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Montana
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{{About|the U.S. state of Montana}}{{redirect|Montanan}}{{redirect|Big Sky Country|the song by Chris Whitley|Big Sky Country (song)}}{{pp-pc1}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2017}}







factoids
Mike Cooney (D)}}| Legislature = Montana LegislatureMontana Senate>SenateMontana House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesJon Tester (D)}}{{nowrapSteve Daines (Republican Party (United States)>R)}}| Representative = Greg Gianforte (R)| area_rank = 4thPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUPAGE=41 (TABLE 18)ACCESSDATE=APRIL 11, 2014, | area_total_km2 = 380,800 PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SERVICEDATE=OCTOBER 2, 2009, 145552km2}}| area_water_sq_mi = 1,491| area_water_km2 = 3,862| area_water_percent = 1| population_rank = 43rd| 2010Pop = 1,062,305| population_as_of = 2018| population_density_rank = 48th| 2010DensityUS = 7.09| 2000Density = 2.73TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 38th| AdmittanceOrder = 41st| AdmittanceDate = November 8, 1889| Latitude = 44° 21′ N to 49° N| Longitude = 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W| length_mi = 255| length_km = 410| width_mi = 630| width_km = 1,015Granite Peak (Montana)>Granite Peak{{sfn2008}}{{sfn2001}}| elevation_max_ft = 12,807| elevation_max_m = 3903.5| elevation_ft = 3,400| elevation_m = 1040Kootenai River at {{nobreak>Idaho border}}{{sfn2008}}{{sfn2001}}| elevation_min_ft = 1,804| elevation_min_m = 557Mountain Time Zone>Mountain| utc_offset1 = -07:00Mountain Daylight Time>MDT| utc_offset1_DST = -06:00Area code 406>406 Entire State| postal_code = MT| TradAbbreviation = Mont.| iso_code = US-MT| website = www.mt.gov}}







factoids
Montana ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Montana.ogg|m|ɒ|n|ˈ|t|æ|n|ə}}) is a state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official,WEB, Part 5. State Symbols -- Official Designations - Table of Contents, Title 1, Chapter 1, MCA,weblink Montana Code Annotated, 2015, April 24, 2017, en, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently "The Last Best Place".{{sfn|Robbins, J.|2008}}Montana is the fourth-largest in area, the 8th least populous, and the third-least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the north.The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, gas, coal, hard rock mining, and lumber. The health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the state's economy.The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism. Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, and other attractions.NEWS,weblink Montana tourist numbers down, spending up, report says, Kendall, Lewis, Bozeman Daily Chronicle, 2018-06-21, en,

Etymology and naming history

The name Montana comes from the Spanish word montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country".BOOK, Montana Historical Society, Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana,weblink 1910, Rocky Mountain Publishing Company, 47–, {{sfn|Malone| Roeder|Lang|1991|pp=95–96}} Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1991|pp=95–96}} The name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, which was chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory.{{sfn|Sanders|1910|pp=15–60}} The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson (Massachusetts) and Benjamin F. Harding (Oregon), who complained Montana had "no meaning".{{sfn|Sanders|1910|pp=15–60}} When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory.{{sfn|Library of Congress|1864}} This time, Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name.{{sfn|Library of Congress|1864}} Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.{{sfn|Library of Congress|1864}} Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but the Committee on Territories decided they could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted.{{sfn|Library of Congress|1864}}

Geography

{{See also|Regional designations of Montana|Ecological systems of Montana|List of mountain ranges in Montana|List of forests in Montana}}(File:Montana Map.jpg|thumb|left|Map of Montana)Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, {{sfn|Holding|2010|p=81}} and three Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, are to the north.With an area of {{convert|147040|sqmi|km2}}, Montana is slightly larger than Japan. It is the fourth-largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California;{{sfn|Anderson|2012|p=4}} it is the largest landlocked U.S. state.{{sfn|State Records|2012}}

Topography

The state's topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1991|p=6}} Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of which is geologically and geographically part of the northern Rocky Mountains.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1991|p=6}}{{sfn|Madej|Jones|2007}} The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.{{sfn|Elias|2002|p=55}} The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion,{{sfn|Graetz|Clemenz|1984|p=59}} and isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state.{{sfn|Aarstad|Arguimbau|Baumler|Porsild|2009|p=58}} About 60 percent of the state is prairie, part of the northern Great Plains.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1991|p=6–7}}The Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico{{sfn|Cooper|2009|p=11}}—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide.{{sfn|Cooper|2009|page=45}} Other major mountain ranges west of the divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, the Sapphire Mountains, and the Flint Creek Range.{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|pages=57–63}}(File:Montana Relief 1.jpg|thumb|Relief map of Montana)The divide's northern section, where the mountains rapidly give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front.{{sfn|Kudray|Cooper|2006|page=1}} The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located primarily in Glacier National Park.{{sfn|Ross|1959|page=10}} Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide (which begins in Alaska's Seward Peninsula){{sfn|Enright|2010|page=xxiii}} crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.{{sfn|Temple|2008|page=493}} It causes the Waterton River, Belly, and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada.{{sfn|Ross|1959|page=8}} There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay.{{sfn|Canadian Council for Geographic Education|2013}}East of the divide, several roughly parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains, and Beartooth Mountains.{{sfn|Burger|2004|pages=10–11}} The Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over {{convert|10000|ft|m}} high in the continental United States.{{sfn|Cunningham|1990|page=77}} It contains the state's highest point, Granite Peak, {{convert|12799|ft|m}} high.{{sfn|Cunningham|1990|page=77}} North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, and several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains.{{sfn|Montana State Library|2013}}File:St Mary Lake.jpg|thumb|left|St. Mary LakeSt. Mary LakeBetween many mountain ranges are rich river valleys. The Big Hole Valley,{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|pages=506–507}} Bitterroot Valley,{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|pages=501–502}} Gallatin Valley,{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|pages=575–577}} Flathead Valley,{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1991|page=357}}{{sfn|Peterson|2012|page=24}} and Paradise Valley{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|pages=579–580}} have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation.East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, and badlands.{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|page=50}} The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains,{{sfn|Fletcher|Bradshaw|Axline|Shope|2008|page=93}} Bull Mountains,{{sfn|Vasapolli|2003|page=16}} Castle Mountains,{{sfn|United States Forest Service|2007|page=207}} Crazy Mountains,{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|page=58}} Highwood Mountains,{{sfn|Mining and Scientific Press|1899|page=408}} Judith Mountains,{{sfn|Mining and Scientific Press|1899|page=408}} Little Belt Mountains,{{sfn|United States Forest Service|2007|page=207}} Little Rocky Mountains,{{sfn|Mining and Scientific Press|1899|page=408}} the Pryor Mountains,{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|page=58}} Snowy Mountains,{{sfn|Vasapolli|2003|page=16}} Sweet Grass Hills,{{sfn|Vasapolli|2003|page=16}} and—in the state's southeastern corner near Ekalaka—the Long Pines.{{sfn|Madej|Jones|2007}} Many of these isolated eastern ranges were created about 120 to 66 million years ago when magma welling up from the interior cracked and bowed the earth's surface here.{{sfn|Jewell|McRae|2012|page=439}}The area east of the divide in the state' north-central portion is known for the Missouri Breaks and other significant rock formations.{{sfn|Ballard|2008|pages=92–94}} Three buttes south of Great Falls are major landmarks: Cascade, Crown, Square, Shaw, and Buttes.{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|pages=49}} Known as laccoliths, they formed when igneous rock protruded through cracks in the sedimentary rock.{{sfn|Merrill-Maker|2006|pages=49}} The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale.{{sfn|Fisher|1908|pages=23–24}} Surface soils in the area are highly diverse, and greatly affected by the local geology, whether glaciated plain, intermountain basin, mountain foothills, or tableland.{{sfn|Soil Conservation Service|1953|pages=4}} Foothill regions are often covered in weathered stone or broken slate, or consist of uncovered bare rock (usually igneous, quartzite, sandstone, or shale).{{sfn|Soil Conservation Service|1953|pages=7–8}} The soil of intermountain basins usually consists of clay, gravel, sand, silt, and volcanic ash, much of it laid down by lakes which covered the region during the Oligocene 33 to 23 million years ago.{{sfn|Soil Conservation Service|1953|pages=8}} Tablelands are often topped with argillite gravel and weathered quartzite, occasionally underlain by shale.{{sfn|Soil Conservation Service|1953|pages=10–11}} The glaciated plains are generally covered in clay, gravel, sand, and silt left by the proglacial Lake Great Falls or by moraines or gravel-covered former lake basins left by the Wisconsin glaciation 85,000 to 11,000 years ago.{{sfn|Soil Conservation Service|1953|pages=11}} Farther east, areas such as Makoshika State Park near Glendive and Medicine Rocks State Park near Ekalaka contain some of the most scenic badlands regions in the state.{{sfn|Montana Outdoors|2002}}File:MK02256 2257 Belly River.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Belly River in Waterton Lakes National ParkWaterton Lakes National ParkThe Hell Creek Formation in Northeast Montana is a major source of dinosaur fossils.{{sfn|Archibald|1997|page=223}} Paleontologist Jack Horner of the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman brought this formation to the world's attention with several major finds.{{sfn|Newsmakers-Jack Horner|2013}}

Rivers, lakes and reservoirs

{{See also|List of rivers of Montana|List of lakes in Montana}}Montana has thousands of named rivers and creeks,{{sfn|Geological Survey—search|2013}} {{convert|450|mi|km}} of which are known for "blue-ribbon" trout fishing.{{sfn|Therriault|2010|page=93}}{{sfn|Fischer|Fischer|2008|page=2}} Montana's water resources provide for recreation, hydropower, crop and forage irrigation, mining, and water for human consumption. Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e. where two continental divides intersect). Its rivers feed the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Hudson Bay. The watersheds divide at Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park.{{sfn|Naiman|Décamps|McClain|2005|page=4}}

Pacific Ocean drainage basin

File:Missouri River breaks.jpg|thumb|Missouri Breaks region in central Montana]]West of the divide, the Clark Fork of the Columbia (not to be confused with the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River) rises near Butte{{sfn|Diamond|2006|page=38}} and flows northwest to Missoula, where it is joined by the Blackfoot River and Bitterroot River.{{sfn|Geographical Dictionary Of The World|1900|page=423}} Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille.{{sfn|Ross|1959|page=8}}{{sfn|Palmer|1998|page=168}} The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. The Pend Oreille River joined the Columbia River, which flows to the Pacific Ocean—making the {{convert|579|mi|km|adj=on}} long Clark Fork/Pend Oreille (considered a single river system) the longest river in the Rocky Mountains.{{sfn|Palmer|1998|page=168–169}} The Clark Fork discharges the greatest volume of water of any river exiting the state.{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Clark Fork River|2013}} The Kootenai River in northwest Montana is another major tributary of the Columbia.{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Kootenai River|2013}}

Gulf of Mexico drainage basin

East of the divide the Missouri River, which is formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers near Three Forks,{{sfn|Huser|2004|page=85}} flows due north through the west-central part of the state to Great Falls.{{sfn|Moody|Chase|Aronson|1986|page=310}} From this point, it then flows generally east through fairly flat agricultural land and the Missouri Breaks to Fort Peck reservoir.{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|page=597}} The stretch of river between Fort Benton and the Fred Robinson Bridge at the western boundary of Fort Peck Reservoir was designated a National Wild and Scenic River in 1976.{{sfn|Florence|Nystrom|Gierlich|2001|page=597}} The Missouri enters North Dakota near Fort Union,{{sfn|Matzko|2001|p=27}} having drained more than half the land area of Montana ({{convert|82000|sqmi|km2}}).{{sfn|Moody|Chase|Aronson|1986|page=310}} Nearly one-third of the Missouri River in Montana lies behind 10 dams: Toston, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Black Eagle, Rainbow, Cochrane, Ryan, Morony, and Fort Peck.{{sfn|Huser|2004|pages=84–85}}The Yellowstone River rises on the Continental Divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness.{{sfn|Malone| Roeder|Lang|1991|page=80}} It flows north through Yellowstone National Park, enters Montana near Gardiner, and passes through the Paradise Valley to Livingston.{{sfn|Robbins, C.|2008|p=331}} It then flows northeasterly{{sfn|Robbins, C.|2008|p=331}} across the state through Billings, Miles City, Glendive, and Sidney.{{sfn|Hellmann|2013|pages=650, 653–654, 659}} The Yellowstone joins the Missouri in North Dakota just east of Fort Union.{{sfn|Parry|2001|page=216}} It is the longest undammed, free-flowing river in the contiguous United States,{{sfn|Fish and Wildlife Service|2001}}{{sfn|Paddling Montana|2000}} and drains about a quarter of Montana ({{convert|36000|sqmi|km2}}).{{sfn|Moody|Chase|Aronson|1986|page=310}}Other major Montana tributaries of the Missouri include the Smith,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Smith River|2013}} Milk,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Milk River|2013}} Marias,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Marias River|2013}} Judith,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Judith River|2013}} and Musselshell Rivers.{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Musselshell River|2013}} Montana also claims the disputed title of possessing the world's shortest river, the Roe River, just outside Great Falls.{{sfn|Finnerty|2011|pages=42–43}} Through the Missouri, these rivers ultimately join the Mississippi River and flow into the Gulf of Mexico.{{sfn|National Atlas|2013}}Major tributaries of the Yellowstone include the Boulder,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Boulder River|2013}} Stillwater,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Stillwater River|2013}} Clarks Fork,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork Yellowstone River|2013}} Bighorn,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Bighorn River|2013}} Tongue,{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Tongue River|2013}} and Powder Rivers.{{sfn|Waterbody Report-Powder River|2013}}

Hudson Bay drainage basin

The Northern Divide turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak, causing the Waterton, Belly, and Saint Mary Rivers to flow north into Alberta. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay.{{sfn|Canadian Council for Geographic Education|2013}}

Lakes and reservoirs

Montana has some 3,000 named lakes and reservoirs, including Flathead Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in the western United States. Other major lakes include Whitefish Lake in the Flathead Valley and Lake McDonald and St. Mary Lake in Glacier National Park. The largest reservoir in the state is Fort Peck Reservoir on the Missouri river, which is contained by the second largest earthen dam and largest hydraulically filled dam in the world.{{sfn|Fort Peck Dam|2013}} Other major reservoirs include Hungry Horse on the Flathead River; Lake Koocanusa on the Kootenai River; Lake Elwell on the Marias River; Clark Canyon on the Beaverhead River; Yellowtail on the Bighorn River, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Rainbow; and Black Eagle on the Missouri River.

Flora and fauna

File:Pompeys Pillar NM (9424545304).jpg|thumb|Pompey's Pillar National MonumentPompey's Pillar National Monument{{See also|List of monocotyledons of Montana|List of coniferous plants of Montana|List of lichens of Montana|List of amphibians and reptiles of Montana|List of birds of Montana|Fish of Montana|Mammals of Montana|List of taxa described from Montana}}Vegetation of the state includes lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, larch, spruce, aspen, birch, red cedar, hemlock, ash, alder, rocky mountain maple and cottonwood trees. Forests cover about 25% of the state. Flowers native to Montana include asters, bitterroots, daisies, lupins, poppies, primroses, columbine, lilies, orchids, and dryads. Several species of sagebrush and cactus and many species of grasses are common. Many species of mushrooms and lichens{{sfn|Montana Field Guide-Lichens|2013}} are also found in the state.Montana is home to a diverse array of fauna that includes 14 amphibian,{{sfn|Montana Field Guide-Amphibians|2013}} 90 fish,{{sfn|Montana Field Guide-Fish|2013}} 117 mammal,{{sfn|Montana Field Guide-Mammals|2013}} 20 reptile,{{sfn|Montana Field Guide-Reptiles|2013}} and 427 bird{{sfn|Montana Audubon|2008}} species. Additionally, over 10,000 invertebrate species are present, including 180 mollusks and 30 crustaceans. Montana has the largest grizzly bear population in the lower 48 states.{{sfn|Kaush|Thompson, Jr.|2012|p=258}} Montana hosts five federally endangered species–black-footed ferret, whooping crane, least tern, pallid sturgeon, and white sturgeon and seven threatened species including the grizzly bear, Canadian lynx, and bull trout.{{sfn|Fish and Wildlife Service|2013}} However, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are only listed as a threatened species for the mainland 48 states. In general, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are not threatened species, the IUCN lists both of the two animals' conservation statuses as "least concern". The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks manages fishing and hunting seasons for at least 17 species of game fish, including seven species of trout, walleye, and smallmouth bass{{sfn|Montana Fishing Regulations|2013}} and at least 29 species of game birds and animals including ring-neck pheasant, grey partridge, elk, pronghorn antelope, mule deer, whitetail deer, gray wolf, and bighorn sheep.{{sfn|Montana Hunting Season|2013}}

Protected lands

{{See also|List of Montana state parks}}File:Bison herd grazing at the National Bison Range.jpg|thumb|Bison herd grazing at the National Bison RangeNational Bison RangeMontana contains Glacier National Park, "The Crown of the Continent"; and parts of Yellowstone National Park, including three of the park's five entrances. Other federally recognized sites include the Little Bighorn National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the National Bison Range. Federal and state agencies administer approximately {{convert|31300000|acres|km2}}, or 35 percent of Montana's land. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service administers {{convert|16800000|acre|km2}} of forest land in ten National Forests. There are approximately {{convert|3300000|acres|km2}} of wilderness in 12 separate wilderness areas that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System established by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management controls {{convert|8100000|acre|km2}} of federal land. The U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service administers {{convert|110000|acre|km2}} of 1.1 million acres of National Wildlife Refuges and waterfowl production areas in Montana. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation administers approximately {{convert|300000|acres|km2}} of land and water surface in the state. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks operates approximately {{convert|275265|acre|km2}} of state parks and access points on the state's rivers and lakes. The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation manages {{convert|5200000|acres|km2}} of School Trust Land ceded by the federal government under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to the state in 1889 when Montana was granted statehood. These lands are managed by the state for the benefit of public schools and institutions in the state.{{sfn|Montana Interagency Access Council|2001}}File:Quakelakemontana.jpg|thumb|right|Quake Lake was created by a landslide during the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake1959 Hebgen Lake earthquakeAreas managed by the National Park Service include:{{sfn|National Park Service|2013}}

Climate

File:Helena, Montana 1961-1990 Climate data.gif|thumb|Left|Temperature and precipitation for Montana's capital city, Helena ]]File:Montana Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Montana]]Montana is a large state with considerable variation in geography, topography and altitude, and the climate is, therefore, equally varied. The state spans from below the 45th parallel (the line equidistant between the equator and North Pole) to the 49th parallel, and elevations range from under {{convert|2000|ft|m}} to nearly {{convert|13000|ft|m}} above sea level. The western half is mountainous, interrupted by numerous large valleys. Eastern Montana comprises plains and badlands, broken by hills and isolated mountain ranges, and has a semiarid, continental climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). The Continental Divide has a considerable effect on the climate, as it restricts the flow of warmer air from the Pacific from moving east, and drier continental air from moving west. The area west of the divide has a modified northern Pacific Coast climate, with milder winters, cooler summers, less wind, and a longer growing season.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}} Low clouds and fog often form in the valleys west of the divide in winter, but this is rarely seen in the east.{{sfn|Animal Range and Sciences|2013}}Average daytime temperatures vary from {{convert|28|°F|°C|1|disp=or}} in January to {{convert|84.5|°F|°C|disp=or}} in July.{{sfn|Montana Office of Tourism—FAQ|2013}}{{verification needed|date=June 2014}} The variation in geography leads to great variation in temperature. The highest observed summer temperature was {{convert|117|°F|°C|1|disp=or}} at Glendive on July 20, 1893, and Medicine Lake on July 5, 1937. Throughout the state, summer nights are generally cool and pleasant. Extreme hot weather is less common above {{convert|4000|ft|m|disp=or|sp=us}}.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}} Snowfall has been recorded in all months of the year in the more mountainous areas of central and western Montana, though it is rare in July and August.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}}File:Big Drift.jpg|right|thumb|The Big Drift covering the Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park as photographed on March 23, 2006]]The coldest temperature on record for Montana is also the coldest temperature for the contiguous United States. On January 20, 1954, {{convert|-70|°F|°C|1|disp=or}} was recorded at a gold mining camp near Rogers Pass. Temperatures vary greatly on cold nights, and Helena, {{convert|40|mi|km}} to the southeast had a low of only {{convert|-36|°F|°C|1|disp=or}} on the same date, and an all-time record low of {{convert|-42|F|C|1|disp=or}}.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}} Winter cold spells are usually the result of cold continental air coming south from Canada. The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. Conversely, air flow from the southwest results in "chinooks". These steady {{convert|25|–|50|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} (or more) winds can suddenly warm parts of Montana, especially areas just to the east of the mountains, where temperatures sometimes rise up to {{convert|50|–|60|F|C|1}} for 10 days or longer.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}}{{sfn|Climate Information|2007}}Loma is the site of the most extreme recorded temperature change in a 24-hour period in the United States. On January 15, 1972, a chinook wind blew in and the temperature rose from {{convert|-54|to|49|°F|°C|1}}.{{sfn|Horvitz|Stephens|Helfert|Goodge|2002}}File:Grinnell overlook.jpg|thumb|left|The 105|in|mm}} of precipitation per year.(File:Fall Clark Fork.jpg|thumb|left|Clark Fork River, Missoula, in autumn)Average annual precipitation is {{convert|15|in|mm}}, but great variations are seen. The mountain ranges block the moist Pacific air, holding moisture in the western valleys, and creating rain shadows to the east. Heron, in the west, receives the most precipitation, {{convert|34.70|in|mm}}. On the eastern (leeward) side of a mountain range, the valleys are much drier; Lonepine averages {{convert|11.45|in|mm}}, and Deer Lodge {{convert|11.00|in|mm}} of precipitation. The mountains can receive over {{convert|100|in|mm}}, for example the Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park gets {{convert|105|in|mm}}.{{sfn|Animal Range and Sciences|2013}} An area southwest of Belfry averaged only {{convert|6.59|in|mm}} over a 16-year period. Most of the larger cities get {{convert|30|to|50|in|m|2|disp=or|sp=us}} of snow each year. Mountain ranges can accumulate {{convert|300|in|m|2|disp=or|sp=us}} of snow during a winter. Heavy snowstorms may occur from September through May, though most snow falls from November to March.{{sfn|Western Regional Climate Center|2013}}The climate has become warmer in Montana and continues to do so.{{sfn|McKee|2007}} The glaciers in Glacier National Park have receded and are predicted to melt away completely in a few decades.{{sfn|United States Geological Survey|2012}} Many Montana cities set heat records during July 2007, the hottest month ever recorded in Montana.{{sfn|McKee|2007}}{{sfn|National Climate Data Center|2007}} Winters are warmer, too, and have fewer cold spells. Previously, these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana.{{sfn|Backus|2005}}{{sfn|Backus|2007}} The warmer winters in the region have allowed various species to expand their ranges and proliferate.JOURNAL, Bentz, Barbara J., Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects, BioScience, 60, 8, 602–613, 2010, 10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.6, etal, The combination of warmer weather, attack by beetles, and mismanagement has led to a substantial increase in the severity of forest fires in Montana.{{sfn|McKee|2007}}{{sfn|Backus|2007}} According to a study done for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science, parts of Montana will experience a 200% increase in area burned by wildfires, and an 80% increase in related air pollution.{{sfn|Billings Gazette—Forecast|2009}}{{sfn|Spracklen|Mickley|Logan|Hudman|2009}}The table below lists average temperatures for the warmest and coldest month for Montana's seven largest cities. The coldest month varies between December and January depending on location, although figures are similar throughout.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!July (°F)!Coldest month (°F)!July (°C)!Coldest month (°C)Billings, Montana>Billings 89/54 32/14 32/15 4/–9Missoula, Montana>Missoula 86/51 30/11 31/16 −0/–8Great Falls, Montana>Great Falls 83/51 28/11 34/15 1/–9Bozeman, Montana>Bozeman 81/51 27/10 31/12 −0/–11Butte, Montana>Butte 80/45 27/7 30/5 −1/–15Helena, Montana>Helena 86/54 30/12 31/12 −0/–11Kalispell, Montana>Kalispell 81/48 27/9 29/14 −1/–10

Antipodes

Montana is one of only two continental US states (along with Colorado) which is antipodal to land. The Kerguelen Islands are antipodal to the Montana–Saskatchewan–Alberta border. No towns are precisely antipodal to Kerguelen, though Chester and Rudyard are close.{{sfn|Peakbagger|2012}}

History

File:Early Indian treaty territories in Montana.png|thumb|left|Early Indian treaty territories in MontanaEarly Indian treaty territories in MontanaFile:Assinniboine2.jpg|thumb|upright|Assiniboine family, Montana, 1890–91]]Various indigenous peoples lived in the territory of the present-day state of Montana for thousands of years. Historic tribes encountered by Europeans and settlers from the United States included the Crow in the south-central area, the Cheyenne in the very southeast, the Blackfeet, Assiniboine, and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central area, and the Kootenai and Salish in the west. The smaller Pend d'Oreille and Kalispel tribes lived near Flathead Lake and the western mountains, respectively. A part of southeastern Montana was used as a corridor between the Crows and the related Hidatsas in North Dakota.{{sfn|Wood and Thiessen|1987|pp=156-220.}}The land in Montana east of the continental divide was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Subsequent to and particularly in the decades following the Lewis and Clark Expedition, American, British, and French traders operated a fur trade, typically working with indigenous peoples, in both eastern and western portions of what would become Montana. These dealings were not always peaceful, and though the fur trade brought some material gain for indigenous tribal groups, it also brought exposure to European diseases and altered their economic and cultural traditions.{{sfn|Holmes|2009-5}} The trading post Fort Raymond (1807-1811) was constructed in Crow Indian country in 1807.{{sfn|Hoxie1995| p=54}} Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country. The first permanent settlement by Euro-Americans in what today is Montana was St. Mary's (1841) near present-day Stevensville.{{sfn|Montana Catholic|2010}} In 1847, Fort Benton was established as the uppermost fur-trading post on the Missouri River.{{sfn|National Historic Landmark Program|2013}} In the 1850s, settlers began moving into the Beaverhead and Big Hole valleys from the Oregon Trail and into the Clark's Fork valley.{{sfn|Kittredge|Krauzer|1986|pp=14–23}}The first gold discovered in Montana was at Gold Creek near present-day Garrison in 1852. A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal (and later oil) that attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. The richest of all gold placer diggings was discovered at Alder Gulch, where the town of Virginia City was established. Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City. Gold output from 1862 through 1876 reached $144 million; silver then became even more important. The largest mining operations were in the city of Butte, which had important silver deposits and gigantic copper deposits.

Montana territory

(File:Montana_Territory_1865.jpg|thumb|Montana Territory in 1865WEB,weblink 1865 Map of the Territory of Montana, Tom, 2016-08-08, Cool Old Photos, en-US, 2019-03-05, )Before the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), areas within present-day Montana were part of the Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864). Montana became a United States territory (Montana Territory) on May 26, 1864. The first territorial capital was at Bannack. The first territorial governor was Sidney Edgerton. The capital moved to Virginia City in 1865 and to Helena in 1875. In 1870, the non-Indian population of Montana Territory was 20,595.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1976|pp=92–113}} The Montana Historical Society, founded on February 2, 1865, in Virginia City, is the oldest such institution west of the Mississippi (excluding Louisiana).{{sfn|Montana's Museum|2007}} In 1869 and 1870 respectively, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson and the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expeditions were launched from Helena into the Upper Yellowstone region and directly led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872.

Conflicts

{{see also|List of military installations in Montana}}As settlers began populating Montana from the 1850s through the 1870s, disputes with Native Americans ensued, primarily over land ownership and control. In 1855, Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens negotiated the Hellgate treaty between the United States government and the Salish, Pend d'Oreille, and Kootenai people of western Montana, which established boundaries for the tribal nations. The treaty was ratified in 1859.{{sfn|Hellgate Treaty|1855}} While the treaty established what later became the Flathead Indian Reservation, trouble with interpreters and confusion over the terms of the treaty led Whites to believe the Bitterroot Valley was opened to settlement, but the tribal nations disputed those provisions.{{sfn|Montana Office of Public Instruction|2010}} The Salish remained in the Bitterroot Valley until 1891.{{sfn|Holmes|2009-7|pp=123–146}}The first U.S. Army post established in Montana was Camp Cooke in 1866, on the Missouri River, to protect steamboat traffic going to Fort Benton. More than a dozen additional military outposts were established in the state. Pressure over land ownership and control increased due to discoveries of gold in various parts of Montana and surrounding states. Major battles occurred in Montana during Red Cloud's War, the Great Sioux War of 1876, and the Nez Perce War and in conflicts with Piegan Blackfeet. The most notable were the Marias Massacre (1870), Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876), Battle of the Big Hole (1877), and Battle of Bear Paw (1877). The last recorded conflict in Montana between the U.S. Army and Native Americans occurred in 1887 during the Battle of Crow Agency in the Big Horn country. Indian survivors who had signed treaties were generally required to move onto reservations.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1976|pp=114–144}}(File:Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon.jpg|thumb|Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon met again on the Big Hole Battlefield site in 1889.)Simultaneously with these conflicts, bison, a keystone species and the primary protein source that Native people had survived on for centuries, were being destroyed. Some estimates say over 13 million bison were in Montana in 1870.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1976|pp=145–171}} In 1875, General Philip Sheridan pleaded to a joint session of Congress to authorize the slaughtering of herds to deprive the Indians of their source of food.{{sfn|Bergman|2004}} By 1884, commercial hunting had brought bison to the verge of extinction; only about 325 bison remained in the entire United States.{{sfn|Fish and Wildlife Service—Bison|2013}}

Cattle ranching

Cattle ranching has been central to Montana's history and economy since Johnny Grant began wintering cattle in the Deer Lodge Valley in the 1850s and traded cattle fattened in fertile Montana valleys with emigrants on the Oregon Trail.{{sfn|National Park Service-Grant-Kohrs|2013}} Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866.{{sfn|Schontzler|2011}}{{sfn|Ultimate Montana|2010}} Granville Stuart, Samuel Hauser, and Andrew J. Davis started a major open-range cattle operation in Fergus County in 1879.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society|2013}}{{sfn|Milner II|O'Connor|2009|pp=161–184}} The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Deer Lodge is maintained today as a link to the ranching style of the late 19th century. Operated by the National Park Service, it is a {{convert|1900|acre|km2|adj=on}} working ranch.{{sfn|Grant-Kohrs Ranch|2013}}

Railroads

File:Buffalo soldiers1.jpg|thumb|Buffalo SoldierBuffalo SoldierTracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad (NPR) reached Montana from the west in 1881 and from the east in 1882. However, the railroad played a major role in sparking tensions with Native American tribes in the 1870s. Jay Cooke, the NPR president, launched major surveys into the Yellowstone valley in 1871, 1872, and 1873, which were challenged forcefully by the Sioux under chief Sitting Bull. These clashes, in part, contributed to the Panic of 1873, a financial crisis that delayed construction of the railroad into Montana.{{sfn|Lubetkin|2006|pp=xv–xviii}} Surveys in 1874, 1875, and 1876 helped spark the Great Sioux War of 1876. The transcontinental NPR was completed on September 8, 1883, at Gold Creek.Tracks of the Great Northern Railroad (GNR) reached eastern Montana in 1887 and when they reached the northern Rocky Mountains in 1890, the GNR became a significant promoter of tourism to Glacier National Park region. The transcontinental GNR was completed on January 6, 1893, at Scenic, Washington.{{sfn|Great Northern Railway|2013}}In 1881, the Utah and Northern Railway, a branch line of the Union Pacific, completed a narrow-gauge line from northern Utah to Butte.{{sfn|Union Pacific Railroad|2013}} A number of smaller spur lines operated in Montana from 1881 into the 20th century, including the Oregon Short Line, Montana Railroad, and Milwaukee Road.

Statehood

(File:18891109 Montana statehood granted - The Helena Independent.png|thumb|right| Reporting statehood: Article text is here. The official telegram received:'''EXECUTIVE MANSION,WASHINGTON, D.C. Nov. 7, 1889To Hon. Joseph K. Toole, Governor of the State of Montana:The president signed and issued the proclamation declaring Montana a state of the union at 10:40 o'clock this morning.JAMES G. BLAINE Secretary of State'''NEWS, A Sovereign People /,weblink The Helena Independent, November 9, 1889, May 12, 2019, 1, Article's text is here.)Under Territorial Governor Thomas Meagher, Montanans held a constitutional convention in 1866 in a failed bid for statehood. A second constitutional convention held in Helena in 1884 produced a constitution ratified 3:1 by Montana citizens in November 1884. For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. In July 1889, Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution accepted by the people and the federal government. On November 8, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed Montana the union's 41st state. The first state governor was Joseph K. Toole.{{sfn|Malone|Roeder|Lang|1976|pp=172–200}} In the 1880s, Helena (the state capital) had more millionaires per capita than any other United States city.{{sfn|Fanselow|2007| pp= 170–171}}

Homesteading

The Homestead Act of 1862 provided free land to settlers who could claim and "prove-up" {{convert|160|acre|km2}} of federal land in the Midwest and western United States. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres were usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=253}} The first homestead claim under the act in Montana was made by David Carpenter near Helena in 1868. The first claim by a woman was made near Warm Springs Creek by Gwenllian Evans, the daughter of Deer Lodge Montana pioneer, Morgan Evans.{{sfn|Lux|1964|pp=333–348}} By 1880, farms were in the more verdant valleys of central and western Montana, but few were on the eastern plains.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=253}}The Desert Land Act of 1877 was passed to allow settlement of arid lands in the west and allotted {{convert|640|acre|km2}} to settlers for a fee of $.25 per acre and a promise to irrigate the land. After three years, a fee of one dollar per acre would be paid and the land would be owned by the settler. This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees.{{sfn|Lux|1964|pp=333–348}} Some farmers came with the arrival of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads throughout the 1880s and 1890s, though in relatively small numbers.{{sfn|Toole1|1959|p=228}}File:Mennonite family in Montana 1937.jpg|thumb|MennoniteMennoniteIn the early 1900s, James J. Hill of the Great Northern began to promote settlement in the Montana prairie to fill his trains with settlers and goods. Other railroads followed suit.{{sfn|Toole1|1959|pp=223–224}} In 1902, the Reclamation Act was passed, allowing irrigation projects to be built in Montana's eastern river valleys. In 1909, Congress passed the Enlarged Homestead Act that expanded the amount of free land from {{convert|160|to|320|acre|km2|1}} per family and in 1912 reduced the time to "prove up" on a claim to three years.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=254}} In 1916, the Stock-Raising Homestead Act allowed homesteads of 640 acres in areas unsuitable for irrigation. {{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=255}} This combination of advertising and changes in the Homestead Act drew tens of thousands of homesteaders, lured by free land, with World War I bringing particularly high wheat prices. In addition, Montana was going through a temporary period of higher-than-average precipitation.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=256–258}} Homesteaders arriving in this period were known as "Honyockers", or "scissorbills".{{sfn|Toole1|1959|p=228}} Though the word "honyocker", possibly derived from the ethnic slur "hunyak,"{{sfn|Howard|1959|p=181}} was applied in a derisive manner at homesteaders as being "greenhorns", "new at his business", or "unprepared",{{sfn|Stuart|1913|pp=133–137}} most of these new settlers had farming experience, though many did not.{{sfn|Toole1|1959|p=229}}{{quotation|Honyocker, scissorbill, nester ... He was the Joad of a [half] century ago, swarming into a hostile land: duped when he started, robbed when he arrived; hopeful, courageous, ambitious: he sought independence or adventure, comfort and security ... The honyocker was farmer, spinster, deep-sea diver; fiddler, physician, bartender, cook. He lived in Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine. There the news sought him out—Jim Hill's news of free land in the Treasure State ... |Joseph Kinsey Howard, Montana, High, Wide, and Handsome (1964){{sfn|Lux|1964|pp=333–348}}}}However, farmers faced a number of problems. Massive debt was one.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=261}} Also, most settlers were from wetter regions, unprepared for the dry climate, lack of trees, and scarce water resources.{{sfn|Toole1|1959|pp=229–230}} In addition, small homesteads of fewer than {{convert|320|acre|ha}} were unsuited to the environment. Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the 100th meridian.{{sfn|Libecap|Hansen|2002|pp=86–120}} Then, the droughts of 1917–1921 proved devastating. Many people left, and half the banks in the state went bankrupt as a result of providing mortgages that could not be repaid.{{sfn|Extension Service|2013}} As a result, farm sizes increased while the number of farms decreased.{{sfn|Libecap|Hansen|2002|pp=86–120}}By 1910, homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by 1923, over 93 million acres were farmed.{{sfn|Toole1|1959|p=230}} In 1910, the Great Falls land office alone had over 1,000 homestead filings per month,{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=259}} and the peak of 1917– 1918 had 14,000 new homesteads each year.{{sfn|Holmes|2009–13|p=261}} Significant drops occurred following the drought in 1919.{{sfn|Libecap|Hansen|2002|pp=86–120}}

Montana and World War I

As World War I broke out, Jeannette Rankin, the first woman in the United States to be a member of Congress, voted against the United States' declaration of war. Her actions were widely criticized in Montana, where support for the war and patriotism were strong.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} In 1917–18, due to a miscalculation of Montana's population, about 40,000 Montanans, 10% of the state's population,{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} volunteered or were drafted into the armed forces. This represented a manpower contribution to the war that was 25% higher than any other state on a per capita basis. Around 1500 Montanans died as a result of the war and 2437 were wounded, also higher than any other state on a per capita basis.{{sfn|Howard|1959|pp=202–203}} Montana's Remount station in Miles City provided 10,000 cavalry horses for the war, more than any other Army post in the US. The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber, and farming interests, as demand for war materials and food increased.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}}In June 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917, which was extended by the Sedition Act of 1918.{{sfn|History Channel|2013}} In February 1918, the Montana legislature had passed the Montana Sedition Act, which was a model for the federal version.{{sfn|University of Montana|2005}} In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. The Montana Act led to the arrest of over 200 individuals and the conviction of 78, mostly of German or Austrian descent. Over 40 spent time in prison. In May 2006, then-Governor Brian Schweitzer posthumously issued full pardons for all those convicted of violating the Montana Sedition Act.{{sfn|Montana Sedition Project|2013}}The Montanans who opposed U.S. entry into the war included immigrant groups of German and Irish heritage, as well as pacifist Anabaptist people such as the Hutterites and Mennonites, many of whom were also of Germanic heritage. In turn, pro-War groups formed, such as the Montana Council of Defense, created by Governor Samuel V. Stewart and local "loyalty committees."{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}}War sentiment was complicated by labor issues. The Anaconda Copper Company, which was at its historic peak of copper production,{{sfn|Butte-Anaconda Historic District|2006|p=18}} was an extremely powerful force in Montana, but it also faced criticism and opposition from socialist newspapers and unions struggling to make gains for their members.{{sfn|Murphy|1980}} In Butte, a multiethnic community with significant European immigrant population, labor unions, particularly the newly formed Metal Mine Workers' Union, opposed the war on grounds it mostly profited large lumber and mining interests.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} In the wake of ramped-up mine production and the Speculator Mine disaster in June 1917,{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} Industrial Workers of the World organizer Frank Little arrived in Butte to organize miners. He gave some speeches with inflammatory antiwar rhetoric. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching.{{sfn|New York Times|1917}} Little's murder and the strikes that followed resulted in the National Guard being sent to Butte to restore order.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} Overall, anti-German and antilabor sentiment increased and created a movement that led to the passage of the Montana Sedition Act the following February.{{sfn|Foner|1987|p=289}} In addition, the Council of Defense was made a state agency with the power to prosecute and punish individuals deemed in violation of the Act. The Council also passed rules limiting public gatherings and prohibiting the speaking of German in public.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}}In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. U.S. Attorney Burton K. Wheeler and several district court judges who hesitated to prosecute or convict people brought up on charges were strongly criticized. Wheeler was brought before the Council of Defense, though he avoided formal proceedings, and a district court judge from Forsyth was impeached. Burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings occurred. The prohibition on speaking German remained in effect into the early 1920s. Complicating the wartime struggles, the 1918 influenza epidemic claimed the lives of over 5,000 Montanans.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society—WWI|2013}} The suppression of civil liberties that occurred led some historians to dub this period "Montana's Agony".{{sfn|Murphy|1980}}

Depression era

An economic depression began in Montana after World War I and lasted through the Great Depression until the beginning of World War II. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners. The wheat farms in eastern Montana make the state a major producer; the wheat has a relatively high protein content, thus commands premium prices.{{sfn|Brief History of Montana|2013}}{{sfn|McDean|1986|pp=117–126}}

Montana and World War II

By the time the U.S. entered World War II on December 8, 1941, many Montanans had enlisted in the military to escape the poor national economy of the previous decade. Another 40,000-plus Montanans entered the armed forces in the first year following the declaration of war, and over 57,000 joined up before the war ended. These numbers constituted about 10% of the state's population, and Montana again contributed one of the highest numbers of soldiers per capita of any state. Many Native Americans were among those who served, including soldiers from the Crow Nation who became Code Talkers. At least 1500 Montanans died in the war.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society-WWII|2013}} Montana also was the training ground for the First Special Service Force or "Devil's Brigade", a joint U.S-Canadian commando-style force that trained at Fort William Henry Harrison for experience in mountainous and winter conditions before deployment.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society-WWII|2013}}{{sfn|Werner|Welply|2006|pp=5, 10, 66}} Air bases were built in Great Falls, Lewistown, Cut Bank, and Glasgow, some of which were used as staging areas to prepare planes to be sent to allied forces in the Soviet Union. During the war, about 30 Japanese Fu-Go balloon bombs were documented to have landed in Montana, though no casualties nor major forest fires were attributed to them.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society-WWII|2013}}In 1940, Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. In 1941, as she had in 1917, she voted against the United States' declaration of war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Hers was the only vote against the war, and in the wake of public outcry over her vote, Rankin required police protection for a time. Other pacifists tended to be those from "peace churches" who generally opposed war. Many individuals claiming conscientious objector status from throughout the U.S. were sent to Montana during the war as smokejumpers and for other forest fire-fighting duties.{{sfn|Montana Historical Society-WWII|2013}}

Other military

During World War II, the planned battleship USS Montana was named in honor of the state. However, the battleship was never completed. Montana is the only one of the first 48 states lacking a completed battleship being named for it. Alaska and Hawaii have both had nuclear submarines named after them. Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. However, in August 2007, Senator Jon Tester made a request to the Navy that a submarine be christened USS Montana.{{sfn|Tester|2007}} Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015 that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will bear the state's namesake. This will be the second commissioned warship to bear the name Montana.WEB, U.S. Navy submarine will be named U.S.S. Montana,weblink September 4, 2015, Aja Goare – MTN, News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905060919weblink">weblink September 5, 2015, dead, mdy-all,

Cold War Montana

In the post-World War II Cold War era, Montana became host to U.S. Air Force Military Air Transport Service (1947) for airlift training in C-54 Skymasters and eventually, in 1953 Strategic Air Command air and missile forces were based at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Great Falls. The base also hosted the 29th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Air Defense Command from 1953 to 1968. In December 1959, Malmstrom AFB was selected as the home of the new Minuteman I intercontinental ballistic missile. The first operational missiles were in place and ready in early 1962. In late 1962, missiles assigned to the 341st Strategic Missile Wing played a major role in the Cuban Missile Crisis. When the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba, President John F. Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "ace in the hole", referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering {{convert|23500|sqmi|km2}}.{{sfn|Malmstrom|2013}}

Demographics

(File:Montana population map.png|thumb|Montana population density map){{US Census population|1870= 20595|1880= 39159|1890= 142924|1900= 243329|1910= 376053|1920= 548889|1930= 537606|1940= 559456|1950= 591024|1960= 674767|1970= 694409|1980= 786690|1990= 799065|2000= 902195|2010= 989415|estimate= 1062305|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerCensus Bureau|2010}}2018 estimate}}(File:Population of Montana 1870–2018 (est.).svg|thumb|Population of Montana 1870–2018)The United States Census Bureau estimated the population of Montana was 1,062,305 on July 1, 2018, a 7.37% increase since the 2010 United States Census.WEB,weblink QuickFacts Montana; UNITED STATES, 2018 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, March 12, 2019, March 12, 2019, The 2010 Census put Montana's population at 989,415.{{sfn|KRTV|2010}} During the first decade of the new century, growth was mainly concentrated in Montana's seven largest counties, with the highest percentage growth in Gallatin County, which had a 32% increase in its population from 2000–2010.{{sfn|Census Viewer|2013}} The city having the largest percentage growth was Kalispell, with 40.1%, and the city with the largest increase in actual residents was Billings, with an increase in population of 14,323 from 2000–2010.{{sfn|University of Montana, Bureau of Business and Economic Research|2011}}On January 3, 2012, the Census and Economic Information Center (CEIC) at the Montana Department of Commerce estimated Montana had hit the one million population mark sometime between November and December 2011.{{sfn|Gravlee|2018}} According to the 2010 Census, 89.4% of the population was White (87.8% non-Hispanic White), 6.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.6% from some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2010a}} The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0%), Irish (14.8%), English (12.6%), Norwegian (10.9%), French (4.7%), and Italian (3.4%).{{sfn|Brittingham|de la Cruz|2004|page=6}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible"|+ Montana Racial Breakdown of Population! Racial composition !! 1990WEB,weblink Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725044857weblink">weblink July 25, 2008, mdy-all, !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts, !! 2010WEB,weblink 2010 Census Data, White American>White 92.7% 90.6% 89.4%Native Americans in the United States>Native 6.0% 6.2% 6.3%Asian American>Asian 0.5% 0.5% 0.6%African American>Black 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.7% 2.5%

Intrastate demographics

Montana has a larger Native American population, both numerically and as a percentage, than most U.S. states. Although the state ranked 45th in population (according to the 2010 U.S. Census), it ranked 19th in native people population.{{sfn|Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race|2012}} Native people made up 6.5% of the state's population, the sixth-highest percentage of all 50 states.{{sfn|Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race|2012}} Montana has three counties in which Native Americans are a majority: Big Horn, Glacier, and Roosevelt.{{sfn|Rural Policy Research Institute|2006|page=4}} Other counties with large Native American populations include Blaine, Cascade, Hill, Missoula, and Yellowstone Counties.{{sfn|Montana Office of Public Instruction|2009|page=64}} The state's Native American population grew by 27.9% between 1980 and 1990 (at a time when Montana's entire population rose 1.6%),{{sfn|Montana Office of Public Instruction|2009|page=64}} and by 18.5 percent between 2000 and 2010.{{sfn|Norris|Vines|Hoeffel|2012}} As of 2009, almost two-thirds of Native Americans in the state live in urban areas.{{sfn|Montana Office of Public Instruction|2009|page=64}} Of Montana's 20 largest cities, Polson (15.7%), Havre (13.0%), Great Falls (5.0%), Billings (4.4%), and Anaconda (3.1%) had the greatest percentages of Native American residents in 2010.{{sfn|Redistricting Data Summary|2011}} Billings (4,619), Great Falls (2,942), Missoula (1,838), Havre (1,210), and Polson (706) have the most Native Americans living there.{{sfn|Redistricting Data Summary|2011}} The state's seven reservations include more than 12 distinct Native American ethnolinguistic groups.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2010a}}While the largest European-American population in Montana overall is German, pockets of significant Scandinavian ancestry are prevalent in some of the farming-dominated northern and eastern prairie regions, parallel to nearby regions of North Dakota and Minnesota. Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana. The historically mining-oriented communities of western Montana such as Butte have a wider range of European-American ethnicity; Finns, Eastern Europeans and especially Irish settlers left an indelible mark on the area, as well as people originally from British mining regions such as Cornwall, Devon, and Wales. The nearby city of Helena, also founded as a mining camp, had a similar mix in addition to a small Chinatown.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2010a}} Many of Montana's historic logging communities originally attracted people of Scottish, Scandinavian, Slavic, English, and Scots-Irish descent.{{citation needed|date=March 2013}}The Hutterites, an Anabaptist sect originally from Switzerland, settled here, and today Montana is second only to South Dakota in U.S. Hutterite population, with several colonies spread across the state. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the state also had an influx of Amish, who moved to Montana from the increasingly urbanized areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania.{{sfn|Tode|2004}}Montana's Hispanic population is concentrated in the Billings area in south-central Montana, where many of Montana's Mexican-Americans have been in the state for generations. Great Falls has the highest percentage of African-Americans in its population, although Billings has more African-American residents than Great Falls.{{sfn|Redistricting Data Summary|2011}}The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have been an important presence. About 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by 1870, and 2500 in 1890. However, public opinion grew increasingly negative toward them in the 1890s, and nearly half of the state's Asian population left the state by 1900.{{sfn|Morris|1997|pp=113–124}} Today, the Missoula area has a large Hmong population {{sfn|Montana Arts Council|2013}} and the nearly 3,000 Montanans who claim Filipino ancestry are the largest Asian-American group in the state.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2010a}}

Language

English is the official language in the state of Montana, as it is in many U.S. states. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 94.8% of the population aged five and older speak English at home.{{sfn|Modern Language Association|2007}} Spanish is the language most commonly spoken at home other than English. About 13,040 Spanish-language speakers were in the state (1.4% of the population) in 2011.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2011}} Also, 15,438 (1.7% of the state population) were speakers of Indo-European languages other than English or Spanish, 10,154 (1.1%) were speakers of a Native American language, and 4,052 (0.4%) were speakers of an Asian or Pacific Islander language.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2011}} Other languages spoken in Montana (as of 2013) include Assiniboine (about 150 speakers in the Montana and Canada), Blackfoot (about 100 speakers), Cheyenne (about 1,700 speakers), Plains Cree (about 100 speakers), Crow (about 3,000 speakers), Dakota (about 18,800 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), German Hutterite (about 5,600 speakers), Gros Ventre (about 10 speakers), Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille (about 64 speakers), Kutenai (about six speakers), and Lakota (about 6,000 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota).{{sfn|Lewis|Simons|Fennig|2013}} The United States Department of Education estimated in 2009 that 5,274 students in Montana spoke a language at home other than English. These included a Native American language (64%), German (4%), Spanish (3%), Russian (1%), and Chinese (less than 0.5%).{{sfn|Ballantye|Rasmussen|2011|page=10}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"|+ Top 14 non-English languages spoken in Montana! Language !! Percentage of population(as of 2000)WEB,weblink Montana – Languages, city-data.com, city-data.com, February 22, 2015, Spanish language>Spanish 1.5%German language>German 1.1%French language>French and Crow language (tied) >| 0.4%Scandinavian languages (including Danish language>Danish, Norwegian language, and Swedish language>Swedish) 0.2%Italian language>Italian, Japanese language, Russian language>Russian, Native American languages (other than Crow; significantly Cheyenne language),HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/LANGUAGE/CHYPUBLISHER=, Slavic languages (including Czech language, Slovak language>Slovak, and Ukrainian language) (tied) >| 0.1%

Religion

{{Bar box|title=Religion in Montana|titlebar=#ddd|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=right|bars={{Bar percent|Protestant|purple|47}}{{Bar percent|Catholic|Dodgerblue|23}}{{Bar percent|No religion|black|20}}{{Bar percent|Declined to answer|Lightgrey|6}}{{Bar percent|Mormon|violet|5}}{{Bar percent|Jehovah's Witness|red|2}}{{Bar percent|Buddhist|turquoise|1}}{{Bar percent|Jewish|blue|0.5}}{{Bar percent|Hindu|Orange|0.5}}{{Bar percent|Muslim|green|0.5}}}}According to the Pew Forum, the religious affiliations of the people of Montana are: Protestant 47%, Catholic 23%, LDS (Mormon) 5%, Jehovah's Witness 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Hindu 0.5% and nonreligious at 20%.WEB,weblink Religious Landscape Study, May 11, 2015, The largest denominations in Montana as of 2010 were the Catholic Church with 127,612 adherents, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 46,484 adherents, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 38,665 adherents, and nondenominational Evangelical Protestant with 27,370 adherents.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives - Maps & Reports, www.thearda.com, June 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131202235332weblink">weblink December 2, 2013, dead,

Native Americans

(File:Montana Indian Reservations.svg|thumb|left|Seven Indian reservations in Montana (borders are not exact))About 66,000 people of Native American heritage live in Montana. Stemming from multiple treaties and federal legislation, including the Indian Appropriations Act (1851), the Dawes Act (1887), and the Indian Reorganization Act (1934), seven Indian reservations, encompassing 11 federally recognized tribal nations, were created in Montana. A 12th nation, the Little Shell Chippewa is a "landless" people headquartered in Great Falls; it is recognized by the state of Montana, but not by the U.S. government. The Blackfeet nation is headquartered on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1851) in Browning, Crow on the Crow Indian Reservation (1868){{sfn|Kappler1904| p=1008-1011}} in Crow Agency, Confederated Salish and Kootenai and Pend d'Oreille on the Flathead Indian Reservation (1855) in Pablo, Northern Cheyenne on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (1884) at Lame Deer, Assiniboine and Gros Ventre on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1888) in Fort Belknap Agency, Assiniboine and Sioux on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (1888) at Poplar, and Chippewa-Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation (1916) near Box Elder. Approximately 63% of all Native people live off the reservations, concentrated in the larger Montana cities, with the largest concentration of urban Indians in Great Falls. The state also has a small Métis population, and 1990 census data indicated that people from as many as 275 different tribes lived in Montana.{{sfn|Montana Office of Public Instruction|2009}}Montana's Constitution specifically reads, "the state recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians and is committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity."WEB, Montana Constitution, Article X, section 1,weblink Montana Code Annotated, October 27, 2013, It is the only state in the U.S. with such a constitutional mandate. The Indian Education for All Act was passed in 1999 to provide funding for this mandate and ensure implementation.WEB,weblink Jawort, Adrian, Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All, Indian Country Today, April 12, 2012, June 5, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161020091328weblink">weblink October 20, 2016, dead, mdy-all, It mandates that all schools teach American Indian history, culture, and heritage from preschool through college.WEB, Native American Center Facts, The University of Montana, October 27, 2013,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131029195725weblink">weblink October 29, 2013, For kindergarten through 12th-grade students, an "Indian Education for All" curriculum from the Montana Office of Public Instruction is available free to all schools.WEB, Indian Education for All Lesson Plans, October 27, 2013,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131028155654weblink">weblink October 28, 2013, mdy-all, The state was sued in 2004 because of lack of funding, and the state has increased its support of the program. South Dakota passed similar legislation in 2007, and Wisconsin was working to strengthen its own program based on this model – and the current practices of Montana's schools. Each Indian reservation in the state has a fully accredited tribal college. The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to actively facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges"

Birth data

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother! Race! 201weblink 201weblink 201weblink 201weblink 201weblinkWhite Americans>White:| 10,615 (85.7%)| 10,572 (85.0%)| 10,768 (85.6%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 10,170 (82.2%)| 10,153 (81.7%)| 10,270 (81.6%)| 9,761 (79.5%)| 9,372 (79.4%)Native Americans in the United States>Native American| 1,531 (12.4%)| 1,585 (12.7%)| 1,560 (12.4%)| 1,347 (11.0%)| 1,249 (10.6%)Asian Americans>Asian| 132 (1.1%)| 169 (1.3%)| 152 (1.2%)| 131 (1.1%)| 121 (1.0%)African Americans>Black| 99 (0.8%)| 106 (0.8%)| 103 (0.8%)| 57 (0.5%)| 64 (0.5%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 476 (3.8%)| 494 (4.0%)| 573 (4.5%)| 548 (4.5%)| 585 (5.0%)| Total Montana| 12,377 (100%)| 12,432 (100%)| 12,583 (100%)| 12,282 (100%)| 11,799 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Economy

{{See also|Montana locations by per capita income}}File:Craft Breweries Per Capita (US).svg|thumb|Montana ranks 2nd nationally in craft breweries per capita.]]File:First Interstate Center, Billings, MT cropped.jpg|thumb|upright|First Interstate Center in downtown Billings, the tallest building in Montana]] The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates Montana's state product in 2014 was $44.3 billion. Per capita personal income in 2014 was $40,601, 35th in the nation.{{sfn|Bureau of Economic Analysis|2014}}Montana is a relative hub of beer microbrewing, ranking third in the nation in number of craft breweries per capita in 2011.{{sfn|Brewers Association|2013}} Significant industries exist for lumber and mineral extraction; the state's resources include gold, coal, silver, talc, and vermiculite. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. A 1974 state severance tax on coal (which varied from 20 to 30%) was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981).{{ussc|453|609|1981}}Tourism is also important to the economy, with over 10 million visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.{{sfn|Tourism in Montana|2007}}Montana's personal income tax contains 7 brackets, with rates ranging from 1.0 to 6.9%. Montana has no sales tax, and household goods are exempt from property taxes. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. The amount of property tax owed is not determined solely by the property's value. The property's value is multiplied by a tax rate, set by the Montana Legislature, to determine its taxable value. The taxable value is then multiplied by the mill levy established by various taxing jurisdictions—city and county government, school districts, and others.{{sfn|Department of Revenue|2012}}As of January 2019, the state's unemployment rate is 3.8%.{{sfn|Bureau of Labor Stats|2019}} WEB,weblink Local Area Unemployment Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 12, 2019, March 12, 2019,

Education

{{see also|TRAILS|l1=Treasure State Academic Information & Library Services}}

Colleges and universities{|

The Montana University System consists of: Tribal colleges in Montana include: Four private colleges are in Montana:

Schools

The Montana Territory was formed on April 26, 1864, when the U.S. passed the Organic Act.WEB, Judicial Branch, Montana, Montana Laws,weblink Schools started forming in the area before it was officially a territory as families started settling into the area. The first schools were subscription schools that typically met in the teacher's home. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in 1862. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. The first school term started in early winter and only lasted until February 28. Classes were taught by Mr. Robinson.WEB, Education,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140307081624weblink">weblink March 7, 2014, mdy-all, Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. In this school students were charged $1.75 per week.BOOK, Sievert, Ken and Ellen, Virginia City and Alder Gulch, August 26, 1993, Farcounty Press, The Montana Territorial Legislative Assembly had its inaugural meeting in 1864.WEB, Malcomson, Jeff, Legislative History Guide,weblink February 22, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150214041210weblink">weblink February 14, 2015, mdy-all, The first legislature authorized counties to levy taxes for schools, which set the foundations for public schooling.WEB, Montana Legislature,weblink February 22, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150222190148weblink">weblink February 22, 2015, dead, mdy-all, Madison County was the first to take advantage of the newly authorized taxes and it formed fhe first public school in Virginia City in 1886. The first school year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but severe weather postponed its opening until March. The first school year ran through the summer and did not end until August 17. One of the first teachers at the school was Sarah Raymond. She was a 25-year-old woman who had traveled to Virginia City via wagon train in 1865. To become a certified teacher, Raymond took a test in her home and paid a $6 fee in gold dust to obtain a teaching certificate. With the help of an assistant teacher, Mrs. Farley,WEB, Briggeman, Kim, MONTANA HISTORY ALMANAC: First school opens doors in Virginia City,weblink February 22, 2015, Raymond was responsible for teaching 50 to 60 students each day out of the 81 students enrolled at the school. Sarah Raymond was paid $125 per month, and Mrs. Farley was paid $75 per month. No textbooks were used in the school. In their place was an assortment of books brought by various emigrants.BOOK, O'Brien, Mary, Days on the Road: Crossing the Plains in 1865, The Diary of Sarah Raymond Herndon, 2003, Morris Books Publishing, LLC, 14–16,weblink 978-0-7627-2581-6, Sarah quit teaching the following year, but she later become the Madison County superintendent of schools.

Culture

{{See also|Music of Montana|List of people from Montana#Artists|label 2=Artists from Montana|List of people from Montana|label 3=Authors from Montana}}Many well-known artists, photographers and authors have documented the land, culture and people of Montana in the last 130 years. Painter and sculptor Charles Marion Russell, known as "the cowboy artist" created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta, Canada.{{sfn|University of Toronto|2000}} The C. M. Russell Museum Complex in Great Falls, Montana, houses more than 2,000 Russell artworks, personal objects, and artifacts.Pioneering feminist author, film-maker, and media personality Mary MacLane attained international fame in 1902 with her memoir of three months in her life in Butte, The Story of Mary MacLane. She referred to Butte throughout the rest of her career and remains a controversial figure there for her mixture of criticism and love for Butte and its people.Evelyn Cameron, a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: cowboys, sheepherders, weddings, river crossings, freight wagons, people working, badlands, eagles, coyotes and wolves.{{sfn|Montana Travel|2010}}Many notable Montana authors have documented or been inspired by life in Montana in both fiction and non-fiction works. Pulitzer Prize winner Wallace Earle Stegner from Great Falls was often called "The Dean of Western Writers".{{sfn|Boswell|2006}} James Willard Schultz ("Apikuni") from Browning is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfeet life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park.{{sfn|Hanna|1988|pp=95–111}}

Major cultural events

(File:Crowdance.jpg|thumb|Dancers at Crow Fair in 1941)Montana hosts numerous arts and cultural festivals and events every year. Major events include:
  • Bozeman was once known as the "Sweet Pea capital of the nation" referencing the prolific edible pea crop. To promote the area and celebrate its prosperity, local business owners began a "Sweet Pea Carnival" that included a parade and queen contest. The annual event lasted from 1906 to 1916. Promoters used the inedible but fragrant and colorful sweet pea flower as an emblem of the celebration. In 1977 the "Sweet Pea" concept was revived as an arts festival rather than a harvest celebration, growing into a three-day event that is one of the largest festivals in Montana.{{sfn|Hurlbut|Davis|2009|pp=179–181}}
  • Montana Shakespeare in the Parks has been performing free, live theatrical productions of Shakespeare and other classics throughout Montana and the Northwest region since 1973. The organization is an outreach endeavor that is part of the College of Arts & Architecture at Montana State University, Bozeman. {{sfn|Shakespeare in the Parks|2012}} The Montana Shakespeare Company is based in Helena.{{sfn|Lincoln|2012}}
  • Since 1909, the Crow Fair and Rodeo, near Hardin, has been an annual event every August in Crow Agency and is the largest Northern Native American gathering, attracting nearly 45,000 spectators and participants.{{sfn|Scandale|2011}} Since 1952, North American Indian Days has been held every July in Browning.{{sfn|North American Indian Days|2013}}
  • Lame Deer hosts the annual Northern Cheyenne Powwow.

Sports

File:Bobcat_stadium_gold_rush_2012.JPG|thumb|Montana State Bobcats football at Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University)Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University)

Professional sports

There are no major league sports franchises in Montana due to the state's relatively small and dispersed population, but a number of minor league teams play in the state. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey.

College sports

All of Montana's four-year colleges and universities field intercollegiate sports teams. The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University, are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century. Six of Montana's smaller four-year schools are members of the Frontier Conference.{{sfn|Frotier Conference|2013}} One is a member of the Great Northwest Athletic Conference.{{sfn|Great Northwest Athletic Conference|2013}}

Other sports

A variety of sports are offered at Montana high schools.{{sfn|Montana High School Association|2013}} Montana allows the smallest—"Class C"—high schools to utilize six-man football teams,{{sfn|Montana High School Association-Football|2013|pp=139–141}} dramatized in the independent 2002 film, The Slaughter Rule.{{sfn|New York Times Movies|2002}}There are junior ice hockey teams in Montana, four of which are affiliated with the North American 3 Hockey League: the Bozeman Icedogs, Great Falls Americans, Helena Bighorns, and Missoula Jr. Bruins.

Olympic competitors

Sporting achievements

Montanans have been a part of several major sporting achievements:
  • In 1889, Spokane became the first and only Montana horse to win the Kentucky Derby. For this accomplishment, the horse was admitted to the Montana Cowboy Hall of Fame in 2008.{{sfn|Kentucky Derby|2013}}{{sfn|Montana Cowboy Hall of Fame|2013}}
  • In 1904 a basketball team of young Native American women from Fort Shaw, after playing undefeated during their previous season, went to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis in 1904, defeated all challenging teams and were declared to be world champions.{{sfn|Peavey|Smith|2008}}
  • In 1923, the controversial Jack Dempsey vs. Tommy Gibbons fight for the heavyweight boxing championship, won by Dempsey, took place in Shelby.{{sfn|Johnson|1966}}

Outdoor recreation

Montana provides year-round outdoor recreation opportunities for residents and visitors. Hiking, fishing, hunting, watercraft recreation, camping, golf, cycling, horseback riding, and skiing are popular activities.{{sfn|Montana Outdoor Recreation|2013}}

Fishing and hunting

Montana has been a destination for its world-class trout fisheries since the 1930s.{{sfn|Schullery|2006a|pp=31–50}} Fly fishing for several species of native and introduced trout in rivers and lakes is popular for both residents and tourists throughout the state. Montana is the home of the Federation of Fly Fishers and hosts many of the organizations annual conclaves. The state has robust recreational lake trout and kokanee salmon fisheries in the west, walleye can be found in many parts of the state, while northern pike, smallmouth and largemouth bass fisheries as well as catfish and paddlefish can be found in the waters of eastern Montana.{{sfn|Fisheries Management Plan|2013}} Robert Redford's 1992 film of Norman Mclean's novel, A River Runs Through It, was filmed in Montana and brought national attention to fly fishing and the state.{{sfn|Schullery|2006b|pp=167–186}}Montana is home to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and has a historic big game hunting tradition. There are fall bow and general hunting seasons for elk, pronghorn antelope, whitetail deer and mule deer. A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose, mountain goats and bighorn sheep. There is a spring hunting season for black bear and in most years, limited hunting of bison that leave Yellowstone National Park is allowed. Current law allows both hunting and trapping of a specific number of wolves and mountain lions. Trapping of assorted fur bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.{{sfn|Montana Hunting Regulations|2012}}{{sfn|Montana Trapping|2013}}

Winter sports

File:Big Sky resort.jpg|thumb|The Big Sky ResortBig Sky ResortFile:Red Lodge Palisades.jpg|thumb|The Palisades area on the north end of the ski area at Red Lodge Mountain ResortRed Lodge Mountain Resort(File:SnowmobilesYellowstone.jpg|thumb|Guided snowmobile tours in Yellowstone Park)Both downhill skiing and cross-country skiing are popular in Montana, which has 15 developed downhill ski areas open to the public,{{sfn|Winter Montana—Resorts|2010}} including: Big Sky Resort and Whitefish Mountain Resort are destination resorts, while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities.{{sfn|Winter Montana—Resorts|2010}} Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests plus in Glacier National Park. In addition to cross-country trails at most of the downhill ski areas, there are also 13 private cross-country skiing resorts.{{sfn|Winter Montana—XC|2010}} Yellowstone National Park also allows cross-country skiing.{{sfn|National Park Service-Yellowstone|2013}}Snowmobiling is popular in Montana which boasts over 4000 miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter.{{sfn|Montana Snowmobiling|2013}} There are 24 areas where snowmobile trails are maintained, most also offering ungroomed trails.{{sfn|Winter Montana-Snowmobiling|2010}} West Yellowstone offers a large selection of trails and is the primary starting point for snowmobile trips into Yellowstone National Park,{{sfn|Winter Montana-West Yellowstone|2010}} where "oversnow" vehicle use is strictly limited, usually to guided tours, and regulations are in considerable flux.{{sfn|National Park Service-Yellowstone in Winter|2013}}Snow coach tours are offered at Big Sky, Whitefish, West Yellowstone and into Yellowstone National Park.{{sfn|Winter Montana-Snowcoaches|2010}} Equestrian skijoring has a niche in Montana, which hosts the World Skijoring Championships in Whitefish as part of the annual Whitefish Winter Carnival.{{sfn|Whitefish Skijoring|2013}}

Health

Montana does not have a Trauma I hospital, but does have Trauma II hospitals in Missoula, Billings, and Great Falls.{{sfn|Trauma Centers|2013}} In 2013, AARP The Magazine named the Billings Clinic one of the safest hospitals in the United States.{{sfn|HowardB|2013|pp=46–50}}Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U.S., at 19.6%, according to the 2014 Gallup Poll.WEB, Levy, Jenna, Gallup Obesity Poll,weblink February 22, 2015,

Media

As of 2010, Missoula is the 166th largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while Billings is 170th, Great Falls is 190th, the Butte-Bozeman area 191st, and Helena is 206th.{{sfn|Nielsen|2010}} There are 25 television stations in Montana, representing each major U.S. network.{{sfn|Station Index|2013}} As of August 2013, there are 527 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Montana, with 114 such AM stations.{{sfn|FCC-FM|2013}}{{sfn|FCC-AM|2013}}During the age of the Copper Kings, each Montana copper company had its own newspaper. This changed in 1959 when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers.{{sfn|Lee Enterprises-Newspapers|2013}}{{sfn|Lee Enterprises-History|2013}} Montana's largest circulating daily city newspapers are the Billings Gazette (circulation 39,405), Great Falls Tribune (26,733), and Missoulian (25,439).{{sfn|Mondo Times|2013}}

Transportation

File:West Yellowstone MT - aerial edit.jpg|thumb|Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MontanaWest Yellowstone, Montana{{See also|List of Montana railroads|List of Montana numbered highways|List of airports in Montana}}Railroads have been an important method of transportation in Montana since the 1880s. Historically, the state was traversed by the main lines of three east-west transcontinental routes: the Milwaukee Road, the Great Northern, and the Northern Pacific. Today, the BNSF Railway is the state's largest railroad, its main transcontinental route incorporating the former Great Northern main line across the state. Montana RailLink, a privately held Class II railroad, operates former Northern Pacific trackage in western Montana.In addition, Amtrak's Empire Builder train runs through the north of the state, stopping in Libby, Whitefish, West Glacier, Essex, East Glacier Park, Browning, Cut Bank, Shelby, Havre, Malta, Glasgow, and Wolf Point.Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of 2013.{{sfn|Bacaj|2013}}{{sfn|KTVQ|2013}} Montana's other major Airports include Billings Logan International Airport, Missoula International Airport, Great Falls International Airport, Glacier Park International Airport, Helena Regional Airport, Bert Mooney Airport and Yellowstone Airport. Eight smaller communities have airports designated for commercial service under the Essential Air Service program.{{sfn|Department of Transportation|2012}}Historically, U.S. Route 10 was the primary east-west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. Still the state's most important east-west travel corridor, the route is today served by Interstate 90 and Interstate 94 which roughly follow the same route as the Northern Pacific. U.S. Routes 2 and 12 and Montana Highway 200 also traverse the entire state from east to west.Montana's only north-south Interstate Highway is Interstate 15. Other major north-south highways include U.S. Routes 87, 89, 93 and 191.Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road. Highway 212, the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota.{{sfn|Sites|2012}}{{sfn|Montana Transportation|2013}}

Law and government

{{See also|List of Governors of Montana|United States congressional delegations from Montana}}
{{more citations needed|date=February 2017}}

Constitution

Montana is governed by a constitution. The first constitution was drafted by a constitutional convention in 1889, in preparation for statehood. Ninety percent of its language came from an 1884 constitution which was never acted upon by Congress for national political reasons. The 1889 constitution mimicked the structure of the United States Constitution, as well as outlining almost the same civil and political rights for citizens. However, the 1889 Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described.{{sfn|Elison|Snyder|2001|pages=3–4, 144}} Montana voters amended the 1889 constitution 37 times between 1889 and 1972.REPORT, Montana Constitutional Convention, Proposed 1972 Constitution for the State of Montana: Official Text With Explanation, Helena, Mont., 1972, February 24, 2017, 3,weblink In 1914, Montana granted women the vote. In 1916, Montana became the first state to elect a woman, Progressive Republican Jeannette Rankin, to Congress.{{sfn|Women's National History|2013}}{{sfn|Jeannette Rankin|2011}}In 1971, Montana voters approved the call for a state constitutional convention. A new constitution was drafted, which made the legislative and executive branches much more equal in power and which was much less prescriptive in outlining powers, duties, and jurisdictions.{{sfn|Elison|Snyder|2001|page=144}} The draft included an expanded, more progressive list of civil and political rights, extended these rights to children for the first time, transferred administration of property taxes to the counties from the state, implemented new water rights, eliminated sovereign immunity, and gave the legislature greater power to spend tax revenues. The constitution was narrowly approved, 116,415 to 113,883, and declared ratified on June 20, 1972. Three issues which the constitutional convention were unable to resolve were submitted to voters simultaneously with the proposed constitution. Voters approved the legalization of gambling, a bicameral legislature, and retention of the death penalty.{{sfn|Elison|Snyder|2001|pages=16–18}}The 1972 constitution has been amended 31 times as of 2015.REPORT, Montana Secretary of State, 1972–Current Historical Constitutional Initiatives and Constitutional Amendments, Helena, Mont., June 8, 2015, 7, February 24, 2017,weblink Major amendments include establishment of a reclamation trust (funded by taxes on natural resource extraction) to restore mined land (1974); restoration of sovereign immunity, when such immunity has been approved by a two-thirds vote in each house (1974); establishment of a 90-day biennial (rather than annual) legislative session (1974); establishment of a coal tax trust fund, funded by a tax on coal extraction (1976); conversion of the mandatory decennial review of county government into a voluntary one, to be approved or disallowed by residents in each county (1978); conversion of the provision of public assistance from a mandatory civil right to a non-fundamental legislative prerogative (1988);{{sfn|Elison|Snyder|2001|pages=19–20}} a new constitutional right to hunt and fish (2004); a prohibition on gay marriage (2004); and a prohibition on new taxes on the sale or transfer of real property (2010). In 1992, voters approved a constitutional amendment implementing term limits for certain statewide elected executive branch offices (governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction) and for members of the Montana Legislature. Extensive new constitutional rights for victims of crime were approved in 2016.NEWS, Lin, Frances, 'Marsy's Law' ballot measure certified, KXLH.com, December 6, 2016, February 25, 2017,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170226132454weblink">weblink February 26, 2017, dead, mdy-all, The 1972 constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention. Voters turned down a new convention in 1990 (84 percent no){{sfn|Elison|Snyder|2001|page=19}} and again in 2010 (58.6 percent no).NEWS, Election 2010: Montana, The New York Times, November 2010, February 25, 2017,weblink

Executive

Montana has three branches of state government: Legislative, executive, and judicial. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. The Governor is Steve Bullock, a Democrat elected in 2012. There are also nine other statewide elected offices in the executive branch: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Auditor (who also serves as Commissioner of Securities and Insurance), and Superintendent of Public Instruction. There are five Public Service Commissioners, who are elected on a regional basis. (The Public Service Commission's jurisdiction is statewide.)There are 18 departments and offices which make up the executive branch: Administration; Agriculture; Auditor (securities and insurance); Commerce; Corrections; Environmental Quality; Fish, Wildlife & Parks; Justice; Labor and Industry; Livestock; Military Affairs; Natural Resources and Conservation; Public Health and Human Services; Revenue; State; and Transportation. Elementary and secondary education are overseen by the Office of Public Instruction (led by the elected Superintendent of Public Instruction), in cooperation with the governor-appointed Board of Public Education. Higher education is overseen by a governor-appointed Board of Regents, which in turn appoints a Commissioner of Higher Education. The Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education acts in an executive capacity on behalf of the regents, and oversees the state-run Montana University System.Independent state agencies not within a department or office include the Montana Arts Council, Montana Board of Crime Control, Montana Historical Society, Montana Public Employees Retirement Administration, Commissioner of Political Practices, the Montana Lottery, Office of the State Public Defender, Public Service Commission, the Montana School for the Deaf and Blind, the Montana State Fund (which operates the state's unemployment insurance, worker compensation, and self-insurance operations), the Montana State Library, and the Montana Teachers Retirement System.Montana is an Alcoholic beverage control state.WEB,weblink Utah Dept of Alcoholic Beverage Control, abc.utah.gov, September 24, 2017, It is an equitable distribution and no-fault divorce state. It is one of five states to have no sales tax.WEB,weblink businesses_information, revenue.mt.gov, en-US, September 24, 2017,

Legislative

The Montana Legislature is bicameral, and consists of the 50-member Montana Senate and the 100-member Montana House of Representatives. The legislature meets in the Montana State Capitol in Helena in odd-numbered years for 90 days, beginning the first weekday of the year. The deadline for a legislator to introduce a general bill is the 40th legislative day. The deadline for a legislator to introduce an appropriations, revenue, or referenda bill is the 62nd legislative day. Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. All members are limited to serving no more than eight years in a single 16-year period.

Judicial

The Courts of Montana are established by the Constitution of Montana. The constitution requires the establishment of a Montana Supreme Court and Montana District Courts, and permits the legislature to establish Justice Courts, City Courts, Municipal Courts, and other inferior courts such as the legislature sees fit to establish.The Montana Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the Montana court system. The constitution of 1889 provided for the election of no fewer than three Supreme Court justices, and one Chief Justice. Each court member served a six-year term. The legislature increased the number of justices to five in 1919. The 1972 constitution lengthened the term of office to eight years, and established the minimum number of justices at five. It allowed the legislature to increase the number of justices by two, which the legislature did in 1979. The Montana Supreme Court has the authority to declare acts of the legislature and executive unconstitutional under either the Montana or U.S. constitutions. Its decisions may be appealed directly to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Clerk of the Supreme Court is also an elected position, and serves a six-year term. Neither justices nor the clerk are term limited.Montana District Courts are the courts of general jurisdiction in Montana. There are no intermediate appellate courts. District Courts have jurisdiction primarily over most civil cases, cases involving a monetary claim against the state, felony criminal cases, probate, and cases at law and in equity. When so authorized by the legislature, actions of executive branch agencies may be appealed directly to a District Court. The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts (city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts), and oversee naturalization proceedings. District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. They are not term limited. There are 22 judicial districts in Montana, served by 56 District Courts and 46 District Court judges. The District Courts suffer from excessive workload, and the legislature has struggled to find a solution to the problem.Montana Youth Courts were established by the Montana Youth Court Act of 1974. They are overseen by District Court judges. They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff. Youth Courts have jurisdiction over misdemeanor and felony acts committed by those charged as a juvenile under the law. There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court.The Montana Worker's Compensation Court was established by the Montana Workers' Compensation Act in 1975. There is a single Workers' Compensation Court. It has a single judge, appointed by the governor. The Worker's Compensation Court has statewide jurisdiction and holds trials in Billings, Great Falls, Helena, Kalispell, and Missoula. The court hears cases arising under the Montana Workers' Compensation Act, and is the court of original jurisdiction for reviews of orders and regulations issued by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry. Decisions of the court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court.The Montana Water Court was established by the Montana Water Court Act of 1979. The Water Court consists of a Chief Water Judge and four District Water Judges (Lower Missouri River Basin, Upper Missouri River Basin, Yellowstone River Basin, and Clark Fork River Basin). The court employs 12 permanent special masters. The Montana Judicial Nomination Commission develops short lists of nominees for all five Water Judges, who are then appointed by the Chief Justice of the Montana Supreme Court (subject to confirmation by the Montana Senate). The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of 1973, and has statewide jurisdiction. District Courts have the authority to enforce decisions of the Water Court, but only the Montana Supreme Court has the authority to review decisions of the Water Court.From 1889 to 1909, elections for judicial office in Montana were partisan. Beginning in 1909, these elections became nonpartisan. The Montana Supreme Court struck down the nonpartisan law in 1911 on technical grounds, but a new law was enacted in 1935 which barred political parties from endorsing, making contributions to, or making expenditures on behalf of or against judicial candidates. In 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down Montana's judicial nonpartisan election law in COURT, American Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Bullock, 567, U.S., ____, Sup.Ct., 2012, Although candidates must remain nonpartisan, spending by partisan entities is now permitted. Spending on state supreme court races exponentially increased to $1.6 million in 2014, and to more than $1.6 million in 2016 (both new records).

Federal offices and courts

The U.S. Constitution provides each state with two Senators. Montana's two U.S. senators are Jon Tester (Democrat), who was reelected in 2018, and Steve Daines (Republican), first elected in 2014. The U.S. Constitution provides each state with a single Representative, with additional representatives apportioned based on population. From statehood in 1889 until 1913, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by a single representative, elected at-large. Montana received a second representative in 1913, following the 1910 census and reapportionment. Both members, however, were still elected at-large. Beginning in 1919, Montana moved to district, rather than at-large, elections for its two House members. This created Montana's 1st congressional district in the west and Montana's 2nd congressional district in the east. In the reapportionment following the 1990 census, Montana lost one of its House seats. The remaining seat was again elected at-large. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder.Montana's Senate district is the fourth largest by area, behind Alaska, Texas, and California. The most notorious of Montana's early Senators was William A. Clark, a "Copper King" and one of the 50 richest Americans ever. He is well known for having bribed his way into the U.S. Senate. Among Montana's most historically prominent Senators are Thomas J. Walsh (serving from 1913 to 1933), who was President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt's choice for Attorney General when he died; Burton K. Wheeler (serving from 1923 to 1947), an oft-mentioned presidential candidate and strong supporter of isolationism; Mike Mansfield, the longest-serving Senate Majority Leader in U.S. history; Max Baucus (served 1978 to 2014), longest-serving U.S. Senator in Montana history, and the senator who shepherded the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through the Senate in 2010; and Lee Metcalf (served 1961 to 1978), a pioneer of the environmental movement.Montana's House district is the largest congressional district in the United States by population, with just over 1,023,000 constituents. It is the second largest House district by area, after Alaska's at-large congressional district. Of Montana's House delegates, Jeannette Rankin was the first woman to hold national office in the United States when she was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1916.WEB,weblink RANKIN, Jeannette {{!, US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives|website=history.house.gov|language=en|access-date=2019-01-28}} Also notable is Representative (later Senator) Thomas H. Carter, the first Catholic to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee (from 1892 to 1896).JOURNAL, Roeder, Richard B., 1989, Thomas H. Carter, Spokesman for Western Development, Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 39, 2, 23–29, 4519213, Federal courts in Montana include the United States District Court for the District of Montana and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana. Three former Montana politicians have been named judges on the U.S. District Court: Charles Nelson Pray (who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1907 to 1913), James Franklin Battin (who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1961 to 1969), and Paul G. Hatfield (who served as an appointed U.S. Senator in 1978). Brian Morris, who served as an Associate Justice of the Montana Supreme Court from 2005 to 2013, currently served as a judge on the court.

Politics

{{further|Political party strength in Montana|Elections in Montana}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:10px"|+Presidential elections results!Year!Republican!Democratic201656.17% 279,24035.75% 177,709201255.35% 267,92841.70% 201,839200849.49% 243,88247.11% 232,159200459.10% 266,06338.60% 173,710200058.40% 240,17833.40% 137,126199644.11% 179,65241.23% 167,922199235.12% 144,20737.63% 154,507198852.07% 190,41246.20% 168,936File:United States presidential election in Montana, 2016.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.4|TreemapTreemapElections in the state have been competitive, with the Democrats usually holding an edge, thanks to the support among unionized miners and railroad workers. Large-scale battles revolved around the giant Anaconda Copper company, based in Butte and controlled by Rockefeller interests, until it closed in the 1970s. Until 1959, the company owned five of the state's six largest newspapers.{{sfn|Work|2005|p=85}}Historically, Montana is a swing state of cross-ticket voters who tend to fill elected offices with individuals from both parties. Through the mid-20th century, the state had a tradition of "sending the liberals to Washington and the conservatives to Helena." Between 1988 and 2006, the pattern flipped, with voters more likely to elect conservatives to federal offices. There have also been long-term shifts of party control. From 1968 through 1988, the state was dominated by the Democratic Party, with Democratic governors for a 20-year period, and a Democratic majority of both the national congressional delegation and during many sessions of the state legislature. This pattern shifted, beginning with the 1988 election, when Montana elected a Republican governor for the first time since 1964 and sent a Republican to the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1948. This shift continued with the reapportionment of the state's legislative districts that took effect in 1994, when the Republican Party took control of both chambers of the state legislature, consolidating a Republican party dominance that lasted until the 2004 reapportionment produced more swing districts and a brief period of Democratic legislative majorities in the mid-2000s.{{sfn|Montana Legislature|2012}}In more recent presidential elections, Montana has voted for the Republican candidate in all but two elections from 1952 to the present.{{sfn|Montana 2012 Election|2013}} The state last supported a Democrat for president in 1992, when Bill Clinton won a plurality victory. Overall, since 1889 the state has voted for Democratic governors 60 percent of the time and Republican presidents 40 percent of the time. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.{{sfn|2008 Election|2008}}At the state level, the pattern of split-ticket voting and divided government holds. Democrats hold one of the state's two U.S. Senate seats with Jon Tester, as well as the governorship with Steve Bullock. The lone congressional district has been Republican since 1996 and in 2014 Steve Daines won one of the state's U.S. Senate seats for the GOP. The Legislative branch had split party control between the house and senate most years between 2004 and 2010, when the mid-term elections returned both branches to Republican control. The state Senate is, as of 2019, controlled by the Republicans 32 to 18, and the State House of Representatives at 59 to 41. Historically, Republicans are strongest in the east, while Democrats are strongest in the west.Montana has only one representative in the U.S. House, having lost its second district in the 1990 census reapportionment. Montana's single congressional district holds the largest population of any district in the country, which means its one member in the House of Representatives represents more people than any other member of the U.S. House (see List of U.S. states by population)."Congressional Apportionment: 2010 Census Briefs" (PDF). census.gov. United States Census Bureau. November 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2019 Montana's population grew at about the national average during the 2000s, but it failed to regain its second seat in 2010.{{sfn|Congressional Delegation|2013}}

Cities and towns

{{See also|List of cities and towns in Montana|List of counties in Montana}}(File:Missoula Skyline.png|thumb|Missoula)Montana has 56 counties with the United States Census Bureau stating Montana's contains 364 "places", broken down into 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. Incorporated places consist of 52 cities, 75 towns, and two consolidated city-counties.{{sfn|Census Bureau|2012}} Montana has one city, Billings, with a population over 100,000; and two cities with populations over 50,000, Missoula and Great Falls. These three communities are considered the centers of Montana's three Metropolitan Statistical Areas.The state also has five Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell and Havre.{{sfn|Core Based Statistical Area|2010}} These communities, excluding Havre, are colloquially known as the "big 7" Montana cities, as they are consistently the seven largest communities in Montana, with a significant population difference when these communities are compared to those 8th or lower on the list.{{sfn|KRTV|2010}} According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of Montana's seven most populous cities, in rank order, are Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena and Kalispell.{{sfn|KRTV|2010}} Based on 2013 census numbers, they collectively contain 35 percent of Montana's population.{{sfn|Montana Setting|2013}} and the counties containing these communities hold 62 percent of the state's population.{{sfn|Swanson|2004}} The geographic center of population of Montana is in sparsely populated Meagher County, in the town of White Sulphur Springs.

State symbols

(File:Montana quarter, reverse side, 2007.png|thumb|upright=0.7|Montana's state quarter, released in 2007)Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory.{{sfn|State Symbols|2007}} A state seal with a miner's pick and shovel above the motto, surrounded by the mountains and the Great Falls of the Missouri River, was adopted during the first meeting of the territorial legislature in 1864–65. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as the Great Seal of the State of Montana, enacted by the legislature in 1893.{{sfn|State Seal|2013}} The state flower, the Bitterroot, was adopted in 1895 with the support of a group called the Floral Emblem Association, which formed after Montana's Women's Christian Temperance Union adopted the bitterroot as the organization's state flower.{{sfn|State Flower|2007}} All other symbols were adopted throughout the 20th century, save for Montana's newest symbol, the state butterfly, the mourning cloak, adopted in 2001,{{sfn|State Symbols|2007}} and the state lullaby, "Montana Lullaby", adopted in 2007.{{sfn|Ruckman|2007}}The state song was not composed until 21 years after statehood, when a musical troupe led by Joseph E. Howard stopped in Butte in September 1910. A former member of the troupe who lived in Butte buttonholed Howard at an after-show party, asking him to compose a song about Montana and got another partygoer, the city editor for the Butte Miner newspaper, Charles C. Cohan, to help. The two men worked up a basic melody and lyrics in about a half-hour for the entertainment of party guests, then finished the song later that evening, with an arrangement worked up the following day. Upon arriving in Helena, Howard's troupe performed 12 encores of the new song to an enthusiastic audience and the governor proclaimed it the state song on the spot, though formal legislative recognition did not occur until 1945.{{sfn|State Song|2007}} Montana is one of only three states to have a "state ballad",{{sfn|Welcome to America|2013}} "Montana Melody", chosen by the legislature in 1983.{{sfn|State Symbols|2007}} Montana was the first state to also adopt a State Lullaby.{{sfn|Ruckman|2007}}Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. The state tree, the ponderosa pine, was selected by Montana schoolchildren as the preferred state tree by an overwhelming majority in a referendum held in 1908. However, the legislature did not designate a state tree until 1949, when the Montana Federation of Garden Clubs, with the support of the state forester, lobbied for formal recognition.{{sfn|State Tree|2007}} Schoolchildren also chose the western meadowlark as the state bird, in a 1930 vote, and the legislature acted to endorse this decision in 1931.{{sfn|State Bird|2007}} Similarly, the secretary of state sponsored a children's vote in 1981 to choose a state animal, and after 74 animals were nominated, the grizzly bear won over the elk by a 2–1 margin.{{sfn|State Animal|2007}} The students of Livingston started a statewide school petition drive plus lobbied the governor and the state legislature to name the Maiasaura as the state fossil in 1985.{{sfn|State Fossil|2007}}Various community civic groups also played a role in selecting the state grass and the state gemstones.{{sfn|State Gemstones|2007}}{{sfn|State Grass|2007}} When broadcaster Norma Ashby discovered there was no state fish, she initiated a drive via her television show, Today in Montana, and an informal citizen's election to select a state fish resulted in a win for the blackspotted cutthroat trout{{sfn|State Fish Code|2011}} after hot competition from the Arctic grayling. The legislature in turn adopted this recommendation by a wide margin.{{sfn|State Fish|2007}}{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="clear:right; margin:0 auto;"|+ Symbols of Montana! scope="col" | Designation! scope="col" class="unsortable" | Name! scope="col" | Enacted! scope="col" class="unsortable" style="width:80px;" | Image! scope="row" | State seal "A depiction of mountains, plains, forests, and the Great Falls of the Missouri River. The state motto appears on a ribbon."{{sfn2007}} }} 189380px)! scope="row" | State flag "The state seal on a field of blue; State Symbols|2007}} }} 1905 item_style=text-align:center; }}80px)! scope="row" | State animalGrizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis){{sfn>State Symbols|2007}} 198380px)! scope="row" | State birdWestern meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta){{sfn>State Symbols|2007}} 1931 (File:WesternMeadowlark23.jpg|60px)! scope="row" | State butterflyNymphalis antiopa>Mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa){{sfn2007}} 200180px)! scope="row" | State fishcutthroat trout>Blackspotted cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii){{sfn2011}} 1977 (File:Wscutt.jpg|80px)! scope="row" | State flowerBitterroot (Lewisia rediviva){{sfn>State Symbols|2007}} 189580px)! scope="row" | State fossilMaiasaur>Duck-billed dinosaur (Maiasaura peeblesorum){{sfn2007}} 198580px)! scope="row" | State gemstonesSapphire and agate{{sfn>State Symbols|2007}} 1969 (File:Montana official gemstones horizontal.jpg|80px)! scope="row" | State grassPseudoroegneria spicata>Bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata){{sfn2007}} 197380px)! scope="row" | State mottoMontana Code|2011}} 186580px)! scope="row" | State musicState song: "Montana (state song)"'{{sfn>State Symbols State ballad: "Montana Melody"{{sfn2007}} Ruckman|2007}}}} 1945 2007 |item_style=text-align:center; }}80px)! scope="row" | State treePinus ponderosa>Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa){{sfn2007}} 194980px)

See also

{{clear}}

Notes

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

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  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Burger, 2004, |title=Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana |editor=John Brady |editor2=Charles J. Vitaliano |editor3=William S. Cordua |last=Burger |first=H. Robert |chapter=General Geology and Tectonic Settong of the Tobacco Root Mountains. Special Paper 377. |pages=1–14 |publisher=Geological Society of America |location=Boulder, Colo. |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-8137-2377-8}}
  • BOOK, harv, Cooper, Ed, Soul of the Rockies-Portrait of America's Largest Mountain Range, Globe Pequot Press, Guilford, CT, 2009, 978-0-7627-4941-6,
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Cunningham, 1990, | last =Cunningham | first =Bill | title =Montana Wildlands: From Northwest Peaks to Deadhorse Badlands | place =Helena, Mont. | publisher =Farcountry Press | year =1990 | isbn =978-0-938314-93-6}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Mining and Scientific Press, 1899, |url =weblink|title=Cyaniding at Gilt Edge, Montana |newspaper=Mining and Scientific Press |date=October 7, 1899 |accessdate=August 1, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Diamond, 2006, |last=Diamond |first=Jared |title=Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed |publisher=Penguin Books |location=New York |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-670-03337-9|title-link=Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed }}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Elias, 2002, | last = Elias | first = Scott | title = Rocky Mountains | year = 2002 | publisher = Smithsonian Institution Press | location = Washington, D.C. | url = | isbn = 978-1-58834-042-9}}
  • BOOK, harv, Elison, Larry M., Snyder, Fritz, The Montana State Constitution: A Reference Guide, Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 2001, 9780313273469,weblink
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Enright, 2010, |last=Enright |first=Kelly |title=America's Natural Places: Rocky Mountains and Great Plains |publisher=Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO |location=Santa Barbara, Calif. |year=2010 |isbn=978-0-313-35314-7 |url=https://archive.org/details/americasnaturalp00enri }}
  • BOOK, harv, Fanselow, Julie, Traveling the Lewis and Clark Trail, 2007, Falcon Guides, Guilford, CT,weblink 978-0-7627-4437-4,
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Finnerty, 2011, |last=Finnerty |first=Jim |title=A Pleasant Stroll to Everest |publisher=Xlibris Corp. |location=Bloomington, Ind. |year=2011 |isbn=978-1-4628-4928-4}}{{Self-published inline|certain=yes|date=December 2017}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Fischer, Fischer, 2008, |last=Fischer |first=Hank |last2=Fischer |first2=Carol |title=Paddling Montana |publisher=FalconGuides |location=Guildford, CT |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-7627-4352-0}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Fisher, 1908, |last=Fisher |first=Cassius A. |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ELcPAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA11|title=Geology and Water Resources of the Great Falls Region, Montana. Water-Supply Paper No. 221 |publisher=U.S. Geological Survey|location=Washington, D.C. |year=1908}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Fletcher, Bradshaw, Axline, Shope, 2008, |last=Fletcher |first=Robert H. |last2=Bradshaw |first2=Glenda Clay |last3=Axline |first3=Jon |last4=Shope |first4=Irvin |title=Montana's Historical Highway Markers |publisher=Montana Historical Society |location=Helena, Mont. |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-917298-31-8}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Florence, Nystrom, Gierlich, 2001, | last=Florence | first=Mason | last2=Nystrom | first2=Andrew Dean | last3=Gierlich | first3=Marisa | title=Rocky Mountain States | publisher=Lonely Planet | location=London | year=2001 | isbn=978-1-86450-327-2}}
  • BOOK, harv, Foner, Philip S., Labor and World War I, 1914–1918, 7, International Publishers, New York, 1987, 978-0-7178-0638-6,
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Montana Outdoors, 2002, |last=French|first=Brett|journal=Montana Outdoors|title=A Good Time in Montana's Badlands|url=http://fwp.mt.gov/mtoutdoors/HTML/articles/2003/makoshika.htm|date=March–April 2002|accessdate=April 10, 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130423075736weblink|archive-date=April 23, 2013|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Billings Gazette—Forecast, 2009, |last=French|first=Brett | newspaper=Billings Gazette | title=Forecast: More Air Pollution, Study Predicts Global Warming Will Increase Fires in Northern Rockies | url=http://www.billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_d3d32b14-7cc6-11de-b4e3-001cc4c03286.html| date=July 29, 2009|accessdate=April 7, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Graetz, Clemenz, 1984, | last =Graetz | first =Rick | last2 =Clemenz | first2 =Bob | title = Beautiful Montana | year = 1984 | publisher =Beautiful America Publishing| location=Wilsonville, OR | isbn = 978-0-915796-25-0}}
  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Gravlee, 2012, |url=http://www.kulr8.com/news/local/Montana-Reaches-One-Million-Mark-136629723.html|title=Montana Reaches One Million Mark|last=Gravlee|first=Sarah|date=January 3, 2012|website=kulr8.com|publisher=KULR-8 Television|accessdate=April 27, 2013}}{{dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • BOOK, harv, Hanna, Warren L., Stars Over Montana-Men Who Made Glacier National Park History, Glacier Natural History Association, West Glacier, MT, 1988, 978-0-09-167906-4, James Willard Schultz-The Pikuni Storyteller,
  • {{Citation| ref ={{sfnRef|Geographical Dictionary Of The World|1900}} | contribution =Clark's (Clarke's) River, Flathead River | year = 1900 | title = Geographical Dictionary Of The World In The Early 20th Century With Pronouncing Gazetteer | editor-last =Heilprin | editor-first =Angelo | editor2-last =Heilprin | editor2-first =Louis | volume =1, A to L | pages =423 | place =Philadelphia, Pa. | publisher =J. B. Lippincott}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Hellmann, 2013, |last=Hellman |first=Paul T. |title=Historical Gazetteer of the United States |publisher=Routledge |location=Florence, Ky. |year=2013 |isbn=978-1-135-94859-7}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, New York Times Movies, 2002, |last=Holden|first=Stephen|url=https://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F02E4D71E3BF93AA15750C0A9649C8B63|title=The Slaughter Rule (2002)|date=March 29, 2002|work=New York Times|accessdate=April 30, 2013}}
  • BOOK, harv, Holding, Rapha, What Do You Know About the United States?, Bloomington, IN, Authorhouse, 2010,weblink 978-1-4490-1505-3,
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Holmes, 2009–5, |last=Holmes |first=Krys |url=http://svcalt.mt.gov/education/textbook/Chapter5/Chapter5.pdf |title=Montana: Stories of the Land|chapter=5|publisher=Montana Historical Society Press|location=Helena, MT |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-9759196-3-7}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Holmes, 2009-7, |last=Holmes|first=Krys|url=http://svcalt.mt.gov/education/textbook/Chapter7/Chapter7.pdf |title=Montana: Stories of the Land|chapter=7|publisher=Montana Historical Society Press|location=Helena, MT |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-9759196-3-7}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Holmes, 2009–13, |last=Holmes |first=Krys |url=http://svcalt.mt.gov/education/textbook/Chapter13/Chapter13.pdf |title=Montana: Stories of the Land|chapter=13|publisher=Montana Historical Society Press|location=Helena, MT |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-9759196-3-7}}
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  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Howard, 1959, |last=Howard |first=Joseph Kinsey |title=Montana-High, Wide and Handsome |publisher=Yale University Press |location=New Haven, CT |year=1959 |isbn=978-0-8032-7339-9}}
  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Horvitz, Stephens, Helfert, Goodge, 2002, | url =http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/54387.pdf | last =Horvitz | first =Andrew H.| last2 =Stephens| first2 =Scott| last3 =Helfert | first3 =Michael| last4 =Goodge | first4 =Grant| last5 =Redmond | first5 =Kelly T.| last6 =Pomeroy| first6 =Ken| last7 =Purdy| first7 =Ed | title = A National Temperature Record at Loma, Montana | year = 2002| publisher =American Meteorological Society|format=PDF| accessdate= April 6, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Hoxie1995, |last=Hoxie|first=Frederick E.|title=Parading Through History. The making of the Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=New York, New York|year=1995|isbn=978-0-521-48057-4|url=https://archive.org/details/paradingthroughh0000hoxi}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Hurlbut, Davis, 2009, |title=Insiders' Guide to Yellowstone and Grand Teton|last1=Hurlbut|first1= Brian|last2=Davis|first2=Seabring |publisher=Globe Pequot|year=2009|isbn=978-0-7627-5041-2 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=BZKG-F4EycgC&pg=PT151}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Huser, 2004, |last=Huser |first=Verne |title=On the River With Lewis and Clark |publisher=Texas A&M University Press |location=College Station, Tex. |year=2004 |isbn=978-1-58544-320-8}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Jewell, McRae, 2012, |last=Jewell |first=Judy |last2=McRae |first2=Bill |title=Moon Montana |publisher=Avalon Travel |location=Berkeley, Calif. |year=2012 |isbn=978-1-61238-262-3}}
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Johnson, 1966, |last=Johnson|first=James W. (Body) |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1078731/ |title=The Fight That Won't Stay Dead|journal=Sports Illustrated|date=July 4, 1966 |accessdate=April 15, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Kappler1904, |last=Kappler|first= Charles J. |title=Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2 |publisher= |location=Washington, D.C.|year=1904}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Kaush, Thompson, Jr., 2012, |title= The Endangered Species Act and Federalism: Effective Conservation Through Greater State Commitment |last= Kaush |first= Arha | last2 = Thompson, Jr. | first2 = Barton H. |year= 2012 |publisher=Routledge |isbn= 978-1-58592-042-6 | edition = 2|url=weblink}}
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Kittredge, Krauzer, 1986, |last1=Kittredge |first1=William |last2=Krauzer|first2=Steven M. |title='Mr. Montana' Revised: Another Look at Granville Stuart |journal=Montana: The Magazine of Western History |volume=36 | date=Autumn 1986 |jstor=4519007 |issue=4|pages=14–23 }}
  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Kudray, Cooper, 2006, |url=https://archive.org/download/04DE1BD2-FCE9-4FA6-A6D7-5B177B6B2F82/04DE1BD2-FCE9-4FA6-A6D7-5B177B6B2F82.pdf |format=PDF |last=Kudray |first=Gregory M. |last2=Cooper |first2=Steven V. |title=Montana's Rocky Mountain Front: Vegetation Map and Type Descriptions. Report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service |publisher=Montana Natural Heritage Program |location=Helena, MT |year=2006 |accessdate=July 29, 2013}}
  • BOOK, harv, Kugler, Eileen Gale, Innovative Voices in Education: What It Takes to Engage Diverse Communities, Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2013,weblink 978-1-61048-539-5,
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  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Libecap, Hansen, 2002, |last1=Libecap|first1=Gary D.|last2=Hansen|first2=Zeynep Kocabiyik|title="Rain Follows the Plow" and Dryfarming Doctrine: The Climate Information Problem and Homestead Failure in the Upper Great Plains, 1890–1925|journal=Journal of Economic History|volume=62|issue=1|pages=86–120| date=March 2002 |jstor=2697973}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Lincoln, 2012, |last=Lincoln|first=Marga|newspaper=Helena Independent Record|url=http://helenair.com/entertainment/yourtime/montana-shakespeare-company-finds-new-home-at-helena-civic-center/article_9798a22c-8912-11e1-a61f-0019bb2963f4.html|title=Montana Shakespeare Company Finds New Home at Helena Civic Center|date=April 19, 2012|accessdate=May 13, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Lubetkin, 2006, |last=Lubetkin|first= M. John |title=Jay Cooke's Gamble-The Northern Pacific Railroad, The Sioux, and the Panic of 1873 |publisher=University of Oklahoma Press |location=Norman, OK |isbn=978-0-8061-3740-7 |year=2006}}
  • BOOK, harv, Cowboys and Cattlemen-A Roundup of Montana, The Magazine of Western History, Kennedy, Michael S., Lux, Mabel, Honyockers of Harlem-Honyockers of Zurich, 333–348, Hastings House, New York, 1964,
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  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Malone, Roeder, Lang, 1976, | last =Malone | first =Michael P. | last2 =Roeder | first2 =Richard B. | last3 =Lang | first3 =William L. |title=Montana: A History of Two Centuries |publisher=University of Washington Press |location=Seattle |year=1976 |chapter=Montana Territory |isbn=978-0-295-97129-2}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Malone, Roeder, Lang, 1991, | url =weblink| last =Malone | first =Michael P. | last2 =Roeder | first2 =Richard B. | last3 =Lang | first3 =William L. | title = Montana: A History of Two Centuries| year = 1991| publisher =University of Washington Press| location=Seattle|isbn = 978-0-295-97120-9}}
  • BOOK, harv,weblink Matzko, John, Reconstructing Fort Union, 2001, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 978-0-8032-3216-7,
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  • BOOK, harv, Merrill-Maker, Andrea, Montana Almanac-The First, Best Source for Information About Big Sky Country, Globe Pequot Press, Guildford, CT, 2006, 978-0-7627-3655-3, Natural Treasures,
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Milner II, O'Connor, 2009, |last1=Milner II|first1=Clyde A.|last2=O'Connor|first2=Carol A.|title=As Big as the West: The Pioneer Life of Granville Stuart|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|year=2009|isbn=978-0-19-512709-6|url=https://archive.org/details/asbigaswestpione00miln}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Moody, Chase, Aronson, 1986, |last1=Moody |first1=David W. |last2=Chase |first2=Edith B. |last3=Aronson |first3=David A. |title=National Water Summary—1985: Hydrologic Events and Surface-Water Resources. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2300 |publisher=U.S. Government Printing Office |location=Washington, D.C. |year=1986 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9-ZCGdqvy-4C&pg=PA310}}
  • BOOK, harv, Morris, Patrick F., Anaconda, Montana: Copper Smelting Boom Town on the Western Frontier, 1997, Swann Publishing, Burnet, TX, 978-0-9657209-2-2,
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Murphy, 1980, |last=Murphy|first=Paul L.|url=http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/2/436.extract |title=Montana's Agony: Years of War and Hysteria, 1917–1921|journal=The Journal of American History|year=1980|doi=10.2307/1890476|volume=67|issue=2|page=436|jstor=1890476}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Naiman, Décamps, McClain, 2005, | last =Naiman | first = Robert J. | last2 =Décamps | first2 = Henri | last3 =McClain | first3 = Michael E. | title =Riparia: Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities| year = 2005 | publisher = Elsevier Academic| location = Boston | url = | isbn = 978-0-12-663315-3}}
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  • MAGAZINE, {{sfnRef, Ottum, 1968, |last=Ottum|first=Bob |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1148000/index.htm |title=Bold Bourkey For John Misha|magazine=Sports Illustrated |date=January 29, 1968 |accessdate=April 20, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Palmer, 1998, | last=Palmer | first=Tim | title=America By Rivers | publisher=Island Press | location=Washington, D.C. | year=1998 | isbn=978-1-59726-912-4}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Parry, 2001, |last=Parry |first=Ellis Roberts |title=Montana Dateline |publisher=TwoDot Press |location=Guilford, Conn. |year=2001 |isbn=978-1-56044-956-0}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Peavey, Smith, 2008, |last1=Peavey|first1=Linda|last2=Smith|first2=Ursula |title=Full-Court Quest | publisher=University of Oklahoma Press |location=Norman, OK | year=2008 }} Reviewed by JOURNAL, Nykolaiszyn, Juliana M., Full-Court Quest, Oral History Review, 38, 2, Summer–Fall 2011, 420–422, 10.1093/ohr/ohr087,
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Peterson, 2012, | last=Peterson | first=Eric | title=Frommer's Montana and Wyoming | publisher=John Wiley & Sons | location=Hoboken, N.J. | year=2012 | isbn=978-0-470-59150-5 | url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780470591505 }}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Robbins, C., 2008, | last =Robbins | first =Chuck | title =Great Places Montana: A Recreational Guide to Montana's Public Lands and Historic Places for Birding, Hiking, Photography, Fishing, Hunting, and Camping | place =Belgrade, MT| publisher =Wilderness Adventures Press | year =2008 | url =https://books.google.com/books?id=GmogM1jmMqkC&pg=PA11| isbn =978-1-932098-59-4}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Robbins, J., 2008, |last=Robbins|first=Jim|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/18/us/18trademark.html?em|title=In Montana, a Popular Expression Is Taken Off the Endangered List|newspaper=New York Times|date=August 17, 2008|accessdate=March 29, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Ross, 1959, | last=Ross | first=Clyde P. | title=Geology of Glacier National Park and the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana. Geological Survey Professional Paper 296 | year=1959 | publisher=U.S. Government Printing Office | location=Washington, D.C. }}
  • BOOK, harv, Sanders, Wilbur Edgerton, Montana, Organization, Name and Naming: The Word, its Significance, Derivation, and Historical Use, 1910, 7, Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, Rocky Mountain Publishing, Helena, MT,weblink
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Ruckman, 2007, |last=Ruckman|first=Shannon|url=http://www.theprairiestar.com/news/local/overcast-tune-named-official-montana-lullaby/article_6259c826-9e76-5711-9aa9-8074c6771e0d.html|title=Overcast tune named official Montana lullaby|newspaper=Prairie Star|date=May 11, 2007|accessdate=April 27, 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170118084518weblink|archive-date=January 18, 2017|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Scandale, 2011, | last = Scandale| first = Maria| title = 93rd Annual Crow Fair Celebration Under the Big Sky| publisher = Indian Country Today Media Network| url =weblink| date = August 18, 2011| accessdate = May 5, 2013| archive-url =weblink" title="archive.is/20130408062558weblink">weblink| archive-date = April 8, 2013| url-status = dead| df = mdy-all}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Schontzler, 2011, |last=Schontzler|first=Gail|url=http://www.bozemandailychronicle.com/100/newsmakers/article_89773f86-268b-11e0-aca5-001cc4c002e0.html?mode=story |title=Nelson Story â€“ Hero, Scoundrel Legend |newspaper=Bozeman Daily Chronicle|date=January 23, 2011|accessdate=April 8, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Schullery, 2006a, |last=Schullery |first=Paul |title=Cowboy Trout-Western Fly Fishing As If It Matters |publisher=Montana Historical Society Press |location=Helena, MT |isbn=978-0-9721522-7-3 |year=2006 |chapter=Fly Fishing in Western Culture}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Schullery, 2006b, |last=Schullery |first=Paul |title=Cowboy Trout-Western Fly Fishing As If It Matters |publisher=Montana Historical Society Press |location=Helena, MT |isbn=978-0-9721522-7-3 |year=2006 |chapter=A River Runs Through It as Folklore and History}}
  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Sites, 2012, |url=http://weekendroady.com/2012/01/19/most-remote-state-borders/|last=Sites|first=Phillip |title=Most Remote State Borders |publisher=The Weekend Roady|date=January 19, 2012 |accessdate=April 28, 2013}}
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Spracklen, Mickley, Logan, Hudman, 2009, | last1 = Spracklen | first1 = D. V. | last2 = Mickley | first2 = L. J. | last3 = Logan | first3 = J. A | last4 = Hudman | first4 = R. C. | last5 = Yevich | first5 = R. | last6 = Flannigan | first6 = M. D. | last7 = Westerling | first7 = A. L. | journal = Journal of Geophysical Research | date = October 27, 2009 | volume=114 | issue = D20 | title = Impacts of Climate Change From 2000 to 2050 on Wildfire Activity and Carbonaceous Aerosol Concentrations in the Western United States | url =weblink | format = PDF | doi = 10.1029/2008JD010966}}
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, University of Montana, 2005, |last=Stephens|first=Patia |url=http://www2.umt.edu/montanan/f06/speech.shtml |title=When Speech Wasn't Free|journal=Montanan|issue=Fall 2006 |accessdate=April 19, 2013}}
  • JOURNAL, {{sfnRef, Stuart, 1913, |last=Stuart|first=Mabel Lewis |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6Pi0AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA133|volume=LXXV |title=The Lady Honyocker-How Girls Take Up Claim and Make Their Homes on the Prairie |journal=The Independent |date=July 17, 1913|issue=3372}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Temple, 2008, |last=Temple |first=Robert D. |title=Edge Effects: The Border-Name Places |publisher=iUniverse |location=New York |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-595-50433-6}}{{Self-published inline|certain=yes|date=December 2017}}
  • BOOK, harv, Therriault, Ednor, Montana Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff, Globe Pequot Press, Guildford, CT, 2010, 978-0-7627-6572-0,
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Tode, 2004, |last=Tode|first=Laura |url=http://helenair.com/news/local/amish-call-montana-home/article_106fd83a-bc37-5404-b654-d51909c5f9ca.html |title=Amish Call Montana Home |newspaper=Independent Record|date=March 7, 2004 |accessdate=July 14, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnref, Toole1, 1959, | last=Toole|first=K. Ross|title=Montana: An Uncommon Land|publisher=University of Oklahoma Press|location=Norman|year=1959|isbn=978-0-8061-1890-1|url=https://books.google.com/?id=2PuBxozvcTQC}}
  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Swanson, 2004, |url=http://fwp.mt.gov/doingBusiness/reference/montanaChallenge/reports/economics.html|last=Swanson|first=Larry|title=Economics|date=December 2004|publisher=Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks|accessdate=April 30, 2013|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130429120523weblink|archivedate=April 29, 2013|df=mdy-all}}
  • NEWS, {{sfnRef, Billings Gazette, 2009, |last=Thackeray|first=Lorna|url=http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_a9e53dca-badc-11de-9615-001cc4c03286.html|title=National-park visitors boost Montana's tourism stats|newspaper=Billings Gazette|date=October 17, 2009|accessdate=March 30, 2013}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, United States Forest Service, 2007, | last=United States Forest Service | title=Final Environmental Impact Statement: Little Belt, Castle, and North Half Crazy Mountains Travel Management Plan | publisher=U.S. Department of the Interior |location=Washington, D.C. | year=2007}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Vasapolli, 2003, | last=Vasapolli | first=Salvatore | title=Montana | publisher=Graphic Arts Center Pub. |location=Portland, Ore. | year=2003 |isbn=978-1-55868-696-0}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Werner, Welply, 2006, | last1 = Werner | first1 = Bret |last2=Welply|first2 = Michael | title = First Special Service Force 1942–44 | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=VEK5n9sbimkC| publisher=Osprey Publishing|location=Oxford | year = 2006|isbn = 978-1-84176-968-4}}
  • BOOK, {{sfnRef, Work, 2005, | last = Work| first = Clemens P.|title = Darkest Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West| publisher=University of New Mexico Press|location=Albuquerque | year = 2005|isbn = 978-0-8263-3793-1}}
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  • WEB, {{sfnRef, Shakespeare in the Parks, 2012, |url=http://www.shakespeareintheparks.org/about.php |title=About Shakespeare in the Parks |publisher=Montana Shakespeare in the Parks |accessdate=May 5, 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130609223122weblink |archive-date=June 9, 2013 |url-status=dead |df=mdy-all }}
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Further reading

External links

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