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Luxembourg
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{{about|the country|the city|Luxembourg City|other uses}}{{Lead too long|date=May 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2017}}







factoids
{{native name>frdeGroßherzogtum Luxemburg}}}}}}}}| image_flag = Flag of Luxembourg.svg| image_coat = Great coat of arms of Luxembourg.svg| symbol_width = 60pxlb"Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn"}}fr"Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn"}}>italics=off}}{{native phrase{{nowrapMir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn>Wir wollen bleiben, was wir sind"}}"We want to remain what we are"}}Ons Heemecht"{{small>"Our Homeland"}}(File:Luxembourg National Anthem.ogg|center)| royal_anthem = "De Wilhelmus"a| image_map = EU-Luxembourg.svglocation_color=dark green Luxembourg}} Europe > region_color=dark grey European Union > subregion_color=green}}| capital = Luxembourg City| largest_city = capital49520654display=inline,title}}French language>French Luxembourgish languageGerman language>GermanStrictly speaking, there is no official language in Luxembourg. No language is mentioned in the Constitution; other laws only speak about Luxembourgish as "national language" and French and German as "administrative languages".







factoids
50.9% Luxembourgers Portuguese Luxembourger>Portuguese French people>French Germans > 7.1% other|item3_style=padding-top:0.2em;line-height:1.2em}}}}Luxembourgers>LuxembourgerUnitary state>Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyMonarchy of Luxembourg>Monarch {{smallList of Grand Dukes of Luxembourg>list)}}Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg>HenriPrime Minister of Luxembourg>Prime Minister {{smallList of Prime Ministers of Luxembourg>list)}}| leader_name2 = Xavier BettelList of Deputy Prime Ministers of Luxembourg>Deputy Prime Minister| leader_name3 = Etienne SchneiderChamber of Deputies (Luxembourg)>Chamber of Deputies| sovereignty_type = IndependenceForêts>French Empire and elevation to Grand Duchy of Luxembourg| established_date1 = 15 March 1815Treaty of London (1839)>Treaty of London)| established_date2 = 19 April 1839Treaty of London (1867)>Treaty of London| established_date3 = 11 May 1867| established_event4 = End of personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands| established_date4 = 23 November 1890Nazi Germany>German Reich| established_date5 = 1944 / 1945United Nations Charter>Admitted to the United Nations| established_date6 = 24 October 1945Enlargement of the European Union#Founding members>Founded the European Economic Community{{refn>group=note|European Union since 1993.}}| established_date7 = 1 January 1958| area_km2 = 2,586.4| area_rank = 168th| area_sq_mi = 998| percent_water = 0.60%PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 1 April 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 94th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $110,870| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 1st| GDP_nominal = $72 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 71st| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $120,061| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 1st| Gini = 28.7 | Gini_year = 2014| Gini_change = decreasePUBLISHER=HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM, 14 September 2018, | Gini_rank = 19th| HDI = 0.904 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseDATE=2016 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 21stEuro (Euro sign>€)b| currency_code = EURCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Central European Summer Time>CEST| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Luxembourg>+352| cctld = .luc| footnote_a = Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.| footnote_b = Before 1999, Luxembourgish franc.| footnote_c = The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.ddd}} CIA â€“ THE WORLD FACTBOOK â€“ FIELD LISTING â€“ DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY INCOME â€“ GINI INDEX >PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ACCESSDATE=3 MAY 2013, }}Luxembourg ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Luxembourg.ogg|ˈ|l|ÊŒ|k|s|É™m|b|ɜːr|É¡}}) ( {{IPA-lb|ˈlÉ™tsÉ™buə̯ɕ||lb-Lëtzebuerg.ogg}}; ; ), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,{{refn|group=note| {{IPA-lb|ˈgʀəʊ̯sËŒhɛχtsoːktuːm ˈlÉ™tsÉ™buːə̯ɕ|}}; {{IPA-fr|ɡʁɑ̃ dyʃe dÉ™ lyksɑ̃buʁ|}} {{IPA-de|ˈgʁoːsËŒhɛɐ̯tsoːktuːm ˈlÊŠksmÌ©ËŒbʊɐ̯k|}}}} is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European UnionWEB,weblink Decision of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States on the location of the seats of the institutions (12 December 1992), Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l'Europe , and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German). The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.BOOK, 2010, History: The Definitive Visual Guide, New York, New York, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 452–453, 978-0-7566-7456-4, With an area of {{convert|2,586|km2|sqmi}}, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe.WEB,weblink Eurostat â€“ Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table, Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 21 February 2010, In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576,249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe,"Population et emploi", 'Le Portail des Statistiques', Statec and State of Luxembourg.. Retrieved 16 April 2017. but by far the one with the highest population growth rate."COUNTRY COMPARISON :: POPULATION GROWTH RATE", The World Factbook''. Retrieved 16 April 2017. Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population.Sarah Krouse, "Piping Hot Gromperekichelcher, Only if You Pass the Sproochentest." WALL STREET JOURNAL, 1/19/2018, p.1 As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city."City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications", 'World Heritage List', UNESCO, World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 16 April 2017.The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 1, 978-2-87999-093-4, BOOK, 2010, Kreins, Jean-Marie, Histoire du Luxembourg, Paris, France, Presses Universitaires de France, 5, Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 2, 978-2-87999-093-4, In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors at the high time of the Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 2–3, 978-2-87999-093-4, Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 3–4, 978-2-87999-093-4, The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 4–5, 978-2-87999-093-4, In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely Oil-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg.BOOK, 2008, A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Département édition, 5–6, 978-2-87999-093-4, The steel industry exploiting the Red Lands' rich iron-ore grounds in the beginning of the 20th century drove the country's industrialisation. ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer with headquarters in Luxembourg City, is still a reminder of these times. After the decline of the steel industry in the 1970s, the country focused on establishing itself as a global financial centre and developed into the banking hub it is reputed for. Since the beginning of the 21st century, its governments have focused on developing the country into a knowledge economy, with the founding of the University of Luxembourg and a national space programme, projecting the first involvement in a robotic lunar expedition by 2020."Le Luxembourg décroche la lune", 'Official Portal of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg', Government of Luxembourg.''. Retrieved 16 April 2017.Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history.WEB,weblink Luxemburger Wort â€“ Asselborn's final Security Council meeting, Wort.lu, 19 December 2014, 2 April 2015, In 2016 Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 15th in the world, tied with countries such as Canada and Switzerland.WEB, Global Ranking â€“ Visa Restriction Index 2016,weblink Henley & Partners, 27 February 2016,

History

File:Karl IV. (HRR).jpg|Charles IV, the 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia from the House of LuxembourgWEB,weblink Emperor Charles IV elected Greatest Czech of all time, Radio Prague, 13 June 2005, 15 October 2010, File:Festungsplan.von.Luxemburg.jpg|Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortificationsFile:Luxembourg fortress before demolition.jpg|Photograph of the fortress of Luxembourg prior to demolition in 1867

County

The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of LucilinburhucKreins (2003), p. 20 (today Luxembourg Castle) situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier.WEB,weblink History of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120202013230weblink">weblink 2 February 2012, Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value.

Duchy

In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.Kreins (2003), p. 39In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French.

Nineteenth century

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in personal union, the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it similarly to a Dutch province. The Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation.Johan Christiaan Boogman: Nederland en de Duitse Bond 1815–1851. Diss. Utrecht, J. B. Wolters, Groningen / Djakarta 1955, pp. 5–8. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned.Thewes, Guy (2006) (PDF). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (2006), p. 208WEB,weblink LUXEMBURG Geschiedenis, Landenweb.net, 1 February 2013, WEB,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, Cia.gov, 1 February 2013, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1997File:Luxemburg-Petrussetal-Viaduc.jpg|thumb|Luxembourg City: The Passerelle, also known as the viaduct or old bridge, overlooking the PétrussePétrusseAt the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zollverein).Kreins (2003), p. 76 This resulted in the opening of the German market, the development of Luxembourg's steel industry, and expansion of Luxembourg's railway network from 1855 to 1875, particularly the construction of the Luxembourg-Thionville railway line, with connections from there to the European industrial regions.Jean-Marie Kreins, Histoire du Luxembourg, 5th edition, Presses Universitaires de France, 2010 While Prussian troops still manned the fortress, in 1861, the Passerelle was opened, the first road bridge spanning the Pétrusse river valley, connecting the Ville Haute and the main fortification on the Bock with Luxembourg railway station, opened in 1859, on the then fortified Bourbon plateau to the south.After the Luxembourg Crisis of 1866 nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, Prussia's troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg, and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled.Kreins (2003), pp. 80–81The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.Kreins (2003), p. 84At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, despite allegations about French use of the Luxembourg railways for passing soldiers from Metz (then part of France) through the Duchy, and for forwarding provisions to Thionville, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by Germany, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country.BOOK, Oakes and Mowat, The Great European treaties of the nineteenth century, 259, The Clarendon Press, 1918,weblink Maartje Abbenhuis, An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics, 1815–1914. Cambridge University Press (2014) {{ISBN|978-1107037601}} But in 1871, as a result of Germany's victory over France, Luxembourg's boundary with Lorraine, containing Metz and Thionville, changed from being a frontier with a part of France to a frontier with territory annexed to the German Empire as Alsace-Lorraine under the Treaty of Frankfurt. This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.File:Luxembourg (city) - view from Metz square.jpg|thumb|View to Place de la Constitution and Gëlle Fra monument, from the capital's Metz square at the Adolphe Bridge end of Avenue de la LibertéAvenue de la Liberté

Twentieth century

(File:Alsace-lorraine.JPG|thumb|left|upright=0.7|Frontier with German Empire's Alsace-Lorraine, from 1871 to 1918)In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France. This allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms.In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourg's neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, "entirely without justification".WEB, The invasion of Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, Judgment of the International Military Tribunal For The Trial of German Major War Criminals'', London HMSO 1951,weblink In contrast to the First World War, under the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, the country was treated as German territory and informally annexed to the adjacent province of the Third Reich. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourg's neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, and in 1949 it became a founding member of NATO.In 1951, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1957 would become the European Economic Community and in 1993 the European Union. In 1999 Luxembourg joined the Eurozone. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held.Timeline: Luxembourg – A chronology of key events BBC News Online, 9 September 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.

Politics

File:Grand Ducal Palace, Luxembourg 1.jpg|thumb|The Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg City, the official residence of the Grand Duke of LuxembourgGrand Duke of LuxembourgFile:Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg.JPG|thumb|The Hall of the Chamber of Deputies, the meeting place of the Luxembourgish national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, in Luxembourg CityLuxembourg CityLuxembourg is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers.WEB,weblink The Luxembourgish government since 1848 (in French), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111016173644weblink">weblink 16 October 2011, dmy-all, The Grand Duke has the power to dissolve the legislature, in which case new elections must be held within three months. However, since 1919, sovereignty has resided with the Nation, exercised by the Grand Duke in accordance with the Constitution and the law.WEB,weblink Constitution of Luxembourg, 23 July 2006, 2005, PDF, Service central de législation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216021501weblink">weblink 16 February 2008, Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral legislature of sixty members, who are directly elected to five-year terms from four constituencies. A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d'État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060619171336weblink">weblink 19 June 2006, Structure of the Conseil d'Etat, 23 July 2006, Conseil d'Etat, yes, dmy, The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals (justices de paix; in Esch-sur-Alzette, the city of Luxembourg, and Diekirch), two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch), and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an Administrative Tribunal and an Administrative Court, as well as a Constitutional Court, all of which are located in the capital.

Administrative divisions

{{Further|Administrative divisions of Luxembourg}}Luxembourg is divided into 12 cantons, which are further divided into 102 communes.WEB,weblink Carte des communes – Luxembourg.lu – Cartes du Luxembourg, Luxembourg.public.lu, 21 September 2011, 1 February 2013, Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourg is the largest.File:LuxembourgPartitionsMap english.png|The three Partitions of Luxembourg greatly reduced Luxembourg's territory.File:Groothertogdom LuxemburgKantons.png|Cantons of Luxembourg

Foreign relations

File:European Court of Justice - Luxembourg (1674586821).jpg|thumb|The European Court of Justice, seated in Luxembourg CityLuxembourg CityLuxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create a regime of inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs. Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village of Schengen where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy. {{Citation needed|date=January 2015}}Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities ("Eurostat") and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in Brussels and sometimes in Strasbourg.

Military

The Army is situated on the "Härebierg" which is Luxemburgish and translates to "men's mountain".WEB,weblink Accueil, SA, Interact, www.armee.lu, fr-FR, 2017-09-13, File:Nato awacs.jpg|thumb|right|A NATO-owned AWACS aircraft]]Luxembourg maintains a very small army of about 800 soldiers and 100 civil servants to its defense and to NATO. Being a landlocked country, it has no navy.Luxembourg also lacks an air force, though the 17 NATO AWACS aeroplanes are, for convenience, registered as aircraft of Luxembourg.WEB,weblink Luxembourg, 23 July 2006, 8 September 2005, Aeroflight.co.uk, In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgium, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane."A400M Loadmaster, Future Large Aircraft – FLA, Avion de Transport Futur – ATF", GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 27 June 2012.

Geography

File:Luxembourg-CIA WFB Map.png|thumb|The largest towns are Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and DifferdangeDifferdangeLuxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 169th in size of all the 194 independent countries of the world; the country is about {{convert|2,586|km2|sqmi}} in size, and measures {{convert|82|km|mi|abbr=on}} long and {{convert|57|km|mi|abbr=on}} wide. It lies between latitudes 49° and 51° N, and longitudes 5° and 7° E WEB,weblink Where is Luxembourg?, WorldAtlas, en, 2018-09-03, To the east, Luxembourg borders the German Bundesländer of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, and to the south, it borders the French région of Lorraine. The Grand Duchy borders the Belgian Walloon Region, in particular the latter's provinces of Luxembourg and Liège, part of which comprises the German-speaking Community of Belgium, to the west and to the north, respectively.The northern third of the country is known as the 'Oesling', and forms part of the Ardennes. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange,WEB,weblink Mountains in Luxembourg, 24 February 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070610225858weblink">weblink 10 June 2007, dmy, , recueil de statistiques par commune. statistiques.public.lu (2003) p. 20 which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). Other mountains are the 'Buurgplaaz' at 559 metres near Huldange and the 'Napoléonsgaard' at 554 metres near Rambrouch. The region is sparsely populated, with only one town (Wiltz) with a population of more than four thousand people.File:Clerve Alscheid.jpg|thumb|left|Typical Luxembourg countryside near AlscheidAlscheidThe southern two-thirds of the country is called the "Gutland", and is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. The Luxembourg plateau, in south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat, sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg. Little Switzerland, in the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border. The Red Lands, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns.The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our. Other major rivers are the Alzette, the Attert, the Clerve, and the Wiltz. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling.According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Luxembourg is one of the world's best performers in environmental protection, ranking 4th out of 132 assessed countriesWEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120505092852weblink">weblink yes, 2012 EPI :: Rankings – Environmental Performance Index, 5 May 2012, 5 May 2012, yale.edu, Luxembourg also ranks 6th among the top ten most livable cities in the world by Mercer's.WEB,weblink MAE – Luxembourg City in the top 10 of the most "livable" cities / News / New York CG / Mini-Sites, Newyork-cg.mae.lu, 2017-07-23, Luxembourg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), marked by high precipitation, particularly in late summer. The summers are warm and winters cool.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928000326weblink">weblink 28 September 2007, Luxembourg, 19 April 2007, Stadtklima (Urban Climate), no, dmy,

Economy

File:Eurozone.svg|thumb|left|upright=0.75|Luxembourg is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and the EurozoneEurozone(File:Luxembourg treemap.png|thumb|Graphical depiction of Luxembourg's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories)File:Spuerkeess headquarters 2012-04.JPG|thumb|Banque et Caisse d'Épargne de l'État in the city of Luxembourg ]]Luxembourg's stable and high-income market economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and a high level of innovation.WEB,weblink The Global Innovation Index 2012, 22 July 2012, INSEAD, Unemployment is traditionally low, although it had risen to 6.1% by May 2012, due largely to the effect of the 2008 global financial crisis.WEB,weblink Statistics Portal Luxembourg – Home, Statistiques.public.lu, 2 April 2015, Consequently, Luxembourg's economy was forecast to have negligible growth in 2012.[https:www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2012/01/daily-chart?fsrc=nlw|newe|1-4-2012|new_on_the_economist "Growth in 2012"], Which economies will grow and shrink the fastest in 2012?. The Economist online 4 January 2012. In 2011, according to the IMF, Luxembourg was the second richest country in the world, with a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity (PPP) basis of $80,119.Data refer mostly to the year 2011. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2012, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 18 April 2012. Luxembourg is ranked 13th in The Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom,WEB,weblink 2011 Index of Economic Freedom, 15 January 2011, The Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal, 26th in the United Nations Human Development Index, and 4th in the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life index.NEWS,weblink World Life Quality Index 2005, 23 July 2006, 2005, PDF, Economist Intelligence Unit, External debt of Luxembourg is $14,385,000,000, or a per capital debt of $24,308. The debt to GDP is 23%. WEB,weblink Luxembourg National Debt 2017, The industrial sector, which was dominated by steel until the 1960s, has since diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel production. Services, especially banking and finance, account for the majority of economic output. Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund centre (after the United States), the most important private banking centre in the Eurozone and Europe's leading centre for reinsurance companies. Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract Internet start-ups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many Internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg.In April 2009, concern about Luxembourg's banking secrecy laws, as well as its reputation as a tax haven, led to its being added to a "grey list" of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G20. In response, the country soon after adopted OECD standards on exchange of information and was subsequently added into the category of "jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard".WEB,weblink Luxembourg makes progress in OECD standards on tax information exchange, OECD, 8 July 2009, WEB,weblink A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum, PDF, July 2009, OECD, In March 2010, the Sunday Telegraph reported that most of Kim Jong-Il's $4 billion in secret accounts is in Luxembourg banks.WEB,weblink Kim Jong-il $4bn emergency fund in European banks, March 2010, Telegraph, Amazon.co.uk also benefits from Luxembourg tax loopholes by channeling substantial UK revenues as reported by The Guardian in April 2012.NEWS,weblink How one word change lets Amazon pays less tax on its UK activities, TheGuardian, 4 April 2012, London, Ian, Griffiths, Luxembourg ranked third on the Tax Justice Network's 2011 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's major tax havens, scoring only slightly behind the Cayman Islands.WEB,weblink PDF, Embargo 4 October 0.01 AM Central European Times, Financialsecrecyindex.com, 2 April 2015, In 2013, Luxembourg is ranked as the 2nd safest tax haven in the world, behind Switzerland.Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms.Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands (see Benelux), and as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market.With $171 billion in May 2015, the country ranks eleventh in the world in holdings of U.S. Treasury securities.WEB,weblink Major foreign holders of treasury securities, U.S. Department of the Treasury, However, securities owned by non-Luxembourg residents, but held in custodial accounts in Luxembourg, are also included in this figure.WEB,weblink What are the problems of geographic attribution for securities holdings and transactions in the TIC system?, U.S. Treasury International Capital (TIC) reporting system,

Transport

{{See also|History of rail transport in Luxembourg}}File:LUX Check-In Schalter.jpg|thumb|Luxembourg's international airline Luxair is based at Luxembourg AirportLuxembourg AirportLuxembourg has efficient road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernised in recent years with {{convert|147|km|mi|abbr=on}} of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Paris has led to renovation of the city's railway station and a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport was opened in 2008. Luxembourg city reintroduced trams in December 2017 and there are plans to open light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.The number of cars per 1000 persons amount to 680.1 in Luxembourg — higher than all but two states, namely the Principality of Monaco and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.WEB,weblink Top Ten: Die Länder mit der höchsten Pkw-Dichte – manager magazin – Unternehmen, Manager-magazin.de, 2 April 2015,

Communications

The telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalised and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet TelecomWEB,weblink Legilux – Réseaux et services de communications électroniques, Legilux.public.lu, 2 April 2015, of the Government of 2011 which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgish law. This encourages the investment in networks and services. The regulator ILR – Institut Luxembourgeois de RégulationWEB,weblink Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation – Communications électroniques, Ilr.public.lu, 2 April 2015, ensures the compliance to these legal rules.Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fiber and cable networks throughout the country. In 2010, the Luxembourg Government launched its National strategy for very high-speed networks with the aim to become a global leader in terms of very high-speed broadband by achieving full 1 Gbit/s coverage of the country by 2020.WEB,weblink Service des médias et des communications (SMC) – gouvernement.lu L'actualité du gouvernement du Luxembourg, Mediacom.public.lu, 2 April 2015, In 2011, Luxembourg had an NGA coverage of 75%.WEB, http:ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/dae/document.cfm?action=display&doc_id=1102, Study on broadband coverage 2011. Retrieved on 25 January 2013., 7 October 2013, In April 2013, Luxembourg featured the 6th highest download speed worldwide and the 2nd highest in Europe: 32,46 Mbit/s.WEB,weblink Household Download Index. Retrieved on 9 April 2013, Netindex.com, 6 April 2011, 7 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529015231weblink">weblink 29 May 2015, The country's location in Central Europe, stable economy and low taxes favour the telecommunication industry.WEB,weblink Eurohub Luxembourg – putting Europe at your fingertips, 19 February 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081119195535weblink">weblink 19 November 2008, dmy, . Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade of Luxembourg. August 2008WEB,weblink American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg – Why Luxembourg?, WEB,weblink 23 June 2009, Financial express special issue on Luxembourg, PDF, 13 August 2010, It ranks 2nd in the world in the development of the Information and Communication Technologies in the ITU ICT Development Index and 8th in the Global Broadband Quality Study 2009 by the University of Oxford and the University of Oviedo.WEB, pressinfo,weblink Press Release: New ITU report shows global uptake of ICTs increasing, prices falling, Itu.int, 23 February 2010, 23 April 2010, WEB,weblink Luxembourg ranks on the top in the ITU ICT survey, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB,weblink Global Broadband Quality Study, Socsci.ox.ac.uk, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Global Broadband Quality Study Shows Progress, Highlights Broadband Quality Gap, PDF, 13 August 2010, Said Business School, University of Oxford, File:Centre Drosbach Luxembourg Signs - June 2012.jpg|thumb|Signs in front of the Centre Drosbach on the Cloche d'or, in the city of Luxembourg ]]Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges (AMS-IX Amsterdam,WEB,weblink ams-ix.net, ams-ix.net, 7 October 2013, DE-CIX Frankfurt,WEB,weblink de-cix.net, de-cix.net, 7 October 2013, LINX London),WEB,weblink linx.net, linx.net, 7 October 2013, datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks.WEB,weblink ICT Business Environment in Luxembourg, Luxembourgforict.lu, 13 August 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721163039weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, Tom Kettels, 15 May 2009, ICT And E-Business – Be Global from Luxembourg, PDF, 13 August 2010, no, dmy, WEB,weblink PricewaterhouseCoopers Invest in Luxembourg, Pwc.com, 13 August 2010, WEB,weblink Why Luxembourg? A highly strategic position in the heart of Europe, teralink.lu, 13 August 2010, WEB,weblink ITU-T ICT Statistics : Luxembourg, Itu.int, 13 August 2010, In addition, the country is connected to the virtual meetme room services (vmmr)WEB,weblink Telx Partners with German Hub Provider ancotel to Provide Virtual Connections between U.S. and Europe, PDF, 13 August 2010, of the international data hub operator Ancotel.WEB,weblink Globale Rechenzentren | Colocation mit niedrigen Latenzen für Finanzunternehmen, CDNs, Enterprises & Cloud-Netzwerke bei Equinix, Ancotel.de, 2 April 2015, de, This enables Luxembourg to interconnect with all major telecommunication operatorsWEB,weblink Ancotel – Telecommunication Operator References, Ancotel.de, 13 August 2010, and data carriers worldwide. The interconnection points are in Frankfurt, London, New York and Hong Kong.WEB,weblink Networks Accessible in Frankfurt via the VMMR Solution offered by Telx/ancotel, PDF, 13 August 2010, Several providers interconnect Luxembourg to the major European data hubs:
  • TeralinkWEB,weblink Teralink, Teralink.lu, 7 October 2013, (P&TLuxembourg, also called EPT Luxembourg: incumbent operator)WEB,weblink Teralink P&T Luxembourg, Teralink.lu, 2 April 2015,
  • LuxConnectWEB,weblink Welcome to LuxConnect &124; LuxConnect, Luxconnect.lu, 2 April 2015, (shareholder : Government) LuxConnect tested the 100G coherent transmission of data signals between Luxembourg and Amsterdam in June 2011.WEB,weblink LuxConnect hosted the first coherent 100G service testing, Paperjam.lu, 2 April 2015,
  • Artelis/CegecomWEB,weblink Artelis Website, Artelis.lu, 2 April 2015, (alternative telecommunications provider in Luxembourg and Saarland)
  • Satellite connectivity – Teleports (SES),WEB,weblink PDF, SES : Global Fleet and access Network, Ses.com, 2 April 2015, Broadcasting Center EuropeWEB,weblink EUROPEAN TELECOM NETWORK, 6 March 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722153517weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, dmy, . broadcasting center Europe. BCE.lu and P&T Luxembourg Teleport.WEB,weblink POST.lu, Teralink.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink The World Teleport Directory, Worldteleport.org, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Uplink Stations, Uplinkstation.com, 2 April 2015,
Luxembourg is connected through an optical DWDM network, called TeralinkWEB,weblink POST.lu, Teralink.lu, 2 April 2015, to several Tier 1 upstream providers like Level3 and Global Crossing. Teralink offers connectivities up to 100 Gbit/s. P&TLuxembourg established a coherent 100Gbit/s IP connection between Frankfurt and Luxembourg with live traffic in 2011.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111016173626weblink">weblink yes, 16 October 2011, International Solutions TERALINK and Cloud services, PDF, Ictspring.com, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Luxembourg, Your European Hub for Online Business and E-Commerce, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111016170418weblink">weblink 16 October 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink P&TLuxembourg employs Alcatel-Lucent for 100G optical, Ethernet network, Fiercetelecom.com, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink P&T Luxembourg Does 100G With AlcaLu, Heavyreading.com, 2 April 2015, The Internet IPV6 protocol has been introduced to the country by Restena and P&T Luxembourg.WEB,weblink IPv6 Council Luxembourg, PDF, 13 August 2010, Luxembourg has one Internet exchange point and one Carrier Ethernet Exchange point.
  • LU-CIX is Luxembourg's neutral and commercial Internet Exchange Point which was founded in 2009 by Cegecom, Datacentre Luxembourg, Global Media Systems, INEXIO, LuxConnect, P&T Luxembourg and Root eSolutions. It offers a short, fast and efficient route to the major European Internet networks.WEB,weblink Why LU-CIX, Lu-cix.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink LU-CIX in P&T Solutions, Pt.lu, 2 April 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927060623weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, dmy-all, In 2012, LIX, the neutral Internet exchange operated by the RESTENA Foundation, merged with LU-CIX.WEB,weblink Merger between LIX and LU-CIX, Lix.lu, 2 April 2015, In March 2013, LU-CIX launched the 'Central European Peering Hub' in order to provide the opportunity to its members to connect to other IXs' reseller programs, AMS-IX (Amsterdam), LINX (London), DE-CIX (Frankfurt) and France-IX (Paris), etc.WEB,weblink LU-CIX and IX Reach Open up Connectivity to Major Internet Exchanges, Lu-cix.lu, 2 April 2015,
  • LIX is the Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange located in the Tier IV certified eBRC datacentre.WEB,weblink Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange (LEX), Ebrc.lu, 2 April 2015,
The online portal De Guichetweblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121230225818weblink|date=30 December 2012}} of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a single one-stop online shop for citizens and companies to undertake various administrative operations (procedures, online forms, downloadable forms, and advice) by Internet.WEB,weblink A future for all in the information society, Eluxembourg.public.lu, 2 April 2015, PSA Peugeot Citroën, with P&TLuxembourg as its partner, has introduced an integrated mobile telecommunication solution for the development of its telematic services in Europe.WEB,weblink PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution, Psa-peugeot-citroen.com, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution., Psa-peugeot-citroen.com, 2 April 2015,

Data centres

Some 20 data centresWEB,weblink European Datacentres: Luxembourg, Ict.luxembourg.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Luxembourg as a Centre for Online and ICT Business (pdf)., SMediacom.public.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Data Center Europe, are operating in Luxembourg. Six data centers are Tier IV Design certified: three of ebrc,WEB,weblink ebrc Datacenter Facilities, Ebrc.lu, 2 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021071852weblink">weblink 21 October 2013, yes, dmy-all, two of LuxConnect WEB,weblink LuxConnect ICT campus Bettembourg DC 1.1, Luxconnect.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink LuxConnect ICT campus Bissen/Roost DC 2, Luxconnect.lu, 2 April 2015, and one of European Data Hub.WEB,weblink Uptime Tier Certification, Uptimeinstitute.com, 2 April 2015, In a survey on nine international data centers carried out in December 2012 and January 2013 and measuring availability (up-time) and performance (delay by which the data from the requested website was received), the top three positions were held by Luxembourg data centers.WEB,weblink New data center study: Luxembourg in pole position, Ict.luxembourg.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Soluxions magazine: Luxembourg en pole position, Soluxions-magazine.com, 2 April 2015,

FinTech

Luxembourg has established itself as one of the leading financial technology (FinTech) hubs in Europe, with the Luxembourg government supporting initiatives like the Luxembourg House of Financial Technology.WEB,weblink Luxembourg’s politicians pin economic hopes on fintech drive, 2017-06-23, Financial Times, en-GB, 2018-06-26,

Demographics

Largest towns

{{Largest cities of Luxembourg}}

Ethnicity

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers.WEB,weblink Luxembourg Presidency – Being a Luxembourger, Eu2005.lu, 29 December 2004, 25 April 2010, The immigrant population increased in the 20th century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from the latter: in 2013 there were about 88,000 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality.WEB, Population par sexe et par nationalité (x 1 000) 1981, 1991, 2001–2013,weblink Le portail des Statistiques, 9 April 2014, In 2013, there were 537,039 permanent residents, 44.5% of which were of foreign background or foreign nationals; the largest foreign ethnic groups were the Portuguese, comprising 16.4% of the total population, followed by the French (6.6%), Italians (3.4%), Belgians (3.3%) and Germans (2.3%). Another 6.4% were of other EU background, while the remaining 6.1% were of other non-EU, but largely other European, background."La progression de la population du Grand-Duché continue: 537 039 résidants au 1er janvier 2013." Statnews 16/2013, op statec.lu, 18 April 2013. (in French).Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well as Eastern Europe. In 2000 there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 illegal immigrants in Luxembourg in 1999.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050430134727weblink">weblink yes, 30 April 2005, The Regularisation of Unauthorised Migrants: Literature Survey and Country Case Studies – Regularisation programmes in Luxembourg, 2 September 2006, PDF, Amanda Levinson, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford, dmy, Largest Groups of Immigrants:WEB,weblink International migrant stock: The 2017 revision, United Nations,
  1. {{Flagicon|Portugal}} Portugal (100,460)
  2. {{Flagicon|France}} France (38,384)
  3. {{Flagicon|Italy}} Italy (21,877)
  4. {{Flagicon|Belgium}} Belgium (21,008)
  5. {{Flagicon|Germany}} Germany (15,056)
  6. {{Flagicon|Montenegro}} Montenegro (9,065)
  7. {{Flagicon|United Kingdom}} United Kingdom (6,946)
  8. {{Flagicon|Serbia}} Serbia (6,282)
  9. {{Flagicon|Netherlands}} Netherlands (4,734)
  10. {{Flagicon|Spain}} Spain (4,241)

Language

File:LUX-5f2.jpg|thumb|Coin of the former (Luxembourgish franc|Luxembourg franc]] in two of the country's three languages: French (obverse, left) and Luxembourgish (reverse, right))The linguistic situation of Luxemburg is complex. It is characterized by the existence of a language specific to the local population (Luxembourgish), mixed with the historical presence of the two major languages spoken in the surrounding countries (French and German).Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region that is also spoken in neighbouring parts of Belgium, Germany and France. Though Luxembourgish is part of the West Central German group of High German languages, more than 5,000 words in the language are of French origin.WEB,weblink Origins of Luxembourgish (in French), Migration Information Source, WEB,weblink Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR), Europarl.europa.eu, 14 December 2000, 2 April 2015, The first printed sentences in Luxembourgish appeared in a weekly journal, the 'Luxemburger Wochenblatt', in the second edition on 14 April 1821.Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or "language of the heart" for the local population.WEB, Europeans and Their Languages,weblink PDF, European Commission, 2006, 5 November 2009, 7, Due to the historical influence of the Napoleonic Code on the legal system of the Grand Duchy, French is the sole language of the legislation. French is generally the preferred language of the government, administration and justice. The parliamentary debates are however mostly conducted in Luxembourgish, whereas the written government communications and the official documents (e.g. administrative or judicial decisions, passports etc.) are drafted only in French.Every resident has the right to address the administration in the language of their choice among the three official languages, and to be answered in that language.In the everyday life, road signs are only in French, written communications to the public are either only in French or in both French and Luxembourgish, while German is much more present in the media, alongside with French.Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres, without being exclusive. Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other, but it is not often used as the written language. Since the 1980s, however, an increasing number of novels have been written in Luxembourgish. Most official business is carried out in French. German is very often used in much of the media.WEB,weblink À propos des langues, 1 August 2006, PDF, 3–4, Service Information et Presse, fr, . Among the numerous expatriate workers, French seems to be the lingua franca, alongside with English in some sectors.Luxembourg is member of the International Organisation of the Francophonie.According to a recent survey, French is the language spoken by most residents (99%), followed by Luxembourgish (82%), German (81%) and English (72%)Fernand Fehlen, BaleineBis : une enquête sur un marché linguistique multilingue en profonde mutation. LuxemburgsSprachenmarkt in Wandel, Luxembourg, SESOPI, 2009. Although professional life is largely multilingual, French is described by private sector business leaders as the main working language of their company (56%), followed by Luxembourgish (20%), English (18%) and German (6%)Les langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2014), Université du Luxembourg, IPSE Identités, Politiques, Sociétés, Espaces, Working Paper, Juin 2015. Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in German, before changing to Luxembourgish; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French.WEB,weblink The Trilingual Education system in Luxembourg, 9 June 2007, Tel2l – Teacher Education by Learning through two languages, University of Navarra, Proficiency in all three languages is required for graduation from secondary school, but half the students leave school without a certified qualification, with the children of immigrants being particularly disadvantaged.WEB,weblink Immigration in Luxembourg: New Challenges for an Old Country, 9 June 2007, Migration Information Source, In addition to the three national languages, English is taught in compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English. The past two decades have highlighted the growing importance of English in several sectors, in particular the financial sector. Portuguese, the language of the largest immigrant community, is also spoken by large segments of the population, but by relatively few from outside the Portuguese-speaking community.WEB,weblink Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR), Europarl.europa.eu, 14 December 2000, 9 May 2010,

Religion

File:Notre Dame Cathedral Luxembourg.JPG|thumb|upright=0.7|Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg City]]Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognises certain religions as officially mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages. Currently, religions covered by such arrangements are Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Mennonitism and Islam.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080522103349weblink">weblink 22 May 2008, D'Wort article (German), 24 July 2007, www.wort.lu, fr, no, dmy, Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices.WEB,weblink Mémorial A, 1979, No. 29, 1 August 2006, PDF, Service central de législation, fr, An estimation by the CIA Factbook for the year 2000 is that 87% of Luxembourgers are Catholic, including the grand ducal family, the remaining 13% being made up of Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, Muslims, and those of other or no religion.WEB,weblink World Factbook – Luxembourg, 13 January 2007, 19 December 2006, Central Intelligence Agency, According to a 2010 Pew Research Center study 70.4% are Christian, 2.3% Muslim, 26.8% unaffiliated and 0.5% other religions.WEB,weblink Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, Features.pewforum.org, 18 December 2012, 2 April 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130101080244weblink">weblink 1 January 2013, According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll,Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060524004644weblink |date=24 May 2006 }} – page 11 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

Education

File:University luxemburg lmp main.jpg|thumb|The University of LuxembourgUniversity of Luxembourg{{See also|List of secondary schools in Luxembourg}}The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in Luxembourg. Two American universities maintain campuses in the country, the Miami University Dolibois European Center and Sacred Heart University Luxembourg.WEB,weblink Home {{!, John E. Dolibois European Center {{!}} Miami University|website=www.units.miamioh.edu|access-date=28 December 2016}}

Health

Luxembourg sells the most alcohol in Europe per capita.WEB,weblink World/Global Alcohol/Drink Consumption 2009, Finfacts.ie, 2 April 2015, However, the large proportion of alcohol purchased by customers from neighboring countries contributes to the statistically high level of alcohol sales per capita; this level of alcohol sales is thus not representative of the actual alcohol consumption of the Luxembourg population.WEB,weblink Consommation annuelle moyenne d'alcool par habitant, Catholic Ministry of Health, sante.gouv.fr, 2007, yes,weblink 12 January 2012, dmy,

Culture

File:Edward Steichen.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Edward SteichenEdward SteichenLuxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours. It retains a number of folk traditions, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. These include the National Museum of History and Art (NMHA), the Luxembourg City History Museum, and the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam). The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722155017weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, Culture, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Luxembourg, no, dmy, The country has produced some internationally known artists, including the painters Théo Kerg, Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, and photographer Edward Steichen, whose The Family of Man exhibition has been placed on UNESCO's Memory of the World register, and is now permanently housed in Clervaux. Movie star Loretta Young was of Luxembourgish descent.Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, the European Capital of CultureWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110503184358weblink">weblink 3 May 2011, Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007, June 2008, yes, dmy, was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders physically, psychologically, artistically and emotionally.Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721012004weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, Environmental Report for Expo 2010 Shanghai China, June 2009, 85, no, dmy, WEB,weblink Luxembourg pavilion at the World Expo 2010 Shanghai, The pavilion was based on the transliteration of the word Luxembourg into Chinese, "Lu Sen Bao", which means "Forest and Fortress". It represented Luxembourg as the "Green Heart in Europe".WEB,weblink PDF, Luxembourg pavilion displays green heart of Europe, Shanghai Daily, 12 November 2007, 24 December 2011, {{clear}}

Sports

File:Charly Gaul 1959 (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Charly Gaul won three Grand Tours in his cycling career.]]Unlike most countries in Europe, sport in Luxembourg is not concentrated upon a particular national sport, but encompasses a number of sports, both team and individual. Despite the lack of a central sporting focus, over 100,000 people in Luxembourg, out of a total population of near 500,000–600,000, are licensed members of one sports federation or another.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040623101906weblink">weblink 23 June 2004, Luxembourg, 25 November 2006, 2003, Council of Europe, yes, dmy, The largest sports venue in the country is d'Coque, an indoor arena and Olympic swimming pool in Kirchberg, north-eastern Luxembourg City, which has a capacity of 8,300. The arena is used for basketball, handball, gymnastics, and volleyball, including the final of the 2007 Women's European Volleyball Championship. The national stadium (also the country's largest) is the Stade Josy Barthel, in western Luxembourg City; named after the country's only official Olympic gold medallist, the stadium has a capacity of 8,054.Notable sportspeople include (see also List of Luxembourgish Sportspeople of the Year):

Cuisine

File:JuddMatGaardebounen Beer.JPG|thumb|upright=0.7|Judd mat Gaardebounen, served with boiled potatoes and DiekirchDiekirchLuxembourg cuisine reflects its position on the border between the Latin and Germanic worlds, being heavily influenced by the cuisines of neighboring France and Germany. More recently, it has been enriched by its many Italian and Portuguese immigrants.Most native Luxembourg dishes, consumed as the traditional daily fare, share roots in the country's folk dishes the same as in neighboring Germany.

Media

The main languages of media in Luxembourg are French and German. The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort.WEB,weblink Luxemburger Wort, Wort.lu, 2 April 2015, . Because of the strong multilingualism in Luxembourg, newspapers often alternate articles in French and articles in German, without translation. In addition there are both English and Portuguese radio and national print publications, but accurate audience figures are difficult to gauge since the national media survey by ILRES WEB,weblink TNS ILRES – Home, Tns-ilres.com, 2 April 2015, is conducted in French.Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations (Radio Luxembourg and RTL Group). It is also the uplink home of SES, carrier of major European satellite services for Germany and Britain.Due to a 1988 law that established a special tax scheme for audiovisual investment, the film and co-production in Luxembourg has grown steadily.WEB,weblink Luxembourg, a film country, Eu2005.lu, 29 December 2004, 25 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100421235925weblink">weblink 21 April 2010, dmy-all, There are some 30 registered production companies in Luxembourg.WEB,weblink Film Fund Luxembourg, En.filmfund.lu, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Luxembourgish Film Production Companies, Cna.public.lu, 2 April 2015, Luxembourg won an Oscar in 2014 in the Animated Short Films category with Mr Hublot.

Notable Luxembourgers

See also

Footnotes

{{Reflist|group=note|30em}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

External links

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