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Oklahoma
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{{About|the U.S. state of Oklahoma}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}







factoids
WEB,weblink UKB Constitution and By-Laws in the Keetoowah Cherokee Language, United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, July 6, 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201132858weblink">weblink February 1, 2016, Okie (colloquialism>colloq.)| LargestCity = capital| seat = Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>Greater Oklahoma City| area_rank = 20th| area_total_sq_mi = 69,899| area_total_km2 = 181,040| width_mi = 230| width_km = 370| length_mi = 465| length_km = 749| area_water_percent = 1.9| Latitude = 33°37' N to 37° N| Longitude = 94° 26' W to 103° W| population_rank = 28th| 2010Pop = 3,943,079 (2018)TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | 2000DensityUS = 55.2| 2000Density = 21.3| population_density_rank = 35th| IncomeRank = 44thBlack Mesa (Oklahoma)>Black MesaHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 4,975| elevation_max_m = 1516| elevation_ft = 1,300| elevation_m = 400Little River (Red River)>Little River at {{nobreak|Arkansas border}}| elevation_min_m = 88| elevation_min_ft = 289 Kevin Stitt (R)}}Matt Pinnell (R)}}| Legislature = Oklahoma LegislatureOklahoma Senate>SenateOklahoma House of Representatives>House of Representatives Central Time Zone>Central| utc_offset1 = −06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset1_DST = −05:00| timezone1_location = all of state (legally)Mountain Time Zone>Mountain| utc_offset2 = −07:00Mountain Daylight Time>MDT| utc_offset2_DST = −06:00Kenton, Oklahoma>Kenton (informally)| iso_code = US-OK| postal_code = OK| TradAbbreviation = Okla.| website = www.ok.gov| area_land_sq_mi = 68,667| area_land_km2 = 178,023| area_water_sq_mi = 1,232| area_water_km2 = 3,173| Total GDP = $134,651,100| Total GDP Rank = 29th| Per capita GDP = $34,243| Per Capita GDP Rank = 42nd}}







factoids
Acrocanthosaurus atokensisHTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-DINOSAUR-FOSSIL/ACROCANTHOSAURUS-ATOKENSIS ACROCANTHOSAURUS ATOKENSIS >PUBLISHER=STATE SYMBOLS USA ACCESSDATE=MARCH 27, 2018, BullfrogHTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-AMPHIBIAN/BULLFROG PUBLISHER=STATE SYMBOLS USA ACCESSDATE=MARCH 27, 2018, Scissor-tailed FlycatcherHTTP://WWW.STATE.OK.US/OSFDOCS/STINFO.HTML PUBLISHER=OKLAHOMA DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARIES URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 15, 2014, |Colors = White and green (vice versa)|Dance = Waltz: Oklahoma WindWhite bass>Sand bassHTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-FISH-AQUATIC-LIFE/WHITE-BASS >TITLE=OKLAHOMA STATE FISH – WHITE BASS DATE=, March 27, 2018, Oklahoma Rose|Wildflower: Indian Blanket}}|Folk dance = Square danceSaurophaganax maximusHTTP://WWW.STATEFOSSILS.COM/OK/OK.HTML ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 20, 2007 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070220160253/HTTP://WWW.STATEFOSSILS.COM/OK/OK.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD, |Grass = Indian Grass|Insect = European honey beeDrumHTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-DANCE-MUSIC-SYMBOL/DRUM PUBLISHER=STATE SYMBOLS USA ACCESSDATE=MARCH 27, 2018, MilkHTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-FOOD-AGRICULTURE-SYMBOL/MILK PUBLISHER=STATE SYMBOLS USA, March 27, 2018, |Quarter =2008 OK Proof.png50 State Quarters>state quarters series. Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower.HTTP://WWW.USMINT.GOV/PRESSROOM/INDEX.CFM?FLASH=YES&ACTION=PRESS_RELEASE&ID=862> TITLE=NEW OKLAHOMA QUARTER LAUNCHES INTO HISTORY UNITED STATES MINT>ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 9, 2008, Common Collared Lizard>Mountain Boomer|Tree = Redbud|Rock = Rose Rock|Soil = Port Silt Loam|Tartan = Oklahoma Tartan|Route Marker = Oklahoma State Highway 1.svgGusty created by Don Woods (meteorologist)>Don Woods, Oklahoma's first professional meteorologist, used on KTUL-TV from 1954 to 1989.Oklahoma Statutes, §25–98.8HTTPS://STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/OKLAHOMA/STATE-ARTS-DRAMA-SYMBOL/GUSTY >TITLE=OKLAHOMA STATE CARTOON CHARACTER – GUSTY DATE=, March 27, 2018,
  • Fruit: StrawberryWEB, Oklahoma State Symbols and Emblems – Complete list of Oklahoma state symbols including the state flag and state seal from NETSTATE.COM,weblink Netstate.com, November 18, 2015,
  • Vegetable: WatermelonWEB,weblink Watermelon State Vegetable, State Symbols USA, June 3, 2016, WEB,weblink It's a scandal: Oklahoma declares watermelon a vegetable, Matthew Weaver, the Guardian,
  • Game bird: Wild turkeyWEB,weblink Oklahoma State Game Bird – Wild Turkey, State Symbols USA, March 27, 2018,
  • Monument: Golden DrillerWEB,weblink Oklahoma State Monument – Golden Driller, State Symbols USA, March 27, 2018,
  • Rock song: "Do You Realize??" by The Flaming LipsNEWS
TITLE=FLAMING LIPS PREPARE FOR OKLAHOMA HONORAGENCY=REUTERS, April 28, 2009,
  • Theater group: Lynn Riggs Players of OklahomaWEB,weblink Oklahoma State Theater Group – Lynn Riggs Players of Oklahoma, State Symbols USA, March 27, 2018,
}}Oklahoma ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Oklahoma.ogg|ˌ|oʊ|k|l|ə|ˈ|h|oʊ|m|ə}};WEB, Dictionary.com, August 10, 2007,weblink Oklahoma, , ogalahoma;WEB,weblink Cherokee-English Dictionary, February 19, 2019, Oklahoma, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ, )WEB,weblink www.choctawnation.com, February 19, 2019, Chahta Okla, The Choctaw People, is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south and west, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words {{wikt-lang|cho|okla}} and , meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially, "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology. Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006, United States Census Bureau, csv, September 15, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070914155415weblink">weblink September 14, 2007, dead, With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California.Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans.

Etymology

The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma later became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was officially approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers.WEB, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Muriel, Wright, Oklahoma State University, June 1936,weblink July 31, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013231154weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, WEB, 2007,weblink Oklahoma State History and Information, A Look at Oklahoma, Oklahoma Department of Tourism and Recreation, June 7, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060729003635weblink">weblink July 29, 2006, dead, WEB, Merserve, John, 1941,weblink Chief Allen Wright, Chronicles of Oklahoma, June 7, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060507052851weblink">weblink May 7, 2006, The name of the state is ,WEB, "River", Southband Pawnee, American Indian Studies Research Institute, May 26, 2012,weblink and .WEB, Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy, Cayuga Digital Dictionary, May 27, 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120326050632weblink">weblink March 26, 2012, In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as (wikt:en:Oklahomma'|Oklahomma'), and in Arapaho as bo'oobe' (literally meaning red earth).WEB,weblink Dictionary of the Arapaho Language, studylib.net, February 19, 2019,

Geography

(File:Oklahoma Köppen.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|Köppen climate types of Oklahoma)File:Rose rocks.jpg|thumb|State rock (rose rock) specimens from Cleveland County, with a US quarter for size reference]](File:Illinois River Oklahoma.jpg|alt=|thumb|Illinois River in northeastern Oklahoma)(File:Elk Mountain, OK.jpg|thumb|Elk Mountain, in the eastern Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma|alt=)Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of {{Convert|69899|sqmi}}, with {{Convert|68595|sqmi}} of land and {{Convert|1304|sqmi}} of water.WEB,weblink United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing, United States Census Bureau, V–2, 1 & 41 (Tables 1 & 18), September 2012, October 11, 2018, It lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River.The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is {{convert|2.1|mi}} to {{convert|2.2|mi}} east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819. It was then set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd meridian was approximately {{convert|2.2|mi}} to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian.Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, and Kansas.{{see also|List of Oklahoma tri-points}}

Topography

{{See also|List of lakes in Oklahoma}}Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed,WEB, April 17, 2003, United States Geological Survey, July 31, 2007,weblink A Tapestry of Time and Terrain, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060515044037weblink">weblink May 15, 2006, generally sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary.WEB, July 31, 2007, Netstate, July 31, 2007,weblink The Geography of Oklahoma, WEB, 2006, geology.com, August 1, 2007,weblink Oklahoma State Map Collection, Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at {{convert|4973|ft}} above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to {{convert|289|ft}} above sea level.WEB, January 1, 2003, Derek, Arndt, Oklahoma Climatological Survey, July 31, 2007,weblink The Climate of Oklahoma, (File:Wichita Mountains Narrows.jpg|thumb|right|Wichita Mountains Narrows)Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state.WEB, January 12, 2006,weblink Oklahoma, All Terrain Vacation, TravelOK, TravelOK.com, July 15, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060709205916weblink">weblink July 9, 2006, Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many rare, relic species.File:Talimenavista1.jpg|thumb|The Ouachita Mountains cover much of southeastern Oklahoma.]]File:McIntosh County (Oklahoma).jpg|thumb|Grave Creek in McIntosh County ]]Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, and the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U.S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians.WEB, March 7, 2007,weblink Managing Upland Forests of the Midsouth, USD Forest Service, July 31, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080622180232weblink">weblink June 22, 2008, A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, and near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill; at {{Convert|1999|ft|}}, it fails their definition of a mountain by one foot.WEB, 2007,weblink About Oklahoma, TravelOK.com, July 10, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060707070748weblink">weblink July 7, 2006, dead, mdy-all, The semi-arid high plains in the state's northwestern corner harbor few natural forests; the region has a rolling to flat landscape with intermittent canyons and mesa ranges like the Glass Mountains. Partial plains interrupted by small, sky island mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains dot southwestern Oklahoma; transitional prairie and oak savannas cover the central portion of the state. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction.
(File:turner falls ok.jpg|thumb|Turner Falls)
More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, and with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the nation's highest number of artificial reservoirs. Most of the state lies in two primary drainage basins belonging to the Red and Arkansas rivers, though the Lee and Little rivers also contain significant drainage basins.

Flora and fauna

{{see also|List of fauna of Oklahoma}}File:Tallgrass Prairie Nature Preserve in Osage County.jpg|thumb|Populations of American bisonAmerican bisonDue to Oklahoma's location at the confluence of many geographic regions, the state's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity. Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, and tallgrass prairie, harbor expansive ecosystems in the state's central and western portions, although cropland has largely replaced native grasses. Where rainfall is sparse in the state's western regions, shortgrass prairie and shrublands are the most prominent ecosystems, though pinyon pines, red cedar (junipers), and ponderosa pines grow near rivers and creek beds in the panhandle's far western reaches. Southwestern Oklahoma contains many rare, disjunct species including sugar maple, bigtooth maple, nolina and southern live oak.Marshlands, cypress forests and mixtures of shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, blue palmetto, and deciduous forests dominate the state's southeastern quarter, while mixtures of largely post oak, elm, red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and pine forests cover northeastern Oklahoma.WEB, 2003,weblink Oklahoma in Brief, State of Oklahoma, PDF, August 4, 2007, WEB,weblink Oklahoma Ecoregional Maps, Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013192154weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, dead, The state holds populations of white-tailed deer, mule deer, antelope, coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, elk, and birds such as quail, doves, cardinals, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and pheasants. In prairie ecosystems, American bison, greater prairie chickens, badgers, and armadillo are common, and some of the nation's largest prairie dog towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state's panhandle. The Cross Timbers, a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 vertebrate species. The Ouachita Mountains are home to black bear, red fox, gray fox, and river otter populations, which coexist with 328 vertebrate species in southeastern Oklahoma. Also, in southeastern Oklahoma lives the American alligator.WEB, 2005,weblink A Look at Oklahoma: A Student's Guide, State of Oklahoma, PDF, August 14, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061230052128weblink">weblink December 30, 2006,

Protected lands

File:Gloss Mountains.jpg|thumb|Mesas rise above one of Oklahoma's state parks]]Oklahoma has 50 state parks,WEB, 2004, Oklahoma Parks Department, August 2, 2007,weblink Oklahoma State Parks,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070727031241weblink">weblink July 27, 2007, six national parks or protected regions,WEB, 2007, National Park Service, August 2, 2007,weblink Oklahoma National Park Guide, two national protected forests or grasslands,WEB, May 1, 2005, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, August 2, 2007,weblink National Forests, and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas. Six percent of the state's 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of forest is public land, including the western portions of the Ouachita National Forest, the largest and oldest national forest in the Southern United States.WEB, May 10, 2005, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, August 2, 2007,weblink Ouachita National Forest, With {{Convert|39000|acre|km2}}, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in north-central Oklahoma is the largest protected area of tallgrass prairie in the world and is part of an ecosystem that encompasses only 10 percent of its former land area, once covering 14 states.WEB, 2007,weblink Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, The Nature Conservatory, July 31, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110223051941weblink">weblink February 23, 2011, dead, mdy-all, In addition, the Black Kettle National Grassland covers {{Convert|31300|acre|km2}} of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma.WEB, July 24, 2007, USDA Forest Service, August 2, 2007,weblink Black Kettle National Grassland, The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge is the oldest and largest of nine National Wildlife Refuges in the stateWEB, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, August 17, 2007,weblink Refuge Locator Map – Oklahoma, and was founded in 1901, encompassing {{Convert|59020|acre|km2}}.WEB, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, August 17, 2007,weblink Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Of Oklahoma's federally protected parks or recreational sites, the Chickasaw National Recreation Area is the largest, with {{Convert|9898.63|acre|km2}}.WEB, National Park Service, January 16, 2010,weblink Chickasaw National Recreation Area – Park Statistics, Other sites include the Santa Fe and Trail of Tears national historic trails, the Fort Smith and Washita Battlefield national historic sites, and the Oklahoma City National Memorial.

Climate

File:Lightning over Tulsa cropped.jpg|thumb|Oklahoma's climate is prime for the generation of thunderstorms.]]File:OBU Campus oval fountain in 2011 snowstorm..JPG|thumb|Winter at the Oklahoma Baptist UniversityOklahoma Baptist UniversityOklahoma is in a humid subtropical region. Oklahoma lies in a transition zone between the semi-arid climates to the west. Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley characterized by frequent interaction between cold, dry air from Canada, warm to hot, dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S., and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces severe weather (severe thunderstorms, damaging thunderstorm winds, large hail and tornadoes) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth. An average 62 tornadoes strike the state per year—one of the highest rates in the world.WEB, NOAA National Climatic Data Center, October 24, 2006,weblink Tornado Climatology, Because of Oklahoma's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances and can change drastically in a short time. As an example, on November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City reached {{convert|83|F}} in the afternoon (the record high for that date), then an Arctic cold front of unprecedented intensity slammed across the state, causing the temperature to fall 66 degrees, down to {{convert|17|F}} at midnight (the record low for that date); thus, both the record high and record low for November 11 were set on the same date.WEB,weblink News | November 11, 1911: A Palindrome to Remember, Mesonet, February 6, 2013, This type of phenomenon is also responsible for many of the tornadoes in the area, such as the 1912 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, when a warm front traveled along a stalled cold front, resulting in an average of about one tornado per hour over the course of a day.The humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) of central, southern and eastern Oklahoma is influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Traveling westward, the climate transitions progressively toward a semi-arid zone (Koppen BSk) in the high plains of the Panhandle and other western areas from about Lawton westward, less frequently touched by southern moisture. Precipitation and temperatures decline from east to west accordingly, with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of {{convert|62|F}} and an annual rainfall of generally over {{convert|40|in|-1}} and up to {{convert|56|in|mm|-1}}, while areas of the (higher-elevation) panhandle average {{convert|58|F}}, with an annual rainfall under {{convert|17|in|-1}}.Oklahoma Water Resources Board {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090723021315weblink |date=July 23, 2009 }}Over almost all of Oklahoma, winter is the driest season. Average monthly precipitation increases dramatically in the spring to a peak in May, the wettest month over most of the state, with its frequent and not uncommonly severe thunderstorm activity. Early June can still be wet, but most years see a marked decrease in rainfall during June and early July. Mid-summer (July and August) represents a secondary dry season over much of Oklahoma, with long stretches of hot weather with only sporadic thunderstorm activity not uncommon many years. Severe drought is common in the hottest summers, such as those of 1934, 1954, 1980 and 2011, all of which featured weeks on end of virtual rainlessness and high temperatures well over {{convert|100|F}}. Average precipitation rises again from September to mid-October, representing a secondary wetter season, then declines from late October through December.All of the state frequently experiences temperatures above {{convert|100|F}} or below {{convert|0|F}},WEB, University of Oklahoma, August 1, 2007,weblink Oklahoma's Climate: an Overview, PDF, though below-zero temperatures are rare in south-central and southeastern Oklahoma. Snowfall ranges from an average of less than {{convert|4|in|cm|0}} in the south to just over {{convert|20|in|cm|0}} on the border of Colorado in the panhandle. The state is home to the Storm Prediction Center, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the Warning Decision Training Division, all part of the National Weather Service and in Norman.WEB, Chris, Novy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, August 1, 2007,weblink SPC and its Products, Oklahoma's highest-recorded temperature of {{convert|120|F}} was recorded at Tipton on June 27, 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature of {{convert|-31|F}} was recorded at Nowata on February 10, 2011.{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;" |Monthly temperatures for Oklahoma's largest cities style="background: #E5AFAA;text-align:center;"! City! Jan! Feb! Mar! Apr! May! Jun! Jul! Aug! Sep! Oct! Nov! Dec style="background: #F8F3CA;text-align:center;"! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| Oklahoma City| 50/29| 55/33| 63/41| 73/50| 80/60| 88/68| 94/72| 93/71| 85/63| 73/52| 62/40| 51/31 style="background: #C5DFE1;text-align:center;"! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| Tulsa| 48/27| 53/31| 62/40| 72/49| 79/59| 88/68| 93/73| 93/71| 84/62| 73/51| 61/40| 49/30 style="background: #F8F3CA;text-align:center;"! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| Lawton| 50/26| 56/31| 65/40| 73/49| 82/59| 90/68| 96/73| 95/71| 86/63| 76/51| 62/39| 52/30 Average high/low temperatures in °F''2007>PUBLISHER=USTRAVELWEATHER.COM URL=HTTP://WWW.USTRAVELWEATHER.COM/WEATHER-OKLAHOMAARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070927001532/HTTP://WWW.USTRAVELWEATHER.COM/WEATHER-OKLAHOMA URL-STATUS=DEAD, MSN WEATHER> ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 13, 2007 TITLE=WEATHER AVERAGES: LAWTON, OKLAHOMA, ''

History

(File:Oklahoma1885.jpg|thumb|Map of Indian Territory (Oklahoma), 1889, Britannica 9th edition)Evidence suggests indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma as early as the last ice age.WEB,weblink Valerie, Palino, Early Man in North America: The Known to the Unknown, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, August 1, 2007, Ancestors of the Wichita, Kichai, Teyas, Escanjaques, and Caddo lived in what is now Oklahoma. Southern Plains villagers lived in the central and west of the state, with a subgroup, the Panhandle culture people living in panhandle region. Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. Spiro Mounds, in what is now Spiro, Oklahoma, was a major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450.WEB, 2007,weblink The Historic Spiro Mounds, Spiro Area Chamber of Commerce, August 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808234344weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, dead, WEB,weblink Prehistory of Oklahoma, rootsweb, August 1, 2007, The Spaniard Francisco Vázquez de Coronado traveled through the state in 1541,WEB,weblink Oklahoma's History, Government of Oklahoma, August 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070726075125weblink">weblink July 26, 2007, dead, but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s.WEB,weblink French and Spanish Explorations, rootsweb, August 1, 2007, In the 18th century, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche entered the region from the west and Quapaw and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma. French colonists claimed the region until 1803, when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River was purchased by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.The territory now known as Oklahoma was first a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828.During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed from the Southeastern United States. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal.WEB
,weblink
, Choctaw Removal was really a "Trail of Tears"
, April 28, 2008
, Len Green
, Bishinik, mboucher, University of Minnesotaweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080604005108weblink">weblink >archivedate = June 4, 2008,
Seventeen thousand Cherokees and 2,000 of their black slaves were deported.Carter, Samuel (III) (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232. The area, already occupied by Osage and Quapaw tribes, was called for the Choctaw Nation until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans. By 1890, more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within Indian Territory or "Indian Country".WEB,weblink 1890 Indian Territory Map, RootsWeb, May 6, 2009, All Five Civilized Tribes supported and signed treaties with the Confederate military during the American Civil War.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201074014weblink">weblink dead, February 1, 2016, Wayback Machine, February 1, 2016, The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war.BOOK
, Rodman
, Leslie
, The Five Civilized Tribes and the American Civil War
,weblink
, 2
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723013312weblink">weblink
, July 23, 2011
, mdy-all
,
Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866.BOOK, Alton, Hornsby, Jr., A Companion to African American History,weblink 2008, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4051-3735-5, 127,
In the period between 1866 and 1899, cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner. Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory. In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory.WEB,weblink Map of Cattle Drives in 1881, Genealogy Trails History Group, August 1, 2007, Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase.WEB, Robert, Hamilton,weblink United States and Native American Relations, Florida Gulf Coast University, August 1, 2007, File:Dust storm CimarronCounty OK.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Dust BowlDust BowlMajor land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time. Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis.WEB, 1999,weblink Factors Influencing Enrollment in Agricultural Education Classes of Native American Students in Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, DOC, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074216weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term sooners, which eventually became the state's official nickname.WEB,weblink Rushes to Statehood, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, August 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070926234602weblink">weblink September 26, 2007, dead, Deliberations to make the territory into a state began near the end of the 19th century, when the Curtis Act continued the allotment of Indian tribal land.

20th and 21st centuries

Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which took place two years later.WEB,weblink Clem Rogers, Will Rogers Museum Association, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070520025331weblink">weblink May 20, 2007, On June 16, 1906, Congress enacted a statute authorizing the people of the Oklahoma and Indian Territories (as well what would become the states of Arizona and New Mexico) to form a constitution and state government in order to be admitted as a state.{{USStatute|59|233|35|267|1906|6|16|H.R.|16946}} On November 16, 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation no. (wikisource:Proclamation 780|780), establishing Oklahoma as the 46th state in the Union.{{USStat|35|2160}}File:Murrah Building - Aerial.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal BuildingAlfred P. Murrah Federal BuildingThe new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy.WEB,weblink Tulsa Area History, Tulsa County Library, April 25, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070108010448weblink">weblink January 8, 2007, In 1927, Oklahoman businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66", began the campaign to create U.S. Route 66. Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo, Texas to Tulsa, Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa.WEB,weblink The Father of Route 66, University of Virginia, April 20, 2007, Oklahoma also has a rich African-American history. Many black towns thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states, especially Kansas. The politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory. He discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-black state.By the early 20th century, the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa was one of the most prosperous African-American communities in the United States.NEWS,weblink The Tulsa Lynching of 1921: A Hidden Story, Variety (magazine), Variety Magazine, June 26, 2008, Steven, Oxman, May 30, 2000, Jim Crow laws had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century, but the blacks had created a thriving area.Social tensions were exacerbated by the revival of the Ku Klux Klan after 1915. The Tulsa Race Riot broke out in 1921, with whites attacking blacks. In one of the costliest episodes of racial violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage, and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people.WEB,weblink Tulsa Race Riot, A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, February 28, 2001, Oklahoma Historical Society, June 10, 2008, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080624204404weblink">weblink June 24, 2008, dead, By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had declined to negligible influence within the state.WEB, Larry, O'Dell,weblink Ku klux klan, Oklahoma Historical Society, June 26, 2008, dead,weblink October 9, 2008, During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practice. This period was known as the Dust Bowl, throughout which areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma were hampered by long periods of little rainfall, strong winds, and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States.WEB, August 5, 2005,weblink 1930s Dust Bowl, Cimarron County Chamber of Commerce, August 1, 2007, Over a twenty-year period ending in 1950, the state saw its only historical decline in population, dropping 6.9 percent as impoverished families migrated out of the state after the Dust Bowl.Soil and water conservation projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation. By the 1960s, Oklahoma had created more than 200 lakes, the most in the nation.WEB, 2007,weblink History of the States: Oklahoma, The Sooner State, History (U.S. TV channel), The History Channel, August 9, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071010051625weblink">weblink October 10, 2007, In 1995, Oklahoma City was the site of one of the most destructive acts of domestic terrorism in American history. The Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, in which Timothy McVeigh detonated a large, crude explosive device outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people, including 19 children. For his crime, McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11, 2001. His accomplice, Terry Nichols, is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive.NEWS, 1996,weblink Oklahoma City Tragedy, CNN, August 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070820160413weblink">weblink August 20, 2007, dead, On May 31, 2016, several cities experienced record setting flooding.WEB, Sutton, Joe,weblink Seven dead after record-setting floods in Texas, Kansas – KPAX.com | Continuous News | Missoula & Western Montana, KPAX.com, April 28, 2016, June 3, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160602235851weblink">weblink June 2, 2016, dead, WEB,weblink Texas and Oklahoma Set All-Time Record Wet Month; Other May Rain Records Shattered in Arkansas, Nebraska, Weather.com, June 3, 2016,

Demographics

(File:Oklahoma population map.png|thumb|upright=2.05|Oklahoma population density map){{US Census population|1890= 258657|1900= 790391|1910= 1657155|1920= 2028283|1930= 2396040|1940= 2336434|1950= 2233351|1960= 2328284|1970= 2559229|1980= 3025290|1990= 3145585|2000= 3450654|2010= 3751351|estimate= 3943079|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 19, 2013, 2018 EstimateHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/OK,US/PST045218>TITLE=QUICKFACTS OKLAHOMA; UNITED STATESWEBSITE=2018 POPULATION ESTIMATESUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION>DATE=FEBRUARY 25, 2019, February 25, 2019, }}The United States Census Bureau estimates Oklahoma's population was 3,943,079 on July 1, 2018, a 5.11% increase since the 2010 United States Census.At the 2010 Census, 68.7% of the population was non-Hispanic white, down from 88% in 1970, 7.3% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 8.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 5.1% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 8.9% of Oklahoma's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"|+ Oklahoma racial breakdown of population! Racial composition !! 1970 !! 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725044857weblink">weblink dead, July 25, 2008, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, Census.gov, April 23, 2014, !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Oklahoma: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts, !! 2010WEB, 2010 Census Data,weblink 2010 Census Data, Census.gov, April 23, 2014, White American>White 89.1% 82.1% 76.2% 72.0%Native Americans in the United States>Native 3.8% 8.0% 7.9% 8.7%African American>Black 6.7% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4%Asian American>Asian 0.1% 1.1% 1.4% 1.7%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.2% 1.3% 2.4% 4.1%Multiracial American>Two or more races – – 4.5% 6.0%{{As of|2011}}, 47.3% of Oklahoma's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, {{As of|2005}} Oklahoma's estimated ancestral makeup was 14.5% German, 13.1% American, 11.8% Irish, 9.6% English, 8.1% African American, and 11.4% Native American (including 7.9% Cherokee) though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1%.WEB, January 12, 2006,weblink Oklahoma QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, State & County QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, July 10, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080514235102weblink">weblink May 14, 2008, Most people from Oklahoma who self-identify as having American ancestry are of overwhelmingly English ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well.David Hackett Fischer, (Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America), New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.602–645BOOK, Dominic Pulera, Sharing the Dream: White Males in Multicultural America,weblink 2004, A&C Black, 978-0-8264-1643-8, 57, The state had the second-highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second-highest percentage among all states.WEB, 2002,weblink The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000, United States Census Bureau, PDF, August 5, 2007, In 2011, U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey data from 2005 to 2009 indicated about 5% of Oklahoma's residents were born outside the United States. This is lower than the national figure (about 12.5% of U.S. residents were foreign-born).Paul Monies, Oklahoma's foreign-born population continues to grow in most counties, The Oklahoman (January 9, 2011).The center of population of Oklahoma is in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks.WEB, 2010 Census Centers of Population by State, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010,weblink September 17, 2011, The state's 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third-fastest-growing per capita income in the nationWEB, March 27, 2007,weblink State Personal Income 2006, United States Department of Commerce, August 5, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070704133957weblink">weblink July 4, 2007, dead, mdy-all, and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index.WEB, 2007,weblink More or Less, Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce, Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce, August 5, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071006120142weblink">weblink October 6, 2007, The Oklahoma City suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income at $73,661, though Tulsa County holds the highest average.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20121005103359weblink">weblink dead, October 5, 2012, Per capita income in Tulsa County highest in state, Tulsa World, November 27, 2012, February 6, 2013, In 2011, 7.0% of Oklahomans were under the age of 5, 24.7% under 18, and 13.7% were 65 or older. Females made up 50.5% of the population.WEB,weblink City and Town Population Totals: 2010–2017, U.S. Census Bureau, July 6, 2018, July 6, 2018, {{US Demographics|state=Oklahoma}}

Cities and towns

The state is in the U.S. Census' Southern region. According to the 2010 United States Census, Oklahoma is the 28th-most populous state with {{nts|3751616}} inhabitants but the 19th-largest by land area spanning {{convert|68594.92|sqmi}} of land.WEB
,weblink
, GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State — Place and (in selected states) County Subdivision
, United States Census Bureau
, 2010 United States Census
, August 8, 2016
, Oklahoma is divided into 77 counties and contains 597 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns.WEB,weblink PDF, Oklahoma: 2010 Population and Housing Unit Counts 2010 Census of Population and Housing, September 2012, United States Census Bureau, 2010 United States Census, September 3, 2016, III-2, In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities.NEWS,weblink Oklahoma Statutes Citationized Title 11. Cities and Towns Chapter 1 – Oklahoma Municipal Code Article Article IV – Incorporation of Cities Section 4-101 – Petition for Incorporation of City – Contents, oscn.net, July 6, 2017, Towns are limited to town board type of municipal government. Cities may choose among aldermanic, mayoral, council-manager, and home-rule charter types of government.NEWS,weblink 2016 Oklahoma Statutes Title 11. Cities and Towns, law.justia.com, July 6, 2017, Cities may also petition to incorporate as towns.NEWS,weblink Oklahoma Statutes Citationized Title 11. Cities and Towns Chapter 1 – Oklahoma Municipal Code Article Article V – City Incorporating as a Town Section 5-101 – City Incorporating as a Town – Procedure, oscn.net, July 6, 2017, {{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = OklahomaWEBSITE=AMERICAN FACTFINDER2ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 25, 2019, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Oklahoma{{!}}County| city_1 = Oklahoma City| div_1 = Oklahoma County, Oklahoma{{!}}Oklahoma| pop_1 = 643,648| img_1 = Downtown_Oklahoma_City_skyline_(2).jpg| city_2 = Tulsa, Oklahoma{{!}}Tulsa| div_2 = Tulsa County, Oklahoma{{!}}Tulsa| pop_2 = 401,800| img_2 = Downtown_Tulsa_Skyline.jpg| city_3 = Norman, Oklahoma{{!}}Norman| div_3 = Cleveland County, Oklahoma{{!}}Cleveland| pop_3 = 122,843| img_3 = SemiAerial_OU.jpg| city_4 = Broken Arrow, Oklahoma{{!}}Broken Arrow| div_4 = Tulsa County, Oklahoma{{!}}Tulsa| pop_4 = 108,303| img_4 = Historic_house_Broken_Arrow_Oklahoma.jpg| city_5 = Lawton, Oklahoma{{!}}Lawton| div_5 = Comanche County, Oklahoma{{!}}Comanche| pop_5 = 93,714| img_5 = | city_6 = Edmond, Oklahoma{{!}}Edmond| div_6 = Oklahoma County, Oklahoma{{!}}Oklahoma| pop_6 = 91,950| img_6 = | city_7 = Moore, Oklahoma{{!}}Moore| div_7 = Cleveland County, Oklahoma{{!}}Cleveland| pop_7 = 61,523| img_7 = | city_8 = Midwest City, Oklahoma{{!}}Midwest City| div_8 = Oklahoma County, Oklahoma{{!}}Oklahoma| pop_8 = 57,308| img_8 = | city_9 = Enid, Oklahoma{{!}}Enid| div_9 = Garfield County, Oklahoma{{!}}Garfield| pop_9 = 50,122| img_9 = | city_10 = Stillwater, Oklahoma{{!}}Stillwater| div_10 = Payne County, Oklahoma{{!}}Payne| pop_10 = 49,829| img_10 = }}

Language

File:Cherokeestompdance.ogg|thumb|right|Recording of a Cherokee languageCherokee languageFile:Cherokee stop sign.png|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Bilingual stop sign in English and the Cherokee syllabary, Tahlequah, OklahomaTahlequah, OklahomaThe English language has been official in the state of Oklahoma since 2010.NEWS,weblink Oklahoma votes to make English official language, News OK, November 2, 2010, May 17, 2014, The variety of North American English spoken is called Oklahoma English, and this dialect is quite diverse with its uneven blending of features of North Midland, South Midland, and Southern dialects.WEB,weblink Oklahoma-Languages, City-data.com, 2000, May 17, 2014, In 2000, 2,977,187 Oklahomans—92.6% of the resident population five years or older—spoke only English at home, a decrease from 95% in 1990. 238,732 Oklahoma residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census, about 7.4% of the state's population. Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000. The two most commonly spoken native North American languages are Cherokee and Choctaw with 10,000 Cherokee speakers living within the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area of eastern Oklahoma, and another 10,000 Choctaw speakers living in the Choctaw Nation directly south of the Cherokees.WEB, Cherokee, Ethnologue, April 11, 2014,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150730231052weblink">weblink July 30, 2015, Cherokee is an official language in the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area and in the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.WEB, The Cherokee Nation & its Language, University of Minnesota: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, 2008,weblink May 22, 2014, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"|+ Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Oklahoma! Language !! Percentage of population({{as of|2000|lc=on}})| 4.4%Indigenous languages of North America>Native North American languages 0.6%| 0.4%| 0.3%| 0.2%Tagalog language>Tagalog, Japanese (tied) 0.1%German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state's population, and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people, or about 0.4% of the population, many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma City. Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers (0.3%), Chinese with 6,413 (0.2%), Korean with 3,948 (0.1%), Arabic with 3,265 (0.1%), other Asian languages with 3,134 (0.1%), Tagalog with 2,888 (0.1%), Japanese with 2,546 (0.1%), and African languages with 2,546 (0.1%). In addition to Cherokee, more than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, second only to California. However, only Cherokee exhibits language vitality at present.

Religion

File:BostonAvenueMethodist.jpg|thumb|left|The Boston Avenue Methodist Church in Tulsa is a National Historic LandmarkNational Historic Landmark{{bar boxPUBLISHER=, left1=Religion float=right|bars ={{bar percent|Protestant|purple|69}}{{bar percent|None|black|18}}{{bar percent|Catholic|dodgerblue|8}}{{bar percent|Mormon|green|1}}{{bar percent|Other faith|grey|2}}{{bar percent|Unanswered|brown|1}}}}Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the "Bible Belt". Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States, the area is known for politically and socially conservative views, with the Republican Party having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties.NEWS,weblink Current Registration Statistics by County, ok.gov, January 15, 2018, January 23, 2018, Tulsa, the state's second-largest city, home to Oral Roberts University, is sometimes called the "buckle of the Bible Belt".NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070121104922weblink">weblink January 21, 2007, Jewish Life in the Bible Belt, Thursday, Bram, New Voices Magazine, August 5, 2007, NEWS, April 29, 2007,weblinkweblink dead, September 10, 2016, Minister's book plunges into cultural issues, Bill, Sherman, Tulsa World, July 2, 2016, According to the Pew Research Center, the majority of Oklahoma's religious adherents are Christian, accounting for about 80 percent of the population. The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average, while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average – tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state.WEB,weblink U.S. Religious Landscapes Survey, The Pew Forum on Religion and Life, April 22, 2008, File:OKC Cathedral.jpg|thumb|right|The Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Oklahoma City]]In 2010, the state's largest church memberships were in the Southern Baptist Convention (886,394 members), the United Methodist Church (282,347), the Roman Catholic Church (178,430), and the Assemblies of God (85,926) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsNEWS,weblink LDS Statistics and Church Facts {{!, Total Church Membership|work=www.mormonnewsroom.org|access-date=July 31, 2017|language=en}} (47,349). Other religions represented in the state include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report, thearda.com, December 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140209190519weblink">weblink February 9, 2014, dead, In 2000, there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims, with 10 congregations to each group.WEB,weblink State Membership Report – Oklahoma, Association of Religion Data Archives, August 5, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070926234702weblink">weblink September 26, 2007, dead, Oklahoma religious makeup:{{Ref label|note01|A|^}}

Incarceration rate

Oklahoma has been described as "the world's prison capital", with 1,079 of every 100,000 residents imprisoned in 2018, the highest incarceration rate of any state, and by comparison, higher than the incarceration rates of any country in the world.JOURNAL, Wagner, Peter, Sawyer, Wendy, June 2018, States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2018,weblink Prison Policy Initiative, NEWS, Sweeney, Catherine, November 27, 2018, Growth of Oklahoma's Prison Population Slows,weblink The Journal Record,

Economy

{{See also|Oklahoma locations by per capita income}}File:The BOK Building.jpg|thumb|upright|The BOK Tower of Tulsa, Oklahoma's second-tallest building, serves as the world headquarters for Williams CompaniesWilliams CompaniesOklahoma is host to a diverse range of sectors including aviation, energy, transportation equipment, food processing, electronics, and telecommunications. Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft, and food. The state ranks third in the nation for production of natural gas, is the 27th-most agriculturally productive state, and also ranks 5th in production of wheat.WEB, July 3, 2007,weblink State Fact Sheets: Oklahoma, United States Department of Agriculture, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120729111442weblink">weblink July 29, 2012, Four Fortune 500 companies and six Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in Oklahoma,WEB,weblink Oklahoma:Corporations, globalEDGE Michigan State University, September 27, 2011, and it has been rated one of the most business-friendly states in the nation,WEB,weblink An Overview of Oklahoma's Target Industries, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070723103431weblink">weblink July 23, 2007, with the 7th-lowest tax burden in 2007.NEWS, 2007, David, Ellis,weblink Tax Friendly Places 2007, CNN, CNN Money, August 8, 2007, In 2010, Oklahoma City-based Love's Travel Stops & Country Stores ranked 18th on the Forbes list of largest private companies, Tulsa-based QuikTrip ranked 37th, and Oklahoma City-based Hobby Lobby ranked 198th in 2010 report.WEB,weblink Forbes, America's Largest Private Companies: Complete List, September 30, 2011, Oklahoma's gross domestic product grew from $131.9 billion in 2006 to $147.5 billion in 2010, a jump of 10.6 percent.WEB,weblink US Bureau of Economic Analysis, GDP by state current dollars, September 27, 2011, Oklahoma's gross domestic product per capita was $35,480 in 2010, which was ranked 40th among the states.WEB,weblink US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Per capita real GDP by state, September 27, 2011, Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy.WEB, Mark, Snead, 2006,weblink Outlook Update – OKC GM Plant Closing, Oklahoma State University, PDF, August 12, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060901115547weblink">weblink September 1, 2006, Oil accounted for 35 billion dollars in Oklahoma's economy in 2007, and employment in the state's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007. {{As of|July 2017}}, the state's unemployment rate is 4.4%.Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics

Industry

In mid-2011, Oklahoma had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.5 million. The government sector provides the most jobs, with 339,300 in 2011, followed by the transportation and utilities sector, providing 279,500 jobs, and the sectors of education, business, and manufacturing, providing 207,800, 177,400, and 132,700 jobs, respectively.WEB, July 1, 2011,weblink Oklahoma Economy at a Glance, United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 28, 2011, Among the state's largest industries, the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually.Tulsa is home to the largest airline maintenance base in the world, which serves as the global maintenance and engineering headquarters for American Airlines.WEB,weblink American's TUL Maintenance & Engineering Base Sets Goal to Achieve $500 Million in Revenue, Cost Savings By End of 2006, American Airlines, July 14, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051001063528weblink">weblink October 1, 2005, In total, aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma's industrial output, and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing.WEB,weblink Oklahoma at a Glance, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, PDF, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074214weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, Because of its position in the center of the United States, Oklahoma is also among the top states for logistic centers, and a major contributor to weather-related research.The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest-growing biotechnology industries in the nation. In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact.WEB, 2005,weblink Impact of Trade in Oklahoma, United States Chamber of Commerce, PDF, August 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074216weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, dead, Tire manufacturing, meat processing, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, and air conditioner manufacturing are the state's largest manufacturing industries.WEB, 2005,weblink Manufacturing Cluster Analysis, Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce, PDF, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074218weblink">weblink August 8, 2007,

Energy

(File:oil well.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|A major oil producing state, Oklahoma is the fifth-largest producer of crude oil in the United States.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Energy Resource Board, 2008, The Economic Impact of Oklahoma's Oil & Natural Gas Industry, October 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120413062127weblink">weblink April 13, 2012, )Oklahoma is the nation's third-largest producer of natural gas, and its fifth-largest producer of crude oil. The state also has the second-greatest number of active drilling rigs,WEB,weblink Baker Hughes, Baker Hughes Rotary Rigs by State, July 2, 2016, and it is even ranked fifth in crude oil reserves.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Geological Survey, Oklahoma Oil and Natural Gas: Components and Long-Term Outlook, October 22, 2011, PDF, While the state is ranked eighth for installed wind energy capacity in 2011,WEB,weblink United States Department of Energy, Installed Wind Capacity by State, October 22, 2011, xls, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111016123819weblink">weblink October 16, 2011, it is at the bottom of states in usage of renewable energy, with 94% of its electricity being generated by non-renewable sources in 2009, including 25% from coal and 46% from natural gas.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Energy Statistics, US Energy Information Administration, 2009, October 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113125936weblink">weblink January 13, 2012, Oklahoma has no nuclear power. Ranking 13th for total energy consumption per capita in 2009,WEB,weblink Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2009, US Energy Information Administration, 2009, October 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111021212855weblink">weblink October 21, 2011, The state's energy costs were eighth-lowest in the nation.WEB,weblink Institute for Energy Research, Oklahoma Energy Facts, October 22, 2011, PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120613033035weblink">weblink June 13, 2012, As a whole, the oil energy industry contributes $35 billion to Oklahoma's gross domestic product (GDP), and employees of the state's oil-related companies earn an average of twice the state's typical yearly income. In 2009, the state had 83,700 commercial oil wells churning {{convert|65.374|Moilbbl|m3}} of crude oil.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Corporation Commission, 2009 Report on Oil and Natural Gas Activity within the State of Oklahoma, 2009, October 22, 2011, PDF, Eight and a half percent of the nation's natural gas supply is held in Oklahoma, with {{convert|1.673|Tcuft|km3}} being produced in 2009.The Oklahoma Stack Play is a geographic referenced area in the Anadarko Basin. The oil field "Sooner Trend", Anadarko basin and the counties of Kingfisher and Canadian make up the basis for the "Oklahoma STACK". Other Plays such as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical.WEB,weblink STACK & SCOOP Overview – Maps – Geology – Counties, www.shaleexperts.com, According to Forbes magazine, Oklahoma City-based Devon Energy Corporation, Chesapeake Energy Corporation, and SandRidge Energy Corporation are the largest private oil-related companies in the nation,WEB, December 2, 2005,weblink Three of America's Largest Private Companies Call Oklahoma Home, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, August 1, 2007, and all of Oklahoma's Fortune 500 companies are energy-related. Tulsa's ONEOK and Williams Companies are the state's largest and second-largest companies respectively, also ranking as the nation's second- and third-largest companies in the field of energy, according to Fortune magazine. The magazine also placed Devon Energy as the second-largest company in the mining and crude oil-producing industry in the nation, while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and Oklahoma Gas & Electric ranks as the 25th-largest gas and electric utility company.NEWS, 2007,weblink Three Fortune's Snapshot: Devon energy, CNN, August 1, 2007, Oklahoma Gas & Electric, commonly referred to as OG&E (NYSE: OGE) operates four base electric power plants in Oklahoma. Two of them are coal-fired power plants: one in Muskogee, and the other in Red Rock. Two are gas-fired power plants: one in Harrah and the other in Konawa. OG&E was the first electric company in Oklahoma to generate electricity from wind farms in 2003.WEB, 2012,weblink OG&E Energy, A History of Positive Energy, OG&E Energy, December 15, 2013,

Wind generation

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:right;"! colspan="14" style="background:#cfb;"| Oklahoma Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)! style="background:#cfb;"| Year! style="background:#cfb;"| Total! style="background:#cfb;"| January! style="background:#cfb;"| February! style="background:#cfb;"| March! style="background:#cfb;"| April! style="background:#cfb;"| May! style="background:#cfb;"| June! style="background:#cfb;"| July! style="background:#cfb;"| August! style="background:#cfb;"| September! style="background:#cfb;"| October! style="background:#cfb;"| November! style="background:#cfb;"| December align=right| 308 align=right| 375 align=right| 469 align=right| 100Source:WEB,weblink Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.A, Energy Information Administration, EIA, United States Department of Energy, July 27, 2012, August 15, 2012, WEB,weblink Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.B, Energy Information Administration, EIA, United States Department of Energy, July 27, 2012, August 15, 2012,

Agriculture

The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat.WEB,weblink A Welcome From The Commissioner, Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, August 7, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070530220430weblink">weblink May 30, 2007, Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma, while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat, 4.2 percent of American pig products, and 2.2 percent of dairy products.The state had 85,500 farms in 2012, collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and fewer than one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state's gross domestic product. Poultry and swine are its second- and third-largest agricultural industries.

Education

{{See also|List of school districts in Oklahoma|List of colleges and universities in Oklahoma}}File:Seminary Hall.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Oklahoma's system of public regional universities includes Northeastern State University in Tahlequah.]]With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Oklahoma had 638,817 students enrolled in 1,845 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in 533 school districts {{as of|2008|lc=on}}.WEB, 2008–09 Facts: Oklahoma Public Schools, Oklahoma State Department of Education, 2010,weblink January 22, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928231700weblink">weblink September 28, 2011, Oklahoma has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 126,078 students in the 2009–10 school year.WEB,weblink PDF, IES, National Center for Education Statistics, Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions and Staff from the Common Core of Data, School Year 2009–10, 11, January 22, 2012, Oklahoma spent $7,755 for each student in 2008, and was 47th in the nation in expenditures per student, though its growth of total education expenditures between 1992 and 2002 ranked 22nd.WEB, Growth in Oklahoma's State Governments 1992–2002, University of Central Oklahoma, February 1, 2006,weblink PDF, August 3, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074216weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, dead, The state is among the best in pre-kindergarten education, and the National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards, quality, and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004, calling it a model for early childhood schooling.WEB, Superintendent Garrett announces Oklahoma No. 1 in Pre-Kindergarten, Oklahoma State Department of Education, November 19, 2004,weblink August 3, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070629100813weblink">weblink June 29, 2007, dead, High school dropout rate decreased from 3.1 to 2.5 percent between 2007 and 2008 with Oklahoma ranked among 18 other states with 3 percent or less dropout rate.WEB,weblink IES, National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2009, PDF, 7–8, 37, January 22, 2012, In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among Southern states.WEB, High school diploma or higher, by percentage by state, Statemaster.com, 2004,weblink August 20, 2007, WEB, Missouri and the Nation, University of Missouri, February 9, 2007,weblink August 3, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071012160129weblink">weblink October 12, 2007, According to a study conducted by the Pell Institute, Oklahoma ranks 48th in college-participation for low-income students.NEWS, College study should concern Oklahoma policymakers,weblink May 30, 2018, The Oklahoman, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, the University of Central Oklahoma, and Northeastern State University are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma, operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state. The two state universities, along with Oklahoma City University and the University of Tulsa, rank among the country's best in undergraduate business programs.WEB, America's Best Colleges – 2007, Oklahoma Education Information System, 2007,weblink August 3, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928073528weblink">weblink September 28, 2007, dead, Oklahoma City University School of Law, University of Oklahoma College of Law, and University of Tulsa College of Law are the state's only ABA accredited institutions. Both University of Oklahoma and University of Tulsa are Tier 1 institutions, with the University of Oklahoma ranked 68th and the University of Tulsa ranked 86th in the nation.NEWS, Best Law Schools, U.S. News, 2013,weblink July 12, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130713083022weblink">weblink July 13, 2013, Oklahoma holds eleven public regional universities,WEB, Student Center Financial Aid, Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, 2008,weblink April 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080323062821weblink">weblink March 23, 2008, including Northeastern State University, the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River, also containing the only College of Optometry in OklahomaWEB, Rare Eye Condition Takes Center Stage at NSUOCO, Northeastern State University, 2008,weblink April 6, 2008, and the largest enrollment of Native American students in the nation by percentage and amount.WEB, NSU Demographics, Northeastern State University, 2006,weblink PDF, February 10, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071201151858weblink">weblink December 1, 2007, WEB, INBRE Participants, Oklahoma Idea Network of Biomedical Research Excellence,weblink April 6, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080410193841weblink">weblink April 10, 2008, Langston University is Oklahoma's only historically black college. Six of the state's universities were placed in the Princeton Review's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007,WEB, OBU Named to The Princeton Review "Best in the West" list, Oklahoma Baptist University, August 26, 2005,weblink August 3, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808024101weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, and three made the list of top colleges for best value. The state has 55 post-secondary technical institutions operated by Oklahoma's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade.In the 2007–2008 school year, there were 181,973 undergraduate students, 20,014 graduate students, and 4,395 first-professional degree students enrolled in Oklahoma colleges. Of these students, 18,892 received a bachelor's degree, 5,386 received a master's degree, and 462 received a first professional degree. This means the state of Oklahoma produces an average of 38,278-degree-holders per completions component (i.e. July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008). National average is 68,322 total degrees awarded per completions component.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Colleges: A Profile of College Degree Programs & Post-Secondary Education in Oklahoma, Beginning on April 2, 2018, tens of thousands of K–12 public school teachers went on strike due to lack of funding. According to the National Education Association, teachers in Oklahoma had ranked 49th out of the 50 states in terms of teacher pay in 2016. The Oklahoma Legislature had passed a measure a week earlier to raise teacher salaries by $6,100, but it fell short of the $10,000 raise for teachers, $5,000 raise for other school employees, and $200 million increase in extra education funding many had sought.NEWS, Fed up with school spending cuts, Oklahoma teachers walk out,weblink The Washington Post, April 2, 2018, April 2, 2018, A survey in 2019 found that the pay raise obtained by the strike lifted the State's teacher pay ranking to 34th in the nation.WEB,weblink Teacher pay raise boosts Oklahoma to 34th in nation, new rankings find, Andrea Eger, Tulsa World, April 29, 2019, April 29, 2019,

Non-English education

File:Cherokeeclass.png|thumb|Oklahoma Cherokee-language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabaryCherokee syllabaryThe Cherokee Nation instigated a 10-year language preservation plan that involved growing new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home.WEB, Native Now : Language: Cherokee, We Shall Remain – American Experience – PBS, April 9, 2014, 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407132754weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, mdy-all, This plan was part of an ambitious goal that in 50 years, 80% or more of the Cherokee people will be fluent in the language. The Cherokee Preservation Foundation has invested $3 million into opening schools, training teachers, and developing curricula for language education, as well as initiating community gatherings where the language can be actively used.WEB, Cherokee Language Revitalization, Cherokee Preservation Foundation, April 9, 2014, 2014,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407070520weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade.NEWS, Chavez, Will, Immersion students win trophies at language fair, Cherokeephoenix.org, April 8, 2013, April 5, 2012,weblink

Culture

File:Pioneer Woman Statue.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Oklahoma's heritage as a pioneer state is depicted with the Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City.]]Oklahoma is placed in the South by the United States Census Bureau,WEB,weblink Census Regions and Divisions of the United States, United States Census Bureau, PDF, July 2, 2016, but lies partially in the, Southwest, and Southern cultural regions by varying definitions, and partially in the Upland South and Great Plains by definitions of abstract geographical-cultural regions.WEB, Allen, Lew,weblink What is geography?, Northern Arizona University, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070510041836weblink">weblink May 10, 2007, Oklahomans have a high rate of English, Scotch-Irish, German, and Native American ancestry,WEB, Wayne, Greene,weblink Largest Ancestry, Valparaiso University, August 4, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100305214454weblink">weblink March 5, 2010, with 25 different native languages spoken.WEB, Stephen, Greymorning,weblink Profiles of Native American Education Programs, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070910075959weblink">weblink September 10, 2007, dead, Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma when White settlement in North America increased, Oklahoma has much linguistic diversity. Mary Linn, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma and the associate curator of Native American languages at the Sam Noble Museum, notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment.Smith, Diane. "Universities partner to save dying languages". Associated Press. June 2011. Retrieved on October 23, 2015.Sixty-seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma, including 39 federally recognized tribes, who are headquartered and have tribal jurisdictional areas in the state.WEB, 2007,weblink Oklahoma Quick Facts, Oklahoma Department of Tourism, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070517085232weblink">weblink May 17, 2007, dead, mdy-all, Western ranchers, Native American tribes, Southern settlers, and eastern oil barons have shaped the state's cultural predisposition, and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States.WEB, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070405151813weblink">weblink April 5, 2007, Fodor's Choice: Top Overlooked Destinations, Fodor's Magazine, August 2, 2007, dead, Residents of Oklahoma are associated with traits of Southern hospitality—the 2006 Catalogue for Philanthropy (with data from 2004) ranks Oklahomans 7th in the nation for overall generosity.WEB, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141104150515weblink">weblink dead, November 4, 2014, Generosity Index 2006 (2004 data), Catalogue for Philanthropy, November 4, 2014, The state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath, which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "Okies".WEB,weblink Filmmaker to share documentary chronicling local poet's life, Sacramento State University, February 25, 2003, April 4, 2008, NEWS, Wayne, Greene,weblink July 15, 2007, Oklahoma centennial quiz, Tulsa World, July 2, 2016, However, the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans.

Arts

File:Philbrook.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Philbrook Museum is one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States.]]{{Further|List of Native American artists from Oklahoma}}In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of jazz culture flourish, and Native American, Mexican American, and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures.WEB, 2007,weblink Oklahoma's Diversity, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, August 4, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070627063022weblink">weblink June 27, 2007, The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is one of the largest classical music festivals on the southern plains,WEB, 2007,weblink Oklahoma Mozart Festival, OK Mozart Festival, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928104541weblink">weblink September 28, 2007, dead, and Oklahoma City's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation.The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame. These were Yvonne Chouteau, sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief, Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin, known collectively as the Five Moons. The New York Times rates the Tulsa Ballet as one of the top ballet companies in the United States. The Oklahoma City Ballet and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov. The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States.WEB, Ballet Russes, Geller/Goldfine Productions, 2009,weblink February 16, 2014, WEB, Capri Films, Geller/Goldfine Productions, 2008,weblink June 17, 2008, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080624204404weblink">weblink June 24, 2008, In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma!WEB,weblink Honors and Awards, Discoveryland!, April 26, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070405010705weblink">weblink April 5, 2007, Ridge Bond, native of McAlester, Oklahoma,NEWS, World's own Service,weblink Ridge Bond, Oklahoman – Tulsa World: Archives, Tulsa World, June 3, 2016, starred in the Broadway and International touring productions of Oklahoma!,WEB,weblink Oklahoma Today February–March 1998 Volume 48 No. 2: 1997 Year in Review, PDF, Digital.library.okstate.edu, June 3, 2016, WEB,weblink Oklahoma! : Rodgers & Hammerstein : Show Details, Rnh.com, June 3, 2016, WEB,weblink JPG, Photographic image : Berliner Festwochen : Oklahoma!, Ridgebond.com, June 3, 2016, WEB,weblink Ridge Bond Archives – Images, Ridgebond.com, September 21, 1951, June 3, 2016, playing the role of "Curly McClain" in more than 2,600 performances.WEB,weblink OHS Podcasts, Okhistory.org, March 24, 2012, June 3, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160629112858weblink">weblink June 29, 2016, dead, In 1953 he was featured along with the Oklahoma! cast on a CBS Omnibus television broadcast. Bond was instrumental in the Oklahoma! title song becoming the Oklahoma state songWEB,weblink December 2013 Oklahoma: Magazine of the Oklahoma Heritage Association by Oklahoma Hall of Fame, Issuu, June 3, 2016, and is also featured on the U.S. postage stamp commemorating the musical's 50th anniversary.WEB,weblink Musical Actor to Be Honored With Hall of Fame Award, News OK, November 7, 1993, June 3, 2016, Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound and western swing, which was popularized at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa. The building, known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing",NEWS, March 25, 2007,weblink Cain's Ballroom – A Music Icon: Venue is a landmark for Western swing, punk fans, Matt, Elliott, Tulsa World, July 2, 2016, served as the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s.NEWS, July 15, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20070811123505weblink">weblink dead, August 11, 2007, Selling Tulsa: Branded, John, Stancavage, Tulsa World, August 4, 2007, Stillwater is known as the epicenter of Red Dirt music, the best-known proponent of which is the late Bob Childers.Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma include, in the capital city, Oklahoma City Theatre Company, Carpenter Square Theatre, Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park, and CityRep. CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company, and Theatre Tulsa is the oldest community theatre company west of the Mississippi. Other companies in Tulsa include Heller Theatre and Tulsa Spotlight Theater. The cities of Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater, among others, also host well-reviewed community theatre companies.Oklahoma is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums.WEB, 2007,weblink Oklahoma – A Great Place to Play, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, August 4, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070627065030weblink">weblink June 27, 2007, The Philbrook Museum of Tulsa is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States,WEB,weblink Museums of Oklahoma, Tufts University, August 5, 2007, and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History in Norman, one of the largest university-based art and history museums in the country, documents the natural history of the region. The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.WEB,weblink The All-Terrain Vacation, Travelok.com, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060410174845weblink">weblink April 10, 2006, dead, mdy-all, The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago and Los Angeles.WEB,weblink Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art, Travel OK, Travelok.com, November 22, 2011, The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,WEB,weblink About the Museum, Oklahoma City Museum of Art, August 4, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809185510weblink">weblink August 9, 2007, dead, and Oklahoma City's National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier. With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States.WEB,weblink Sherwin Miller Museum of Judaism, Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art, April 20, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100226183123weblink">weblink February 26, 2010, mdy-all,

Festivals and events

File:National Powwow dancer 2007.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|National Powwow dancer of the CherokeeCherokeeOklahoma's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the American Bus Association,NEWS, September 7, 2006,weblink 100 and 1: State's centennial is named top-ranked bus-tour destination, Robert S., Cross, Tulsa World, July 2, 2016, and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of statehood on November 16, 2007. Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals (as examples) in Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish, Arab, Mexican and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions.Oklahoma City is home to a few reoccurring events and festivals. During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million peopleNEWS, September 11, 2006,weblink Oklahoma State Fair Opens September 14, Oklahoma State Fair, August 4, 2007, PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070629222126weblink">weblink June 29, 2007, along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Large national pow wows, various Latin and Asian heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year. The Oklahoma City Pride Parade has been held annually in late June since 1987 in the gay district of Oklahoma City on 39th and Penn. WEB,weblink Our Story Continues, Oklahoma City Pride, September 4, 2019, The First Friday Art Walk in the Paseo Arts District is an art appreciation festival that is held the first Friday of every month. WEB, First Friday,weblink Paseo Arts Association, September 4, 2019, Additionally, an annual art festival is held in the Paseo on Memorial Day Weekend. HTTPS://WWW.THEPASEO.ORG/FESTIVAL, 43rd Annual Paseo Arts Festival, Paseo Arts Association, September 4, 2019,weblink May 28, 2019, In Tulsa, the Tulsa State Fair attracts over one million people during its 10-day run,WEB, 2007,weblink Tulsa State Fair – General Information, Tulsa State Fair, August 25, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070828181706weblink">weblink August 28, 2007, dead, and the city's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 people in four days during 2007.NEWS, May 21, 2007, Leigh, Bell, Mayfest: Celebrating Downtown: Festival closes after big year, Tulsa World,weblinkweblink dead, September 10, 2016, May 21, 2007, In 2006, Tulsa's Oktoberfest was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appétit magazine.NEWS, Daniel, Harrison, Top 10: American Oktoberfest Destinations, Ask Men,weblink May 5, 2007, Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival, a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians. Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman, which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma's first medieval fair. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003. The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma's "largest weekend event and the third-largest event in Oklahoma, and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation".WEB, 2010,weblink Medieval Fair of Norman, Medieval Fair of Norman, February 14, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727075023weblink">weblink July 27, 2011, mdy-all,

Sports

Oklahoma has teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the state's only major league sports franchise. The state had a team in the Women's National Basketball Association, the Tulsa Shock, from 2010 through 2015, but the team relocated to Dallas–Fort Worth after that seasonPRESS RELEASE,weblink WNBA Approves Relocation of Shock from Tulsa to Dallas-Fort Worth, Women's National Basketball Association, July 23, 2015, November 9, 2015, and became the Dallas Wings.PRESS RELEASE,weblink WNBA's Dallas Wings Introduced in DFW Metroplex, Women's National Basketball Association, November 2, 2015, November 9, 2015, Oklahoma has teams in several minor leagues, including Minor League Baseball at the AAA and AA levels (Oklahoma City Dodgers and Tulsa Drillers, respectively), hockey's ECHL with the Tulsa Oilers, and a number of indoor football leagues. In the last-named sport, the state's most notable team was the Tulsa Talons, which played in the Arena Football League until 2012, when the team was moved to San Antonio. The Oklahoma Defenders replaced the Talons as Tulsa's only professional arena football team, playing the CPIFL. The Oklahoma City Blue, of the NBA G League, relocated to Oklahoma City from Tulsa in 2014, where they were formerly known as the Tulsa 66ers. Tulsa is the base for the Tulsa Revolution, which plays in the American Indoor Soccer League.NEWS, July 29, 2007,weblink Pro soccer: Soccer comes to Tulsa, Glenn, Hibdon, Tulsa World, August 5, 2007, Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL and the CBA.File:OKC Thunder.JPG|thumb|The Oklahoma City ThunderOklahoma City ThunderThe NBA's New Orleans Hornets became the first major league sports franchise based in Oklahoma when the team was forced to relocate to Oklahoma City's Ford Center, now known as Chesapeake Energy Arena, for two seasons following Hurricane Katrina in 2005.WEB, January 25, 2007,weblink BA Team Valuations – No. 29 New Orleans Hornets, PGA, August 5, 2007, In July 2008, the Seattle SuperSonics relocated to Oklahoma City and began to play at the Ford Center as the Oklahoma City Thunder for the {{nbay|2008|app=season}}, becoming the state's first permanent major league franchise.NEWS,weblink Sonics, city reach settlement, The Seattle Times, July 2, 2008, July 2, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090501013137weblink">weblink May 1, 2009, Collegiate athletics are a popular draw in the state. The state has four schools that compete at the highest level of college sports, NCAA Division I. The most prominent are the state's two members of the Big 12 Conference,WEB,weblink Big 12 Conference – One True Champion, Big 12 Conference, November 9, 2015, one of the so-called Power Five conferences of the top tier of college football, Division I FBS. The University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University average well over 50,000 fans attending their football games, and Oklahoma's football program ranked 12th in attendance among American colleges in 2010, with an average of 84,738 people attending its home games.WEB, Attendance Records, National Collegiate Athletic Association,weblink PDF, 2011, October 20, 2011, The two universities meet several times each year in rivalry matches known as the Bedlam Series, which are some of the greatest sporting draws to the state. Sports Illustrated magazine rates Oklahoma and Oklahoma State among the top colleges for athletics in the nation.NEWS, October 7, 2002, America's Best Sports Colleges: 1–10, Sports Illustrated,weblink August 5, 2007, NEWS, October 7, 2002, America's Best Sports Colleges: 11–100, Sports Illustrated,weblink August 5, 2007, Two private institutions in Tulsa, the University of Tulsa and Oral Roberts University; are also Division I members. Tulsa competes in FBS football and other sports in the American Athletic Conference,WEB,weblink About TU, Tulsa Golden Hurricane, November 9, 2015, while Oral Roberts, which does not sponsor football,WEB,weblink Home Page, Oral Roberts Golden Eagles, November 9, 2015, Move the cursor over "Sports" on the menu to see a list of varsity sports; football is not listed. is a member of the Summit League.WEB,weblink Oral Roberts, The Summit League, November 9, 2015, In addition, 12 of the state's smaller colleges and universities compete in NCAA Division II as members of three different conferences,WEB,weblink Home Page, Great American Conference, November 9, 2015, Move the cursor over "The GAC" on the menu to see a list of members; six members are from Oklahoma.WEB,weblink Lone Star Conference History, Lone Star Conference, November 9, 2015, WEB,weblink About the MIAA, Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association, November 9, 2015, and eight other Oklahoma institutions participate in the NAIA, mostly within the Sooner Athletic Conference.WEB,weblink NAIA Member Schools: Oklahoma, National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, November 10, 2015, Regular LPGA tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and major championships for the PGA or LPGA have been played at Southern Hills Country Club in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa.WEB, Oklahoma's Top 10 Private Golf Courses, Tulsaweb,weblink August 5, 2007, Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation, Southern Hills has hosted four PGA Championships, including one in 2007, and three U.S. Opens, the most recent in 2001.WEB, 2007,weblink Southern Hills Country Club is rich in History, Professional Golfers' Association of America, PGA, August 5, 2007, Rodeos are popular throughout the state, and Guymon, in the state's panhandle, hosts one of the largest in the nation.WEB,weblink Guymon Rodeo Foundation, Rodeo History, May 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070525105057weblink">weblink May 25, 2007, dead, "">

Current teams{| class"wikitable"|+Basketball "

! Club !! Type !! League !! Venue !! City !! Area (Metro/Region)| Oklahoma City ThunderBasketball>Men's BasketballNational Basketball Association>NBA| Chesapeake Energy Arena| Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro| Oklahoma City BlueBasketball>Men's Basketball| NBA G League| Cox Convention Center| Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro{| class="wikitable"|+Baseball "! Club !! Type !! League !! Venue !! City !! Area (Metro/Region)| Oklahoma City Dodgers| BaseballPacific Coast League>PCL (AAA)| Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark| Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro| Tulsa Drillers| BaseballTexas League (Minor League Baseball>AA)| ONEOK Field| TulsaTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro{| class="wikitable"|+Hockey "! Club !! Type !! League !! Venue !! City !! Area (Metro/Region)| Tulsa OilersIce hockey>Hockey| ECHL| BOK Center| TulsaTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro{| class="wikitable"|+Football "! Club !! Type !! League !! Venue !! City !! Area (Metro/Region)| Oklahoma Flying AcesIndoor American football>Indoor FootballChampions Indoor Football>CIF| Stride Bank CenterEnid, Oklahoma>Enid| | Oklahoma ThunderAmerican football>FootballGridiron Developmental Football League>GDFL| Bixby High SchoolBixby, Oklahoma>BixbyTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro| Oklahoma City Bounty HuntersAmerican football>FootballGridiron Developmental Football League>GDFL| Putnam City StadiumWarr Acres, Oklahoma>Warr AcresOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro{| class="wikitable"|+Soccer "! Club !! Type !! League !! Venue !! City !! Area (Metro/Region)| Tulsa SpiritAssociation football>Women's SoccerWomen's Premier Soccer League>WPSL| Union 8thBroken Arrow, Oklahoma>Broken ArrowTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa MetroOklahoma City FC (WPSL)>Oklahoma City FCAssociation football>Women's SoccerWomen's Premier Soccer League>WPSLYukon High School>Miller Stadium| Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro| Oklahoma City EnergyAssociation football>Men's SoccerUnited Soccer League>USL| Taft Stadium| Oklahoma CityOklahoma City metropolitan area>OKC Metro| Tulsa Roughnecks FCAssociation football>Men's SoccerUnited Soccer League>USL| ONEOK Field| TulsaTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro| Tulsa AthleticAssociation football>Men's SoccerNational Premier Soccer League>NPSL| Veteran’s Park| TulsaTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro| Tulsa Rugby ClubAssociation football>Men's Rugby| Division II Rugby| Riverside Pitch| TulsaTulsa metropolitan area>Tulsa Metro

Health

(File:ICIO2.jpg|thumb|INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma, in Oklahoma City)(File:tulsacancertreatmentcenter.jpg|thumb|left|Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center, located in Tulsa)Oklahoma was the 21st-largest recipient of medical funding from the federal government in 2005, with health-related federal expenditures in the state totaling $75,801,364; immunizations, bioterrorism preparedness, and health education were the top three most funded medical items.WEB, Health Report: Oklahoma, Trust for America's Health,weblink August 2, 2007, Instances of major diseases are near the national average in Oklahoma, and the state ranks at or slightly above the rest of the country in percentage of people with asthma, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension.In 2000, Oklahoma ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita, but was slightly over the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a 12-year period.WEB, State health workforce profiles:Oklahoma, United States Department of Health and Human Services,weblinkweblink" title="archive.wikiwix.com/cache/20110217051715weblink">weblink dead, February 17, 2011, PDF, August 2, 2007, One of the worst states for percentage of insured people, nearly 25 percent of Oklahomans between the age of 18 and 64 did not have health insurance in 2005, the fifth-highest rate in the nation.WEB, Health insurance, lack of coverage among adults: State, 2002–2005, United States Department of Health and Human Services,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071012213905weblink">weblink dead, October 12, 2007, September 8, 2007, Oklahomans are in the upper half of Americans in terms of obesity prevalence, and the state is the 5th most obese in the nation, with 30.3 percent of its population at or near obesity.WEB, U.S. Obesity Trends, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,weblink September 12, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825130031weblink">weblink August 25, 2009, Oklahoma ranked last among the 50 states in a 2007 study by the Commonwealth Fund on health care performance.WEB,weblink How States Rank on Health Care, Hitti, Miranda, WebMD Health News, June 13, 2007, January 26, 2012, The OU Medical Center, Oklahoma's largest collection of hospitals, is the only hospital in the state designated a Level I trauma center by the American College of Surgeons. OU Medical Center is on the grounds of the Oklahoma Health Center in Oklahoma City, the state's largest concentration of medical research facilities.WEB, OU Medical Center Employment Opportunities, University of Oklahoma,weblink August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070817194528weblink">weblink August 17, 2007, dead, WEB, Trauma One Center, University of Oklahoma,weblink August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070721211811weblink">weblink July 21, 2007, dead, The Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center in Tulsa is one of four such regional facilities nationwide, offering cancer treatment to the entire southwestern United States, and is one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country.WEB,weblink Southwestern Regional Medical Center, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, May 7, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071010160608weblink">weblink October 10, 2007, dead, mdy-all, The largest osteopathic teaching facility in the nation, Oklahoma State University Medical Center at Tulsa, also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of neuroscience.WEB, 2007,weblink Tulsa Regional Medical Center Changes its name to OSU Medical Center, Oklahoma State University, August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013231828weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, WEB,weblink Basic Biomedical Research in the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University, August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060901125105weblink">weblink September 1, 2006, On June 26, 2018, Oklahoma made marijuana legal for medical purposes. This was a milestone for a state in the Bible Belt.

Media

(File:Tulsa World Office.jpg|thumb|The second-largest newspaper in Oklahoma, the Tulsa World, has a circulation of 189,789.)Oklahoma City and Tulsa are the 45th- and 61st-largest media markets in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's third-largest media market, Lawton-Wichita Falls, Texas, is ranked 149th nationally by the agency.WEB,weblink Local Television Market Universe Estimates Comparisons of 2008–09 and 2009–10 Market Ranks, Nielsen Media, October 17, 2011, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110317170600weblink">weblink March 17, 2011, dead, Broadcast television in Oklahoma began in 1949 when KFOR-TV (then WKY-TV) in Oklahoma City and KOTV-TV in Tulsa began broadcasting a few months apart.WEB,weblink Historical Highlights of Television in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Tulsa TV History, August 6, 2007, Currently, all major American broadcast networks have affiliated television stations in the state.WEB, 2007,weblink U.S. Television Stations in Oklahoma, Global Computing, August 6, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927064302weblink">weblink September 27, 2007, The state has two primary newspapers. The Oklahoman, based in Oklahoma City, is the largest newspaper in the state and 54th-largest in the nation by circulation, with a weekday readership of 138,493 and a Sunday readership of 202,690. The Tulsa World, the second-most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma and 79th in the nation, holds a Sunday circulation of 132,969 and a weekday readership of 93,558.WEB, 2011 Top Media Outlets: Newspapers, Blogs, Consumer Magazines & Social Network, BurrellesLuce,weblink PDF, October 17, 2011, 2011,weblink February 14, 2012, dead, Oklahoma's first newspaper was established in 1844, called the Cherokee Advocate, and was written in both Cherokee and English. In 2006, there were more than 220 newspapers in the state, including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications.WEB, History of Newspapers in Oklahoma, Oklahoma Historical Society,weblink August 6, 2007, The state's first radio station, WKY in Oklahoma City, signed on in 1920, followed by KRFU in Bristow, which later on moved to Tulsa and became KVOO in 1927.WEB, 2007, Oklahoma Fun Facts,weblink Legends of America, August 6, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061107223915weblink">weblink November 7, 2006, In 2006, there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks. Five universities in Oklahoma operate non-commercial, public radio stations/networks.WEB, 2006, Complete List of Radio Stations in the State of OK,weblink On the Radio.net, August 6, 2007, Oklahoma has a few ethnic-oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish and Asian languages, and there is some Native American programming. TBN, a Christian religious television network, has a studio in Tulsa, and built its first entirely TBN-owned affiliate in Oklahoma City in 1980.WEB,weblink Federal Communications Commission, Call Sign History, May 16, 2010,

Transportation

File:Will Rogers Turnpike.jpg|thumb|One of ten major toll highways in Oklahoma, the Will Rogers TurnpikeWill Rogers Turnpike(File:National-atlas-oklahoma.PNG|thumb|upright=1.25|A map of Oklahoma showing major roads and thoroughfares)Transportation in Oklahoma is generated by an anchor system of Interstate Highways, inter-city rail lines, airports, inland ports, and mass transit networks. Situated along an integral point in the United States Interstate network, Oklahoma contains three primary Interstate highways and four auxiliary Interstate Highways. In Oklahoma City, Interstate 35 intersects with Interstate 44 and Interstate 40, forming one of the most important intersections along the United States highway system.More than {{convert|12000|mi}} of roads make up the state's major highway skeleton, including state-operated highways, ten turnpikes or major toll roads,WEB, Transportation in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce, 2007,weblink August 2, 2007, and the longest drivable stretch of Route 66 in the nation.WEB, 2007,weblink Route 66 – Facts and Trivia, Legends of America, August 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809135444weblink">weblink August 9, 2007, mdy-all, In 2008, Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City was Oklahoma's busiest highway, with a daily traffic volume of 123,300 cars.WEB, 2008,weblink 2008 Annual Average Daily Traffic, PDF, Oklahoma Department of Transportation, September 28, 2011, In 2010, the state had the nation's third-highest number of bridges classified as structurally deficient, with nearly 5,212 bridges in disrepair, including 235 National Highway System Bridges.WEB,weblink United States Department of Transportation – Federal Highway Administration, Deficient Bridges by State and Highway System, 2010, September 28, 2011, Oklahoma's largest commercial airport is Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma City, averaging a yearly passenger count of more than 3.5 million (1.7 million boardings) in 2010.WEB, 2010,weblink Aviation Activity Report December 2010, Oklahoma City Airport Authority, September 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120317073707weblink">weblink March 17, 2012, mdy-all, Tulsa International Airport, the state's second-largest commercial airport, served more than 1.3 million boardings in 2010.WEB, 2010,weblink Passenger Boarding (Enplanement) and All-Cargo Data for U.S. Airports, Federal Aviation Administration, September 30, 2011, PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110920023456weblink">weblink September 20, 2011, Between the two, six airlines operate in Oklahoma.WEB, 2007,weblink Tulsa International Airport – Airline Information, Tulsa Airport Authority, August 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120928005948weblink">weblink September 28, 2012, mdy-all, WEB, 2004,weblink Will Rogers World Airports – Airline Information, Oklahoma City Airport Authority, August 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110315095936weblink">weblink March 15, 2011, mdy-all, In terms of traffic, R. L. Jones Jr. (Riverside) Airport in Tulsa is the state's busiest airport, with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008.WEB, 2007,weblink Riverside Jones Airport, Tulsa Airport Authority, September 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110822190220weblink">weblink August 22, 2011, Oklahoma has over 150 public-use airports.WEB,weblink Airports of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Airport Operators Association, August 2, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928150603weblink">weblink September 28, 2007, dead, Oklahoma is connected to the nation's rail network via Amtrak's Heartland Flyer, its only regional passenger rail line. It currently stretches from Oklahoma City to Fort Worth, Texas, though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer to Tulsa.NEWS, Brian, Barber,weblinkweblink dead, September 10, 2016, Federal matching funds may help bring Amtrak to Tulsa, January 18, 2007, Tulsa World, August 2, 2007, Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma: the Port of Muskogee and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa. The state's only port handling international cargo, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the nation and ships over two million tons of cargo each year.WEB, 2005,weblink Live in Tulsa, Tulsa Chamber of Commerce, July 14, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070525155014weblink">weblink May 25, 2007, Both ports are on the McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, which connects barge traffic from Tulsa and Muskogee to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers, contributing to one of the busiest waterways in the world.WEB,weblink What's new at the port?, Tulsa Port Authority, July 30, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070714184501weblink">weblink July 14, 2007,

Law and government

File:Oklahoma State Capitol.jpg|thumb|The Oklahoma State CapitolOklahoma State CapitolOklahoma is a constitutional republic with a government modeled after the Federal government of the United States, with executive, legislative, and judicial branches.WEB, 2006, GoveEngine.com, July 31, 2007,weblink State Government – Oklahoma, The state has 77 counties with jurisdiction over most local government functions within each respective domain, five congressional districts, and a voting base with a plurality in the Republican Party.WEB,weblink Current Registration Statistics by County, January 15, 2013, State of Oklahoma, May 21, 2013, State officials are elected by plurality voting in the state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma has capital punishment as a legal sentence, and the state has had (between 1976 through mid-2011) the highest per capita execution rate in the US.WEB,weblink The Execution State?, Oklahoma Watch, February 21, 2013, July 10, 2013,

State government

{{See also|Governor of Oklahoma||Oklahoma Legislature|Oklahoma Supreme Court}}The Legislature of Oklahoma consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. As the lawmaking branch of the state government, it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government. The Senate has 48 members serving four-year terms, while the House has 101 members with two-year terms. The state has a term limit for its legislature that restricts any one person to twelve cumulative years service between both legislative branches.WEB, U.S. Term Limits, August 9, 2007,weblink Legislative Longevity Limits, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070920054851weblink">weblink September 20, 2007, Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, and 77 District Courts that each serve one county. The Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent courts: a Court of Impeachment and the Oklahoma Court on the Judiciary. Oklahoma has two courts of last resort: the state Supreme Court hears civil cases, and the state Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal cases (this split system exists only in Oklahoma and neighboring Texas). Judges of those two courts, as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial Nominating Commission, and are subject to a non-partisan retention vote on a six-year rotating schedule.WEB, June 7, 2007, Netstate, August 1, 2007,weblink Oklahoma State Government, (File:OK-districts-108.JPG|thumb|upright=1.15|The five congressional districts of Oklahoma)The executive branch consists of the Governor, their staff, and other elected officials. The principal head of government, the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch, serving as the ex officio Commander-in-chief of the Oklahoma National Guard when not called into Federal use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature. The responsibilities of the Executive branch include submitting the budget, ensuring state laws are enforced, and ensuring peace within the state is preserved.WEB, December 1, 1995, Governor's Commission, August 6, 2007,weblink Report of the Governor's Commission on Government Performance,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070429100905weblink">weblink April 29, 2007, dead,

Local government

The state is divided into 77 counties that govern locally, each headed by a three-member council of elected commissioners, a tax assessor, clerk, court clerk, treasurer, and sheriff.WEB, January 6, 2006, Government of Oklahoma, August 1, 2007,weblink List of County Officers, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070531193042weblink">weblink May 31, 2007, While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power. Both county and municipal governments collect taxes, employ a separate police force, hold elections, and operate emergency response services within their jurisdiction.NEWS, Don, Diehl,weblink July 24, 2007, Metro About Jenks population figures ... doubled in size since 2000 census, Neighbor Newspapers, August 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930015351weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, Other local government units include school districts, technology center districts, community college districts, rural fire departments, rural water districts, and other special use districts.Thirty-nine Native American tribal governments are based in Oklahoma, each holding limited powers within designated areas. While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties. Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive, judicial, and legislative powers over tribal members and functions, but are subject to the authority of the United States Congress to revoke or withhold certain powers. The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress for approval.NEWS, Robert, Henry,weblink March 22, 1989, Oklahoma Attorney General's Opinions: Question Submitted by: The Honorable Enoch Kelly Haney, Oklahoma State Senate, The Oklahoma State Courts Network, August 21, 2007, NEWS, Lindsay, Robertson,weblink 2001, Native Americans and the Law: Native Americans Under Current United States Law, University of Oklahoma, August 21, 2007, Oklahoma has 11 substate districts including the two large Councils of Governments, INCOG in Tulsa (Indian Nations Council of Governments) and ACOG (Association of Central Oklahoma Governments).URLHTTP://USELECTIONATLAS.ORG/RESULTS/COMPARE.PHP?YEAR2008&FIPS40&F1&OFF0&ELECT0&TYPESTATE, titlePresidential General Election Results Comparison – Oklahoma, publisherUS Election Atlas, accessdateDecember 29, 2009, authorLeip, David, ">

National politics{| class"wikitable" style"float:right; margin:2em; font-size:90%;"URLHTTP://USELECTIONATLAS.ORG/RESULTS/COMPARE.PHP?YEAR2008&FIPS40&F1&OFF0&ELECT0&TYPESTATE, titlePresidential General Election Results Comparison – Oklahoma, publisherUS Election Atlas, accessdateDecember 29, 2009, authorLeip, David,

style="background:lightgrey;"!Year!Republicans!Democrats201665.32% 949,13628.93% 420,375201266.77% 891,32533.23% 443,547200865.65% 960,16534.35% 502,496200465.57% 959,79234.43% 503,966200060.31% 744,33738.43% 474,276199648.26% 582,31540.45% 488,105199242.65% 592,92934.02% 473,066198857.93% 678,36741.28% 483,423198468.61% 861,53030.67% 385,080198060.50% 695,57034.97% 402,026197649.96% 545,70848.75% 532,442197273.70% 759,02524.00% 247,147196847.68% 449,69731.99% 301,658196444.25% 412,66555.75% 519,834196059.02% 533,03940.98% 370,111(File:Oklahoma party registration by county.svg|thumb|Party registration by county (January 2018):{{legend|#a5b0ff|2=Democrat >= 40%}}{{legend|#7996e2|2=Democrat >= 50%}}{{legend|#6674de|2=Democrat >= 60%}}{{legend|#584cde|2=Democrat >= 70%}}{{legend|#ffb2b2|2=Republican >= 40%}}{{legend|#e27f7f|2=Republican >= 50%}}{{legend|#d75d5d|2=Republican >= 60%}}{{legend|#d72f30|2=Republican >= 70%}})File:United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 2016.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election]]Oklahoma has been politically conservative for much of its history, especially recently. During the first half-century of statehood, it was considered a Democratic stronghold, being carried by the Republican Party in only two presidential elections (1920 and 1928). During this time, it was also carried by every winning Democratic candidate up to Harry Truman. However, Oklahoma Democrats were generally considered to be more conservative than Democrats in other states.After the 1948 election, the state turned firmly Republican. Although registered Republicans were a minority in the state until 2015,WEB,weblink Registration by Party as of January 15, 2015, PDF, Oklahoma State Election Board, February 6, 2015, starting in 1952, Oklahoma has been carried by Republican presidential candidates in all but one election (1964). This is not to say every election has been a landslide for Republicans: Jimmy Carter lost the state by less than 1.5% in 1976, while Michael Dukakis and Bill Clinton both won 40% or more of the state's popular vote in 1988 and 1996 respectively. Al Gore in 2000, though, was the last Democrat to even win any counties in the state. Oklahoma was one of three states, the others being Utah and West Virginia, where Barack Obama failed to carry any of its counties in 2012, and it was the only state where Barack Obama failed to carry any county in 2008. In 2016, Donald Trump, the Republican nominee, again won every county, being one of only two states, the other being West Virginia, where Democrat Hillary Clinton failed to carry a single county.Generally, Republicans are strongest in the suburbs of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, as well as the Panhandle. Democrats are strongest in the eastern part of the state and Little Dixie, as well as the most heavily African American and inner parts of Oklahoma City and Tulsa. With a population of 8.6% Native American in the state, it is also worth noting most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by African Americans.Dems woo Native American vote. Politico. Published 5/29/08.Following the 2000 census, the Oklahoma delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was reduced from six to five representatives, each serving one congressional district. In the current Congress, all but one of Oklahoma's entire delegation are Republicans.{| class=wikitable2018|1|15|lc=on}}! colspan = 2 | Party! Number of voters! Percentage{{party color|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 942,621 46.75%{{party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 769,772 38.18%{{party color|Independent Party (United States)}}| Others 303,764 15.07%! colspan = 2 | Total! style="text-align:center;"| 2,016,157! style="text-align:center;"| 100%{{further|Political party strength in Oklahoma}}

Military

{{Further|List of military units and installations in Oklahoma}}{{Further|List of battles fought in Oklahoma}}

Cities and towns

{{See also|List of cities in Oklahoma|List of towns in Oklahoma|List of towns and cities in Oklahoma by population}}

Major cities

File:Skyline of Oklahoma City.jpg|left|thumb|Oklahoma CityOklahoma CityOklahoma had 598 incorporated places in 2010, including four cities over 100,000 in population and 43 over 10,000.WEB,weblink Oklahoma Department of Commerce, 2000–2010 Oklahoma Incorporated Place Populations, October 9, 2011, xls, dead,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20110520203935weblink">weblink May 20, 2011, Two of the fifty largest cities in the United States are in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and sixty-five percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas, or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau as a metropolitan statistical area. Oklahoma City, the state's capital and largest city, had the largest metropolitan area in the state in 2010, with 1,252,987 people, and the metropolitan area of Tulsa had 937,478 residents.WEB,weblink US Census Bureau, P1 Total Population All Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas (or parts) within Oklahoma, 2010, October 9, 2011, Between 2000 and 2010, the cities that led the state in population growth were Blanchard (172.4%), Elgin (78.2%), Jenks (77.0%), Piedmont (56.7%), Bixby (56.6%), and Owasso (56.3%).File:Downtown_Tulsa_Skyline.jpg|thumb|left|Tulsa is the state's second-largest city by population and land area.]]In descending order of population, Oklahoma's largest cities in 2010 were: Oklahoma City (579,999, +14.6%), Tulsa (391,906, −0.3%), Norman (110,925, +15.9%), Broken Arrow (98,850, +32.0%), Lawton (96,867, +4.4%), Edmond (81,405, +19.2%), Moore (55,081, +33.9%), Midwest City (54,371, +0.5%), Enid (49,379, +5.0%), and Stillwater (45,688, +17.0%). Of the state's ten largest cities, three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau, though the metropolitan statistical area of Fort Smith, Arkansas extends into the state.WEB, Oklahoma Census Data Center News, Oklahoma Department of Commerce, July 2007,weblink PDF, July 31, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808074217weblink">weblink August 8, 2007, Under Oklahoma law, municipalities are divided into two categories: cities, defined as having more than 1,000 residents, and towns, with under 1,000 residents. Both have legislative, judicial, and public power within their boundaries, but cities can choose between a mayor–council, council–manager, or strong mayor form of government, while towns operate through an elected officer system.WEB, 2005,weblink Oklahoma Municipal Government, Oklahoma Department of Libraries, PDF, August 7, 2007,

State symbols

{{See also|List of Oklahoma state symbols}}File:American bison k5680-1.jpg|thumb|The American bisonAmerican bisonState law codifies Oklahoma's state emblems and honorary positions;WEB,weblink OCIS Document Index, The Oklahoma Supreme Court Network, May 11, 2007, the Oklahoma Senate or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations. In 2012 the House passed HCR 1024, which would change the state motto from "Labor Omnia Vincit" to "Oklahoma—In God We Trust!" The author of the resolution stated a constituent researched the Oklahoma Constitution and found no "official" vote regarding "Labor Omnia Vincit", therefore opening the door for an entirely new motto.WEB,weblink Oklahoma House approves 'In God We Trust' for state motto, newsok.com, March 27, 2018, WEB,weblink HCR 1024, March 27, 2018, {{Clear}}

See also

Notes

A. {{note label|note01|A|^}} Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center in 2008. Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation. Figures have a ±5 percent margin of error.
B. {{note label|note02|B|^}} Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, other faiths each account for less than 1 percent. Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Orthodox Christianity, and other Christian traditions each compose less than half a percent. One percent refused to answer the Pew Research Center's survey.

References

Further reading

  • BOOK, Baird, W. David, Danney Goble, The Story of Oklahoma, 1994, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-2650-0,
  • BOOK, Dale, Edward Everett, Morris L. Wardell, History of Oklahoma, 1948, Prentice-Hall, New York,weblink
  • BOOK, Gibson, Arrell Morgan, Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries, 1981, 2nd, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-1758-4,
  • BOOK, Goble, Danney, Progressive Oklahoma: The Making of a New Kind of State, 1980, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-1510-8,
  • BOOK, Gunther, John, John Gunther, Oklahoma and the Indians, Inside U.S.A, 869–885, New York City, London, Harper & Brothers, 1947, Inside U.S.A. (book),
  • BOOK, Jones, Stephen, Oklahoma Politics in State and Nation, 1974, vol. 1 (1907–62), Haymaker Press, Enid, Okla.,
  • BOOK, Joyce, Davis D. (ed.), An Oklahoma I Had Never Seen Before: Alternative Views of Oklahoma History, 1994, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-2599-2,
  • BOOK, Morgan, Anne Hodges, Morgan, H. Wayne (eds.), Oklahoma: New Views of the Forty-sixth State, 1982, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-1651-8,
  • BOOK, Morgan, David R., Robert E. England, George G. Humphreys, Oklahoma Politics and Policies: Governing the Sooner State, 1991, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 978-0-8032-3106-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Morris, John W., Charles R. Goins, Edwin C. McReynolds, Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, 1986, 3rd, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 978-0-8061-1991-5,
  • BOOK, Wishart, David J. (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, 2004, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 978-0-8032-4787-1, complete text online; 900 pages of scholarly articles

External links

{{Sister project links|Oklahoma|voy=Oklahoma}}

Government

Tourism and recreation

Culture and history

Maps and demographics

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