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Russia
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{{about|the country}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia}}{{Coord|60|N|90|E|display=title}}{{Use dmy dates|date = August 2019}}







factoids
>Rossiyskaya Federatsiya}}| image_flag = Flag of Russia.svg| image_coat = Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svgNational anthem of Russia>"Государственный гимнРоссийской Федерации"{{smallRomanization of Russian>tr.)}} {{small"Gosudarstvenny gimnRossiyskoy Federatsii"}}{{small>"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"}}(File:National Anthem of Russia (2000), instrumental, one verse.ogg|center)| image_map = Russian Federation (orthographic projection) - only Crimea disputed.svg| map_width = 220pxCrimean Peninsula (List of territorial disputes#Europe>disputed){{refnThe Crimean Peninsula, claimed and de facto Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation by Russia, is United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262>recognized as territory of Ukraine by a majority of UN member nations.TAYLOR>FIRST=ADAMURL=HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/BLOGS/WORLDVIEWS/WP/2014/03/22/CRIMEA-HAS-JOINED-THE-RANKS-OF-THE-WORLDS-GRAY-AREAS-HERE-ARE-THE-OTHERS-ON-THAT-LIST/ACCESSDATE=MARCH 27, 2014, March 22, 2014, }}| capital = Moscow55N37type:city}}| largest_city = capitaland national language}}Russian language>RussianRecognised}} {{nowrap|national languages}}| languages2 = See Languages of Russia| ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| 81.0% Russian
| 3.7% Tatar
| 1.4% Ukrainian
| 1.2% Armenian
| 1.1% Bashkir
| 1.0% Chuvash
| | {{nowrap|11.0% others{{}}unspecified}}
}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2010| ethnic_groups_ref =
Russians>RussianFederalism#Russian Federation>Federal Dominant-party system Semi-presidential system>semi-presidential Republics:Constitution of Russia]]under anAuthoritarianism>authoritarian systemHTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/NEWS/MONKEY-CAGE/WP/2018/03/13/RUSSIA-HAS-TWO-POLITICAL-SYSTEMS-NORMAL-CHAOS-AND-PUTINS-OVERRIDE/>TITLE=HOW PUTIN'S REGIME IS BOTH AUTHORITARIAN AND INCOMPETENTDATE=MARCH 14, 2018, HTTPS://FREEDOMHOUSE.ORG/REPORT/NATIONS-TRANSIT/2018/RUSSIA>TITLE=RUSSIA - COUNTRY PROFILEDATE=11 APRIL 2018, President of Russia>President| leader_name1 = Vladimir PutinPrime Minister of Russia>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Dmitry MedvedevChairman of the Federation Council (Russia)>Chairman of the Federation Council| leader_name3 = Valentina Matviyenko| leader_title4 = Chairman of the State Duma| leader_name4 = Vyacheslav VolodinFederal Assembly (Russia)>Federal AssemblyFederation Council (Russia)>Federation Council| lower_house = State DumaHistory of Russia>FormationRurikHTTP://WWW.1150RUSSIA.RU/UKAZ-PREZIDENTA-RF-O-PRAZDNOVANII-1150-LETIYA-ZAROZHDENIYA-ROSSIYSKOY-GOSUDARSTVENNOSTI.HTML TRANS-TITLE=PRESIDENTIAL DECREE "ON CELEBRATING THE 1150TH ANNIVERSARY OF RUSSIAN STATEHOOD" AUTHOR= WEBSITE=WWW.1150RUSSIA.RU ACCESS-DATE=20 OCTOBER 2016 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140714233159/HTTP://WWW.1150RUSSIA.RU/UKAZ-PREZIDENTA-RF-O-PRAZDNOVANII-1150-LETIYA-ZAROZHDENIYA-ROSSIYSKOY-GOSUDARSTVENNOSTI.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD, | established_date1 = 862| established_event2 = Kievan Rus'formed| established_date2 = 882Grand Duchy of Moscow>Grand Duchy| established_date3 = 1283Tsardom of Russia>Tsardomproclaimed| established_date4 = 16 January 1547Russian Empire>Empireproclaimed| established_date5 = 22 October 1721Russian Republic>Republicproclaimed| established_date6 = 14 September 1917Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic>Soviet ruleestablished| established_date7 = 7 November 1917Soviet UnionTreaty on the Creation of the USSR>formed| established_date8 = 30 December 1922Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic>Constitutionalreform| established_date9 = 12 June 1990Belavezha Accords>BelavezhaAccordsThe Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR ratified the accords on 12 December, denouncing the 1922 treaty.}}Dissolution of the Soviet Union>AccordseffectiveOn 25 December, Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation and the following day the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union ratified the accords, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union.}}Constitution of Russia>Currentconstitution| established_date12 = 12 December 1993| established_event13 = Union State withBelarus formed| established_date13 = 2 April 1996| area_km2 = 17098246PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. STATISTICS DIVISION ACCESS-DATE=APRIL 24, 2018 group=noteWhen including the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, the total area of Russia rises to {{convinfoboxkm2sqmi}}HTTPS://ROSREESTR.RU/UPLOAD/DOC/18-UPR/%D0%A1%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%20%D1%84.22%20%D0%B7%D0%B0%202016%20%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%20(%D0%BF%D0%BE%20%D1%81%D1%83%D0%B1%D1%8A%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BC%20%D0%A0%D0%A4)_%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%B9%D1%82.DOC >SCRIPT-TITLE=RU:Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 JANUARY 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)WEBSITE=ROSREESTR, }}| area_rank = 1stARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110728064121/HTTP://WWW.GKS.RU/SCRIPTS/FREE/1C.EXE?XXXX09F.2.1%2F010000R WEBSITE=FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICE URL-STATUS=DEAD,  {{small|(including swamps)}}(including Crimea)}}Население России сократилось впервые за 10 лет.>URL=HTTPS://WWW.RBC.RU/SOCIETY/23/01/2019/5C489D9D9A79470C1A910C92?FROM=MAIN_RIGHTWEBSITE=WWW.RBC.RU, | population_estimate_year = 2019| population_estimate_rank = 9th| population_density_km2 = 8.4| population_density_sq_mi = 21.5| population_density_rank = 225thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=19 OCTOBER 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 6th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = {{increase}} $29,642| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 49th| GDP_nominal = {{decrease}} $1.638 trillion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 11th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{decrease}} $11,163| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 60th| Gini = 37.7 | Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER= WORLD BANK, 2 November 2017, | Gini_rank = 98th| HDI = 0.816 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 49thRussian ruble (Ruble sign>₽)| currency_code = RUB| utc_offset = +2 to +12| date_format = dd.mm.yyyy| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Russia>+7.ru .su >.рф}}Religion in Russia>See Religion in Russia| today = }}Russia (), or the Russian FederationWEB, The Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Article 1),weblink 25 June 2009, : The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equal. (), is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Russia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 31 January 2008, At {{convert|17125200|km2|mi2}},WEB,weblink General Information, Russian Embassy, Washington DC, it is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area,WEB,weblink Территория и население Российской Федерации, dead,weblink 16 April 2016, WEB,weblink Russia, WEB,weblink Рекорды и антирекорды России, 4 February 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160309035032weblink">weblink 9 March 2016, dead, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people {{as of|2019|lc=y}}, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Russia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 31 January 2008, Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.WEB, Excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.), Russia: A Country Study: Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods, Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1998,weblink 20 July 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927230631weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century.BOOK, Prawdin, Michael, Michael Prawdin, Chaliand, Gérard, Introduction, 1967, The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy,weblink Transaction Publishers, 512–550, 978-1-4128-2897-0, The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.JOURNAL, Rein Taagepera, Rein Taagepera, Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia, International Studies Quarterly, 41, 3, 475–504, 1997, 10.1111/0020-8833.00053,weblink WEB, Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall, Jonathan M. Adams,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070222011511weblink">weblink 22 February 2007, East-West Orientation of Historical Empires, Journal of World-Systems Research, Vol. 12 (no. 2), 219–229, 2006, Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state.BOOK, Jonathan R. Adelman, Cristann Lea Gibson, Contemporary Soviet Military Affairs: The Legacy of World War II,weblink 15 June 2012, 1 July 1989, Unwin Hyman, 978-0-04-445031-3, 4, The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II,BOOK, Weinberg, G. L., A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, 978-0-521-55879-2, Cambridge University Press, 264, 1995, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.BOOK, GDP – Million 1990, CIA Factbook, 1991,weblink 30 November 2015, Scott and Scott (1979) p. 305WEB,weblink October 30, 1961 – The Tsar Bomba: CTBTO Preparatory Commission, Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union.The political system of Russia is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic since 1993. Under Vladimir Putin's rule since 2000, Russia has been criticized by a number of human rights groups, outside observers and political dissidents for its authoritarian rule, unfair human rights record and violations, sham elections, military interventions in Syria and Ukraine, alleged interference in the 2016 American elections and repression of its homosexual population.WEB,weblink Russia Fined for Anti-LGBT Actions, Human Rights Watch, July 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Barr personally asked foreign officials to aid inquiry into CIA, FBI activities in 2016, The Washington Post, September 30, 2019, WEB,weblink Why Putin's sham election shows what he's afraid of, The Washington Post, March 20, 2018, The Russian government's stated purpose for the law is to protect children from being exposed to homosexuality—content presenting homosexuality as being a norm in society.NEWS, 87% of Russians oppose gay parades,weblink The Moscow Times, 12 March 2013, The intervention in Syria produced significant gains for the Syrian government,NEWS, Russian Intervention in Syrian War Has Sharply Reduced U.S. Options,weblink New York Times, 10 February 2016, including the recapture of Palmyra from the Islamic State in March 2016, retaking the major city of Aleppo in December 2016, breaking the three-year-long siege of Deir ez-Zor and securing control over that city in November 2017.NEWS, Assad and Putin Meet, as Russia Pushes to End Syrian War,weblink New York Times, 21 November 2017, His controversial actions in Ukraine led to sanctions following the annexation of Crimea in 2014.WEB,weblink Canadian Sanctions Related to Ukraine, Government of Canada, WEB,weblink With Sanctions on Russians, U.S. Warns Against Foreign Election Meddling, New York Times, September 30, 2019, WEB,weblink UN Slams Human Rights Violations in Crimea, The Moscow Times, September 30, 2019, Russia responded with sanctions against a number of countries, including a total ban on food imports from the United States.Sanctions tit-for-tat: Moscow strikes back against US officials {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140801225928weblink |date=1 August 2014 }} RTWEB,weblink О мерах по реализации Указа Президента России "О применении отдельных специальных экономических мер в целях обеспечения безопасности Российской Федерации", On measures to implement the Decree of the President of Russia "On the application of certain special economic measures in order to ensure the security of the Russian Federation", Russian, government.ru, 7 August 2014, 21 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140903212819weblink">weblink 3 September 2014, live, dmy-all, It is ranked 138 out of 180 countries in the 2018 Corruption Perceptions IndexWEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 – Transparency International, Transparency International, 29 January 2017, and 24 of 29 in the 2018 Nations in Transit Report by Freedom House, while being ranked 144th in the 2018 Democracy Index. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018.WEB,weblink International Monetary Fund, International Monetary Fund, IMF, 2 April 2019, Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,WEB,weblink Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia, Unesco.ru, 29 October 2010, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN,NEWS, Strengthened ASEAN-Russian military links are a signal Russia is serious about its pivot to Asia,weblink www.aseantoday.com, NEWS, Desk, Devdiscourse News, Russia and ASEAN reaffirm to deepen their partnership {{!, Global Edition |url=https://www.devdiscourse.com/Article/8113-russia-and-asean-reaffirm-to-deepen-their-partnership |work=Devdiscourse }}WEB, ASEAN – Russia,weblink en.russia-asean20.ru, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the International Investment Bank (IIB) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Etymology

{{See also|Russian (disambiguation)}}The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriorsWEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Etymonline.com, 2 November 2011, WEB,weblink Rus – definition of Rus by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia, Thefreedictionary.com, 2 November 2011, who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus.An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía {{IPA-el|roˈsia|pron}}) in Modern Greek.BOOK, The Russians: The People of Europe, Milner-Gulland, R. R., 1997, Blackwell Publishing, 978-0-631-21849-4, 1–4,weblink 15 December 2016, The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is "Russians" in EnglishDICTIONARY,weblink Definition of Russian, Merriam-Webster, 21 September 2016, and rossiyane () in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians". One is "русские" (russkiye), which most often means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity". Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups.

History

Early history

{{further|Scythia|Ancient Greek colonies||Early Slavs|East Slavs|Huns|Turkic expansion|Prehistory of Siberia}}{{See also|Proto-Indo-European|Proto-Uralic}}Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic.JOURNAL, Belinskij A, Härke, H, The 'Princess' of Ipatovo, Archeology, 52, 2, 1999,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080610043326weblink">weblink 10 June 2008, 26 December 2007, In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheas, even went as far as modern day Kaliningrad, on the Baltic Sea. Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Sea, where their empire stretched towards the east.{{dubious|date=May 2015}}BOOK, Jacobson, E., The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World, Brill, 1995, 38, 978-90-04-09856-5, In the 3rd to 4th centuries AD a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,BOOK, Tsetskhladze, G. R., The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology, F. Steiner, 1998, 48, 978-3-515-07302-8, was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.BOOK, Turchin, P., Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall, Princeton University Press, 2003, 185–186, 978-0-691-11669-3, A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century.BOOK, Christian, D., A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Blackwell Publishing, 1998, 286–288, 978-0-631-20814-3, The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes.BOOK, For a discussion of the origins of Slavs, see Barford, P. M., The Early Slavs, Cornell University Press, 15–16, 978-0-8014-3977-3, 2001, The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western RussiaBOOK, Christian, D., A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Blackwell Publishing, 1998, 6–7, and assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera.

Kievan Rus'

(File:Kievan Rus en.jpg|thumb|Kievan Rus' in the 11th century)The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region. Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.BOOK, Obolensky, D., Byzantium and the Slavs, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994, 42, 978-0-88141-008-2, According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. In 882, his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev,BOOK, Thompson, J.W., Johnson, E.N., An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500, W. W. Norton & Co., 1937, 268, 978-0-415-34699-3, which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.WEB, Ukraine: Security Assistance, U.S. Department of State,weblink 27 December 2007, The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.BOOK, Klyuchevsky, V., The course of the Russian history, 1,weblink 978-5-244-00072-6, 1987, Myslʹ, File:Lebedev baptism.jpg|left|thumb|The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy LebedevKlavdy LebedevThe age of feudalism and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40BOOK, Hamm, M.F., Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-02585-8, 1995, that resulted in the destruction of KievWEB,weblink The Destruction of Kiev, Tspace.library.utoronto.ca, 19 January 2011, dead,weblink 27 April 2011, and the death of about half the population of Rus'.WEB,weblink History of Russia from Early Slavs history and Kievan Rus to Romanovs dynasty, Parallelsixty.com, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100121024544weblink">weblink 21 January 2010, The invading Mongol elite, together with their conquered Turkic subjects (Cumans, Kipchaks, Bulgars), became known as Tatars, forming the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities; the Mongols ruled the Cuman-Kipchak confederation and Volga Bulgaria (modern-day southern and central expanses of Russia) for over two centuries.BOOK, Рыбаков, Б. А., Ремесло Древней Руси, 1948, 525–533, 780–781, Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. The Novgorod together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.

Grand Duchy of Moscow

File:Lissner TroiceSergievaLavr.jpg|thumb|Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst LissnerErnst LissnerThe most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow ("Muscovy" in the Western chronicles), initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal. While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.Davies B. Warfare. State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500–1700. Routledge, 2014. Pg. 4; (PDF) available here Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade center and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League.Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490. However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene—widespread practicing of banya, a wet steam bath—the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120530043947weblink">weblink dead, 30 May 2012, The history of banya and sauna, ru, and population numbers recovered by 1500."Black Death". Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). p. 62. {{ISBN|0-313-32492-1}}Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow and helped by the Russian Orthodox Church, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde and consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion. He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias".WEB, May, T., Khanate of the Golden Horde,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607055652weblink">weblink 7 June 2008, 27 December 2007, After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms.

Tsardom of Russia

In development of the Third Rome ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Terrible")Frank D. McConnell. Storytelling and Mythmaking: Images from Film and Literature. Oxford University Press, 1979. {{ISBN|0-19-502572-5}}; p. 78 was officially crowned first Tsar ("Caesar") of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 562–604, 6, 978-5-17-002142-0, BOOK, Skrynnikov, R., Ivan the Terrible, Academic Intl Pr, 1981, 219, 978-0-87569-039-1, File:Vasnetsov Ioann 4.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Tsar Ivan the Terrible, portrait by Viktor VasnetsovViktor VasnetsovDuring his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga River, and the Siberian Khanate in southwestern Siberia. Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic, multidenominational and transcontinental state.However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 6, 751–908, 978-5-17-002142-0, At the same time, the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to raid Southern Russia.WEB, Eizo Matsuki,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110501041101weblink">weblink 1 May 2011, The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University, 4 May 2013, In an effort to restore the Volga khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow in 1571.BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 6, 751–809, 978-5-17-002142-0, But in the next year the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by Russians in the Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of an Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia. The slave raids of Crimeans, however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.WEB, Brian Glyn Williams, The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire,weblink The Jamestown Foundation, 2013, 27, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021092115weblink">weblink 21 October 2013, Brian Glyn Williams, File:Appeal of Minin.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Polish invaders ]]The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–03BOOK, Borisenkov, E., Pasetski, V., The Thousand-Year Annals of the Extreme Meteorological Phenomena, 978-5-244-00212-6, 190, 1988, led to civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century.BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 7, 461–568, 978-5-17-002142-0, The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule. In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Finally, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper River, leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine, under Polish rule and the eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian rule. Later, in 1670–71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the Pacific coast. In 1648, the Bering Strait between Asia and North America was passed for the first time by Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnyov.

Imperial Russia

File:Peter de Grote.jpg|thumb|upright|Peter the Great, Tsar of All Russia in 1682–1721 and the first Emperor of All RussiaEmperor of All RussiaUnder Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles),BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 9, ch.1,weblink 978-5-17-002142-0, 27 December 2007, as well as Estland and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.BOOK, Solovyov, S., History of Russia from the Earliest Times, AST, 2001, 15, ch.1,weblink On the Baltic Sea, Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg, later known as Russia's "window to Europe". Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia.The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). During this conflict Russia annexed East Prussia for a while and even took Berlin. However, upon Elizabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia.Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. In the south, after successful Russo-Turkish Wars against Ottoman Turkey, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the Crimean Khanate. As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus, forcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia to Russia.Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp. 728–730 ABC-CLIO, 2014 {{ISBN|1-59884-948-4}}John F. Baddeley, "The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus", Longman, Green and Co., London: 1908. {{ISBN|978-0-7007-0634-1}} p. 90 This continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. At the same time, Russians colonized Alaska and even founded settlements in California, such as Fort Ross.(File:Russia 1533-1896.gif|thumb|left|Russian expansion in Eurasia between 1533 and 1894)In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica.In alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against Napoleon's France. The French invasion of Russia at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which more than 95% of the pan-European Grande Armée perished.WEB, Ruling the Empire, Library of Congress,weblink 27 December 2007, Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly, the Russian army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove through Europe in the war of the Sixth Coalition, finally entering Paris. Alexander I headed Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna that defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe.File:Koetoezov kazan.jpg|thumb|180px|Monument to Mikhail Kutuzov in front of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. The Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate NapoleonNapoleonThe officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825. At the end of the conservative reign of Nicolas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War. Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic cholera.Geoffrey A. Hosking (2001). "Russia and the Russians: a history". Harvard University Press. p. 9. {{ISBN|0-674-00473-6}}Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes in the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861. These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War.The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was killed in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists, and the reign of his sonAlexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful. The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, triggered by the unsuccessful Russo-Japanese War and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma of the Russian Empire. The Stolypin agrarian reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into Siberia. More than four million settlers arrived in that region between 1906 and 1914.N. M. Dronin, E. G. Bellinger (2005). Climate dependence and food problems in Russia, 1900–1990: The interaction of climate and agricultural policy and their effect on food problems. Central European University Press. p. 38. {{ISBN|963-7326-10-3}}

February Revolution and Russian Republic

{{See also|1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election|Russian Democratic Federative Republic}}File:Russian Imperial Family 1913.jpg|thumb|left|210px|Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.]]In 1914, Russia entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies. In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive of the Russian Army almost completely destroyed the military of Austria-Hungary. However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts.The February Revolution forced Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg during the Russian Civil War. The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. On 1 September (14), 1917, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed.WEB,weblink Провозглашена Российская республика, 7 February 2017, Президентская библиотека имени Б.Н. Ельцина, On 6 January (19), 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly declared Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision). The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.File:Thecristisrizenoldrussiancivilwarposter.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8| 1932 White émigréWhite émigré

Soviet Russia and civil war

{{See also|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic|Russian Constitution of 1918}}An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state.Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army. Bolshevist Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers of World War I. The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces. In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. There were an estimated 7–12 million casualties during the war, mostly civilians.BOOK, Mawdsley, Evan, The Russian Civil War, New York, Pegasus Books, 2007, 9781681770093, harv,weblink 287, Millions became White émigrés,Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. James E. Hassell (1991), p. 3. {{ISBN|0-87169-817-X}} and the Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed up to five million victims.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121219101057weblink">Famine in Russia: the hidden horrors of 1921, International Committee of the Red Cross

Soviet Union

{{See also|Treaty on the Creation of the USSR}}File:Stalin-Lenin-Kalinin-1919.jpg|thumb|right|270px|upright=1.75|Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919. All three of them were "Old Bolsheviks"—members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917Russian Revolution of 1917The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (called Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic at the time), together with the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republics, formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union, on 30 December 1922. Out of the 15 republics that would make up the USSR, the largest in size and over half of the total USSR population was the Russian SFSR, which came to dominate the union for its entire 69-year history.File:Soviet Union - Russian SFSR (1922).svg|thumb|left|180px|The Russian SFSR at the moment of formation of the USSR in 1922]]File:Soviet Union - Russian SFSR (1940).svg|thumb|left|180px|The Russian SFSR as a part of the USSR in 1940, after 1924–1936 intra-Soviet territorial changes and the separation of the Karelo-Finnish SSRKarelo-Finnish SSRFollowing Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union. However, Joseph Stalin, an elected General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands. Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929, and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the primary line. The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members and military leaders accused of coup d'état plots.Abbott Gleason (2009). A Companion to Russian History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 373. {{ISBN|1-4051-3560-3}}Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialization of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps,Getty, Rittersporn, Zemskov. "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence". The American Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 (October 1993), pp. 1017–49. including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933,R. W. Davies, S. G. Wheatcroft (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–33, p. 401. which killed between 2 and 3 million people in the Russian SFSR.WEB, The U.S.S.R. from the death of Lenin to the death of Stalin – The Party versus the peasants,weblink www.britannica.com, Encyclopædia Britannica, 18 July 2019, The Soviet Union made the costly transformation from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time.Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism" conducted by Communists.Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival, and Revival, by Christopher Marsh, page 47. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011.Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History, by Dilip Hiro. Penguin, 2009.BOOK, Adappur, Abraham, Religion and the Cultural Crisis in India and the West,weblink 14 July 2016, 2000, Intercultural Publications, English, 978-81-85574-47-9, Forced Conversion under Atheistic Regimes: It might be added that the most modern example of forced "conversions" came not from any theocratic state, but from a professedly atheist government — that of the Soviet Union under the Communists., The communist regime targeted religions based on State interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools.WEB,weblink Anti-religious Campaigns, www.loc.gov, 9 April 2018, In 1925 the government founded the League of Militant Atheists to intensify the persecution.Geoffrey Blainey (2011). A Short History of Christianity; Viking; p. 494 Accordingly, although personal expressions of religious faith were not explicitly banned, a strong sense of social stigma was imposed on them by the official structures and mass media and it was generally considered unacceptable for members of certain professions (teachers, state bureaucrats, soldiers) to be openly religious. As for the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities sought to control it and, in times of national crisis, to exploit it for the regime's own purposes; but their ultimate goal was to eliminate it. During the first five years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks executed 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and over 1,200 Russian Orthodox priests. Many others were imprisoned or exiled. Believers were harassed and persecuted. Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited. By 1941 only 500 churches remained open out of about 54,000 in existence prior to World War I.

World War II

File:RIAN archive 44732 Soviet soldiers attack house.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The Battle of StalingradBattle of StalingradThe Appeasement policy of Great Britain and France towards Adolf Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia did not stem an increase in the power of Nazi Germany. Around the same time, the Third Reich allied with the Empire of Japan, a rival of the USSR in the Far East and an open enemy of the USSR in the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars in 1938–39.In August 1939, the Soviet government decided to improve relations with Germany by concluding the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence. While Hitler conquered Poland and France and other countries acted on a single front at the start of World War II, the USSR was able to build up its military and occupy the Western Ukraine, Hertza region and Northern Bukovina as a result of the Soviet invasion of Poland, the Winter War, the occupation of the Baltic states and Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.File:RIAN archive 2153 After bombing.jpg|thumb|left|The Siege of LeningradSiege of LeningradOn 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the non-aggression treaty and invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,WEB, World War II, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9 March 2008,weblink opening the largest theater of World War II. The Nazi Hunger Plan foresaw the "extinction of industry as well as a great part of the population".NEWS, Snyder, Timothy, The Reich's forgotten atrocity,weblink The Guardian, 21 October 2010, Nearly 3 million Soviet POWs in German captivity were murdered in just eight months of 1941–42.Adam Jones (2010), Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.), p. 271. – "The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide." Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow. Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–43,WEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 March 2008, The Allies' first decisive successes: Stalingrad and the German retreat, summer 1942 – February 1943, and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943. Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629173955weblink">The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1995. Cambridge University Press. Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces took Eastern Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945. In August 1945 the Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's Manchukuo and North Korea, contributing to the allied victory over Japan.File:World War II military deaths in Europe by theater and by year.png|thumb|upright=1.75|The German armed forces suffered 80% of its military deaths in the (Eastern Front (World War II)|Eastern Front]].BOOK, Duiker, William J., Contemporary World History,weblink sixth, 2015, Cengage Learning, 978-1-285-44790-2, 138, The Crisis Deepens: The Outbreak of World War II, )The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia as the "Great Patriotic War". The Soviet Union together with the United States, the United Kingdom and China were considered as the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II BOOK, Brinkley, Douglas, Douglas Brinkley, The New York Times Living History: World War II, 1942–1945: The Allied Counteroffensive,weblink Macmillan, 978-0-8050-7247-1, 2003, and later became the Four Policemen which was the foundation of the United Nations Security Council.BOOK, Urquhart, Brian, Brian Urquhart, Looking for the Sheriff, New York Review of Books, 16 July 1998, During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet civilian and military death were about 27 million,BOOK, Erlikman, V., Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik, 2004, Note: Estimates for Soviet World War II casualties vary between sources, 978-5-93165-107-1, Russkai︠a︡ panorama, Moskva, BOOK,weblink Russia in the Twentieth Century: The quest for stability, Marples, David R., 2014-01-14, Routledge, 9781317862284, 163, accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties. The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater.Geoffrey A. Hosking (2006). Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press. p. 242. {{ISBN|0-674-02178-9}} The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–47,WEB, Reconstruction and Cold War, Library of Congress,weblink 27 December 2007, but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged military superpower on the continent.The Soviet rear was also badly damaged by the German invasion. Luftwaffe bombed the cities of the Soviet Union from the air. Gorky suffered the most from the bombing. This city was the main industrial center of the USSR and was located near the Moscow Defence Zone. The bombing of the Volga capital destroyed the largest automobile plant GAZ. This plant supplied tanks for the front. Whole residential areas and other large factories of the city were destroyed. From 1941 to 1943, German pilots bombed different areas of the city. This bombardment is comparable to the London Blitz. Some damage remained until this time.

Cold War

File:Soviet Union - Russian SFSR.svg|thumb|The RSFSR in 1956–1991, mostly after territorial acquisitions according to WWII treaties, the accession of Tuva in 1944, the transfer of the Crimean Oblast in 1954 and the incorporation of the Karelo-Finnish SSRKarelo-Finnish SSRAfter the war, Eastern and Central Europe including East Germany and part of Austria was occupied by Red Army according to the Potsdam Conference. Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the United States and NATO. The Soviet Union supported revolutionary movements across the world, including the newly formed People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and, later on, the Republic of Cuba. Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states.Foreign trade from A Country Study: Soviet Union (Former). Library of Congress Country Studies project.After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization. The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated (many of them posthumously).NEWS,weblink TIME, 1 August 2008, Great Escapes from the Gulag, 5 June 1978, The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw. At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.File:Sputnik asm.jpg|thumb|left|190px|Sputnik 1Sputnik 1In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age. Russia's cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961.Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation, a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The 1965 Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Ultimately, the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.File:Reagan and Gorbachev hold discussions.jpg|thumb|right|Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with US President Ronald ReaganRonald ReaganFrom 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratize the government. This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world,WEB,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, 9 March 2008, 1990 CIA World Factbook, but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.WEB,weblink Russia Unforeseen Results of Reform, The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook, 10 March 2008, By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic states chose to secede from the Soviet Union. On 17 March, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation. In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. On 25 December 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states.

Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present)

{{See also|Commonwealth of Independent States|War of Laws|1993 Russian constitutional crisis}}File:Vladimir Putin with Boris Yeltsin-5.jpg|thumb|left|President Boris Yeltsin with Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow and Prime Minister Vladimir PutinVladimir PutinIn June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first directly elected President in Russian history when he was elected President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which became the independent Russian Federation in December of that year. During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken,WEB,weblink Russian Federation, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 24 February 2008, including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy" as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund.NEWS,weblink U.S. is abandoning 'shock therapy' for the Russians, Sciolino, E., New York Times, 20 January 2008, 21 December 1993, All this resulted in a major economic crisis, characterized by a 50% decline in both GDP and industrial output between 1990 and 1995.WEB, Russia: Economic Conditions in Mid-1996, Library of Congress,weblink 29 April 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041030123659weblink">weblink 30 October 2004, live, The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government. Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.WEB, Russia: Clawing Its Way Back to Life (int'l edition), BusinessWeek,weblink 27 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071122013031weblink">weblink 22 November 2007, The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed.BOOK, Walter C. Clemens, The Baltic Transformed: Complexity Theory and European Security, Rowman & Littlefield, 2001, 106, 978-0-8476-9859-2, Millions plunged into poverty, from a level of 1.5% in the late Soviet era to 39–49% by mid-1993.BOOK, Branko Milanovic, Income, Inequality, and Poverty During the Transformation from Planned to Market Economy, The World Bank, 1998, 186–189, The 1990s saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, the rise of criminal gangs and violent crime.JOURNAL, Jason Bush, What's Behind Russia's Crime Wave?, BusinessWeek, 19 October 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081220105050weblink">weblink 20 December 2008, The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections. From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.File:Obama and Medvedev sign Prague Treaty 2010.jpeg|thumb|right|Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama after signing the New STARTNew STARTRussia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the Ruble.JOURNAL, Lipton, David, Sachs, Jeffrey D., Mau, Vladimir, Phelps, Edmund S., 1992, Prospects for Russia's Economic Reforms, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1992, 2, 213, 10.2307/2534584, 0007-2303, 2534584,weblink With a devalued Ruble, the Russian government struggled to pay back its debts to internal debtors, as well as international institutions like the International Monetary Fund.Chiodo, Abbigail J., and Michael T. Owyang. "A case study of a currency crisis: The Russian default of 1998." Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 84.6 (2002): 7. Despite significant attempts at economic restructuring, Russia's debt outpaced GDP growth. High budget deficits coupled with increasing capital flight and inability to pay back debtsJOURNAL, Desai, Padma, May 2000, Why Did the Ruble Collapse in August 1998?, American Economic Review, 90, 2, 48–52, 10.1257/aer.90.2.48, 0002-8282, caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis and resulted in a further GDP decline.On 31 December 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 presidential election. Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and the initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption, and investments helped the economy grow at an average of 7% per year from 1998 to 2008,WEB, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency,weblink 16 February 2019, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage. Following the world economic crisis of 2008 and a subsequent drop in oil prices, Russia's economy stagnated and poverty again started to riseWEB,weblink Page Not Found, until 2017 when, after the prolonged recession, Russia's economy began to grow again, supported by stronger global growth, higher oil prices, and solid macro fundamentals.WEB,weblink Page Not Found, While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticized by Western nations as undemocratic,WEB, Treisman, D, Is Russia's Experiment with Democracy Over?,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041111074502weblink">weblink 11 November 2004, UCLA International Institute, 31 December 2007, Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread admiration in Russia.NEWS, Stone, N, No wonder they like Putin,weblink The Times, UK, 31 December 2007, 4 December 2007, File:Putin with Vladimir Konstantinov, Sergey Aksyonov and Alexey Chaly 4.jpeg|thumb|left|Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to RussiaTreaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to RussiaOn 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia while Putin became Prime Minister. Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections, and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister. This quick succession in leadership change was coined "tandemocracy" by outside media. Some critics claimed that the leadership change was superficial, and that Putin remained as the decision making force in the Russian government. Within the context of the ongoing Russia–Ukraine gas dispute in early January 2009, Nikolai Petrov, an analyst with the Carnegie Moscow Center said: "What we see right now is the dominant role of Putin. We see him as a real head of state. ... This is not surprising. We are still living in Putin's Russia."JOURNAL, November 2009, ASCO Picks Top Clinical Cancer Research Advances for 2009 & Gives Recommendations for Accelerating Progress, Oncology Times, 31, 22, 12, 10.1097/01.cot.0000365291.64063.83, 0276-2234, Some Russian political analysts and commentators viewed the political power as truly tandem between Medvedev and Putin. Prior to the 2008 election, political scientists Gleb Pavlovsky and Stanislav Belkovsky discussed the future configuration of power. According to Mr. Pavlovsky, people would be very suited with the option of the union of Putin and Medvedev "similar to the two Consuls of Rome". Belkovsky called Medvedev "President of a dream", referring to the early 1990s when people ostensibly dreamed of the time they "would live without the stranglehold of ubiquitous ideology, and a common person would become the head of the state".{{Citation|last=Symons|first=Arthur|chapter=Pastel: Masks and Faces|date=1974-01-01|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=9781857547269|doi=10.1093/oseo/instance.00249484|title=Arthur Symons: Selected Writings}}In 2014, after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine.NEWS,weblink Ousted Ukrainian President Asked For Russian Troops, Envoy Says, Reuters, 3 March 2014, NBC News, 21 March 2014, NEWS,weblink Putin to deploy Russian troops in Ukraine, BBC News, 1 March 2014, 1 March 2014, NEWS,weblink Russian Parliament approves use of army in Ukraine, The Hindu, 1 March 2014, Vladimir, Radyuhin, Chennai, India, NEWS, Walker, Shaun, 4 March 2014,weblink Russian takeover of Crimea will not descend into war, says Vladimir Putin, The Guardian, 4 March 2014, NEWS,weblink Russia Stays in Ukraine as Putin Channels Yanukovych Request, Sangwon, Yoon, Daryna, Krasnolutska, Kateryna, Choursina, 4 March 2014, 5 March 2014, Bloomberg News, Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favored by a large majority of voters,WEB,weblink Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia, BBC News, 6 March 2014, 27 April 2015, WEB,weblink OSCE, 27 April 2015, WEB,weblink Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine, 15 April 2014, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, WEB,weblink The UN's Scathing Crimea Report Suggests Russia May Have Rigged Secession Vote, 11 April 2014, Business Insider, Harrison, Jacobs, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140502032433weblink">weblink 2 May 2014, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Jobbik MEP Béla Kovács: The Crimean referendum is perfectly legitimate, hungarianambiance.com, 16 March 2014, 27 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317184718weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, dead, 16 March 2014, David Herszenhornmarch, The New York Times, "Crimea Votes to Secede From Ukraine as Russian Troops Keep Watch." the Russian leadership announced the accession of Crimea into the Russian Federation, though this and the referendum that preceded it were not accepted internationally. On 27 March the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea by a vote of 100 member states in favor, 11 against and 58 abstentions.WEB,weblink Backing Ukraine's territorial integrity, UN Assembly declares Crimea referendum invalid, 27 March 2014, UN Daily News, UN News Centre, 20 October 2016, In September 2015, Russia started military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, consisting of air strikes against militant groups of the Islamic State, al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), and the Army of Conquest.

Politics

Governance

{{multiple image
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| caption1 = {{flagicon image|Standard of the President of the Russian Federation.svg|size=15x15px}} PresidentVladimir Putin
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According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of stateWEB, The Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Article 80, § 1),weblink 27 December 2007, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches: The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).WEB, The Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Article 81, § 3),weblink 27 December 2007, Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. In 2017, Russia was ranked as 135th of 167 countries in the Democracy Index, compiled by The Economist Intelligence Unit,WEB,weblink Democracy at a standstill, World Justice Project, 2013, 9 August 2014, 7, while the World Justice Project, {{as of|2014|lc=y}}, ranked Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.WEB, World Justice Project Rule of Law Index 2014,weblink

Foreign relations

File:Continental Orgs Map.png|thumb|As a transcontinental country, Russia is a member of both the Council of Europe (COE) and the Asia Cooperation DialogueAsia Cooperation DialogueFile:Council of Europe (blue).svg|thumb|The Russian Federation became the 39th member state of the Council of EuropeCouncil of EuropeFile:SCO (orthographic projection).svg|thumb|Member states, observers and partners of the Shanghai Cooperation OrganisationShanghai Cooperation OrganisationThe Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union.WEB, Country Profile: Russia, Foreign & Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091016040108weblink">weblink 16 October 2009, 27 December 2007, Russia continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat in the UN Security Council, membership in other international organisations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. {{As of|2009}}, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.WEB, Kosachev. K, Russian Foreign Policy Vertical, Russia in Global Affairs,weblink 27 December 2007, Although it is the successor state to a former superpower, Russia is commonly accepted to be a great power.NEWS,weblink What's Looming in Ukraine Is more Threatening than Georgia, 16 October 2008, Der Spiegel, 20 October 2016, Nikonov: Russia is not a superpower and won't be one for the foreseeable future. But Russia is a great power. It was one, it is one and it will continue to be one., Superpower Reborn {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427085654weblink |date=27 April 2011}} by Ronald Steel. New York Times, 24 August 2008 Russia is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East and the Six-party talks with North Korea. Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, OSCE, and APEC. Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organisations such as the CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO.The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation at Globalsecurity.org 27 April 2005 Russia became the 39th member state of the Council of Europe in 1996.WEB,weblink Russian Federation – Member state, Council of Europe, 28 April 2015, In 1998, Russia ratified the European Convention on Human Rights. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in 1997. The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security.WEB,weblink Legal framework – The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Delegation of the European Union to Russia, 13 February 2009, 27 April 2015, In May 2003, the EU and Russia agreed to reinforce their cooperation on the basis of common values and shared interests.WEB,weblink Political framework – Europe and Russia: Building a Strategic Partnership, Delegation of the European Union to Russia, 13 February 2009, 27 April 2015, Former President Vladimir Putin had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions including establishment of EU-Russia Common Spaces.WEB,weblink Interview of official Ambassador of Russian Foreign Ministry on relations with the EU, RIA Novosti, 30 June 2008, ru, 25 November 2004, From the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has initially developed a friendlier relationship with the United States and NATO, however today, the trilateral relationship has significantly deteriorated due to several issues and conflicts between Russia and the Western countries.NEWS, The Ukraine crisis and NATO-Russia relations,weblink NEWS, Trump: Russia—U.S. Relations at Worst Level in History,weblink The Daily Beast, The NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002 to allow the United States, Russia and the 27 allies in NATO to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration.WEB, NATO-Russia relations, NATO,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070411124719weblink">weblink 11 April 2007, 27 December 2007, File:BRICS leaders meet on the sidelines of 2016 G20 Summit in China.jpg|thumb|left|Leaders of the BRICS nations in 2016: (l-r) Michel Temer of Brazil, Narendra Modi of India, Xi Jinping of China, Vladimir Putin of Russia and Jacob ZumaJacob ZumaRussia maintains strong and positive relations with other SCO and BRICS countries.NEWS, SCO countries come to Qingdao consolidated and strong,weblink In recent years, the country has significantly strengthened bilateral ties with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline and gas pipeline from Siberia to China, and has since formed a special relationship with China.NEWS,weblink Russian Oil Route Will Open to China, Jeremy, Page, The Wall Street Journal, 26 September 2010, 28 September 2010, NEWS,weblink Russia in milestone oil pipeline supply to China, Reuters, 21 March 2011, 1 January 2011, India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment and the two countries share extensive defense and strategic relations.NEWS,weblink Indian navy gets Russian carrier as it seeks to bolster military, Reuters, 16 November 2013, Anurag, Kotoky, An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management (including LGBT rights, media freedom, and reports about killed journalists) by Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights (wikt:watchdog|watchdogs). In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100713010532weblink">weblink 13 July 2010, Amnesty International report on Russia, Amnesty International, 11 July 2010, Human Rights Watch on Russia and Chechnya HTW.org Freedom House, an international organisation funded by the United States, ranks Russia as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate.WEB,weblink Annual report Russia, Freedom House, 10 May 2004, 27 April 2010, Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the 2006 Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States. The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".WEB,weblink In Russian: МИД России назвал доклад Freedom House "дубиной" в руках Вашингтона, Newsru.com, 27 April 2010, 20 June 2006,

Military

File:Army-2015 2.png|thumb|Military-patriotic recreation park of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation ]]File:Шествие региональной патриотической общественной организации «Бессмертный полк» - 1.jpg|thumb|Members of the (:ru:Бессмертный полк|Immortal regiment) carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II at the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade2015 Moscow Victory Day ParadeThe Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops, Aerospace Defence Forces, and the Airborne Troops. {{as of|2017}}, the military comprised over one million active duty personnel, the fifth largest in the world.WEB, Security, Global, Russian Military Personnel,weblink 1 May 2017, Additionally, there are over 2.5 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 20 million.WEB,weblink The Global Intelligence Files, wikileaks.org, 1 April 2015, IISS listed total reserves as 20,000,000 for many years, assuming a Soviet-style callup. The potential reserve personnel of Russia may be as high as 20 million, depending on how the figures are counted. It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces.Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines, and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States.WEB, Status of Nuclear Powers and Their Nuclear Capabilities, Federation of American Scientists,weblink March 2008, 19 March 2014, Russia pilots proud of flights to foreign shores {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501084738weblink |date=1 May 2011}} by David Nowak. The Associated Press, 15 September 2008 More than 90% of world's 14,000 nuclear weapons are owned by Russia and the United States.NEWS, Here's how many nuclear warheads exist, and which countries own them,weblink Defense News, 16 June 2019, Russia's tank force is the largest in the world, while its surface navy and air force are among the largest.The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. It has been one of the world's top supplier of arms since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons salesWEB, US drives world military spending to record high, Australian Broadcasting Corporation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060613172226weblink">weblink 13 June 2006, 27 December 2007, and exporting weapons to about 80 countries.WEB, Russia arms exports could exceed $7 bln in 2007 â€“ Ivanov, RIA Novosti, 27 January 2008,weblink The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found that Russia was the second biggest exporter of arms in 2010–14, increasing their exports by 37 per cent from the period 2005–2009. In 2010–14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine.WEB, Pieter D., Wezeman, Siemon T. Wezeman,weblink Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, March 2015, 4 August 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160705053333weblink">weblink 5 July 2016, The Russian government's official 2014 military budget is about 2.49 trillion rubles (approximately US$69.3 billion), the third largest in the world behind the US and China. The official budget is set to rise to 3.03 trillion rubles (approximately US$83.7 billion) in 2015, and 3.36 trillion rubles (approximately US$93.9 billion) in 2016.WEB, Kazak, Sergey, Russia to Up Nuclear Weapons Spending 50% by 2016,weblink RIA Novosti, 1 March 2014, However, unofficial estimates put the budget significantly higher, for example the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2013 Military Expenditure Database estimated Russia's military expenditure in 2012 at US$90.749 billion.WEB, SIPRI Military Expenditure Database,weblink Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 1 March 2014, dead,weblink 8 February 2014, This estimate is an increase of more than US$18 billion on SIPRI's estimate of the Russian military budget for 2011 (US$71.9 billion).NEWS, Toohey, Nathan, Russia's defense spending grows to third largest in the world,weblink Moscow Times, 1 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140305133919weblink">weblink 5 March 2014, {{As of|2014}}, Russia's military budget is higher than any other European nation.

Political divisions

(File:Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014).svg|thumb|center|upright=2.7|Federal subjects of Russia. Yellow: oblast, green: republic, orange: krai, blue: autonomous okrug, red: federal city, purple: autonomous oblast.)File:Gorodskaya Meria Rostov.jpg|thumb|City Duma building of Rostov-on-DonRostov-on-DonFile:Vladimir Putin 8 November 2000-1.jpg|thumb|Russian President Vladimir Putin and Akhmad Kadyrov, former rebel and head of the Chechen Republichead of the Chechen RepublicFile:RIAN archive 172139 Dmitry Medvedev visits Kazan.jpg|thumb|Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and President of Tatarstan Mintimer Shaimiyev in Kazan, the capital of TatarstanTatarstan
Federal subjects
According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects,WEB, The Constitution of the Russian Federation, (:ru:Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации, pravo.gov.ru),weblink 19, 21, Russian, 11 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140413142716weblink">weblink 13 April 2014, including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol.WEB,weblink Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation, Kremlin.ru, 18 March 2014, 10 April 2014, ru, In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were eighty-nine federal subjects listed, but later some of them were merged. These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council.WEB, The Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Article 95, § 2),weblink 27 December 2007, However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.
  • 46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with locally elected governor and legislature.
  • 22 republics: nominally autonomous; each is tasked with drafting its own constitution, direct-electedDirect elections of heads of republics (and other federal subjects) are mandated by Article 18 of the Federal Law of 6 October 1999 No. 184-FZ as amended by Federal Law of 2 May 2012 No. 40-FZ head of republicDesignation of republican heads as presidents is forbidden by Federal Law of 28 December 2010 No. 406-FZ {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130116214932weblink |date=16 January 2013}}, but transitional period lasts until 1 January 2015 or a similar post, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities.
  • 9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to the administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts.
  • 4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part.
  • 1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast): historically, autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except for the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic.
  • 3 federal cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol): major cities that function as separate regions.
{{Further|Political status of Crimea and Sevastopol|Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation}}
Federal districts
Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.Russian Classification of Economic Regions (OK 024–95) of 1 January 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. (Section I. Federal Districts) Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.

Geography

{{See also|List of Russian explorers}}{{Location map+ | Russia| width = 750| caption = Physical map of Russia with locations of major cities| alt = Russia is located in Eurasia| relief = 1| places =
{{Location map~ | Russia
| label = Moscow
| position =
| background =
| mark = Etoile-Rouge.svg
| alt = alt text for Moscow
| link = Moscow
| lat_deg = 55 | lat_min = 45 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 37 | lon_min = 37 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = St. Petersburg
| position =
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Saint Petersburg
| link = Saint Petersburg
| lat_deg = 59 | lat_min = 57 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 30 | lon_min = 18 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Novgorod
| position = bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Veliky Novgorod
| link = Veliky Novgorod
| lat_deg = 58 | lat_min = 33 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 31 | lon_min = 16 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Novosibirsk
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Novosibirsk
| link = Novosibirsk
| lat_deg = 55 | lat_min = 03 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 82 | lon_min = 57 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Yekaterinburg
| position =
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Yekaterinburg
| link = Yekaterinburg
| lat_deg = 56 | lat_min = 50 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 60 | lon_min = 35 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Nizhny Novgorod
| position =
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Nizhny Novgorod
| link = Nizhny Novgorod
| lat_deg = 56 | lat_min = 19 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 44 | lon_min = 00 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Kazan
| position =left
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Kazan
| link = Kazan
| lat_deg = 55 | lat_min = 47 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 49 | lon_min = 07 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Chelyabinsk
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Chelyabinsk
| link = Chelyabinsk
| lat_deg = 55 | lat_min = 09 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 61 | lon_min = 22 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Omsk
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Omsk
| link = Omsk
| lat_deg = 54 | lat_min = 59 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 73 | lon_min = 22 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Samara
| position =left
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Samara
| link = Samara, Russia
| lat_deg = 53 | lat_min = 12 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 50 | lon_min = 08 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Rostov
| position =top
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Rostov-on-Don
| link = Rostov-on-Don
| lat_deg = 47 | lat_min = 14 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 39 | lon_min = 42 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Ufa
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Ufa
| link = Ufa
| lat_deg = 54 | lat_min = 45 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 55 | lon_min = 58 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Krasnoyarsk
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Krasnoyarsk
| link = Krasnoyarsk
| lat_deg = 56 | lat_min = 01 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 93 | lon_min = 04 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Perm
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Perm
| link = Perm
| lat_deg = 58 | lat_min = 00 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 56 | lon_min = 19 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Voronezh
| position =left
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Voronezh
| link = Voronezh
| lat_deg = 51 | lat_min = 40 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 39 | lon_min = 12 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Volgograd
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Volgograd
| link = Volgograd
| lat_deg = 48 | lat_min = 42 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 44 | lon_min = 31 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Arkhangelsk
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Arkhangelsk
| link = Arkhangelsk
| lat_deg = 64 | lat_min = 32 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 40 | lon_min = 32 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Pyatigorsk
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark = City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Pyatigorsk
| link = Pyatigorsk
| lat_deg = 44 | lat_min = 03 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 43 | lon_min = 03 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Sochi
| position =top
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Sochi
| link = Sochi
| lat_deg = 43 | lat_min = 35 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 39 | lon_min = 43 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Irkutsk
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Irkutsk
| link = Irkutsk
| lat_deg = 52 | lat_min = 17 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 104 | lon_min = 17 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Yakutsk
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Yakutsk
| link = Yakutsk
| lat_deg = 62 | lat_min = 02 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 129 | lon_min = 44 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Khabarovsk
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Khabarovsk
| link = Khabarovsk
| lat_deg = 48 | lat_min = 29 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 135 | lon_min = 05 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Vladivostok
| position =right
| background =
| mark =City locator 26.svg
| alt = alt text for Vladivostok
| link = Vladivostok
| lat_deg = 43 | lat_min = 08 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 131 | lon_min = 54 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Magadan
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Magadan
| link = Magadan
| lat_deg = 59 | lat_min = 34 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 150 | lon_min = 48 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
| position =right
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
| link = Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
| lat_deg = 46 | lat_min = 58 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 142 | lon_min = 44 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
| position =bottom
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
| link = Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
| lat_deg = 53 | lat_min = 01 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 158 | lon_min = 39 | lon_dir = E
}}
{{Location map~| Russia
| label = Kaliningrad
| position =
| background =
| mark =
| alt = alt text for Kaliningrad
| link = Kaliningrad Oblast
| lat_deg = 54 | lat_min = 42 | lat_dir = N
| lon_deg = 20 | lon_min = 27 | lon_dir = E
}}
}}File:Koppen-Geiger Map RUS present.svg|upright=2.0|thumb|Köppen climate types of Russia]]Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is {{convert|17075200|km2|sqmi}}.WEB, General Information,weblink Russian 6Embassy, 14 February 2016, Regions of Russia. Social and economic indicators 2015 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160409175249weblink |date=9 April 2016 }} Russian Federal State Statistics Service This makes it larger than the continents of Oceania, Europe and Antarctica. It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W.Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack Yermak Timofeyevich during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country. Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols, defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.Alton S Donnelly, The Russian Conquest of Bashkiria, 1968, pages 23 and 127; Lincoln, W. Bruce. The Conquest of a Continent: Siberia and the Russians. New York: Random House, 1994, p. 30Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

Topography

The two most widely separated points in Russia are about {{convert|8000|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} apart along a geodesic line. These points are: a {{convert|60|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} long Vistula Spit the boundary with Poland separating the Gdańsk Bay from the Vistula Lagoon and the most southeastern point of the Kuril Islands. The points which are farthest separated in longitude are {{convert|6600|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the west, the same spit on the boundary with Poland, and in the east, the Big Diomede Island. The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones.File:Эльбрус с перевала Гумбаши.JPG|thumb|right|Mount Elbrus, a dormant volcano, is the highest point of the CaucasusCaucasusFile:Volga River P8132394 2200.jpg|thumb|right|Volga River at Nizhny Novgorod. The Volga is the longest river in Europe]]File:Koryaksky volcano Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky oct-2005.jpg|thumb|Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on the Kamchatka PeninsulaKamchatka PeninsulaMost of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land.WEB, Oil prices drive the cost of food, RIA Novosti,weblink 22 February 2008, Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, which at {{convert|5642|m|0|abbr=on}} is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha, which at the {{convert|4506|m|0|abbr=on}} is the highest point of Siberia outside of the Russian Far East); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at the {{convert|4750|m|0|abbr=on}} is the highest active volcano in Eurasia as well as the highest point of Asian Russia). The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia.Russia has an extensive coastline of over {{convert|37000|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea and Caspian Sea.WEB, The World Factbook, CIA, Central Intelligence Agency,weblink 26 December 2007, The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just {{convert|3|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} apart, and Kunashir Island is about {{convert|20|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} from Hokkaido, Japan.Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.WEB, Library of Congress, Topography and drainage,weblink 26 December 2007, The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake.WEB, Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies, United States Geological Survey,weblink 26 December 2007, Baikal alone contains over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources. Of the country's 100,000 rivers,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Angara River, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007,weblink 26 December 2007, the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in Russian history. The Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world.

Climate

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.WEB, Climate, Library of Congress,weblink 26 December 2007, Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of {{convert|−71.2|°C|°F|1|disp=or}}), and more moderate winters elsewhere. Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.{{Weather box|location = Russia (records)|collapsed =|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan record high C = 22.2|Feb record high C = 23.8|Mar record high C = 30.3|Apr record high C = 34.0|May record high C = 37.7|Jun record high C = 43.2|Jul record high C = 45.4|Aug record high C = 43.5|Sep record high C = 41.5|Oct record high C = 33.7|Nov record high C = 29.1|Dec record high C = 25.0|year record high C = 45.4|Jan record low C = −67.6|Feb record low C = −67.7|Mar record low C = −60.6|Apr record low C = −57.2|May record low C = −34.2|Jun record low C = −9.7|Jul record low C = −9.3|Aug record low C = −17.1|Sep record low C = −25.3|Oct record low C = −48.7|Nov record low C = −58.5|Dec record low C = −64.5|year record low C = −67.7ACCESSDATE=8 SEPTEMBER 2010 ACCESSDATE=9 MAY 2017, |date=August 2010}}File:Саблинский хребет.jpg|thumb|Taiga forest, Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi RepublicKomi RepublicThroughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures. The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.JOURNAL, Drozdov, V. A., Ecological and Geographical Characteristics of the Coastal Zone of the Black Sea, GeoJournal, 1992, 10.1007/BF00717701, 27, 169, 2, Glezer, O. B., Nefedova, T. G., Shabdurasulov, I. V., The continental interiors are the driest areas.

Biodiversity

File:Medved mzoo.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The brown bear is a popular symbol of Russia, particularly in the West.]]From north to south the East European Plain, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves, known as "the lungs of Europe",NEWS, Walsh, N. P., It's Europe's lungs and home to many rare species. But to Russia it's £100bn of wood, Guardian (UK),weblink 26 December 2007, London, 19 September 2003, second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 and are now protected.WEB, I. A. Merzliakova,weblink List of animals of the Red Data Book of Russian Federation, UNEP/GRID–Arendal, 1 November 1997, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160428185844weblink">weblink 28 April 2016, There are 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia,WEB, The World Heritage List—UNESCO, Russian Federation,weblink 26 July 2017, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves,WEB, The World Network of Biosphere Reserves—UNESCO, Russian Federation,weblink 26 December 2007, 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves.

Economy

File:Moscow-City (36211143494).jpg|thumb|right|Moscow International Business CenterMoscow International Business CenterRussia has an upper-middle income mixed economyweblink, World Bank with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 12th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas. Real GDP per capita, PPP (current international) was 19,840 in 2010.WEB,weblink World Development Indicators, World Bank, World Bank, 6 August 2011, Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. The average nominal salary in Russia was $967 per month in early 2013, up from $80 in 2000.WEB, Russians weigh an enigma with Putin's protégé, MSNBC,weblink 9 May 2008, 3 May 2008, NEWS,weblink What is the Russian Middle Class? Probably Not What You Think, Mark Adomanis, Forbes, 9 October 2012, 27 April 2015, In May 2016 the average nominal monthly wages fell below $450 per month,WEB,weblink The average salary in Russia is now lower than in China and Poland, rbth, 20 May 2016, and tax on the income of individuals is payable at the rate of 13% on most incomes.WEB,weblink Lessons from the Russia's 2001 Flat Tax Reform, Voxeu.org, 19 February 2008, 4 May 2013, Approximately 19.2 million of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2016,NEWS, The Wall Street Journal, Number of Russians Living in Poverty Rises,weblink 21 March 2016, significantly up from 16.1 million in 2015. Unemployment in Russia was 5.4% in 2014, down from about 12.4% in 1999.WEB, RIA Novosti, Russia's unemployment rate down 10% in 2007 â€“ report,weblink 9 May 2008, Officially, about 20–25% of the Russian population is categorized as middle class; however some economists and sociologists think this figure is inflated and the real fraction is about 7%.WEB, insor-russia.ru, 7 percent of the Russian population is categorized as middle class,weblink 3 June 2017, After the United States, the European Union and other countries imposed economic sanctions after the annexation of Crimea and a collapse in oil prices, the proportion of middle-class could decrease drastically.WEB,weblink Putin's Miracle Dissolves as Russian Middle Class Faces Crunch, Henry, Meyer, Anna, rianova, 23 April 2015, www.bloomberg.com, JOURNAL, Overland, Indra, Fjaertoft, Daniel, 2015, Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban's Effects Limited,weblink Oil and Gas Journal, 113, 8, 66–72, File:HDP PPP per capita Russia.jpg|thumb|right|Russia's GDP by purchasing power parity (PPP) in 1991-2019 (in international dollarsinternational dollarsOil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. {{As of | 2012}} the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 16% of GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 80% of total exports.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141022042737weblink">weblink 22 October 2014, World Development Indicators: Contribution of natural resources to gross domestic product, World Bank, 21 July 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140324135804weblink">weblink 24 March 2014, Russia – Analysis, U.S. Energy Information Administration, EIA, 12 March 2014, 21 July 2014, WEB, Russia fixed asset investment to reach $370 bln by 2010–Kudrin, RIA Novosti,weblink 27 December 2007, Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008. {{as of|2017|April}}, foreign reserves in Russia fell to US$332 Billion.NEWS,weblink International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period), cbr.ru, 3 June 2017, The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia.NEWS,weblink Kudrin and Fischer honoured by Euromoney and IMF/World Bank meetings in Washington, Euromoney, 4 March 2011, In 2006, Russia repaid most of its formerly massive debts,WEB, Russia's foreign debt down 31.3% in Q3—finance ministry, RIA Novosti,weblink 27 December 2007, leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies.Debt – external, CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 22 May 2010. The Stabilization Fund helped Russia to come out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected.A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue.NEWS, Tavernise, S., Russia Imposes Flat Tax on Income, and Its Coffers Swell, The New York Times, 23 March 2002,weblink 27 December 2007, Russia has a flat tax rate of 13%. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.WEB, Global personal taxation comparison survey–market rankings, Mercer (consulting firms),weblink 27 December 2007, {{cbignore}} According to Bloomberg, Russia is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry.WEB, Russia: How Long Can The Fun Last?, BusinessWeek,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061213231938weblink">weblink 13 December 2006, 27 December 2007, The country has a higher proportion of higher education graduates than any other country in Eurasia.NEWS,weblink Countries with the MOST College Graduates (PHOTOS), Huffington Post, 22 July 2010, 7 December 2011, Leah, Finnegan, File:Russia and China sign major gas deal.jpeg|thumb|On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019 Russia plans to provide natural gasnatural gasFile:Sukhoi Superjet 100 prototype.jpg|thumb|200px|The Sukhoi Superjet 100Sukhoi Superjet 100File:Оперативный автомобиль МЧС, Санкт-Петербург (00).JPG|thumb|200px|A GAZ Volga used by the Police of RussiaPolice of RussiaThe economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP.GRP by federal subjects of Russia, 1998–2007 {{ru icon}}Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category."WEB, Inequality and the Putin Economy: Inside the Numbers,weblink pbs.org, Frontline, 14 January 2015, WEB, Global Wealth Report 2014,weblink Credit Suisse. Research Institute, 14 January 2015,weblink 14 February 2015, dead, Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected in the 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020.WEB,weblink RIA Novosti, 31 July 2008, Russia to invest $1 trillion in infrastructure by 2020 â€“ ministry, In December 2011, Russia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organisation after 18 years of dialogue, allowing it a greater access to overseas markets.WEB,weblink WTO {{!, 2011 News items – Ministerial Conference approves Russia's WTO membership|website=www.wto.org|access-date=9 April 2018}} Some analysts estimate that WTO membership could bring the Russian economy a bounce of up to 3% annually.NEWS,weblink Russia finally joins WTO, Financial Times, 16 December 2011, 4 May 2013, Russia ranks as the second-most corrupt country in Europe (after Ukraine), according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070918143400weblink">weblink 18 September 2007, Doing business in Russia, Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce, 10 June 2012, 10 June 2012, Corruption in Russia is perceived as a significant problemWEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2014, Transparency International, 4 December 2015, impacting all aspects of life, including public administration,WEB, Russia lost 4 billion dollars on unfavorable state procurement contracts in the last year,weblink Meduza, 7 December 2015, law enforcement,JOURNAL,weblink Cops for hire, The Economist, 2010, 4 December 2015, healthcareWEB,weblink Corruption in Russian Health Care: The Determinants and Incidence of Bribery, 2010, 4 December 2015, Klara Sabirianova Peter, Tetyana Zelenska, and education.WEB,weblink Corruption at Universities is a Common Disease for Russia and Ukraine, Harvard University, 2014, 4 December 2015, Elena Denisova-Schmidt, Elvira Leontyeva, Yaroslav Prytula, The phenomenon of corruption is strongly established in the historical model of public governance in Russia and attributed to general weakness of rule of law in Russia.WEB,weblink Corruption in Russia: A Historical Perspective, 4 December 2015, Suhara, Manabu, dead,weblink 4 March 2016, mdy-all, According to Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, Russia ranked 138th with a score of 28 out of 100 in 2018.WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 3, Transparency International, transparency.org, 25 April 2019, The Russian central bank announced plans in 2013 to free float the Russian ruble in 2015. According to a stress test conducted by the central bank Russian financial system would be able to handle a currency decline of 25%–30% without major central bank interference. However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late 2013 and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation. The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.S. dollar or other foreign currencies that have strengthened against the ruble; thus it costs Russian companies more of their ruble-denominated revenue to repay their debt holders in dollars or other foreign currencies.NEWS,weblink Falling rouble creates debt payment headache for Russian companies, Sujata Rao, 10 November 2014, Reuters, 16 December 2014, {{as of|2016|March}}, the ruble was devalued more than 50 percent since July 2014.WEB,weblink Today's Stock Market News and Analysis from Nasdaq.com, NASDAQ.com, Moreover, after bringing inflation down to 3.6% in 2012, the lowest rate since gaining independence from the Soviet Union, inflation in Russia jumped to nearly 7.5% in 2014, causing the central bank to increase its lending rate to 8% from 5.5% in 2013.NEWS,weblink Russia Ready to Float Ruble Next Year Regardless of Rate, Ostroukh, Andrey, 17 January 2014, Wall Street Journal, 11 March 2017,weblink 20 March 2017, dead, NEWS,weblink Russian Central Bank Raises Key Interest Rate to 8% From 7.5%, Razumovskaya, Olga, 25 July 2014, Wall Street Journal, NEWS,weblink USD/RUB exchange rate, Bloomberg L.P., In an October 2014 article in Bloomberg Business Week, it was reported that Russia had significantly started shifting its economy towards China in response to increasing financial tensions following its annexation of Crimea and subsequent Western economic sanctions."China Embraces Russia", Bloomberg Business Week, 9 October 2014, pp. 15–16.

Energy

File:RF NG pipestoEU.gif|thumb|left|Russia is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.]]In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower.NEWS, Gronholt-Pedersen, Jacon, Russia, China in Deal On Refinery, Not Gas,weblink 6 October 2017, The Wall Street Journal, 22 September 2010, NEWS, Winfrey, Graham, Did A New Pipeline Just Make Russia The Most Important Energy Superpower By Far?,weblink 6 October 2017, Business Insider, 6 January 2010, The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves,Country Comparison :: Natural gas – proved reserves. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. the 8th largest oil reserves,Country Comparison :: Oil – proved reserves. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. and the second largest coal reserves.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090206104056weblink">weblink 6 February 2009, BP Statistical review of world energy June 2007, BP, XLS, June 2007, 22 October 2007, Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporterCountry Comparison :: Natural gas – exports. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. and second largest natural gas producer,"Country Comparison :: Natural gas – production", CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. while also the largest oil exporter and the largest oil producer.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518015934weblink">weblink 18 May 2012, International Energy Agency – Oil Market Report, 18 January 2012, 20 February 2012, Russia is the third largest electricity producer in the worldCountry Comparison :: Electricity – production. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. and the 5th largest renewable energy producer, the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090206104056weblink">weblink 6 February 2009, BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009: Hydroelectricity consumption, 29 October 2010, Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in European Russia along big rivers like the Volga. The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110107102229weblink">Nuclear Power Plant Information, International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 12 June 2006. with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.Russia builds nuclear power stations all over the world at amur.kp.ru {{ru icon}}In May 2014 on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Construction of a pipeline to facilitate the deal was agreed whereby Russia would contribute $55bn to the cost, and China $22bn, in what Putin described as "the world's biggest construction project for the next four years." The natural gas would begin to flow sometime between 2018 and 2020 and would continue for 30 years at an ultimate cost to China of $400bn.NEWS, China and Russia sign $400 billion 30-year gas deal,weblink 22 May 2014, Russia Herald,

External trade and investment

File:McDonalds Moscow Pushkinskaya 2013 (14795521387).jpg|thumb|A McDonald'sMcDonald's{{Expand section|date=January 2019}}{{See also|List of the largest trading partners of Russia|List of countries by oil exports|List of countries by natural gas exports}}Russia recorded a trade surplus of US$130.1 billion in 2017.NEWS, Top Russian Trade Balances,weblink World's Top Exports, 1 January 2019, Russia's Trade Balance recorded a surplus of US$19.7 billion in October 2018, compared with a surplus of US$10.1 billion in October 2017.WEB, Trade Balance in Russia,weblink FocusEconomics, The European Union is Russia's largest trading partner and Russia is the EU's fourth largest trading partner. 75% of foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks in Russia come from the EU."EU-Russia bilateral trade relations". European Commission.Reuters reported that U.S. companies "generated more than $90 billion in revenue from Russia in 2017."NEWS, Factbox: U.S. companies with exposure to Russia,weblink Reuters, 9 August 2018, According to the AALEP, "there are almost 3,000 American companies in Russia, and the U.S. is also the leader in terms of foreign companies in Special Economic Zones, with 11 projects."WEB, AMERICAN COMPANIES OPERATING IN RUSSIA,weblink Association of Accredited Public Policy Advocates to the European Union.,

Agriculture

File:Ivan Shishkin - Рожь - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|Rye Fields, by Ivan Shishkin. Russia is the world's top producer of barley, buckwheat and oats, and one of the largest producers and exporters of rye, sunflower seed and wheatwheatRussia's total area of cultivated land is estimated at {{convert|1237294|km2}}, the fourth largest in the world."Land Use", CIA World Factbook From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture grew steadily,Data by Rosstat {{ru icon}} and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after the EU and the United States.weblink" title="archive.today/20120108052630weblink">Russia takes the third place in the world by grain exports, rosbankjournal.ru {{ru icon}} The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow.Data by Rosstat {{ru icon}}The 2014 devaluation of the rouble and imposition of sanctions spurred domestic production, and in 2016 Russia exceeded Soviet grain production levels,NEWS,weblink Russia has emerged as an agricultural powerhouse, 1 December 2018, The Economist, 0013-0613, and became the world’s largest exporter of wheat.NEWS, Despite sanctions Russian wheat export is breaking the records,weblink Financialobserver.eu, 2 May 2019, This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land."Agricultural land by type of owners", Rosstat, 2009 {{ru icon}} While large farms concentrate mainly on grain production and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's potatoes, vegetables and fruits.Main agricultural products by type of owners Rosstat, 2009 {{ru icon}}Since Russia borders three oceans (the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific), Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia captured 3,191,068 tons of fish in 2005.NEWS, Brown, Felicity,weblink Fish capture by country since 1950, Guardian, 2 September 2009, 4 May 2013, Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in recent years, reaching $2,415 and $2,036 million, respectively, in 2008."Exports and imports of fish and sea products", Rosstat, 2009 {{ru icon}}Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world.WEB,weblink FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Main Report. FAO Forestry Working Paper 163, Rome, Italy, 4 May 2013, WEB,weblink ru:Глобальная оценка лесных ресурсов 2010 года, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, FAO Forestry Working Paper 163, Rome, Italy, ru, 2010, However, according to a 2012 study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Government of the Russian Federation,WEB,weblink Innovations and investments urged to modernize Russian forest sector www.fao.org, FAO, 25 September 2012, 4 May 2013, the considerable potential of Russian forests is underutilized and Russia's share of the global trade in forest products is less than four percent.WEB,weblink The Russian Federation Forest Sector Outlook Study to 2030, FAO. Rome, Italy, 2012, 4 May 2013,

Transport

File:TransSiberianRailwayAtKm9288.jpg|thumb|upright|The marker for kilometre 9288 at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in VladivostokVladivostokRailway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia's GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091004034659weblink">weblink 4 October 2009, Russian Railways, Eng.rzd.ru, 2 January 2010, The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds {{convert|85500|km|0|abbr=on}}, second only to the United States. Over {{convert|44000|km|0|abbr=on}} of tracks are electrified,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110426092402weblink">weblink 26 April 2011, Invest in Russia–Infrastructure, Invest.gov.ru, 27 April 2010, which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than {{convert|30000|km|0|abbr=on}} of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of {{RailGauge|1520mm}}, with the exception of {{convert|957|km|0|abbr=on}} on Sakhalin island using narrow gauge of {{RailGauge|1067mm}}. The most renowned railway in Russia is Trans-Siberian (Transsib), spanning a record seven time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow-Vladivostok ({{convert|9259|km|0|abbr=on}}), Moscow–Pyongyang ({{convert|10267|km|0|abbr=on}})CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Pyongyang, August 2009. Note: several different routes have the same number. and Kiev–Vladivostok ({{convert|11085|km|0|abbr=on}}).CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok, August 2009.{{As of|2006}} Russia had 933,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved.Rosstat statistics on length of roads Retrieved 10 June 2009 Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system. With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the G8 and BRIC countries.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417001324weblink">weblink 17 April 2009, Transport in Russia, 17 February 2009, International Transport Statistics Database, iRAP, Much of Russia's inland waterways, which total {{convert|102000|km|0|abbr=on}}, are made up of natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White, Caspian, Azov and Black Seas.File:Yamal 2009.JPG|thumb|left|Yamal, one of Russia's nuclear-powered icebreakernuclear-powered icebreakerMajor sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian, Kaliningrad and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 the country owned 1,448 merchant marine ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia.By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Currently many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO) to the Russian Far East and China.Russia has 1,216 airports,WEB,weblink CIA The World Factbook–Rank Order–Airports, Cia.gov, 19 January 2011, the busiest being Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St. Petersburg.Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan, have underground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram. The total length of metros in Russia is {{Convert|465.4|km|mi}}. Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways.

Science and technology

{{more citations needed section|date=April 2018}}File:M.V. Lomonosov by L.Miropolskiy after G.C.Prenner (1787, RAN).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765), polymathpolymathFile:Ivan Pavlov NLM3.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Ivan PavlovIvan PavlovScience and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment, when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University, and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University, paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation. In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors.The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law. Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the electric arc, electrodynamical Lenz's law, space groups of crystals, photoelectric cell, superfluidity, Cherenkov radiation, electron paramagnetic resonance, heterotransistors and 3D holography. Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov, while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm, Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich, leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party.Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky (the "Copernicus of Geometry" who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry) and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev, the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.BOOK, Russian Mathematicians in the 20th Century, 2003, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 978-981-02-4390-6,weblink Yakov Sinai, Chebyshev's students included Aleksandr Lyapunov, who founded the modern stability theory, and Andrey Markov who invented the Markov chains. In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov, Israel Gelfand, and Sergey Sobolev, made major contributions to various areas of mathematics. Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with the Fields Medal, a most prestigious award in mathematics. Recently Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130428112451weblink">weblink 28 April 2013, The Poincaré Conjecture, Claymath.org, 4 May 2013, Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure, playing a central role in organic chemistry. Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning, and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.Many Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, like Igor Sikorsky, who built the first airliners and modern-type helicopters; Vladimir Zworykin, often called the father of television; chemist Ilya Prigogine, noted for his work on dissipative structures and complex systems; Nobel Prize-winning economists Simon Kuznets and Wassily Leontief; physicist Georgiy Gamov (an author of the Big Bang theory) and social scientist Pitirim Sorokin. Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel.Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos, further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov, Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute, while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today. Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer, Setun, was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.File:Sukhoi T-50 Maksimov.jpg|thumb|right|The Sukhoi Su-57 is a fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for the Russian Air ForceRussian Air ForceFile:Mir on 12 June 1998edit1.jpg|thumb|Soviet and Russian space station MirMirFile:Soyuz TMA-2 launch.jpg|thumb|upright|Soyuz TMA-2 is launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, carrying one of the first resident crews to the International Space StationInternational Space StationIn the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers, inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky, Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs (Construction Bureaus) that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation. Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu-series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi-series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.Famous Russian battle tanks include T34, the most heavily produced tank design of World War II,Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110222215401weblink |date=22 February 2011 }} by George Parada (n.d.) Achtung Panzer! website. Retrieved 17 November 2008 and further tanks of T-series, including the most produced tank in history, T54/55.Halberstadt, Hans (1997). Inside the Great Tanks. Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd. 94–96 {{ISBN|1-86126-270-1}}: "The T-54/T-55 series is the hands down, all-time most popular tank in history". The AK47 and AK74 by Mikhail Kalashnikov constitute the most widely used type of assault rifle throughout the world—so much so that more AK-type rifles have been manufactured than all other assault rifles combined.WEB,weblink Weaponomics: The Economics of Small Arms, 4 May 2013, With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production. The crisis of the 1990s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia.In the 2000s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top priorities for the country's technological development: Currently Russia has completed the GLONASS satellite navigation system. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world.

Space exploration

Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics.WEB,weblink American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aiaa.org, 2 January 2010, {{cbignore}} His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond.In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched; in 1961 the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov, Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon, Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon, Venera 7 was the first to land on another planet (Venus), Mars 3 then the first to land on Mars, the first space exploration rover Lunokhod 1, and the first space station Salyut 1 and Mir.After the collapse of the Soviet Union, some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher.WEB,weblink Russian space program in 2009: plans and reality, Russianspaceweb.com, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100128201450weblink">weblink 28 January 2010, After the United States Space Shuttle program ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the International Space Station.Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with first planned mission launch in 2021. Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also conduct mission to lunar orbit as early as 2026.NEWS, Ð’ "Роскосмосе" решили переименовать новый космический корабль,weblink Правда.Ру, 6 September 2019, ru, NEWS, Russia may select first crew for its Federation spacecraft next year,weblink www.spaceflightinsider.com, In February 2019, it was announced that Russia is intending to conduct its first crewed mission to land on the Moon in 2031.NEWS, ru:Российские космонавты высадятся на Луну в 2031 году,weblink РИА Новости, 9 February 2019, ru,

Water supply and sanitation

In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater. In 2004, water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was 248 litres per capita per day.United Nations:Sanitation Country Profile Russian Federation, 2004 One fourth of the world's fresh surface and groundwater is located in Russia. The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population.Lake Baikal is famous for its record depth and clear waters. It contains 20% of the world's liquid fresh water. However, as water pollution gets worse, the lake is going to be a swamp instead of a freshwater lake soonweblink

Corruption

File:Anti-Corruption Rally in Saint Petersburg (2017-06-12) 54.jpg|thumb|2017–2018 Russian protests2017–2018 Russian protestsThere are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption.WEB,weblink ararat.osipian, sites.google.com, According to official government statistics from Rosstat, the "shadow economy" occupied only 15% of Russia's GDP in 2011, and this included unreported salaries (to avoid taxes and social payments) and other types of tax evasion.WEB,weblink Доля теневой экономики в РФ снизилась почти до 15%, таблицы "затраты-выпуск"... – Пресс-центр – Интерфакс, Interfax.ru, 14 July 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120616223602weblink">weblink 16 June 2012, According to Rosstat's estimates, corruption in 2011 amounted to only 3.5 to 7% of GDP. In comparison, some independent experts maintain that corruption consumes as much of 25% of Russia's GDP.Source: Milov, Nemtsov, Ryzhkov, Shorina (2011). "Putin. Corruption. Independent expert report", p. 6. A World Bank report puts this figure at 48%.WEB,weblink Коррупция в России как система "распилки" ВВП – новость из рубрики Общество, актуальная информация, обсуждение новости, дискуссии на Newsland, Newsland.ru, 14 July 2014, There is also an interesting shift in the main focus of bribery: whereas previously officials took bribes to shut their eyes to legal infractions, they now take them simply to perform their duties.WEB,weblink Средний размер взятки в России в 2010 году вырос с 27 до 47 тысяч руб | РИА Новости, Ria.ru, February 2011, 14 July 2014, Many experts admit that in recent years corruption in Russia has become a business. In the 1990s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a "krysha" (literally, a "roof", i.e., protection). Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials. Corrupt hierarchies characterize different sectors of the economy,{{better source|date=October 2018}} including education.{{better source|date=October 2018}}In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption.{{better source|date=October 2018}} For example, some experts believe that the rapid increases in tariffs for housing, water, gas and electricity, which significantly outpace the rate of inflation, are a direct result of high volumes of corruption at the highest levels.Milov et al., Op. cit., 2011, p. 6. In the recent years the reaction to corruption has changed: starting from Putin's second term, very few corruption cases have been the subject of outrage. Putin's system is remarkable for its ubiquitous and open merging of the civil service and business, as well as its use of relatives, friends, and acquaintances to benefit from budgetary expenditures and take over state property. Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace.{{better source|date=October 2018}}On 26 March 2017, protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.NEWS,weblink Russian police arrest anti-corruption leader Navalny, hundreds more in nationwide rallies, 4 June 2017, They were triggered by the lack of proper response from the Russian authorities to the published investigative film He Is Not Dimon To You, which has garnered more than 20 million views on YouTube.NEWS,weblink Kremlin Critic Says Russian Premier, Dmitri Medvedev, Built Property Empire on Graft, 4 June 2017, In the 2018 results of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Russia ranked 138th out of 180 countries with a score of 28 out of 100, tying with Guinea, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico and Papua New Guinea.WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 3, Transparency International, 9 September 2019,

Demographics

(File:Плотность населения России по муниципальным образованиям.png|thumb|upright=1.4|[List of districts in Russia|Federal districts by population density. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow, St Petersburg and other cities.WEB, LandRussia, LandRussia, According To The Latest Data Russia's Demography Is Still In Sharp Decline,weblink 5 November 2018, 5 November 2018, ){{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=300|image1=Percentage of Russians by region.svg#ff000080%}}{{legend>#ff9955#ffccaa#ffe6d5|20—49%}}{{legend|#ffffff|

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