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Ceuta
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{{Redirect|Sabtah|the biblical figure|Sabtah (biblical figure)|other uses|Ceuta (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}







factoids
{{native name>ar|سبتة}}| native_name_lang = es| other_name = Autonomous communities of Spain#Autonomous cities>Autonomous city| translit_lang1 = | translit_lang1_type = | translit_lang1_info = | translit_lang1_type1 = | translit_lang1_info1 = | translit_lang1_type2 = | translit_lang1_info2 = | translit_lang2 = | translit_lang2_type = | translit_lang2_info = | translit_lang2_type1 = | translit_lang2_info1 = | translit_lang2_type2 = | translit_lang2_info2 = | image_skyline = Vista de Ceuta y la península de Almina desde el mirador de Isabel II.jpg| image_alt = | image_caption = | image = | image_flag = Flag Ceuta.svg| flag_size = 125px| flag_alt = | flag_link = | image_seal = | seal_size = | seal_alt = | seal_link = | image_shield = Escudo de Ceuta.svg| shield_size = 100x100px| shield_alt = | shield_link = | image_blank_emblem = | blank_emblem_type = | blank_emblem_size = | blank_emblem_alt = | blank_emblem_link = | nickname = | motto = | anthem = 275px|Map of Ceuta)| mapsize = | map_alt = | map_caption = Location of Ceuta within Spain| image_map1 = | mapsize1 = | map_alt1 = | map_caption1 = | image_dot_map = | dot_mapsize = | dot_map_base_alt = | dot_map_alt = | dot_map_caption = | dot_x = | dot_y = | pushpin_map = | pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_label = | pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_map_caption = | pushpin_map1 = | pushpin_label_position1 = | pushpin_label1 = | pushpin_map_alt1 = | pushpin_mapsize1 = | pushpin_map_caption1 = 3518556region:ESdisplay=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = | coordinates_footnotes = List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = SpainAutonomous communities of Spain#Autonomous cities>Autonomous city| subdivision_name1 = Ceuta| subdivision_type2 = | subdivision_name2 = | established_title = First settledbc}}| established_title2 = Ceded to Spain| established_date2 = 1 January 1668| established_title3 = Autonomy status| established_date3 = 14 March 1995| established_title1 = End of Muslim rule| established_date1 = 14 August 1415| founder = Carthaginians| named_for = | seat_type = | seat = | parts_type = | parts_style = | parts = | p1 = | p2 = | government_footnotes = | government_type = Autonomous city| governing_body = Council of GovernmentPeople's Party (Spain)>PPMayor-President of Ceuta>Mayor-President| leader_name = Juan Jesús Vivas | leader_title1 = | leader_name1 = | total_type = | unit_pref = | area_footnotes = | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 18.5| area_total_sq_mi = | area_total_dunam = | area_land_km2 = 18.5| area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_footnotes = | area_urban_km2 = | area_urban_sq_mi = | area_rural_footnotes = | area_rural_km2 = | area_rural_sq_mi = | area_metro_footnotes = | area_metro_km2 = | area_metro_sq_mi = | area_rank = | area_blank1_title = | area_blank1_km2 = | area_blank1_sq_mi = | area_blank2_title = | area_blank2_km2 = | area_blank2_sq_mi = | area_note = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 10| elevation_ft = | elevation_max_footnotes =| elevation_max_m = 349| elevation_max_ft = | elevation_min_footnotes = | elevation_min_m = | elevation_min_ft = population_as_of}}population_footnotes}}population_total}}| population_rank = | population_density_km2 = auto | population_density_sq_mi = auto| population_urban = | population_density_urban_km2 = | population_density_urban_sq_mi = | population_rural = | population_density_rural_km2 = | population_density_rural_sq_mi = | population_metro = | population_density_metro_km2 = | population_density_metro_sq_mi = | population_density = | population_density_rank = | population_blank1_title = | population_blank1 = | population_density_blank1_km2 = | population_density_blank1_sq_mi = | population_blank2_title = | population_blank2 = | population_density_blank2_km2 = | population_density_blank2_sq_mi = ceutí (Spanish language>es)| population_note = | demographics_type1 = | demographics1_footnotes = | demographics1_title1 = | demographics1_info1 = | demographics_type2 = | demographics2_footnotes = | demographics2_title1 = | demographics2_info1 = Central European Time>CET| utc_offset1 = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset1_DST = +2| timezone2 = | utc_offset2 = | timezone2_DST = | utc_offset2_DST = ISO 3166-2)| postal_code = ES-CE| postal2_code_type = Postal code| postal2_code = 51001–51005| area_code_type = | area_code = | geocode = | iso_code = | registration_plate = | twin1 = | twin1_country = | twin2 = | twin2_country = | blank_name_sec1 = Official languageSpanish language>Spanish| blank1_name_sec1 = Parliament| blank1_info_sec1 = Cortes GeneralesCongress of Deputies (Spain)>Congress| blank2_info_sec1 = 1 deputy (out of 350)Spanish Senate>Senate| blank3_info_sec1 = 2 senators (out of 264)
| blank1_name_sec2 = | blank1_info_sec2 = | blank2_name_sec2 = | blank2_info_sec2 = weblink|Ceuta.es}}| footnotes = }}Ceuta ({{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|s|j|uː|t|ə|}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ˈ|s|eɪ|uː|t|ə}},LPD, 3, EPD, 18, {{IPA-es|ˈθeuta|lang}}; ; ) is an {{convert|18.5|km2|sqmi acre|sp=us|abbr=on|0}} Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by {{convert|14|km|sp=us|abbr=on|0}} from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a {{convert|6.4|km|sp=us|abbr=on|0}} land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa. It was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga province.Ceuta, like Melilla and the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union.JOURNAL, Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier, The Spanish–Moroccan border complex: Processes of geopolitical, functional and symbolic rebordering, Political Geography, 27, 3, 301–321, 10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.12.004, 2008, Its population consists of Christians, Muslims and small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus.Spanish is the official language, while Darija Arabic is also spoken by 40–50% of the population, which is of Moroccan origin.JOURNAL,weblink Verónica Rivera, IMPORTANCIA Y VALORACIÓN SOCIOLINGÜÍSTICA DEL DARIJA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA PÚBLICA EN CEUTA, es, Importance and Socio-Linguistic Valuation of Darija in the Context of Public Secondary Education in Ceuta, Revista Electrónica de Estudios Filológicos, 12, 1577-6921, December 2006, JOURNAL, 33, 1, 2016, 23–46, Revista de Filología Románica, 0212-999X, 10.5209/RFRM.55230, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Nacionalismo y representaciones lingüísticas en Ceuta y en Melilla, Alicia, Madrid, Fernández García,

Names

The name Abyla has been said to have been a Punic name ("Lofty Mountain"{{sfnp|Cauvin & al.|1843}} or "Mountain of God") for Jebel Musa,{{sfnp|Bonney & al.|1907|p=26}} the southern Pillar of Hercules.{{sfnp|Smith|1854}} In fact, it seems that the name of the mountain was actually Habenna (𐤍{{popdf}}}}, {{sc|ʾbn}}, "Stone" or "Stele") or ʾAbin-ḥīq (𐤍𐤇{{popdf}}𐤒}}, {{sc|ʾbnḥq}}, "Rock of the Bay"), in reference to the nearby Bay of Benzú.{{harvp|Lipiński|2004|p=422–425}}. The name was hellenized variously as Ápini (), Abýla (), Abýlē (), Ablýx (), and Abílē Stḗlē (, "Pillar of Abyla"){{sfnp|Smith|1854}} and in Latin as Mount Abyla (') or the Pillar of Abyla (').The settlement below Jebel Musa was later renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers"{{sfnp|Smedley & al.|1845|p=49}} (;Ptolemy, Geography, IV.i.5. ).In, e.g., Pomponius Mela. In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers" ().{{sfnp|Smith|1854}} This was gradually shortened to SeptemBOOK, Walter E. Kaegi, Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa, 4 November 2010, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-19677-2, 256, ( Sépton) or, occasionally, SeptumBOOK, John Kitto, William Lindsay Alexander, A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature, 2, 1864, 350, or Septa.{{sfnp|Dyer|1873}} These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta and Arabic Sabtan{{sfnp|Smedley & al.|1845|p=49}} or Sabtah (}}), which themselves became in Portuguese ({{IPA-pt|ˈsewtɐ|pron}}) and Spanish ({{IPA-es|ˈθeuta|pron}}).

History

Ancient

File:Catedral de la Asunción de Ceuta (11).jpg|thumb|right|250px|Phoenician archeological site, dated to the 7th century{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}, next to the Cathedral of CeutaCathedral of CeutaControlling access between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar is an important military and commercial chokepoint. The Phoenicians realized the extremely narrow isthmus joining the Peninsula of Almina to the African mainland makes Ceuta eminently defensible and established an outpost there in the early 1st millennium{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}. The Greek geographers record it by variations of "Abyla", the ancient name of nearby Jebel Musa. Beside Calpe, the other Pillar of Hercules now known as the Rock of Gibraltar, the Phoenicians established Kart at what is now San Roque, Spain. Other good anchorages nearby became Phoenician and then Carthaginian ports at what are now Tangiers and Cadiz.After Carthage's destruction in the Punic Wars, most of northwest Africa was left to the Roman client states of Numidia and{{mdash}}around Abyla{{mdash}}Mauretania. Punic culture continued to thrive in what the Romans knew as "Septem". After Thapsus, Caesar and his heirs began annexing north Africa directly as Roman provinces but, as late as Augustus, most of Septem's Berber residents continued to speak and write in Punic.Caligula assassinated the Mauretanian king Ptolemy in {{sc|ad}}{{nbsp}}40 and seized his kingdom, which Claudius organized in 42, placing Septem in the province of Tingitana and raising it to the level of a colony. It subsequently romanized and thrived into the late 3rd century, trading heavily with Roman Spain and becoming well known for its salted fish. Roads connected it overland with Tingis (Tangiers) and Volubilis. Under {{nowrap|Theodosius I}} in the late 4th century, Septem still had 10,000 inhabitants, nearly all Christian citizens speaking Latin and African Romance.{{citation |first=Theodore |last=Mommsen |title=The Provinces of the Roman Empire |at=s.v. "Africa" }}.

Medieval

File:Interior de los Baños Árabes de Ceuta.jpg|thumb|250px|left|The Arab Baths of Ceuta, built between the 11th and 13th centuries.]]File:Murallas_meriníes_de_Ceuta.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Marinid Walls, built by Abu Sa'id Uthman IIAbu Sa'id Uthman IIVandals, probably invited by Count Boniface as protection against the empress dowager, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa. Their king Gaiseric focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage; although the Romans eventually accepted his conquests and he continued to raid them anyway, he soon lost control of Tingis and Septem in a series of Berber revolts. When Justinian decided to reconquer the Vandal lands, his victorious general Belisarius continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost of the Byzantine Empire around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, however, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis.Epidemics, less capable successors, and overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated. It is likely that its count () was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb around 710. Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain produced romances concerning Count Julian of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick's court. Allegedly with Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his master Musa bin Nusayr fell afoul of a jealous caliph, who stripped them of their wealth and titles.After the death of Julian, sometimes also described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta. It was then destroyed during their great revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dynasty.{{citation|first=Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen |last=Gibb |author2=Johannes Hendrik Kramers |author3=Bernard Lewis |author4=Charles Pellat |author5=Joseph Schacht |title=The Encyclopaedia of Islam |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BZXrAAAAMAAJ |year=1994 |publisher=E.J. Brill |page=690 }}. His great-grandson briefly allied his tribe with the Idrisids, but Banu Isam rule ended in 931 when he abdicated in favor of Abd ar-Rahman III, the Umayyad caliph of Cordoba. Ceuta reverted to Moorish Andalusian rule in 927 along with Melilla, and later Tangier, in 951.Chaos ensued with the fall of the Spanish Umayyads in 1031. Following this, Ceuta and Muslim Iberia were controlled by successive North African dynasties. Starting in 1084, the Almoravid Berbers ruled the region until 1147, when the Almohads conquered the land. Apart from Ibn Hud's rebellion in 1232, they ruled until the Tunisian Hafsids established control. The Hafsids' influence in the west rapidly waned, and Ceuta's inhabitants eventually expelled them in 1249. After this, a period of political instability persisted, under competing interests from the kingdoms of Fez and Granada. The Fez finally conquered the region in 1387, with assistance from Aragon.

Portuguese

File:Portugal-Porto-Train Station-P1180300 (25264859223).jpg|thumb|left|250px|Prince Henry the Navigator during the Conquest of CeutaConquest of Ceuta(File:Estatuta de Enrique el Navegante, Ceuta.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Prince Henry the Navigator Statue in Ceuta Port)(File:Braun Ceuta UBHD.jpg|thumb|right|250px|1572 depiction of Ceuta)File:Ceuta Spain crop.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Royal Walls of CeutaRoyal Walls of CeutaOn the morning of 21 August 1415, King John I of Portugal led his sons and their assembled forces in a surprise assault that would come to be known as the Conquest of Ceuta. The battle was almost anti-climactic, because the 45,000 men who traveled on 200 Portuguese ships caught the defenders of Ceuta off guard and only suffered eight casualties. By nightfall the town was captured. On the morning of August 22, Ceuta was in Portuguese hands. Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches was asked to hoist what was to become the flag of Ceuta, which is identical to the flag of Lisbon, but in which the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Portugal was added to the center; the original Portuguese flag and coat of arms of Ceuta remained unchanged, and the modern-day Ceuta flag features the configuration of the Portuguese shield.John's son Henry the Navigator distinguished himself in the battle, being wounded during the conquest. The looting of the city proved to be less profitable than expected for John I; he decided to keep the city to pursue further enterprises in the area.JOURNAL, Granada y la expansión portuguesa en el Magreb extremo, José Enrique, López de Coca Castañer, Historia. Instituciones. Documentos, 0210-7716, 25, 1998, 351, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, From 1415 to 1437, Pedro de Meneses became the first governor of Ceuta.The Benemerine sultan started the 1418 siege but was defeated by the first governor of Ceuta before reinforcements arrived in the form of John, Constable of Portugal and his brother Henry the Navigator who were sent with troops to defend Ceuta.Under King John I's son, Duarte, the colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury. Trans-Saharan trade journeyed instead to Tangier. It was soon realized that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta was worthless. In 1437, Duarte's brothers Henry the Navigator and Fernando, the Saint Prince persuaded him to launch an attack on the Marinid sultanate. The resulting Battle of Tangier (1437), led by Henry, was a debacle. In the resulting treaty, Henry promised to deliver Ceuta back to the Marinids in return for allowing the Portuguese army to depart unmolested, which he reneged on.Possession of Ceuta would indirectly lead to further Portuguese expansion. The main area of Portuguese expansion, at this time, was the coast of the Maghreb, where there was grain, cattle, sugar, and textiles, as well as fish, hides, wax, and honey.Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol.1, Chap.10 "The Expansion"Ceuta had to endure alone for 43 years, until the position of the city was consolidated with the taking of Ksar es-Seghir (1458), Arzila and Tangier (1471) by the Portuguese.The city was recognized as a Portuguese possession by the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479) and by the Treaty of Tordesilhas (1494).In the 1540s the Portuguese began building the Royal Walls of Ceuta as they are today including bastions, a navigable moat and a drawbridge. Some of these bastions are still standing, like the bastions of Coraza Alta, Bandera and Mallorquines.WEB, Ceuta,weblink fortified-places.com, 17 September 2015, Luís de Camões lived in Ceuta between 1549 and 1551, losing his right eye in battle, which influenced his work of poetry Os Lusíadas.

Iberian Union

In 1578 King Sebastian of Portugal died at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir (known as the Battle of Three Kings) in what is today northern Morocco, without descendants, triggering the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henry, succeeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders. When the cardinal-king died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of King Manuel I of Portugal claimed the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato, and Philip II of Spain (Uncle of former King Sebastian of Portugal), who would go on to be crowned King Philip I of Portugal in 1581, uniting the two crowns and overseas empires known as the Iberian Union,*BOOK, Kamen, Henry, Philip of Spain, Yale University Press, 1999, 9780300078008,weblink 177, which allowed the two kingdoms to continue without being merged.During the Iberian Union 1580 to 1640, Ceuta attracted many residents of Spanish origin.BOOK, Griffin, H, 2010, Ceuta Mini Guide,weblink Mirage, 978-0-9543335-3-9, 18 January 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120305205916weblink">weblink 5 March 2012, yes, Ceuta became the only city of the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain when Portugal regained its independence in the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640.

Spanish

(File:Fort of El Desnarigado.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Fort of the Desnarigado, built in the 19th century. It houses a museum.)(File:Baluarte de la Coraza Alta y catedral de Ceuta, de noche.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Bastion of la Coraza Alta on the shore of the Playa del Chorrillo beach.)On 1 January 1668, King Afonso VI of Portugal recognized the formal allegiance of Ceuta to Spain and formally ceded Ceuta to King Carlos II of Spain by the Treaty of Lisbon.The city was attacked by Moroccan forces under Moulay Ismail during the Siege of Ceuta (1694-1727). During the longest siege in history, the city underwent changes leading to the loss of its Portuguese character. While most of the military operations took place around the Royal Walls of Ceuta, there were also small-scale penetrations by Spanish forces at various points on the Moroccan coast, and seizure of shipping in the Strait of Gibraltar.Disagreements regarding the border of Ceuta resulted in the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60), which ended at the Battle of Tetuán.(File:Ceuta Turn of the century.jpg|thumb|250px|right|A street in Ceuta, c. 1905–1910)In July 1936, General Francisco Franco took command of the Spanish Army of Africa and rebelled against the Spanish republican government; his military uprising led to the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939. Franco transported troops to mainland Spain in an airlift using transport aircraft supplied by Germany and Italy. Ceuta became one of the first casualties of the uprising: General Franco's rebel nationalist forces seized Ceuta, while at the same time the city came under fire from the air and sea forces of the official republican government.WEB,weblink History of Ceuta, 2012-03-01, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120305205904weblink">weblink 5 March 2012, The Llano Amarillo monument was erected to honor Francisco Franco, it was inaugurated on 13 July 1940. The tall obelisk has since been abandoned, but the shield symbols of the Falange and Imperial Eagle remain visible.WEB,weblink Franco monument now part of a rubbish dump in Ceuta, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121207133923weblink">weblink 7 December 2012, When Spain recognized the independence of Spanish Morocco in 1956, Ceuta and the other remained under Spanish rule. Spain considered them integral parts of the Spanish state, but Morocco has disputed this point.Culturally, modern Ceuta is part of the Spanish region of Andalusia. It was attached to the province of Cádiz until 1925, the Spanish coast being only 20 km (12.5 miles) away. It is a cosmopolitan city, with a large ethnic Arab Muslim minority as well as Sephardic Jewish and Hindu minorities.WEB,weblink Resistir en el monte del Renegado, El País, 22 March 2009, 2009-06-17, On 5 November 2007, King Juan Carlos I visited the city, sparking great enthusiasm from the local population and protests from the Moroccan government.WEB,weblink Ceuta y Melilla son España, dice Juan Carlos I; Sebta y Melilia son nuestras, responde Mohamed VI, Blogs.periodistadigital.com, 22 February 1999, 2009-06-17, It was the first time a Spanish head of state had visited Ceuta in 80 years.Since 2010, Ceuta (and Melilla) have declared the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha, or Feast of the Sacrifice, an official public holiday. It is the first time a non-Christian religious festival has been officially celebrated in Spain since the Reconquista.WEB,weblink Muslim Holiday in Ceuta and Melilla, Spainforvisitors.com, 2011-09-03, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110929161344weblink">weblink 29 September 2011, WEB,weblink Public Holidays and Bank Holidays for Spain, Qppstudio.net, 2011-09-03,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110930174912weblink">weblink 30 September 2011, yes, dmy-all,

Geography

{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Ceuta en.png| width1 = 280| caption1 = Map of Ceuta (Perejil islet is just off the coast, in the upper left of this map)| image2 = Strait of Gibraltar perspective.jpg| width2 = 280| caption2 = Perspective view of the Strait of Gibraltar facing eastwards; Spain and Gibraltar on the left; Morocco and Ceuta on the right}}Ceuta is dominated by Monte Anyera, a hill along its western frontier with Morocco. The mountain is guarded by a military fort.Monte Hacho on the Peninsula of Almina overlooking the port is one of the possible locations for the southern pillar of the Pillars of Hercules of Greek legend (the other possibility being Jebel Musa).BOOK, H. Micheal Tarver, Emily Slape, The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia,weblink I, 25 July 2016, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-422-3, 160,

Climate

Ceuta has a maritime-influenced Subtropical/Mediterranean climate, similar to nearby Spanish and Moroccan cities such as Tarifa, Algeciras or Tangiers.WEB,weblink Ceuta, Spain — Climate Summary, weatherbase, 8 December 2014, The average diurnal temperature variation is relatively low; the average annual temperature is {{convert|18.8|C|F|sp=us|abbr=on}} with average yearly highs of {{convert|21.4|C|F|sp=us|abbr=on}} and lows of {{convert|15.7|C|F|sp=us|abbr=on}} though the Ceuta weather station has only been in operation since 2003.WEB,weblink Valores climatológicos normales. Ceuta, es, Normal climate values. Ceuta, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET, 11 August 2015, Ceuta has relatively mild winters for the latitude, while summers are warm yet milder than in the interior of Southern Spain, due to the moderating effect of the Straits of Gibraltar. Summers are very dry, but yearly precipitation is still at {{convert|849|mm|in|sp=us|abbr=on}}, which could be considered a humid climate if the summers were not so arid.{{Weather box|location = Ceuta city (1m altitude) |metric first = yes |single line = yes|Jan record high C = 21.7|Feb record high C = 25.5|Mar record high C = 27.9|Apr record high C = 28.4|May record high C = 33.7|Jun record high C = 35.3|Jul record high C = 40.2|Aug record high C = 38.9|Sep record high C = 34.8|Oct record high C = 33.1|Nov record high C = 27.2|Dec record high C = 25.6|year record high C = 40.2|Jan high C = 16.1|Feb high C = 16.7|Mar high C = 17.8|Apr high C = 19.4|May high C = 22.5|Jun high C = 25.8|Jul high C = 28.9|Aug high C = 28.5|Sep high C = 26.1|Oct high C = 22.9|Nov high C = 18.9|Dec high C = 16.7|year high C = 21.7|Jan mean C = 13.6|Feb mean C= 14.2|Mar mean C = 15.0|Apr mean C = 16.5 |May mean C = 19.2|Jun mean C = 22.3 |Jul mean C = 25.0 |Aug mean C = 25.1|Sep mean C = 23.0 |Oct mean C = 20.2|Nov mean C = 16.5|Dec mean C = 14.4|year mean C = 18.8|Jan low C = 11.1|Feb low C = 11.6|Mar low C = 12.2|Apr low C = 13.6|May low C = 15.9|Jun low C = 18.8|Jul low C = 21.1|Aug low C = 21.7|Sep low C = 19.9|Oct low C = 17.5|Nov low C = 14.0|Dec low C = 12.2|year low C = 15.8|Jan record low C = 1.3|Feb record low C = 4.4|Mar record low C = 7.2|Apr record low C = 9.0|May record low C = 10.5|Jun record low C = 13.2|Jul record low C = 16.3|Aug record low C = 18.0|Sep record low C = 15.3|Oct record low C = 12.2|Nov record low C = 7.4|Dec record low C = 6.3|year record low C = 1.3|Jan precipitation mm = 122|Feb precipitation mm = 145|Mar precipitation mm = 90|Apr precipitation mm = 57|May precipitation mm = 21|Jun precipitation mm = 3|Jul precipitation mm = 1|Aug precipitation mm = 3|Sep precipitation mm = 37|Oct precipitation mm = 82|Nov precipitation mm = 127|Dec precipitation mm = 161|year precipitation mm = |Jan precipitation days = 7|Feb precipitation days = 8|Mar precipitation days = 6|Apr precipitation days = 5|May precipitation days = 3|Jun precipitation days = 1|Jul precipitation days = 0|Aug precipitation days = 1|Sep precipitation days = 2|Oct precipitation days = 5|Nov precipitation days = 7|Dec precipitation days = 9|year precipitation days = |Jan humidity =72|Feb humidity =75 |Mar humidity =68 |Apr humidity =71 |May humidity =66 |Jun humidity =67 |Jul humidity =61 |Aug humidity =70 |Sep humidity =72 |Oct humidity =75 |Nov humidity =73|Dec humidity =73 |year humidity =|source 1 = Weather.com,WEB,weblink Monthly Averages for Ceuta, Spain, Weather.com, 16 August 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121020152435weblink">weblink 2012-10-20, WorldWeatherOnline,WEB,weblink Ceuta Monthly Climate Averages, World Weather Online, 16 August 2016, WEB,weblink Valores extremos. Ceuta — Selector, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET, es, Extreme values. Ceuta{{Snd, Selector |date= |accessdate=16 August 2016}}}}

Politics

File:Town hall of Ceuta.jpg|thumb|The Palacio de la Asamblea de Ceuta is the seat of the Assembly of CeutaAssembly of CeutaSince 1995, Ceuta is, along with Melilla, one of the two autonomous cities of Spain.WEB,weblink Ley Orgánica 1/1995, de 13 de marzo, Estatuto de Autonomía de Ceuta, Noticias.juridicas.com, Spanish, 2009-06-17, Ceuta is known officially in Spanish as Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (English: Autonomous City of Ceuta), with a rank between a standard Spanish city and an autonomous community. Ceuta is part of the territory of the European Union. The city was a free port before Spain joined the European Union in 1986. Now it has a low-tax system within the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. As of 2018, its population was 85,144.WEB, La población de Ceuta aumenta en un 0,2% con respecto a 2017,weblink El Faro de Ceuta, 8 May 2019, Ceuta has held elections every four years since 1979, for its 25-seat assembly. The leader of its government was the Mayor until the Autonomy Statute had the title changed to the Mayor-President. {{as of|2011}}, the People's Party (PP) won 18 seats, keeping Juan Jesús Vivas as Mayor-President, which he has been since 2001. The remaining seats are held by the regionalist Caballas Coalition (4) and the Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE, 3).WEB,weblink Resultados Electorales en Ceuta: Elecciones Municipales 2011 en EL PAÍS, EDICIONES EL PAÍS S.L., 2011, es, 16 August 2016, Due to its small population, Ceuta elects only one member of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Spanish legislature. {{As of|2019|pre=the}} election, this post is held by José Simón of the PSOE.WEB,weblink El PSOE hace historia y gana las elecciones en Ceuta, El Foro de Ceuta, Spanish, 8 May 2019,

Subdivisions

Ceuta is subdivided into 63 barriadas ("neighborhoods"), such as Barriada de Berizu, Barriada de P. Alfonso, Barriada del Sarchal, and El Hacho.WEB,weblink El servicio de Policia de Barriadas podria funcionar a partir del 15 de septiembre, es, The Police Service of Barriadas could work from September 15, El Pueblo de Ceuta, 2009-06-17, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720140539weblink">weblink 20 July 2011, WEB,weblink Map of Ceuta, planetware, WEB,weblink Códigos postales de Ceuta en Ceuta, Codigo-postal.info, 2009-06-17,

Dispute with Morocco

The government of Morocco has repeatedly called for Spain to transfer the sovereignty of Ceuta and Melilla, together with the rest of the Spanish plazas de soberanía on the North African coast, on the grounds of asserting its territorial integrity. Morocco has claimed the territories are colonies.BOOK, Europe or Africa? A contemporary study of the Spanish North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, Liverpool University Press, 0-85323-985-1, 2000, XII–XIII, Peter, Gold, One of the chief arguments used by Morocco to reclaim Ceuta comes from geography, as this enclave, which is surrounded by Morocco and the Mediterranean Sea, has no territorial continuity with the rest of Spanish territory.Castan Pinos, J. (2014) ‘The Spanish-Moroccan relationship: combining bonne entente with territorial disputes’, in K. Stoklosa (ed.) Living on the border. European Border Regions in Comparison (p. 103). Abingdon: Routledge. This argument was originally developed by one of the founders of the Moroccan Istiqlal Party, Alal-El Faasi, who openly advocated the Moroccan conquest of Ceuta and other territories under Spanish rule.Castan Pinos, J. (2014) La Fortaleza Europea: Schengen, Ceuta y Melilla. Ceuta: Instituto de Estudios Ceutíes, p. 61 {{ISBN|978-84-92627-67-7}}

Economy

File:Jebel musa from benzu.jpg|thumb|The Moroccan mountain of Jebel Musa, as viewed from BenzúBenzúFile:Bienvenidos a ceuta.jpg|thumb|right|A sign welcoming visitors to Ceuta, showing the flags of Ceuta, Spain and the European UnionEuropean UnionThe official currency of Ceuta is the euro. It is part of a special low tax zone in Spain.WEB,weblink Economic Data of Ceuta, de ceutna digital, Ceuta.es, 2009-06-17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100410134201weblink">weblink 10 April 2010, yes, dmy-all, Ceuta is one of two Spanish port cities on the northern shore of Africa, along with Melilla. They are historically military strongholds, free ports, oil ports, and also fishing ports.BOOK,weblink 6–7, IBRU, Boundary and Territory Briefing. Ceuta and the Spanish Sovereign Territories: Spanish and Moroccan, 2009-06-17, 9781897643068, O'Reilly, Gerry, O'Reilly, J. G., 1994, Today the economy of the city depends heavily on its port (now in expansion) and its industrial and retail centers. Ceuta Heliport is now used to connect the city to mainland Spain by air. Lidl, Decathlon Group and El Corte Inglés (hardware) have branches in Ceuta. There is also a casino.Border trade between Ceuta and Morocco is active because of advantage of tax-free status. Thousands of Moroccan women are involved in porter trade daily. Moroccan dirham is actually used in such trade, despite the fact that prices are marked in euro.NEWS,weblink Morocco 'mule women' in back-breaking trade from Spain enclave, 2017-10-06, 2018-05-11, en, NEWS,weblink The economics of exclaves, 2018-04-24, 2018-05-11, en, WEB,weblink Moroccan women used as 'mules' to avoid tariffs {{!, DW {{!}} 11.05.2018|last=(www.dw.com)|first=Deutsche Welle|website=DW.COM|language=en|access-date=2018-05-11}}

Transport

The city's Port of Ceuta receives high numbers of ferries each day from Algeciras in Andalusia in the south of Spain, along with Melilla and the Canary Islands. The closest airport is Sania Ramel Airport in Morocco.A single road border checkpoint to the south of Ceuta near Fnideq allows for cars and pedestrians to travel between Morocco and Ceuta. An additional border crossing for pedestrians also exists between Benzú and Belyounech on the northern coast. The rest of the border is closed and inaccessible.There is a bus service throughout the city, and while it does not pass into neighboring Morocco, it services both frontier crossings.

Demographics

Due to its location, Ceuta is home to a mixed ethnic and religious population. The two main religious groups are Christians and Muslims. As of 2006 approximately 50% of the population was Christian and approximately 48% Muslim.JOURNAL, Roa, J. M., 2006, Scholastic achievement and the diglossic situation in a sample of primary-school students in Ceuta, Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 8, 1,weblink However, by 2012, the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Roman Catholic was 68.0%, while the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Muslim was 28.3%.WEB,weblink Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España, lavanguardia.com, 10 September 2017, Spanish is the primary and official language of the enclave.WEB,weblink Languages Across Europe – Spanish, 2014-10-14, BBC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180405160301weblink">weblink 2018-04-05, Moroccan Arabic is widely spoken,BOOK, The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics, Sayahi, Lotfi, Blackwell Publishing, 2011, 978-1-4051-9500-3, Díaz-Campos, Manuel, Chichester, UK, 476–477, Spanish in Contact with Arabic, 10.1002/9781444393446.ch22, as are Berber and French.JOURNAL, Roa-Venegas, José María, 2006, Scholastic Achievement and the Diglossic Situation in a Sample of Primary-School Students in Ceuta,weblink Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 8, 1, 3, 12, ResearchGate,

Religion

File:Restos de la Basílica Tardorromana de Ceuta.jpg|thumb|right|Remains of the Late Roman Christian Basilica and Necropolis of Ceuta dated to the mid-4th century CE or the beginning of the 5th century CE.]]File:Catedral de Ceuta, Ceuta, España, 2015-12-10, DD 04.JPG|thumb|right|Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, completed in 1726.]](File:Mezquita Muley El Mehdi, Ceuta, España, 2015-12-10, DD 31-33 HDR.JPG|thumb|upright|Muley El Mehdi mosque (built in 1940))Christianity has been present in Ceuta continuously from late antiquity, as evidenced by the ruins of a basilica in downtown CeutaJOURNAL,weblink Ceuta huellas del cristianismo en Ceuta, Fernando, Villada, academia.edu, 10 September 2017, and accounts of the martyrdom of St{{nbsp}}Daniel Fasanella and his Franciscans in 1227.The town's Grand Mosque had been built over a Byzantine-era church. In 1415, the year of the city's conquest, the Portuguese converted the Grand Mosque into Ceuta Cathedral. The present form of the cathedral dates to refurbishments undertaken in the late 17th century, combining baroque and neoclassical elements. It was dedicated to St{{nbsp}}Mary of the Assumption in 1726.The Roman Catholic Diocese of Ceuta was established in 1417. It incorporated the suppressed Diocese of Tanger in 1570.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia: Tingis, Newadvent.org, 1 July 1912, 2010-08-08, The Diocese of Ceuta was a suffragan of Lisbon until 1675, when it became a suffragan of Seville.{{Catholic-hierarchy|diocese|dc206|Diocese of Ceuta|21 January 2015}} {{sup|[self-published]}} In 1851, Ceuta's administration was notionally merged into the Diocese of Cadiz and Ceuta as part of a concordat between Spain and the Holy See;WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia: Cadiz, Newadvent.org, 1 November 1908, 2010-08-08, the union was not actually accomplished, however, until 1879.

Education

The University of Granada offers undergraduate programs at their campus in Ceuta. Like all areas of Spain, Ceuta is also served by the National University of Distance Education (UNED).Primary and secondary education is possible only in Spanish however a growing number of schools are entering the Bilingual Education Program.

Migrants

As in Melilla, Ceuta is attractive to migrants who try to use it as an entry to Europe. As a result, the enclave is surrounded by double fences that are {{convert|6|m|sp=us|abbr=on}} high and hundreds of migrants congregate near the fences waiting for a chance to cross them. The fences are regularly stormed by migrants trying to claim asylum once they enter Ceuta.NEWS, Hundreds of migrants storm fence to reach Spanish enclave of Ceuta,weblink BBC, 17 February 2017,

Notable people from Ceuta

File:Casa de los Dragones, Ceuta, España, 2015-12-10, DD 52.JPG|thumbnail|upright|Eclectic House of the Dragons, built in 1905.]]

1083 to 1700

1700 to 1800

1800 to 1950

  • General Francisco Llano de la Encomienda (1879 in Ceuta{{Snd}} 1963 in Mexico City) was a Spanish soldier. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) he remained loyal to the Second Spanish Republic
  • General Antonio Escobar Huertas (1879 in Ceuta{{Snd}} executed 1940 in Barcelona) was a Spanish military officer
  • África de las Heras Gavilán (1909 in Ceuta{{Snd}} 1988 in Moscow) was a Spanish Communist, naturalized Soviet citizen, and KGB spy who went by the code name Patria
  • Eugenio Martín (born 1925 in Ceuta) is a Spanish film director and screenwriter
  • Jacob Hassan, PhD (1936 in Ceuta{{Snd}} 2006 in Madrid) was a Spanish-Jewish philologist
  • José Martínez Sánchez (born 1945 in Ceuta), nicknamed Pirri, is a retired Spanish footballer, mainly played for Real Madrid, appearing in 561 competitive games and scoring 172 goals
  • Manuel Chaves González (born 1945 in Ceuta) is a Spanish politician of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. He served as the Third Vice President of the Spanish Government from 2009 to 2011
  • Ramón Castellano de Torres (born 1947 in Ceuta) is a Spanish artist, thought by some to be an expressionist painter
  • José Ramón López (born 1950) was a sprint canoer. He won the silver medal in the 1976 Summer Olympics.

1950 to date

Twin towns and sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain}}Ceuta is twinned with:{{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Aci Catena, ItalyWEB,weblink Listado de corporaciones locales españolas hermanadas con Europa, Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces,
  • {{flagicon|ESP}} Algeciras, Spain (1997)JOURNAL,weblink Europa Sur, 5 August 2012, Carlos, Corrales, Ceuta y Algeciras, tres lustros como ciudades hermanadas,
  • {{flagicon|ESP}} Cádiz, Spain (2007)JOURNAL, Diario de Cádiz,weblink 19 September 2009, Pablo Manuel, Durio, Cádiz tiene ya una familia más que numerosa,
  • {{flagicon|POR}} Santarém, PortugalJOURNAL,weblink Vivas visitará el jueves la Casa de Ceuta en Cádiz antes de regresar, Luis, Parodi, 27 November 2007, El Pueblo de Ceuta,
{{div col end}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

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External links

{{Commons category|Ceuta}}{{Wikivoyage|Ceuta}} {{Ceuta}}{{Administrative divisions of Spain}}{{Autonomous Community capitals of Spain}}{{Portuguese overseas empire}}{{Outlying territories of European countries|state=collapsed}}{{Countries and territories of North Africa}}{{Phoenician cities and colonies navbox|state=autocollapse}}{{Romano-Berber cities in Roman Africa}}

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