convert|800|mm|0|abbr=on}} in Prekmurje. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at {{convert|146|cm|0|abbr=on}}.Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora, the jugo, and the foehn. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind.BOOK,weblink Značilnosti vetra v Sloveniji, Slovenian, Characteristics of Wind in Slovenia, Klimatografija Slovenije, Renato, Bertalanič, 2003, Meteorology Office, Slovenian Environment Agency, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2006,


File:Triglav National Park (7892861178).jpg|thumb|upright|The SočaSočaFile:Lake Bohinj (9452094709).jpg|thumb|Lake Bohinj, largest Slovenian lake, one of the two springs of the SavaSavaThe territory of Slovenia mainly ({{convert|16423|km2|sp=us|disp=or}}, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea basin, and a smaller part ({{convert|3850|km2|sp=us|disp=or}}, i.e. 19%) belongs to the Adriatic Sea basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.BOOK,weblink Vodno bogastvo Slovenije: tekoče vode, Slovenian Environment Agency, 17 May 2012, In comparison with other developed countries, water quality in Slovenia is considered to be among the highest in Europe. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.WEB, Ambrožič, Špela, Water Quality in Slovenia,weblink ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA, 19 August 2015, March 2008, etal,


File:P anguinus2.jpg|thumb|Olm can be found in Postojna cavePostojna caveSlovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June 1992 and became a party to the convention on 9 July 1996.WEB,weblink List of Parties, 8 December 2012, It subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 30 May 2002.Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats,BOOK,weblink Characteristics of Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia, Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia: An Overview, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2001, Hlad, Branka, Skoberne, Peter, IX, 961-6324-17-9, Ljubljana, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2012, dmy-all, due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences. Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with 35.5% in the Natura 2000 ecological network.NEWS,weblink European Day of Parks 2012, News, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline.
The biological diversity of the country is high, with 1% of the world's organisms on 0.004% of the Earth's surface area.WEB,weblink Did you know... – Slovenia – Official Travel Guide,, 25 November 2012, There are 75 mammal species, among them marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares.BOOK,weblink Resolution on National Forest Programme, Habitats of wild game in Slovenia, guidelines and conditions for the preservation and protection of wild game and their habitats, and provision of coexistence with humans, 87–104, Perko, Franc, Federation of Forest Associations of Slovenia. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Slovenia, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 September 2012, The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.NEWS,weblink Dormouse Hunting as Part of Slovene National Identity, Magda, PerÅ¡ak, Natura Croatica, 7, 3, 30 September 1998, 199–211, 1330-0520, 4 February 2012, File:ÄŒebela na cvetu marelice.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Carniolan honey beeCarniolan honey beeSome important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx,BOOK,weblink Ris v Sloveniji (Lynx in Slovenia), Strategija ohranjanja in trajnostnega upravljanja navadnega risa (Lynx lynx) v Sloveniji 2016–2026, 2016, 7, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 8 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2017, dead, NEWS,weblink Risom v Sloveniji in na HrvaÅ¡kem se obeta svetlejÅ¡a prihodnost, Slovenian, 14 April 2017,, European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal.NEWS,weblink Confirmed presence of territorial groups of golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Slovenia, Miha, Krofel, Natura Sloveniae: Journal of Field Biology, 1580-0814, 11, 1, 2009, 65–68, Association for Technical Culture of Slovenia, 18 January 2011, There are hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c. 40–60 wolvesNEWS,weblink Pri nas živi okoli 52 volkov, večina na Notranjskem in Kočevskem, Slovenian, 14 March 2017, Petra, Trček, Notranjskoprimorske novice, and about 450 brown bears.NEWS,weblink Koliko medvedov živi v Sloveniji?,, Slovenian, 23 September 2011, NEWS,weblink Medveda znamo držati nazaj, volka Å¡e ne, Dnevnik, Slovenian, Dnevnik, d. d., 18 January 2012, Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species.BOOK,weblink Karst and Subterranean Habitats, Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia: An Overview, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2001, Hlad, Branka, Skoberne, Peter, 50, 961-6324-17-9, Ljubljana, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2012, dmy-all, Among the cave vertebrates, the only known one is the olm, living in Karst, Lower Carniola, and White Carniola.The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).WEB,weblink Delfini pri nas, Morigenos, 6 April 2006, Slovenian, There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl, the long-eared owl, the eagle owl, hawks, and short-toed eagles. Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.WEB,weblink PuÅ¡ka poči, vrana pade. Koliko jih Å¡e sedi?, Vecer.Com, 9 February 2010, 2 June 2012, {{Dead link|date=October 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Other birds include black and green woodpeckers and the white stork, which nests mainly in Prekmurje.File:Lipica horses (7198987762).jpg|thumb|Modern LipizzanerLipizzanerThere are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia,BOOK,weblink Program varstva biotske raznovrstnosti v živinoreji: program za leto 2011, Slovenian, Kompan, Dragomir, May 2011, Oddelek za zootehniko, BiotehniÅ¡ka fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani [Department of Zootechnics, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana], etal, 22 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2017, dead, dmy-all, of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle).BOOK,weblink Slovenian, Ocena pogojev in mehanizmov za ex-situ varstvo genskih virov kmetijskih rastlin, genskih bank v gozdarstvu in živinoreji, Opis obstoječih zbirk, Description of Extant Collections, Vladimir, Meglič, Hojka, Kraigher, Peter, Dovč, Meglič, Vladimir, 2003, 17, {{COBISS, 1184678, |publisher=Ministry of Environment and Space, Republic of Slovenia |accessdate=16 March 2012 }}{{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Among these are the Karst Shepherd,WEB,weblink Brief Historical Summary, breed standard (DOC file), 2 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2012, dmy-all, the Carniolan honeybee, and the Lipizzan horse. They have been preserved ex situ and in situ.BOOK,weblink Slovenske avtohtone pasme: kokoÅ¡i, čebele, praÅ¡iči, psi in konji, Avtohtonost v slovenskem narod(nost)nem vpraÅ¡anju in koncept staroselstva: nastavki za analizo ideologij primata, Slovenian, Alenka, Janko Spreizer, Razprave in gradivo, Ljubljana, 2006, 1854-5181, 257–258, InÅ¡titut za narodnostna vpraÅ¡anja [Institute for Ethnic Studies], The marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus) is an indigenous Slovenian fish.WEB, Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus),weblink, Balkan Trout Restoration Group, 10 March 2009, Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.
More than 2,400 fungal species have been recorded from SloveniaDušan Jurc, Andrej Piltaver & Nikica Ogris. Glive Slovenije – Fungi of Slovenia (Ljubljana, 2005). 497 pp. and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Many more remain to be discovered.
Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe,WEB, Golob A., Forests and forestry in Slovenia,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, 7 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, dead, dmy-all, with 58.3% of the territory covered by forests.NEWS,weblink In 2016, forest covered 58.3% of Slovenia, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 27 September 2017, The forests are an important natural resource, and logging is kept to a minimum.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}} In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech. In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau, although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The lime/linden tree, common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line is at {{convert|1,700|to|1,800|m|ft|abbr=off}}.BOOK,weblink Lovrenčak, Franc, 2007, Zgornja gozdna meja slovenskih Alp, visokih kraških planot in Prokletij, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, 978-961-6648-11-0, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2013, In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found.Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus, Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.JOURNAL, Kala, C.P., Ratajc, P., Chandra Prakash Kala, 2012, High altitude biodiversity of the Alps and the Himalayas: ethnobotany, plant distribution and conservation perspectives. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21: 1115–1126, Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 4, 1115,weblink, 25 November 2012, 10.1007/s10531-012-0246-x,


{{See also|Foreign relations of Slovenia}}File:Presidential Palace. Ljubljana.jpg|thumb|The Government Building and President's OfficeGovernment Building and President's OfficeFile:Borut Pahor 2010-10-08.jpg|thumb|upright|President Borut PahorBorut PahorSlovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role.BOOK,weblink Compliance in the Enlarged European Union: Living Rights Or Dead Letters?, Gerda, Falkner, Oliver, Treib, Elizabeth, Holzleithner, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2008, 978-0-7546-7509-9, 126–127, Slovenia, Petra, Furtlehner, The president is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian armed forces.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Encyclopedia of World Constitutions, Gerhard, Robbers, Slovenia, Lovro, Šturm, The President of the Republic, 2006, Infobase Publishing, 978-0-8160-6078-8, 832, The executive and administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia ('), headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (). The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia, characterised by an asymmetric duality.{{clarify|date=April 2014}}BOOK,weblink Facts about Slovenia, Janko, Prunk, Jernej, Pikalo, Marko, Milosavljevič, 2007, Government Communication Office, Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 978-961-6435-45-1, 23, The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Election takes place every four years. The National Council ('), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power.The 1992–2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoist economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek, who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s,WEB,weblink Življenje Janeza Drnovška :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija,, 2 June 2012, alongside President Milan Kučan (who served between 1990 and 2002).BOOK,weblink Democratic Transition in Slovenia: Value Transformation, Education, And Media, Sabrina, P. Ramet, Danica, Fink-Hafner, Key Trends in Slovenian Politics, 1988 – 2004, 30, 9781585445257, 15 September 2006, BOOK,weblink The Politics of Central Europe, Attila, Ágh, The Regions in Comparative Transition, SAGE, 1998, 978-0-7619-5032-5, The 2005–2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates.After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's SDS, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone. Generally, some economists estimate that left and right parties attributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; reason behind was that each block tried to establish economic elite which will support political forces.WEB, Pavlovčič, Idija, Jože P. Damijan: Levica in desnica podpirali menedžerske prevzeme,weblink Delo d.d., 6 September 2015,


Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges, who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court, composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.


File:AS AL 532 SLO.jpg|thumb|Eurocopter CougarEurocopter Cougar(File:ASIV Slovenia 19 (23929783333).jpg|thumbnail|right|Slovenian soldiers of 3rd Company of 10th Regiment at a military exercise)The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army.BOOK, Central Intelligence Agency, The CIA World Factbook, The CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc, 2009, 617, 1-60239-727-9, Central Intelligence Agency, The Commander-in-Chief is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2016, military spending was an estimated 0.91% of the country's GDP. Since joining NATO, the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.WEB,weblink International Cooperation, Slovenian Armed Forces, 15 February 2011,


Administrative divisions and traditional regions

{| class="infobox bordered" style="width: auto;"|+ Traditional regions of Slovenia(File:Borders of the Historical Habsburgian Lands in the Republic of Slovenia.png275px)1 Slovene Littoral; Carniola: 2a Upper Carniola>Upper, 2b Inner Carniola, 2c Lower Carniola>Lower 3 Slovene Carinthia; 4 Styria (Slovenia)>Styria; 5 Prekmurje


Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 212 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (župan), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (občinski svet). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils.WEB,weblink Sprejet zakon,, 13 July 2000, 2 June 2012, Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.

Administrative districts

There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (upravne enote), are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices. They are headed by a Manager of the Unit (načelnik upravne enote), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.

Traditional regions and identities

Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola, Carinthia, Styria, and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral, Prekmurje, and even traditional (sub)regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.Repe, Božo (2003) Od deželana do državljana: Regionalni razvoj Slovencev v letih 1918–1991 {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 February 2013 }}, Zgodovinski časopis, 3–4, Ljubljana.(File:Slovenia, administrative divisions - Nmbrs (statistical regions) - colored.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|Statistical regions: 1. Gorizia, 2. Upper Carniola, 3. Carinthia, 4. Drava, 5. Mura, 6. Central Slovenia, 7. Central Sava, 8. Savinja, 9. Coastal–Karst, 10. Inner Carniola–Karst, 11. Southeast Slovenia, 12. Lower Sava)The capital city Ljubljana was historically the administrative center of Carniola and belonged to Inner Carniola,NEWS, Mehle Mihovec, Barbka, Kje so naÅ¡e meje?,weblink December 19, 2018, Gorenjski glas, March 19, 2008, except for the Å entvid district, which was in Upper Carniola and also where the border between German-annexed territory and the Italian Province of Ljubljana was during the Second World War.

Statistical regions

The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union.WEB,weblink Regions in the European Union: Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics,, 25 November 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2011, dead, dmy-all, These two macroregions are:
  • Eastern Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola–Karst statistical regions.
  • Western Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.


File:Eurozone.svg|thumb|right|Since 2007 Slovenia has been part of the EurozoneEurozoneSlovenia has a developed economy and is per capita the richest of the Slavic countries by nominal GDP,WEB, Republic of Slovenia : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Slovenia,weblink, International Monetary Fund, 11 July 2018, en, May 15, 2017, and the second richest by GDP (PPP) behind the Czech Republic."GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat", retrieved 1. June 2015. Slovenia is also among the top global economies in terms of human capital.The World Bank: the human capital index (HCI), 2018, retrieved 8. October 2019. Slovenia was in the beginning of 2007 the first new member to introduce the euro as its currency, replacing the tolar. Since 2010, it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.BOOK,weblink Eastern Europe, Nations and Government: Comparative Politics in Regional Perspective, Thomas, M. Magstadt, 6th, 2010, 978-0-495-91528-7, Cengage Learning, 27, There is a big difference in prosperity between the various regions. The economically wealthiest regions are the Central Slovenia region which includes the capital Ljubljana and the western Slovenian regions, as Goriška and Coastal–Karst, while the least wealthy regions are the Mura, the Central Sava and the Littoral–Inner Carniola.weblink" title="">"Regional Disparities in Slovenia 2/12", retrieved 8. April 2015.

Economic growth

File:Loan to deposit ratio in Slovenia - including the Boom Period..png|thumb|left|Loan-deposit ratio in Slovenia by years – including the 2005–2008 Boom Period.Jože Mencinger (2011) Razprodaja?, Gospodarska gibanja, EIPF, Ljubljana Archived copy at WebCiteWebCiteIn 2004–2006, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction. The financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy.NEWS, Slovenia's Economy: Next in Line,weblink 22 August 2012, The Economist, 18 August 2012, The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011.NEWS,weblink Double Dip Recession is the 'Slovenian' Reality, The Slovenia Times, 13 March 2012, In 2009, Slovenian GDP per capita shrank by 8%, the biggest decline in the European Union after the Baltic countries and Finland. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population.NEWS,weblink Countries with Aging Populations,, 23 January 2012, Rajeshni, Naidu-Ghelani, CNBC LLC, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2013, dmy-all, In August 2012, the year-on-year contraction was 0.8%, however, 0.2% growth was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days).NEWS,weblink Statistics Office to Release GDP Data for Q2, The Slovenia Times, 31 August 2012, Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption, and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of 2011,NEWS,weblink Slovenia's Economy Falls Into a Recession as Exports Weaken, Boris, Cerni, 29 February 2012, Bloomberg, to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.NEWS,weblink Zdrs v recesijo so ekonomisti pričakovali, Slovenian, MMC RTV Slovenija, RTV Slovenija, 1581-372X, 29 February 2012, Due to the effects of the crisis it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in 2013, however needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds. Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from 2014.WEB,weblink How Slovenia turned itself around, MacDowall, Andrew, 15 July 2015,, 18 July 2017, The real economic growth rate was at 2.5% in 2016 and accelerated to 5% in 2017.WEB,weblink GDP up by 6.0% in the fourth quarter of 2017 and by 5.0% in 2017 - Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 5 December 2018, The construction sector has seen a recent increase, and the tourism industry is expected to have continuous rising numbers.WEB,weblink Tourism contributes 3.5% directly to Slovenia's GDP in 2016 – WTTC, Garaca, Maja, 14 June 2017,, 18 July 2017,

National debt

Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September 2011 amounted to 15,884 million euros, 44.4% of GDP.

Services and industry

(File:Slovenia treemap.png|thumb|A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.)Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction.WEB,weblink Economy, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, United States, 23 February 2012, Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.WEB,weblink Osnovni gospodarski podatki o Sloveniji, Slovenian, Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia Vienna, 15 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2012, dmy-all, The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU, and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average.NEWS,weblink Dr. Pavle Sicherl: Slovenija je po produktivnosti dela 23 let za Evropo, Slovenian,, 8 August 2011, 1854-6544, 12 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2012, dead, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Konkurenčnost slovenske industrije pod evropskim povprečjem, Slovenian,, 14 October 2011, 1854-6544, 12 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2011, dead, dmy-all, Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.WEB,weblink The World Factbook 2007 – Slovenia, Economy, High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.BOOK,weblink Slovenia’S Trade in Goods / In The 2000–2010 Period, Simon, PerÅ¡e, Snježana, Å tuhec Lončarević, Alenka, Kozar, Almira, Urbiha, Jana, Živec, Amira, MuÅ¡ić, January 2012, 978-961-239-240-6, 20, The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Examples of major Slovenian companies operating in Slovenia include the home appliance manufacturer Gorenje, the pharmaceutical company Krka, the oil distributing company Petrol Group and Revoz, a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault."Gorenje, Krka Biggest Exporters of 2012", retrieved 16 April 2017."18 Slovenian Firms in Deloitte Central Europe Top 500", retrieved 16 April 2017.


{{Further|Energy in Slovenia}}In 2011 electricity production was 14,144 GWh and consumption was 12,602 GWh. Hydroelectric plants produced 3,361 GWh, thermal plants produced 4,883 GWh, and nuclear plants produced 5,899 GWh.A new 600 MW block of Å oÅ¡tanj thermal power plant finished construction and went online in the autumn of 2014.WEB,weblink News - Å oÅ¡tanj Thermal Power Plant,, 2019-02-24, The new 39.5 MW HE KrÅ¡ko hydro power plant was finished in 2013. By 2018, the 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants will be built on the Sava River. Construction of ten hydropower plants on the Sava River with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage.At the end of 2011 at least 87 MWp of photovoltaic modules and 22 MW of biogas powerplants were installed.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}} There is a plan and obligation that at least 500 MW of wind power will be installed by 2020.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}} Solar hot water heating is gaining popularity in Slovenia.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}


File:Bled Overview.JPG|thumb|alt=Lake Bled|Lake BledLake BledFile:Panoramics of Piran 2015.jpg|thumb|alt=Piran|Old town of PiranPiranFile:Postojna (22206343750).jpg|thumb|alt=Postojna Cave|Postojna CavePostojna CaveSlovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures;BOOK,weblink UroÅ¡, Horvat, Tourism in Slovenia, 146, Slovenia: A Geographical Overview, Orožen Adamič, Milan, 961-6500-49-X, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, 2004, in 2016, National Geographic Traveller's Magazine declared Slovenia as country with the world's most sustainable tourism.WEB,weblink This Is the World's Most Sustainable Country, National Geographic Society, 23 August 2018, The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Vienna Secession buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože PlečnikPodoba Plečnikove Ljubljane {{webarchive |url= |date=3 September 2011 }} and also his pupil, architect Edo Ravnikar.At the northwestern corner of the country lie the Julian Alps with Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle of Triglav National Park. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps, the Karawanks, and Pohorje, popular with skiers and hikers.WEB,weblink Active holidays – Slovenia – Official Travel Guide,, 2 June 2012, The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst, a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave and the UNESCO-listed Å kocjan Caves. The region of Slovenian Istria meets the Adriatic Sea, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement of Portorož attracts crowds in summer.WEB,weblink Občina Piran-O občini,, 2 June 2012, The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. The northeastern part of the country is rich with spas,NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Liane, Katz, Detox, retox in Slovenia, 23 June 2006, with RogaÅ¡ka Slatina, Radenci, ÄŒatež ob Savi, Dobrna, and Moravske Toplice growing in importance in the last two decades.WEB,weblink 15 Spas in Slovenia, Official Travel Guide,, 7 August 2012, Other popular tourist destinations include the historic cities of Ptuj and Å kofja Loka, and several castles, such as Predjama Castle.WEB,weblink Architectural Heritage – Slovenia – Official Travel Guide,, 2 June 2012, WEB,weblink Castles – Slovenia – Official Travel Guide,, 2 June 2012, Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union.WEB,weblink Slovenia photo gallery – pictures, facts and information on Slovenia,, 2 June 2012, Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region.WEB,weblink East Europe Casinos and Gambling,, 8 September 2012, Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy, Austria, Germany, Croatia, Benelux, Serbia, Russia and Ukraine, followed by UK and Ireland.WEB,weblink I Feel Slovenia: 2010,, 25 November 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2012, dead, dmy-all, European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income. In 2016, Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations.WEB,weblink Slovenia declared world's first green country,, 3 August 2017, On being declared the most sustainable country in 2016, Slovenia had a big part to play at the ITB Berlin to promote sustainable tourism.


File:Pendolino ETR 310.jpg|thumbnail|PendolinoPendolinoThe location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia. Their course was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans) in the country. This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.WEB,weblink Slovenia, a Country at the Crossroads of Transport Links, Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia, November 2000, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2012, dmy-all, (File:Motorways-SLO-map 2018.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|Motorways in Slovenia in December 2018; capital Ljubljana lies in the intersection of north-south and west-east main directions)The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%.WEB,weblink Teden mobilnosti 2009, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 15 September 2009, Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined.WEB,weblink LastniÅ¡tvo avtomobilov v gospodinjstvih, Slovenian, Environment Agency of Slovenia, Bernard Vukadin, Barbara, KuÅ¡ar, UrÅ¡ka, Burja, Alenka, 25 October 2009, Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density compared to the European Union average.BOOK,weblink Situation per mode of transport, Study on Strategic Evaluation on Transport Investment Priorities under Structural and Cohesion funds for the Programming Period 2007–2013, August 2006, ECORYS Nederland BV, The highway system, the construction of which was accelerated after 1994,CONFERENCE,weblink National motorway construction program (NMCP) in Slovenia (financing, impact on national economy and realization), Oplotnik, Žan, Križanič, France, Highways: cost and regulation in Europe, November 2004, dead,weblink 20 November 2012, dmy-all, has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation.CONFERENCE,weblink Narodnogospodarske koristi in razvojne možnosti prometnih sistemov v RS, Slovenian, English, Peter, Gabrijelčič, 10th Slovenian Road and Transport Congress, October 2010, {{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating because of neglect and the overall increase in traffic.The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network.WEB,weblink Vlaganja v prometno infrastrukturo: Komentar, Slovenian, Slovenian Environment Agency, 18 November 2011, Plevnik, Aljaž, Polanec, Vesna, Due to this fact and the projected increase in traffic through the port of Koper, which is primarily by train, a second rail on the Koper-Divača route is in early stages of starting construction.WEB,weblink Za razvoj Slovenije {{!, Drugi tir||access-date=2019-02-24}} With a lack of financial assets, maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network have been neglected.BOOK,weblink Executive Summary, Analysis of the infrastructure network in Slovenia and report on SWOT analysis, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor. Port of Koper, April 2011, 8 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2012, dead, dmy-all, Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia.WEB,weblink Obseg in sestava blagovnega prevoza in prometa: Komentar, Slovenian Environment Agency, 18 November 2011, Plevnik, Aljaž, Polanec, Vesna, The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana Railway Hub.BOOK,weblink Luz, D. D., Državni prostorski načrt za Ljubljansko železniÅ¡ko vozlišče, Slovenian, March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2012, dmy-all, File:Ljubljana airport 2017.jpg|thumb|The Ljubljana Jože Pučnik AirportLjubljana Jože Pučnik AirportThe major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport,NEWS,weblink Koper Port Hits Record High in Container Traffic, Green Med Journal, 21 November 2011, with almost 590,000 TEUs annuallyNEWS,weblink Konecranes to deliver three further RTGs to Luka Koper, Port Technology International, 23 January 2012, 7 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 18 May 2012, dead, and lines to all major world ports.JOURNAL,weblink Sodobne pol1t1čno-geografske značilnosti alpsko-jadranskega prostora brez meja, Slovenian, English, Italian, Anton, Gosar, Acta Histriae, 2008, 16, 3, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2013, dmy-all, It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez than the ports of Northern Europe.CONFERENCE,weblink Container Boom in the Port of Koper, Twrdy, Elen, Trupac, Igor, European Conference on Shipping & Ports 2011: Proceedings, 978-960-93329-5-8, {{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper.JOURNAL,weblink Transport, Statistične informacije [Rapid Reports], 4 November 2011, 11, 21, Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia.WEB,weblink Resolucija o nacionalnem programu razvoja pomorstva Republike Slovenije, Slovenian, Ministry of Transport, Republic of Slovenia, 3 November 2010, 7 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2012, dead, SploÅ¡na plovba,NEWS,weblink Edini slovenski ladjar praznuje, MMC RTV Slovenija, 22 October 2004, 1581-372X, the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.Air transport in Slovenia is quite low, but has significantly grown since 1991.JOURNAL,weblink Transport, Statistične informacije [Rapid Report], 22 November 2010, 26, Of the three international airports in Slovenia, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in central Slovenia is the busiest, with connections to many major European destinations.BOOK,weblink Information Booklet, 2011, Aerodrom Ljubljana, The Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport is located in the eastern part of the country and the Portorož Airport in the western part. The state-owned Adria Airways is the largest Slovenian airline. Since 2003, several new carriers have entered the market, mainly low-cost airlines. The only Slovenian military airport is the Cerklje ob Krki Air Base in the southwestern part of the country.NEWS,weblink Cerklje Airport on its way to future growth, Slovenska vojska, 29, XIV, 8, 2006, Jože, Konda, 1580-1993, 7 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2012, dead, There are also 12 public airports in Slovenia.


{{Historical populations|type =|footnote = As of 1 January 1054919 1144298 1391873 1466425 1591523 1727137 1891864 1913355 1964036 2050189 2065895}}With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km2 (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km2 (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Inner Carniola–Karst Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest.WEB,weblink 30.9 Gostota naseljenosti 1.7 – Population Density, 1 July,, 25 November 2012, Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.NEWS,weblink Demografski preobrat: tiha revolucija med nami, Slovenian, 20 June 2011, Milena, Zupanič,, Delo, d. d., 1854-6544, Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.BOOK,weblink Population Ageing in Central and Eastern Europe: Societal and Policy Implications, Population Ageing in Slovenia and Social Support Networks of Older People, 118–119, Andreas, Hoff, Valentina, Hlebec, Milivoja, Å ircelj, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., September 2011, 978-0-7546-7828-1, The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.BOOK,weblink Slovenia, Strong Growth but an Ageing Workforce, 34, OECD Publishing, July 2009, 978-92-64-06894-0, The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011. In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1.weblink The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2016, 58.6% of all births were outside of marriage).WEB,weblink Births, Slovenia, 2016,, 3 August 2017, In 2018, life expectancy at birth was 81.1 years (78.2 years male, and 84 years female).WEB,weblink Health status - Life expectancy at birth - OECD Data, theOECD, en, 2019-09-23, In 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.WEB,weblink World Suicide Prevention Day 2010, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 8 September 2010, Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.WEB,weblink World Suicide Prevention Day 2011, 8 September 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia,


Depending on definition, between 65% and 79% of people live in wider urban areas.JOURNAL,weblink Ekonomska preobrazba slovenskih mest, 978-961-254-090-6, Bole, David, 2008, According to OECD definition of rural areas none of the Slovene statistical regions is mostly urbanised, meaning that 15% or less of the population lives in rural communities. According to this definition statistical regions are classified: The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other (medium-sized) towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj.NEWS,weblink Small and Medium-Size Towns as the Basis of Polycentric Urban Development, Zavodnik Lamovšek, Alma, Drobne, Samo, Žaucer, Tadej, Geodetski vestnik, Association of Surveyors of Slovenia, 0351-0271, 2008, 52, 2, 303, WEB,weblink :: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia – How frequent are the same names of settlements and streets? ::,, 2 June 2012, Overall, there are eleven urban municipalities in Slovenia.{{Largest towns of Slovenia}}{{Clear}}{{col-begin}}{{col-break|width=30%}}

Municipalities by population {|class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left;"

style="font-size:83%; text-align:center;"!align=center|Municipality!align=center|Statistical region!align=center|Area (km2)!align=center|Population(1 January 2019)City Municipality of Ljubljana>LjubljanaCentral Slovenia275.0292,988City Municipality of Maribor>MariborDrava147.5112,065City Municipality of Kranj>KranjUpper Carniola151.056,267City Municipality of Koper>KoperCoastal–Karst303.252,234City Municipality of Celje>CeljeSavinja94.949,473City Municipality of Novo Mesto>Novo MestoSoutheast Slovenia236.037,063Municipality of Domžale>DomžaleCentral Slovenia72.336,264City Municipality of Velenje>VelenjeSavinja83.533,293|Nova GoricaGorizia279.531,799Municipality of Kamnik>KamnikCentral Slovenia265.629,686212 municipalities in total. Hodoš, the smallest, has 354 inhabitants.{{col-break|width=30%}} style"font-size:83%; text-align:center;"">

Municipalities by area {|class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left;" style"font-size:83%; text-align:center;"

!align=center|Municipality!align=center|Statistical region!align=center|Area(km2)Municipality of Kočevje>KočevjeCentral Slovenia563.7Municipality of Ilirska Bistrica>Ilirska BistricaLittoral–Inner Carniola480.0Municipality of Tolmin>TolminGorizia381.5Municipality of Bovec>BovecGorizia367.3Municipality of ÄŒrnomelj>ÄŒrnomeljSoutheast Slovenia339.7Municipality of Bohinj>BohinjUpper Carniola333.7City Municipality of Koper>KoperCoastal–Karst303.2Municipality of Idrija>IdrijaGorizia293.7Municipality of KrÅ¡ko>KrÅ¡koLower Sava286.5|Nova GoricaGorizia279.5Odranci, the smallest, measures 6.9 km2.{{col-end|width=40%}}


The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.WEB,weblink Slovenščina materni jezik za 88 odstotkov državljanov, Siol, 19 February 2009, 2 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2012, BOOK,weblink Verska, jezikovna in narodna sestava prebivalstva Slovenije: Popisi 1921–2002, Slovenian, PDF, Statistični urad Republike Slovenije, 2003, 2, Milivoja, Šircelj, 961-239-024-X, This statistic ranks Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of the predominant mother tongue.NEWS,weblink Linguist Says Slovenian Language Not Endangered, 21 February 2010, Slovenian Press Agency, Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects,NEWS,weblink International Mother Language Day, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 19 February 2009, 3 February 2011, with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as sevenMcDonald, Gordon C. 1979. Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: American University, p. 93Greenberg, Marc L. 2009. "Slovene." In Keith Brown & Sarah Ogilvie (eds.), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, pp. 981–984. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 981.Brown, E. K. & Anne Anderson. 2006. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics: Sca-Spe. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 424 dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.Sussex, Roland, & Paul V. Cubberley. 2006. The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 502. Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nineSławski, Franciszek. 1962. Zarys dialektologii południowosłowiańskiej. Warsaw: PAN. or as eight.Priestly, Tom M. S. 1993. "On 'Drift' in Indo-European Gender Systems.' Journal of Indo-European Studies'' 11: 339–363.(File:Slovenian Passport3.jpg|thumb|upright|Front cover of a bilingual passport in Slovene and Italian)Hungarian and Italian, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002 around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them officially bilingual).Romani,JOURNAL,weblink Legal Protection of Roma in Slovenia, Vera, Klopčič, Treatises and Documents: Journal of Ethnic Studies, 2007, 52, 234–255, Institute for Ethnic Studies, 1854-5181, spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community.BOOK,weblink Evropa, Slovenija in Romi, Slovenian, Vera, Klopčič, Miroslav Polzer, 2003, 961-6159-23-2, Institute for Ethnic Studies, 3 February 2011, German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the majority of whom are more than 60 years old. Gottscheerish or Granish, the traditional German dialect of Gottschee County, faces extinction.WEB,weblink Granish – a Minority Language Spoken in Slovenia,, 2 June 2012, {{Dead link|date=May 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, or Montenegrin) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian. Czech, the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia.Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. {{As of|2007}}, 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union.European Day of Languages {{webarchive|url= |date=24 January 2013 }}, Eurostat Newsrelease, 24 September 2009 According to the Eurobarometer survey, {{as of|2005|lc=on}} the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian (61%) and English (56%).WEB,weblink Special Eurobarometer 386 Europeans and Their Languages, June 2012, PDF, 18 October 2013, {{rp|21}}A reported 42% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries. Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Coast and in some other areas of the Slovene Littoral. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third-highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta.WEB,weblink format= PDF, 2 June 2012,


In 2015 about 12% (237,616 people) of the population in Slovenia was born abroad.WEB,weblink SI-Stat Data Portal, SURS, 19 June 2017, About 86% of the foreign-born population originated from other countries of the former Yugoslavia state as (in descending order) Bosnia-Herzegovina, followed by immigrants from Croatia, Serbia, North Macedonia and Kosovo.By the beginning of 2017 there were about 114,438 people with a foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.5% of the total population. Of these foreigners 76% had citizenships of the other countries from the former Yugoslavia state (excluding Croatia). Additionally 16.4% had EU-citizenships and 7.6% had citizenships of other countries.{{bar box|width = 300px|float = right|title = Ethnic composition of Slovenia(according to the 2002 census)|titlebar = #ddd|bars ={{bar percent|Slovene|teal|83.06}}{{bar percent|Serb|teal|1.98}}{{bar percent|Croat|teal|1.81}}{{bar percent|Bosniak|teal|1.10}}{{bar percent|other minorities|teal|4.85}}{{bar percent|undeclared or unknown|gray|8.9}}|caption =}}According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are Slovenes (83%), however their share in the total population is continuously decreasing due to their relatively low fertility rate. At least 13% (2002) of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants.NEWS,weblink Kdo so priseljenci z območja nekdanje Jugoslavije, Slovenian, Mojca, Medvešek, Razprave in gradivo, Institute for Ethnic Studies, 53–54, 2007, 34, They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas.NEWS,weblink Peter, Repolusk, Narodnostno neopredeljeno prebivalstvo ob popisih 1991 in 2002 v Sloveniji, Slovenian, English, Dela, 25, 87–96, 2006, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2012, dmy-all, Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian ethnic minority.NEWS,weblink International Mother Language Day 2010, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 19 February 2010, 29 January 2011, WEB,weblink Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia, 26 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2010, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Poročilo: Italijanska narodna skupnost v Slovenski Istri, Slovenian, 2009, Ksenija, Šabec, Center for Cultural and Religious Studies, University of Ljubljana, 1 February 2011, 7, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.BOOK,weblink Pravice romske skupnosti v Republiki Sloveniji, Slovenian, 2004, Nina, Gajšek, Faculty of Social Science, University of Ljubljana, NEWS,weblink Romska naselja kot poseben del naselbinskega sistema v Sloveniji, Slovenian, English, Jernej, Zupančič, Dela, Institute of Geography, 27, 2007, 215–246, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2012, dmy-all, The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from 1995WEB,weblink Statistični urad RS – Selitveno gibanje, Slovenija, 2007,, 2 June 2012, and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the annual number of immigrants doubled by 2006 and increased by half yet again by 2009.weblink" title="https:/-/">weblink In 2007, Slovenia had one of the fastest growing net migration rates in the European Union.


As to emigration, between 1880 and 1918 (World War I) many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the 1910 US Census showing that there were already "183,431 persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".{{dubious|date=April 2016}} But there may have been many more, because a good number avoided anti-Slavic prejudice and "identified themselves as Austrians." Favorite localities before 1900 were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, as well as Omaha, Nebraska, Joliet, Illinois, Cleveland, Ohio, and rural areas of Iowa. After 1910, they settled in Utah (Bingham Copper Mine), Colorado (especially Pueblo), and Butte, Montana. These areas attracted first many single men (who often boarded with Slovenian families). Then after locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.WEB,weblink Slovenian Americans – History, Modern era, The first slovenians in america, Settlement,


{{Pie chart|thumb = leftLAST=ČRNIč LAST2=KOMEL LAST3=SMRKE LAST4=ŠABEC LAST5=VOVK JOURNAL=TEORIJA IN PRAKSA PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, FACULTY OF SOCIOLOGY, POLITICAL SCIENCES AND JOURNALISM ISSUE=1 ID=31869277, issn=0040-3598}})|label1 = Roman Catholicism|value1 = 57.8|color1 = #2243B6|label2 = Undeclared|value2 = 15.7|color2 = HoneydewIrreligion>Non-religious|value3 = 10.2|color3 = Black|value4 = 7.1|label4 = Unknown|color4 = Silver|label5 = Believer, no religion |value5 = 3.5|color5 = Lime|label6 = Islam|value6 = 2.4|color6 = GreenOrthodox Church>Eastern Orthodoxy|value7 = 2.3|color7 = Orchid|label8 = Lutheranism|value8 = 0.8|color8 = Turquoise|label9 = Other religion|value9 = 0.2|color9 = GreenYellow}}


Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic (Roman Rite), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations.Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually.Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of Population, Households and Housing, 2002. The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.WEB,weblink Uskoška dediščina Bele krajine na RTVS|Ljudje|Lokalno aktualno,, 6 January 2012, 2 June 2012, Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Primoz Trubar, a theologian in the Lutheran tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers in Slovenia. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburg dynasty, which controlled the region. It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves. Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.WEB,weblink Predstavitev,, 2 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2012, dmy-all,


Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.WEB,weblink The Virtual Jewish History Tour – Slovenia,, 4 March 2003, 2 June 2012,


According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia.WEB,weblink Islamska Skupnost v Republiki Sloveniji,, 2 June 2012, The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches.{{citation needed|date=August 2015}}


In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010,WEB,weblink Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204, 2010, Fieldwork: Jan–Feb 2010, PDF, 32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".


220 Hindus live in Slovenia, with 70 belonging to the Hindu Religious Community in Slovenia and 150 belonging to the Society for Krishna Consciousnessweblink


(File:University of Ljubljana Palace.jpg|thumb|University of Ljubljana administration building)(File:UniverzaMaribor.jpg|thumb|University of Maribor administration building)Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union, being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment.WEB,weblink PDF, Table: Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale, 4 December 2007, 15 April 2008, PISA 2006, OECD, Among people age 25 to 64, 12% have attended higher education, while on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%.WEB, OECD,weblink Slovenia – OECD Better Life Index,, 25 November 2012, According to the 1991 census there is 99.6% literacy in Slovenia. Lifelong learning is also increasing.
Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=21 February 2012}} Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.WEB,weblink About Slovenia – Culture of Slovenia,, 2 June 2012,
After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija). The latter concludes with matura, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.
Among several universities in Slovenia, the best ranked is the University of Ljubljana, ranking among the first 500 or the first 3% of the world's best universities according to the ARWU.WEB,weblink Statistics (by Country) of Academic Ranking of World Universities | ARWU | First World University Ranking | Shanghai Ranking, ARWU, 2 June 2012, WEB,weblink University of Ljubljana once again on Shanghai and Webometrics ranking lists,, 4 April 2014, Two other public universities include the University of MariborWEB,weblink Univerza v Mariboru,, 2 June 2012, in Styria region and the University of Primorska in Slovene Littoral.WEB,weblink Univerza na Primorskem: SLO,, 2 June 2012, In addition, there is a private University of Nova GoricaWEB,weblink Univerza v Novi Gorici,, 2 June 2012, and an international EMUNI University.WEB,weblink EMUNI University, 13 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2011, dead, dmy-all,


File:Ivan Grohar - Sejalec.jpg|thumb|The Sower (1907), by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar, became a (metaphor]] for SlovenesWEB,weblink Slovenska moderna, National Gallery of Slovenia, Slovenian, Andrej, Smrekar, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2013, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Je človek še Sejalec, Slovenian, Miha, Naglič, 6 June 2008, Gorenjski glas, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 February 2013, dmy-all, and was a reflection of the transition from a rural to an urban culture.WEB,weblink Pogled na ...: Ivan Grohar, Sejalec, Slovenian, RTV Slovenija, 4 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 September 2012, dmy-all, )


Slovenia's architectural heritage includes 2,500 churches, 1,000 castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures for drying hay, called hayracks ().{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}Three historic sites in Slovenia are on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. Škocjan Caves and its karst landscape are a protected site. The Idrija Mercury mining site is of world importance, as are the prehistoric pile dwellings in the Ljubljana Marshes.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}The most picturesque church{{original research inline|date=December 2018}} is the medieval and Baroque building on Bled Island. The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant with a view. Near Postojna there is a fortress called Predjama Castle, half hidden in a cave. Museums in Ljubljana and elsewhere feature unique items such as the Divje Babe Flute and the oldest wheel in the world. Ljubljana has medieval, Baroque, Art Nouveau, and modern architecture. The architect Plečnik's architecture and his innovative paths and bridges along the Ljubljanica are notable.


File:Velika noč - jedila hren šunka pirhi potica.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Potica as part of traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast]]Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of Central European cuisine (especially Austrian and Hungarian), Mediterranean cuisine and Balkan cuisine. Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisines. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}Ethnologically, the most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as ričet, Istrian stew (), minestrone (), and žganci buckwheat spoonbread; in the Prekmurje region there is also bujta repa, and prekmurska gibanica pastry. Pršut prosciutto is known as () in the Slovene Littoral. The nut roll () has become a symbol of Slovenia, especially among the Slovene diaspora in the United States. Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history.Each year since 2000, the Festival of Roasted Potatoes has been organized by the Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish, attracting thousands of visitors. Roasted potatoes, which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays—preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup—have been depicted on a special edition of post marks by the Post of Slovenia on 23 November 2012.WEB,weblink WebCite query result, 1 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2017, dmy-all, The best known sausage is kranjska klobasa.


Historically the most notable Slovenian ballet dancers and choreographers were Pino Mlakar (1907‒2006),Umrl baletnik Pino Mlakar, Dnevnik, 2nd October 2006 who in 1927 graduated from the Rudolf Laban Choreographic Institute, and there met his future wife, balerina Maria Luiza Pia Beatrice Scholz (1908‒2000). Together they worked as a leading dancer and a choreographer in Dessau (1930–1932), Zürich (1934–1938), and State opera in München (1939‒1944).Pia and Pino Mlakar, The Slovenian National Theatre Opera and Ballet Ljubljana website Their plan to build a Slovenian dance centre at Rožnik Hill after the World War II was supported by then minister of culture, Ferdo Kozak, but was cancelled by his successor.Branko Miklavc: Na konec sveta bom potoval, samo da ju še enkrat vidim plesati, Dnevnik, 7th October 2006 Pino Mlakar was also a full professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) of the University of Ljubljana. Between 1952 in 1954 they again led State opera ballet in München.
Modern dance
In the 1930s in Ljubljana was founded a Mary Wigman modern dance school by her student Meta Vidmar.Nika Arhar: Uprizarjanje zgodovine sodobnega plesa, MMC RTVSLO, 25th December 2015

Festivals, book fairs, and other events

A number of music, theater, film, book, and children's festivals take place in Slovenia each year, including the music festivals Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival, the stand up comedy Punch Festival, the children's Pippi Longstocking Festival, and the book festivals Slovene book fair and Frankfurt after the Frankfurt.The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the Slovenska popevka festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. The long tradition of jazz festivals in Titoist Yugoslavia began with the Ljubljana Jazz Festival which has beem held annually in Slovenia since 1960.Ljubljana Jazz Festival {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2012 }}, an official site (in English)


Film actors
Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja, who played her roles as Ita Rina in the early European films, and Metka Bučar.Museum of Slovene Film Actors, Divača, official website. After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič, who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including Don't Cry, Peter (1964), On Wings of Paper (1968), Kekec's Tricks (1968), Flowers in Autumn (1973), The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler (1976), Heritage (1986), Primož Trubar (1985), and My Dad, The Socialist Kulak (1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič. He also performed in television and radio drama.NEWS,weblink Umrl je Polde Bibič, starosta slovenskega igralskega ceha, Slovenian, 13 July 2012, Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija, Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles.
Film directors
Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann, František Čap, France Štiglic, Igor Pretnar, Jože Pogačnik, Peter Zobec, Matjaž Klopčič, Boštjan Hladnik, Dušan Jovanović, Vitan Mal, Franci Slak, and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne, Mitja Okorn, and Marko Naberšnik are among the representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga and Miha Mazzini. Women film directors include Polona Sepe, Hanna A. W. Slak, and Maja Weiss.Furlan, S. (1994) Filmografija slovenskih celovečernih filmov: 1931 – 1993. Slovenski gledališki in filmski muzej. Ljubljana.


{{see|List of Slovene writers and poets in Hungary|List of Slovenian women writers}}
Today, notable authors include Boris Pahor, a German Nazi concentration camp survivor, who opposed Italian Fascism and Titoist Communism.WEB,weblink Boris Pahor je ime leta po izboru Vala 202 :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija,, 9 March 2012, WEB,weblink Mladinska knjiga – Iz medijev,, 26 August 2009, 9 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2012, dead, dmy-all,
Literary history
File:Prešern-Goldenstein.jpg|thumb|upright|France PrešerenFrance PrešerenFile:Prečrtana kitica Zdravljice.jpg|thumb|upright|"Zdravljica" (A Toast; part) with rejection mark from Austrian censorship (due to potential revolutionary content); the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthemanthemHistory of Slovene literature began in the 16th century with Primož Trubar and other Protestant Reformers. Poetry in the Slovene language achieved its highest level with the Romantic poet France Prešeren (1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism, with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar; it was then followed by expressionism (Srečko Kosovel), avantgardism (Anton Podbevšek, Ferdo Delak) and social realism (Ciril Kosmač, Prežihov Voranc) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution (Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Matej Bor) during the war, and intimism (Poems of the Four, 1953), post-war modernism (Edvard Kocbek), and existentialism (Dane Zajc) after the war.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}Postmodernist authors include Boris A. Novak, Marko Kravos, Drago Jančar, Evald Flisar, Tomaž Šalamun, and Brina Svit. Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak, Miha Mazzini, and Alojz Ihan. There are several literary magazines that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}


The Slovenian Philharmonics, established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis, is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja.Oto Luthar The land between: a history of SloveniaIn 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis, as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models.George J. Buelow (2004) A History of Baroque Music, p. 701.Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), and Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973).In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble. Jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's L'Armonia, an opera.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}Modern composers include Uroš Rojko, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jež-Brezavšček, Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar. Kumar's Sonata z igro 12 (A sonata with a play 12), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale, is particularly notable.The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house.
Traditional folk music
Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers, flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In eastern Slovenia, fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije.
Modern folk (Slovenian country) music
File:Slak lojze.jpg|thumbnail|right|Folk musician Lojze SlakLojze SlakFrom 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany, inventing the original "Oberkrainer" country sound that has become the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and in the Benelux, spawning hundreds of Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka legacy. Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, including Lojze Slak.{{Citation needed|date=May 2019}}
Slovenska popevka
A similarly high standing in Slovene culture, like the Sanremo Music Festival has had in Italian culture, was attributed to the Slovenska popevka, a specific genre of popular Slovene music.Slovenska popevka: velik poudarek na pevcih in skladateljih, pesniki bolj v oklepaju. Enkrat še zapoj: 50 let Slovenske popevke Vladimirja Frantarja pri celjski Mohorjevi družbi., Delo, 5. September 2012.
Popular music
Among pop, rock, industrial, and indie musicians the most popular in Slovenia include Laibach, an early 1980s industrial music group as well as Siddharta, an alternative rock band formed in 1995.File:LAIBACH Press Photo 2011.jpg|thumb|The industrial group Laibach ]]With more than 15 million views for the official a cappella "Africa" performance video since its publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2013{{YouTube|yjbpwlqp5Qw|Perpetuum Jazzile: Africa}}. Accessed on 9 September 2013. that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich,WEB,weblink Perpetuum Jazzile Official Web Site, 7 July 2009, 17 July 2009, Perpetuum Jazzile is the group from Slovenia that is internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a historically progressive rock ones that were also popular in Titoist Yugoslavia, such as Buldožer and Lačni Franz, which inspired later comedy rock bands including Zmelkoow, Slon in Sadež and Mi2.15 years of Mi2 band, Delo, 26 October 2010 With exception of Terrafolk that made appearances worldwide, other bands, such as Zaklonišče Prepeva, Šank Rock, Big Foot Mama, Dan D, and Zablujena generacija, are mostly unknown outside the country. Slovenian metal bands include Noctiferia (death metal), Negligence (thrash metal), Naio Ssaion (gothic metal), and Within Destruction (deathcore).WEB,weblink WALKING DEAD ON BROADWAY – to support WITHIN DESTRUCTION in March! - Arising Empire,, File:2009 Lent Festival - Vlado Kreslin (4).jpg|thumb|The folk rock singer-songwriter Vlado Kreslin during a concert at the Lent Festival in MariborMaribor
Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski (1914–1988), Tomaž Pengov whose 1973 album Odpotovanja is considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former Yugoslavia,Pripotovanje hrepenenca — Tomaž Pengov, kantavtor, Mladina, 3 March 2007 Tomaž Domicelj, Marko Brecelj, Andrej Šifrer, Eva Sršen, Neca Falk, and Jani Kovačič. After 1990, Adi Smolar, Iztok Mlakar, Vita Mavrič, Vlado Kreslin, Zoran Predin, Peter Lovšin, and Magnifico have been popular in Slovenia, as well.


File:Lublana 143.jpg|thumb|The National Theatre in LjubljanaLjubljanaIn addition to the main houses, which include Slovene National Theatre, Ljubljana and Maribor National Drama Theatre, a number of small producers are active in Slovenia, including physical theatre (e.g. Betontanc), street theatre (e.g. Ana Monró Theatre), theatresports championship Impro League, and improvisational theatre (e.g. IGLU Theatre). A popular form is puppetry, mainly performed in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. Theater has a rich tradition in Slovenia, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}

Visual arts, architecture and design

Slovenia's visual arts, architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art.{{Citation needed|date=May 2019}}
Modern architecture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani, and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik.NEWS,weblink Vurnikova hiša na Miklošičevi: najlepša hiša v Ljubljani, Slovenian,, Smilja, Štravs, Delo, d. d., 8 April 2011, 1854-6544, In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and first generation of his students: Milan Mihelič, Stanko Kristl, Savin Sever. Next generation is mainly still active Marko Mušič, Vojteh Ravnikar, Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects.
Conceptual art
A number of conceptual visual art groups formed, including OHO, Group 69, and IRWIN. Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwinned with modern European movements.WEB,weblink Razstava UZNLB v Bruslju – NLB,, 2 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 April 2009, dmy-all,
Internationally most notable Slovenian design items include the 1952 Rex chair, a Scandinavian design-inspired wooden chair, by interior designer Niko Kralj that was given in 2012 a permanent place in Designmuseum, Denmark, the largest museum of design in Scandinavia, and is included in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art MOMA in New York, as well.An industrial design item that has changed the international ski industry is Elan SCX by Elan company. Even before the Elan SCX, Elan skis were depicted in two films, the 1985 James Bond film series part A View to a Kill with Roger Moore, and Working Girl where Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver) was depicted as skiing on the RC ELAN model skis and poles.
File:V. Vodnik monument Ljubljana front side 2008-03.jpg|thumb|upright|The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik (1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik MonumentVodnik MonumentThe renewal of Slovene sculpture begun with Alojz Gangl (1859–1935) who created sculptures for the public monuments of the Carniolan polymath Johann Weikhard von Valvasor and Valentin Vodnik, the first Slovene poet and journalist, as well as The Genius of the Theatre and other statues for the Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre building.WEB,weblink Kiparstvo 19. in 20. stoletja, 1 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2006, dmy-all, The development of sculpture after World War II was led by a number of artists, including brothers Boris and Zdenko Kalin, Jakob Savinšek stayed with figural art. Younger sculptors, for example Janez Boljka, Drago Tršar and particularly Slavko Tihec, moved towards abstract forms. Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić returned to human figures.
During World War II, numerous graphics were created by Božidar Jakac, who helped establish the post-war Academy of Visual Arts in Ljubljana.File:Hinko Smrekar - Ilustracija za knjigo Martin Krpan.jpg|thumb|left|Smrekar's illustration of Martin KrpanMartin KrpanIn 1917 Hinko Smrekar illustrated Fran Levstik's book about the well-known Slovene folk hero Martin Krpan. The children's books illustrators include a number of women illustrators, such as Marlenka Stupica, Marija Lucija Stupica, Ančka Gošnik Godec, Marjanca Jemec Božič, and Jelka Reichman.
Historically, painting and sculpture in Slovenia was in the late 18th and the 19th century marked by Neoclassicism (Matevž Langus), Biedermeier (Giuseppe Tominz) and Romanticism (Mihael Stroj). The first art exhibition in Slovenia was organized in the late 19th century by Ivana Kobilica, a woman-painter who worked in realistic tradition. Impressionist artists include Matej Sternen, Matija Jama, Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar whose The Sower (Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins, and Franc Berneker, who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Espressionist painters include Veno Pilon and Tone Kralj whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=23 July 2004}}Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič, Gabrijel Stupica and Marij Pregelj.
In 1841, Janez Puhar (1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale.WEB,weblink Life and work of Janez Puhar | (accessed December 13, 2009), Gojmir Anton Kos was a notable realist painter and photographer between First World War and WW II.The first photographer from Slovenia whose work was published by National Geographic magazine is Arne Hodalič.Slovenia River Excavation, National Geographic, January 2007.


File:Tina Maze with Olympic silver medal 2010.jpg|thumb|upright|Alpine skier Tina MazeTina MazeSlovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports.WEB,weblink Sport,, I Feel Slovenia, 2010, Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia, 9 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2012, dead, dmy-all, A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level,BOOK,weblink Sports: The Competitive Gene, Sports&Champions: Magical Challenges, Inspiring Winners, 4–5, Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia, November 2009, Igor, Medjugorac, I Feel Slovenia, {{COBISS, 7023646, |access-date=9 March 2012 |archive-url= |archive-date=10 May 2012 |url-status=dead }} with top international successes in handball, basketball, volleyball, association football, ice hockey, rowing, swimming, tennis, boxing, road cycling and athletics. Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with champions like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining Olympic medals for Slovenia. Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 40 Olympic medals, including seven gold medals, and 19 Paralympic medals with three golds.Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar, the mountain skier Davo Karničar, the ultramaraton swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič. Past and current winter sports Slovenian champions include Alpine skiers, such as Mateja Svet, Bojan Križaj, and double olympic gold medalist Tina Maze, the cross-country skier Petra Majdič, and ski jumpers, such as Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc. Boxing has gained popularity since Dejan Zavec won the IBF Welterweight World Champion title in 2009.Prominent team sports in Slovenia include football, basketball, handball, volleyball, and ice hockey. The men's national football team qualified for one European (2000) and two World Cups (2002 and 2010). Of Slovenian clubs, NK Maribor played three times in the UEFA Europa League and also three times in the UEFA Champions League. The men's national basketball team has participated at 13 Eurobaskets, winning the gold medal with Goran Dragić being named the MVP at the 2017 edition, and three FIBA World Championships. Slovenia also hosted the 2013 Eurobasket. The men's national handball team has qualified for three Olympics, eight IHF World Championships, including their third-place finish at the 2017 edition, and twelve European Championships. Slovenia was the hosts of the 2004 European Championship, where the national team won silver. Slovenia's most prominent handball team, RK Celje, won the EHF Champions League in the 2003–04 season. In women's handball, RK Krim won the Champions League in 2001 and 2003. The national volleyball team has won a silver medal at the 2015 and 2019 editions of the European Volleyball Championship. The national ice hockey team has played at 27 Ice Hockey World Championships and has qualified for the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympics.

See also





Further reading

  • Stanić, Stane, Slovenia (London, Flint River Press, 1994).
  • Oto Luthar (ed.), The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. With contributions by Oto Luthar, Igor Grdina, Marjeta Å aÅ¡el Kos, Petra SvoljÅ¡ak, Peter Kos, DuÅ¡an Kos, Peter Å tih, Alja Brglez and Martin Pogačar (Frankfurt am Main etc., Peter Lang, 2008).
  • The World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places, O–S Oman to Syria (Chicago, World Book, 2011).

External links

{{Sister project links|Slovenia|voy=Slovenia|b = no|v = no}}
  • weblink" title="">Slovenia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • {{curlie|Regional/Europe/Slovenia}}
  • {{wikiatlas|Slovenia}}
  • weblink" title="">"Facts About Slovenia", publication from the Slovenian Government Communication Office. pdf. In English, Spanish, French, German and Russian.
  • Slovenia – Landmarks. Virtual reality panoramas of various spots in the country.
  • Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia.



  • weblink" title="">Slovenian Press Agency. News in English.
{{Slovenia topics}}{{Navboxes|list ={{Sovereign states of Europe}}{{Countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea}}{{Balkan countries}}{{EU members}}{{Council of Europe members}}{{North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)}}{{La Francophonie}}{{World Trade Organization}}{{Republics and autonomous provinces of the former Yugoslavia}}}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Slovenia" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 4:01pm EDT - Wed, Oct 16 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott