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{{About|the city in Illinois}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States}}{{Use American English|date = March 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2018}}

Second City, My Kind of Town(for more, see List of nicknames for Chicago>full list)City in a Garden); I Willframe=yesframe-width=325zoom=9frame-long=-87.6325id=Q1297|title=Chicago}}| mapsize = 260px| map_caption = Interactive map outlining Chicago| pushpin_map = Illinois#USA#North America| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map_caption = Location within IllinoisLocation within the United StatesLocation within North America 41°52′55″N 87°37′40″W41558740region:US-IL|display=inline,title}}| coordinates_footnotes = List of sovereign states>Country{{flagu|United States}}}}U.S. state>StateList of counties in Illinois>CountiesIllinois}}Cook County, Illinois>Cook, DuPage| established_title = Settled| established_date = circa 1780Incorporated (town)}}| established_date2 = August 12, 1833Municipal corporation>Incorporated (city)| established_date3 = March 4, 1837| founder = Jean Baptiste Point du Sable(wild onion)Mayor–council government>Mayor–council| governing_body = Chicago City CouncilMayor of Chicago>MayorLori Lightfoot (Democratic Party (United States)>D)City Clerk of Chicago>City ClerkAnna M. Valencia>Anna Valencia (D)| unit_pref = ImperialPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 29, 2017, | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 589.56| area_total_sq_mi = 227.63| area_land_km2 = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_km2 = 17.62| area_water_sq_mi = 6.80| area_water_percent = 3.0| area_urban_km2 = 5,496| area_urban_sq_mi = 2,122| area_metro_km2 = | area_metro_sq_mi = 10,874428803, City of Chicago, (mean)| elevation_m = | elevation_ft = 597.18| elevation_min_m = | elevation_min_ft = 578| elevation_max_footnotes = – near Blue Island| elevation_min_footnotes = – at Lake Michigan| population_total = 2,695,5982010 United States Census>2010| population_footnotes =weblink| population_density_km2 = | population_density_sq_mi = 11,841| population_est = 2,705,994| pop_est_as_of = 2018| pop_est_footnotes = PUBLISHER=U.S. CENSUS BUREAUACCESS-DATE=APRIL 5, 2019, List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>3rd)HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/DATA/TABLES/2016/DEMO/POPEST/TOTAL-METRO-AND-MICRO-STATISTICAL-AREAS.HTML>TITLE=METRO/MICRO AREA POPULATION TOTALS TABLES: 2010-2016LAST=BUREAUWEBSITE=WWW.CENSUS.GOVARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180622083712/HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/DATA/TABLES/2016/DEMO/POPEST/TOTAL-METRO-AND-MICRO-STATISTICAL-AREAS.HTMLURL-STATUS=DEAD, mdy-all, List of United States cities by population>3rd, U.S.Combined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>3rd)| population_demonym = Chicagoan| population_note = | postal_code_type = ZIP Code Prefixes| postal_code = 606xx, 607xx, 608xxArea code 312>312/Area code 872 and Area code 773>773/872North American Numbering Plan>Area}}| footnotes = City treasurer>City TreasurerMelissa Conyears>Melissa Conyears-Ervin (D)| elevation_max_m = | elevation_max_ft = 672Central Standard Time>Central| utc_offset = −06:00Central Daylight Time>Central| utc_offset_DST = −05:00Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS code17|14000}}Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID0428803}}| blank_name_sec2 = Major AirportsChicago o'hare>Chicago O'Hare, Chicago Midway| blank1_name_sec2 = Commuter Rail50px|link=Metra)| blank2_name_sec2 = Rapid transit26px|link=Chicago Transit Authority)| short_description = City in Illinois, United States| name = }}Chicago ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Chicago.ogg|ʃ|ɪ|ˈ|k|ɑː|ɡ|oʊ}}, {{small|locally also}} {{IPAc-en|ʃ|ɪ|ˈ|k|ɔː|ɡ|oʊ}}), officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the US, with portions of the northwest city limits extending into DuPage County near O'Hare Airport. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third most populous in the nation.Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-19th century.BOOK, Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, James R. Grossman, Metropolitan Growth,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, December 5, 2013, 2005, After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild.WEB, Urban Infernos Throughout History, History,weblink June 24, 2017, The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900, less than 30 years after the great fire, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world.WEB, Largest Cities Throughout History, ThoughtCo,weblink June 24, 2017, Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles (including the Chicago School of architecture), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Skyscrapers, Encyclopedia of Chicago,weblink June 24, 2017, WEB, Glancey, Jonathan, The city that changed architecture forever.,weblink, BBC, April 30, 2018, Chicago is known for being a architectural city from the slopes of the John Hancock center to the Boxy sides of the Willis tower. Chicago has buildings shaped as waves, chairs and slopes. It also has many historical buildings such as tribute tower which has parts of other famous buildings from around the world in it. Wrigley field home of the Chicago Cubs opened in 1914 it is famous for it's old scoreboard in center field, One of the last hand operated scoreboards in the MLB. (Major league baseball) It is also well known for it's brick outfield walls covered in ivy.Chicago is an international hub for finance, culture, commerce, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. It is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts, issued by the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market in the world, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures alone.WEB, Economy,weblink World Business Chicago, World Business Chicago, May 3, 2018, Depending on the particular year, the city's O'Hare International Airport is routinely ranked as the world's first or second busiest airport according to tracked data by the Airports Council International. The region also has the largest number of federal highways and is the nation's railroad hub.NEWS, Chicago takes on the world, Chicago Tribune, January 26, 2014, Rodriguez, Alex, Sec. 1 p. 15, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network,WEB, The World According to GaWC 2012,weblink Globalization and World Cities Research Network, May 5, 2014, January 13, 2014, and it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index.WEB,weblink 2017 Global Cities Index, A.T. Kearney, May 15, 2018, The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products (GDP) in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017.WEB,weblink GDP by Metropolitan Area, September 18, 2018, Bureau of Economic Analysis, In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.WEB, Chicago Economy,weblink World Business Chicago, February 10, 2017, Chicago is home to several Fortune 500 companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Exelon, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, and Walgreens.Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018 made it the second most visited city in the nation, not far behind New York City's 65 million visitors in 2018.NEWS, Rackl, Lori, Chicago sets new tourism record with nearly 58 million visitors in 2018 — and the mayor is thrilled,weblink 12 January 2019,, NEWS, Chicago's tourism hot streak continues,weblink 12 January 2019, Crain's Chicago Business, 11 January 2019, en, The city was ranked first in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities.NEWS, Gabriel Martin, James,weblink Chicago revealed as the world's number one city for having fun and enjoying life, Lonely Planet, January 31, 2018, May 2, 2018, WEB, Millington, Alison,weblink The 32 most fun, friendly, and affordable cities in the world, Business Insider, April 25, 2018, May 2, 2018, NEWS,weblink Chicago named world's best city by Time Out, ahead of London, New York and>News Corp Australia Network, January 31, 2018, May 2, 2018, NEWS, Mellor, Joe,weblink World's best cities revealed..., London Economic, January 30, 2018, May 2, 2018, MAGAZINE, Olsen, Morgan,weblink Chicago named the world's best city for having it allTime Out (magazine)>Time Out, January 29, 2018, May 2, 2018, Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, literature, film, theatre, comedy (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel,BOOK, A City Called Heaven: Chicago and the Birth of Gospel Music, University of Illinois Press, Marovich, Robert M., 2015, Urbana, IL, 7, 978-0-252-08069-2, and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams.

Etymology and nicknames

The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion; it is known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more commonly as "ramps". The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir.BOOK, Quaife, Milo M., Checagou: From Indian Wigwam to Modern City, 1673–1835, 1933, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, 1865758, Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area.JOURNAL, Swenson, John F., Chicagoua/Chicago: The origin, meaning, and etymology of a place name, Illinois Historical Journal, 84, 4, Winter 1991, 235–248, 0748-8149, 25174749, According to his diary of late September 1687:The city has had several nicknames throughout its history, such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous towers and high rises.BOOK, Sarah S. Marcus, Chicago's Twentieth-Century Cultural Exports, Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, James R. Grossman, Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, 2005,weblink December 6, 2015,


{{Further|History of Chicago|Origin of Chicago's "Windy City" nickname}}{{see also|Timeline of Chicago history}}


File:Pottawatomi Fashion at the Field Museum in Chicago.jpg|thumb|Traditional Potawatomi regalia on display at the Field Museum of Natural HistoryField Museum of Natural HistoryIn the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by the Potawatomi, a Native American tribe who had succeeded the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples in this region.BOOK, Keating, Ann Durkin, Chicagoland: City and Suburbs in the Railroad Age, 2005, The University of Chicago Press, 0-226-42882-6, 2005002198, 25, The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was explorer Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s.BOOK, Genzen, Jonathan, The Chicago River: A History in Photographs, 2007, Westcliffe Publishers, 978-1-56579-553-2, 2006022119, 10–11, 14–15, {{sfnp|Keating|2005|pp=30–31, 221}}WEB, Swenson, John W, Jean Baptiste Point de Sable—The Founder of Modern Chicago,weblink Early Chicago, Early Chicago, Inc., August 8, 2010, 1999, He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago".In 1795, following the victory of the new United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over to the US for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn. This was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the British and their native allies. It was later rebuilt.{{sfnp|Genzen|2007|pp=16–17}}After the War of 1812, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833 and sent west of the Mississippi River during Indian Removal.{{sfnp|Buisseret|1990|pp=22–23, 68, 80–81}}{{sfnp|Keating|2005|pp=30–32}}WEB, Timeline: Early Chicago History,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Chicago: City of the Century, WGBH Educational Foundation And Window to the World Communications, Inc., March 25, 2009, 2003, May 26, 2009, live,

19th century

{{multiple image
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|image1 = Illinois-michigan-canal.png
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|caption1 = The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal (completed 1848)
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|image2 = Corner Madison and State streets, Chicago -.webm
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}}On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U.S. Senator of Public Monies. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837,WEB,weblink Act of Incorporation for the City of Chicago, 1837, State of Illinois, 3 March 2011, and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city.Walter Nugent. "Demography" in Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society.As the site of the Chicago Portage,{{sfnp|Keating|2005|p=27}} the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River.{{sfnp|Buisseret|1990|pp=86–98}}{{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=30–31}}{{sfnp|Genzen|2007|pp=24–25}}{{sfnp|Keating|2005|pp=26–29, 35–39}}A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy.BOOK, Conzen, Michael P., Global Chicago,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first-ever standardized "exchange-traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts.WEB,weblink Timeline-of-achievements, CME Group, January 20, 2013, File:Chicago-fire1.jpg|thumb|left|An artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 ]]In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery.WEB, Stephen Douglas,weblink University of Chicago, May 29, 2011, These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US President at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago in a temporary building called the Wigwam. He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War.To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. In February 1856, Chicago's Common Council approved Chesbrough's plan to build the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system.WEB,weblink Chicago Daily Tribune, Thursday Morning, February 14,, May 4, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2014, The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city's health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city's primary freshwater source.The city responded by tunneling {{convert|2|mi|km|spell=in}} out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat. It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan rather than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River.{{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=15–18, 243–245}}{{sfnp|Genzen|2007|pp=27–29, 38–43}}{{sfnp|Buisseret|1990|pp=154–155, 172–173, 204–205}}In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an area about {{convert|4|mi|km}} long and {{convert|1|mi|km|adj=on}} wide, a large section of the city at the time.{{sfnp|Buisseret|1990|pp=148–149}}{{sfnp|Genzen|2007|pp=32–37}}{{sfnp|Lowe|2000|pp=87–97}} Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact,{{sfnp|Lowe|2000|p=99}} and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone. These set a precedent for worldwide construction.BOOK, Bruegmann, Robert, Built Environment of the Chicago Region,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, December 5, 2013, Robert Bruegmann, 2005, {{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=9–11}} During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction.JOURNAL, Allen, Frederick E., February 2003, Where They Went to See the Future,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2007, American Heritage (magazine), American Heritage, 54, 1, December 5, 2013, {{sfnp|Lowe|2000|pp=121, 129}}The city has grown significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side.WEB,weblink December 14, 2015, 2005, The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, Cain, Louis P., Annexations, The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents.File:Looking West From Peristyle, Court of Honor and Grand Basin, 1893.jpg|thumb|left|Court of Honor at the World's Columbian ExpositionWorld's Columbian ExpositionChicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States. Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parentage. Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes and Czechs made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population).WEB, Chicago: Population,weblink 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Project Gutenberg, December 5, 2013, WEB, Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2012, Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886, and in 1894 the Pullman Strike. Anarchist and socialist groups played prominent roles in creating very large and highly organized labor actions. Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889.BOOK, Hull House Maps Its Neighborhood,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, April 11, 2013, Programs that were developed there became a model for the new field of social work.BOOK, Johnson, Mary Ann, Hull House,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, April 12, 2013, During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health. City, and later, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever were both passed and enforced. These laws became templates for public health reform in other cities and states.JOURNAL, Clinton, Sandvick, 2009, Enforcing Medical Licensing in Illinois: 1877–1890, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 82, 2, 67–74, 19562006, 2701151, The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. The chief advocate for improving public health in Chicago was Dr. John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866. He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in response to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health. Ten years later, he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago.JOURNAL, William K., Beatty, 1991, John H. Rauch â€“ Public Health, Parks and Politics, Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago, 44, 97–118, In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation's railroad hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals.{{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=43–49, 58, 318–319}}{{Holland-Classic|pages=66–91}} In 1883, Chicago's railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardized system of North American time zones.BOOK, United States. Office of the Commissioner of Railroads, Report to the Secretary of the Interior,weblink 1883, U.S. Government Printing Office, 19, This system for telling time spread throughout the continent.In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history.WEB, Chicago's Rich History,weblink Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau, June 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2011, dead, {{sfnp|Lowe|2000|pp=148–154, 158–169}} The University of Chicago, formerly at another location, moved to the same South Side location in 1892. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks.BOOK, Exhibits on the Midway Plaisance, 1893,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, April 12, 2013, WEB, Harper, Douglas, midway,weblink Chicago Manual Style (CMS), Online Etymology Dictionary, April 12, 2013,

20th and 21st centuries

File:Unemployed men queued outside a depression soup kitchen opened in Chicago by Al Capone, 02-1931 - NARA - 541927.jpg|thumb|Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great DepressionGreat Depression

1900 to 1939

File:Chicago Photographed from Ray Knabenshue's Dirigible Air Ship.webm|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Aerial motion film photography of Chicago in 1914 as filmed by A. Roy KnabenshueA. Roy KnabenshueDuring World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the Southern United States. Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903.JOURNAL, Martin, Elizabeth Anne, Detroit and the Great Migration, 1916–1929,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 15, 2008, Bentley Historical Library Bulletin, University of Michigan, December 5, 2013, 40, 1993, This Great Migration had an immense cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music.BOOK, Darlene Clark Hine,weblink Chicago Black Renaissance, Chicago Historical Society, Encyclopedia of Chicago, 2005, August 6, 2013, Continuing racial tensions and violence, such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, also occurred.BOOK, Steven, Essig,weblink Race Riots, Chicago Historical Society, Encyclopedia of Chicago, 2005, August 6, 2013, The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed. The 1920s saw gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O'Banion, Bugs Moran and Tony Accardo battle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition era.WEB, Gang (crime) â€“ History,weblink Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 2009, June 1, 2009, Chicago was the location of the infamous St. Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran.NEWS, O'Brien, John, The St. Valentine's Day Massacre,weblink April 12, 2013, Chicago Tribune, Chicago was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization. The organization, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights. It produced the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband.WEB, Timeline: Milestones in the American Gay Rights Movement,weblink PBS, WGBH Educational Foundation, April 12, 2013, The Great Depression brought unprecedented suffering to Chicago, in no small part due to the city's heavy reliance on heavy industry. Notably, industrial areas on the south side and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated; by 1933 over 50% of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were over 40%. The Republican political machine in Chicago was utterly destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat. From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax revolt, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts. Unemployed workers, relief recipients, and unpaid schoolteachers held huge demonstrations during the early years of the Great Depression. The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the same time, federal relief funding began to flow into Chicago and enabled the city to complete construction of Lake Shore Drive, landscape numerous parks, construct 30 new schools, and build a thoroughly modernized State Street Subway.WEB, Great Depression,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago History Museum, April 27, 2018, Chicago was also a hotbed of labor activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early depression to create solidarity for the poor and demand relief, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups. By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed. In the spring of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day massacre of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side.In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a failed assassination attempt on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition Worlds Fair.WEB,weblink Century of Progress World's Fair, 1933–1934 (University of Illinois at Chicago) : Home,, July 3, 2011, The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding.BOOK, Robert W. Rydell,weblink Century of Progress Exposition, Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, July 3, 2011,

1940 to 1979

When general prosperity returned in 1940, Chicago had an entrenched Democratic machine, a fully solvent city government, and a population that had enthusiastically shared mass culture and mass movements. Over one-third of the workers in Chicago's manufacturing sector were unionized. During World War II, the city of Chicago alone produced more steel than the United Kingdom every year from 1939 - 1945, and more than Nazi Germany from 1943 - 1945. The city's diversified industrial base made it second only to Detroit in the value—$24 billion—of war goods produced. Over 1,400 companies produced everything from field rations to parachutes to torpedoes, while new aircraft plants employed 100,000 in the construction of engines, aluminum sheeting, bombsights, and other components. The Great Migration, which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second wave, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and shipping yards.WEB, World War II,weblink Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago History Museum, April 27, 2018, On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world's first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945.WEB, CP-1 (Chicago Pile 1 Reactor),weblink Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, April 12, 2013, Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the land under O'Hare airport, including a small portion of DuPage County.By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many American cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt. While home loan discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, completely changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods.JOURNAL, Mehlhorn, Dmitri, A Requiem for Blockbusting: Law, Economics, and Race-Based Real Estate Speculation, Fordham Law Review, 67, 1145–1161, December 1998, Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and job outsourcing, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. At its peak during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the steel industry in Chicago, but the steel crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this number to just 28,000 in 2015. In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. and Albert Raby led the Chicago Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders.BOOK, Lentz, Richard, Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King, 1990, LSU Press, 0-8071-2524-5, 230, File:1968 Democratic National Convention, Chicago. Sept 68 C15 8 1313, Photo by Bea A Corson, Chicago. Purchased at estate sale in 2011 by Victor Grigas Released Public Domain.tiff|thumb|right|Protesters in Grant Park outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention1968 Democratic National ConventionTwo years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police.NEWS, Mailer, Norman, Brief History Of Chicago's 1968 Democratic Convention,weblink Facts on File, CQ's Guide to U.S. Elections, CNN, Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure.NEWS, Cillizza, Chris, The Fix – Hall of Fame – The Case for Richard J. Daley,weblink The Washington Post, September 23, 2009, In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected. She was notable for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green housing project and for leading Chicago's school system out of a financial crisis.NEWS, Dold, R. Bruce, Jane Byrne elected mayor of Chicago,weblink Chicago Tribune, February 27, 1979,

1980 to present

In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago. Washington's first term in office directed attention to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after.NEWS, Rivlin, Gary, The legend of Harold Washington,weblink April 12, 2013, Chicago Tribune, November 25, 2012, Larry Bennett, Washington was succeeded by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago City Council and served until a special election.Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development, as well as closing Meigs Field in the middle of the night and destroying the runways. After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh term.NEWS, Chicago and the Legacy of the Daley Dynasty,weblink Time (magazine), Time, April 12, 2013, September 9, 2010, NEWS, National Building Museum to honor Daley for greening of Chicago,weblink Chicago Tribune, April 12, 2013, April 8, 2009, In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River to a tunnel below, which was part of an abandoned freight tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop district. The tunnels filled with {{convert|250|e6USgal|m3|-6}} of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a shutdown of electrical power.NEWS, 1992 Loop Flood Brings Chaos, Billions In Losses, CBS2 Chicago,weblink April 14, 2007, January 11, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks; losses were estimated at $1.95 billion.On February 23, 2011, former Illinois Congressman and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel won the mayoral election.WEB,weblink News: Rahm Emanuel wins Chicago mayoral race, MSNBC, February 23, 2011, July 3, 2011, Emanuel was sworn in as mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015.WEB, Tareen, Sophia, Burnett, Sarah, Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel wins 2nd term in runoff victory,weblink Business Insider, 3 April 2019, 7 April 2015, Lori Lightfoot, the city's first African American woman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ Mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019.WEB, Bosman, Julie, Smith, Mitch, Davey, Monica, Lori Lightfoot Is Elected Chicago Mayor, Becoming First Black Woman to Lead City,weblink The New York Times, 3 April 2019, 2 April 2019, All three city-wide elective offices were held by women for the first time in Chicago history: in addition to Lightfoot, the City Clerk was Anna Valencia and City Treasurer, Melissa Conyears-Ervin.NEWS,weblink With Mayor Lori Lightfoot's inauguration, 3 women of color now hold top citywide offices: 'Chicago was ready for this', Perez, Jr., Juan, Chicago Tribune, 2019-05-21, MSN,


{{Wide image|Chicago from North Avenue Beach June 2015 panorama 2.jpg|1340px|Chicago skyline at dusk, from North Avenue Beach looking south|center|alt=}}


(File:Full chicago skyline.jpg|thumb|left|Downtown and the North Side with beaches lining the waterfront)Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois on the southwestern shores of freshwater Lake Michigan. It is the principal city in the Chicago metropolitan area, situated in both the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes region. The city rests on a continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. In addition to it lying beside Lake Michigan, two rivers—the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side—flow either entirely or partially through the city.{{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=5–6}}{{sfnp|Genzen|2007|pp=6–9}}Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region's waterborne cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake also provides another positive effect: moderating Chicago's climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.WEB, Angel, Jim, State Climatologist Office for Illinois,weblink Illinois State Water Survey, Prairie Research Institute, August 4, 2013, (File:Chicago by Sentinel-2.jpg|thumb|right|A satellite image of Chicago)When Chicago was founded in 1837, most of the early building was around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks.WEB,weblink Thompson's Plat of 1830, Chicago Historical Society, 2004, July 3, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2007, The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. The average land elevation is {{convert|579|ft|+1|abbr=on}} above sea level. While measurements vary somewhat,WEB,weblink The Elevation of Chicago: A Statistical Mystery, Chicago Public Library, en-US, 2018-11-22, the lowest points are along the lake shore at {{convert|578|ft|+1|abbr=on}}, while the highest point, at {{convert|672|ft|abbr=on}}, is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city's far south side.WEB, Chicago Facts,weblink Northeastern Illinois University, August 28, 2013, 46, dead,weblink November 10, 2013, While the Chicago Loop is the central business district, Chicago is also a city of neighborhoods. Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's waterfront. Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park, and Jackson Park. There are twenty-four public beaches across {{convert|26|mi|km|0}} of the waterfront.NEWS, Fulton, Jeff, Public Beaches in Chicago,weblink USA Today, August 28, 2013, Landfill extends into portions of the lake providing space for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and large portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront.An informal name for the entire Chicago metropolitan area is "Chicagoland", which generally means the city and all its suburbs. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, and eight nearby Illinois counties: Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana: Lake, Porter and LaPorte.NEWS,weblink Chicago Tribune Classifieds map of Chicagoland, Chicago Tribune, May 4, 2009, The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane, and Will counties.WEB, Chicagoland Region,weblink, Illinois Department of Tourism, August 14, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2011, The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties.WEB, Fast Facts About The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce,weblink Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2009, January 6, 2014,


{{See also|Community areas in Chicago|Neighborhoods in Chicago}}File:Chicago community areas map.svg|thumb|Community areas of the City of Chicago]]Major sections of the city include the central business district, called The Loop, and the North, South, and West Sides.WEB,weblink South Side,, August 1, 1971, June 10, 2013, The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal white stripes.WEB, Municipal Flag of Chicago,weblink Chicago Public Library, March 22, 2013, The North Side is the most-densely-populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront.NEWS, Lakeview (Chicago, Illinois),weblink Chicago Tribune, September 25, 2013, The South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the city's land area. The South Side contains most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago.WEB, CPS Teacher Housing: Chicago Communities,weblink Chicago Public Schools, March 22, 2013, In the late-1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas, which can further be subdivided into over 200 informally defined neighborhoods.WEB,weblink List of Chicago Neighborhoods – Chicago, StreetAdvisor, June 10, 2013, WEB, Chicago and its Neighborhoods,weblink articlecell, March 22, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2013, dead,


Chicago's streets were laid out in a street grid that grew from the city's original townsite plot, which was bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south.WEB,weblink Gulp! How Chicago Gobbled Its Neighbors, April 20, 2016, Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines later became arterial streets in outlying sections. As new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and sixteen in the other direction (about one street per 200 meters in one direction and one street per 100 meters in the other direction). The grid's regularity provided an efficient means of developing new real estate property. A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them originally Native American trails, also cross the city (Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, etc.). Many additional diagonal streets were recommended in the Plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was ever constructed.{{sfnp|Condit|1973|pp=31, 52–53}}In 2016, Chicago was ranked the sixth-most walkable large city in the United States.WEB,weblink Chicago neighborhoods on Walk Score,, Many of the city's residential streets have a wide patch of grass and/or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself. This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk further away from the street traffic. Chicago's Western Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world.BOOK, Rodolphe El-Khoury, Edward Robbins, Shaping the City: Studies in History, Theory and Urban Design,weblink May 9, 2013, June 19, 2004, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-26189-0, 60–, Other famous streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. The City Beautiful movement inspired Chicago's boulevards and parkways.BOOK, Russell, Lopez, 2012, Nineteenth-Century Reform Movements,weblink The 1893 Columbian Exhibition, Building American Public Health: Urban Planning, Architecture, & the Quest for Better Health in the United States, 41, 1137002433, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-09-19,


{{Further|Architecture of Chicago|List of tallest buildings in Chicago|List of Chicago Landmarks}}File:2010-03-03 1856x2784 chicago chicago building.jpg|thumb|upright|The Chicago Building (1904–05) is a prime example of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago window.]]The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation. In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago ushered in the skyscraper era,{{sfnp|Lowe|2000|pp=121, 129}} which would then be followed by many other cities around the world.WEB, The Home Insurance Building,weblink Chicago Architecture Info, September 23, 2014, Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest and densest.World's Tallest Cities. of the United States' tallest towers are located in Chicago; Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tallest in the country.WEB, U.S.A.'s tallest buildings – Top 20,weblink Emporis, September 14, 2013, The Loop's historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building, the Fine Arts Building, 35 East Wacker, and the Chicago Building, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments by Mies van der Rohe. Many other architects have left their impression on the Chicago skyline such as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan, Charles B. Atwood, John Root, and Helmut Jahn.BOOK, Bach, Ira J., Chicago's Famous Buildings, 1980, The University of Chicago Press, 0-226-03396-1, 79023365, 9, 41, 67–68, 97–98, {{sfnp|Lowe|2000|pp=118–127}}The Merchandise Mart, once first on the list of largest buildings in the world, currently listed as 44th-largest ({{as of|2013|September|9|lc=y}}), had its own zip code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River.BOOK, Pridmore, Jay, The Merchandise Mart, 2003, Pomegranate Communications, 0-7649-2497-4, 2003051164, Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower, also a building with its own zip code), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center. Industrial districts, such as some areas on the South Side, the areas along the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Northwest Indiana area are clustered.{{sfnp|Bach|1980|pp=70, 99–100, 146–147}}Chicago gave its name to the Chicago School and was home to the Prairie School, two movements in architecture.BOOK, The Chicago School of Architecture, Condit, Carl W., University of Chicago Press, 1998, 0226114554, Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago. Large swaths of the city's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II. Chicago is also a prominent center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. The Chicago suburb of Oak Park was home to famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who had designed The Robie House located near the University of Chicago.BOOK, Hoffmann, Donald, Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House: The Illustrated Story of an Architectural Masterpiece, 1984, Dover Publications, New York, 0-486-24582-9, 19–25, WEB, Frederick C. Robie House,weblink Frank Lloyd Wright Trust, September 23, 2014, A popular tourist activity is to take an architecture boat tour along the Chicago River.WEB,weblink Chicago Architecture Foundation River Cruise Aboard Chicago's First Lady Cruises, Chicago Architecture Foundation - CAF, en, May 29, 2018,

Monuments and public art

File:2004-08-08 1580x2800 chicago republic.jpg|upright|thumb|Replica of Daniel Chester French's Statue of the Republic at the site of the World's Columbian ExpositionWorld's Columbian ExpositionChicago is famous for its outdoor public art with donors establishing funding for such art as far back as Benjamin Ferguson's 1905 trust.WEB,weblink The Public Art Scene You're Missing in Chicago, October 1, 2013, Conde Nast Traveler, November 18, 2013, A number of Chicago's public art works are by modern figurative artists. Among these are Chagall's Four Seasons; the Chicago Picasso; Miro's Chicago; Calder's Flamingo; Oldenburg's Batcolumn; Moore's Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy; Dubuffet's Monument with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz's Agora; and, Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate which has become an icon of the city. Some events which shaped the city's history have also been memorialized by art works, including the Great Northern Migration (Saar) and the centennial of statehood for Illinois. Finally, two fountains near the Loop also function as monumental works of art: Plensa's Crown Fountain as well as Burnham and Bennett's Buckingham Fountain.More representational and portrait statuary includes a number of works by Lorado Taft (Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument completed by Crunelle), French's Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys's Lions, Saint-Gaudens's (Abraham Lincoln: The Man) (a.k.a. Standing Lincoln) and (Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State) (a.k.a. Seated Lincoln), Brioschi's Christopher Columbus, Meštrović's The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin's Signal of Peace, Fairbanks's The Chicago Lincoln, Boyle's The Alarm, Polasek's memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney's Moose (W-02-03). A number of statues also honor recent local heroes such as Michael Jordan (by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center; Harry Caray (by Amrany and Cella) outside Wrigley field, Jack Brickhouse (by McKenna) next to the WGN studios, and Irv Kupcinet at the Wabash Avenue Bridge.WEB,weblink Columnist Irv Kupcinet remembered with statue dedication, Philip, Potempa, August 2, 2006, Northwest Indiana Times, November 18, 2013, There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski's Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsaw's Royal Baths along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frédéric Chopin's birth.WEB,weblink ?,


{{climate chart| Chicago, Illinois31.5|2.0635.8|1.9446.8|2.7259.2|3.6470.2|4.1380|4.0685.0|4.0183.1|3.9975.3|3.3162.8|3.2448.6|3.4235.3|2.57|units = imperial|float = right|clear = both }}The city lies within the hot-summer humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa), and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with frequent heat waves. The July daily average is {{convert|75.9|°F|1}} with temperatures peaking at {{convert|85.0|°F|1}}. In a normal summer, temperatures can reach anywhere between {{convert|90|–|100|°F|°C|0}} on as many as 23 days, with Lakefront locations staying cooler when winds blow off the Lake. Winters are cold and snowy, although the city typically sees less snow and rain in winter than that experienced on the East Coast; blizzards do occur, as in 2011.Photos: The blizzard of 2011 Chicago Tribune There are many sunny but cold days in winter. The normal winter high from December through March is about {{convert|36|°F|0}}, with January and February being the coldest months; January 2019's polar vortex nearly broke the city's cold record of minus 27 degrees, which was set on January 20, 1985.Extreme cold in Midwest will finally begin to ease grasp CNN, Holly Yan and Madeline Holcombe, January 31, 2019At 23 below, Wednesday marked Chicago's 4th coldest temperature recorded Chicago Tribune, Jonathon Berlin and Kori Rumore, 1/31/2019University of Iowa student dies during polar vortex; 7 other deaths linked to wintry blast Fox News, Stephen Sorace, 1/31/2019 Spring and autumn are mild, short seasons, typically with low humidity. Dew point temperatures in the summer range from an average of {{convert|55.7|°F|1}} in June to {{convert|61.7|°F|1}} in July, but can reach nearly {{convert|80|°F}}, such as during the July 2019 heat wave. The city lies within USDA plant hardiness zone 6a, transitioning to 5b in the suburbs.WEB
, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
, USDA/Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University
, June 16, 2014
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, February 27, 2014
, mdy-all
File:Steam Rising from Chicago River.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Downtown Chicago and the Chicago River in January 2014 ]]According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of {{convert|105|F|abbr=on}} was recorded on July 24, 1934,Chicago's Official Records. National Weather Service. Retrieved November 25, 2012. although Midway Airport reached {{convert|109|°F|abbr=on}} one day prior and recorded a heat index of {{convert|125|°F|°C}} during the 1995 heatwave. The lowest official temperature of {{convert|-27|°F|0}} was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport. Most of the city's rainfall is brought by thunderstorms, averaging 38 a year. The region is also prone to severe thunderstorms during the spring and summer which can produce large hail, damaging winds, and occasionally tornadoes.WEB, A Study of Chicago's Significant Tornadoes,weblink National Weather Service, NOAA, May 10, 2013, Like other major cities, Chicago experiences an urban heat island, making the city and its suburbs milder than surrounding rural areas, especially at night and in winter. The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront somewhat cooler in summer and less brutally cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake.WEB,weblink Heat Island Effect, April 20, 2016, Northeast winds from wintertime cyclones departing south of the region sometimes bring the city lake-effect snow.WEB,weblink Ask Tom: Does Chicago Get Lake-Effect Snow?, January 6, 2018, {{Chicago weatherbox}}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Chicago!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Mean daily daylight hours10.!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas WEB,weblink Chicago, Illinois, USA – Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, 7 February 2019,

Time zone

As in the rest of the state of Illinois, Chicago forms part of the Central Time Zone. The border with the Eastern Time Zone is located a short distance to the east, used in Michigan and certain parts of Indiana.


{{US Census population|1840= 4470|1850= 29963|1860= 112172|1870= 298977|1880= 503185|1890= 1099850|1900= 1698575|1910= 2185283|1920= 2701705|1930= 3376438|1940= 3396808|1950= 3620962|1960= 3550404|1970= 3366957|1980= 3005072|1990= 2783726|2000= 2896016|2010= 2695598|estyear=2018|estimate=2705994U.S. Decennial CensusHTTPS://FACTFINDER.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?PID=PEP_2011_PEPANNRESFIRST=U. S. CENSUSDATE=ACCESS-DATE=APRIL 23, 2019, }}During its first hundred years, Chicago was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier. By the time of its first census, seven years later, the population had reached over 4,000. In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million. At the end of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world,WEB,weblink Top 10 Cities of the Year 1900,, May 4, 2009, and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century. Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million,WEB
,weblink" title="">weblink
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, December 11, 2012
, Chicago Growth 1850–1990: Maps by Dennis McClendon
, August 19, 2007
, University Illinois Chicago
and reached its highest ever recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census.
From the last two decades of the 19th century, Chicago was the destination of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs.Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919–1939. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1990; pp. 33–34. To these ethnic groups, the basis of the city's industrial working class, were added an additional influx of African Americans from the American South—with Chicago's black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930.In the 1920s and 1930s, the great majority of African Americans moving to Chicago settled in a so‑called "Black Belt" on the city's South Side. A large number of blacks also settled on the West Side. By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago's black population lived in sections of the city which were 90% black in racial composition. Chicago's South Side emerged as United States second-largest urban black concentration, following New York's Harlem. Today, Chicago's South Side and the adjoining south suburbs constitute the largest black majority region in the entire United States.Chicago's population declined in the latter half of the 20th century, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010. By the time of the official census count in 1990, it was overtaken by Los Angeles as the United States' second largest city.WEB,weblink It's official: Los Angeles ousts Chicago as No. 2 city, Marshall Ingwerson, April 13, 1984, January 28, 2017, The city has seen a rise in population for the 2000 census and is expected to have an increase for the 2020 census.WEB,weblink Archived copy, September 1, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 29, 2014, mdy-all, Per U.S. Census estimates {{as of|2016|July|lc=y}}, Chicago's largest racial or ethnic group is non-Hispanic White at 32.6% of the population, with the Hispanic population increasing to 29.7% of the population and Blacks declining to 29.3% of the populationWEB, COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATES 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Chicago, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink September 20, 2017, Chicago Sun Times: "Census: Hispanics surpass blacks as Chicago’s 2nd-largest racial group" by Mitchell Armentrout {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 29, 2017 }} September 14, 2017CBS News: "Hispanic Population Surges In Chicago, New Census Data Shows" By Jeremy Ross September 15, 2017 from 32.9% in 2010.WEB, Illinois – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink April 22, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2012, {|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2010WEB,weblink Chicago (city), Illinois, State & County QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 31, 2014, !! 1990 !! 1970 !! 1940White American>White 44.9% 45.4% 65.6% 91.7%|91.2%African American>Black or African American 32.9% 39.1% 32.7% 8.2%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.9% 19.6% 7.4% 0.5%Asian American>Asian 5.5% 3.7% 0.9% 0.1%(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Chicago (5560488484).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in Chicago, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow))As of the 2010 census,American Community Survey: Chicago city {{webarchive |url= |date=May 20, 2011 }}. Retrieved March 6, 2011. there were 2,695,598 people with 1,045,560 households living in Chicago. More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. Chicago is one of the United States' most densely populated major cities, and the largest city in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The racial composition of the city was: Chicago has a Hispanic or Latino population of 28.9%. (Its members may belong to any race; 21.4% Mexican, 3.8% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Guatemalan, 0.6% Ecuadorian, 0.3% Cuban, 0.3% Colombian, 0.2% Honduran, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Peruvian).WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS), April 20, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 20, 2011, Chicago has the third-largest LGBT population in the United States. In 2015, roughly 4% of the population identified as LGBT.WEB,weblink San Francisco Metro Area Ranks Highest in LGBT Percentage, Gallup, Inc.,, NEWS,weblink The Metro Areas With the Largest, and Smallest, Gay Populations, March 21, 2015, The New York Times, Since the 2013 legalization of same-sex marriage in Illinois, over 10,000 same-sex couples have wed in Cook County, a majority in Chicago.WEB,weblink Same-sex marriage licenses could hit 10,000 in Cook County this summer, April 18, 2016, Chicago Tribune, Leonor Vivanco, WEB, Shields, Nick, 10,000th same-sex couple issued marriage license in Cook County,weblink Cook County Clerk, January 6, 2017, Press release, August 31, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 13, 2016, Chicago became a "de jure" sanctuary city in 2012 when Mayor Rahm Emanuel and the City Council passed the Welcoming City Ordinance.Chicago code Welcoming City Ordinance Chapter 2-173 {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 10, 2018 }}, (January 25, 2017).Welcoming City Ordinance Chapter 2-173 Welcoming City Ordinance, City of Chicago (January 25, 2017).According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey data estimates for 2008–2012, the median income for a household in the city was $47,408, and the median income for a family was $54,188. Male full-time workers had a median income of $47,074 versus $42,063 for females. About 18.3% of families and 22.1% of the population lived below the poverty line.WEB,weblink Selected Economic Characteristics: 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Chicago city, Illinois, U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder, October 1, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 14, 2014, mdy-all, In 2018, Chicago ranked 7th globally for the highest number of ultra-high-net-worth residents with roughly 3,300 residents worth more than $30 million.WEB, These are the cities with the most ultra-rich people,weblink Crain's Chicago Business, September 10, 2018, en, According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago were:WEB,weblink Community Facts: First Ancestry Reported, Chicago city, Illinois, 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder, October 1, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2014, mdy-all, {{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}Persons identifying themselves as "Other groups" were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000.


71% identify as Christians (almost half of whom—35%—identify as Catholic),Politics and City Life, "Who's Staying, Who's Going," 12/15/14. 7% identity with other faiths, and 22% have no religious affiliation.Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research CenterWEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, May 12, 2015, Chicago has many Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, and others. Chicago is the headquarters of several religious denominations, including the Evangelical Covenant Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It is the seat of several dioceses. The Fourth Presbyterian Church is one of the largest Presbyterian congregations in the United States based on memberships.WEB,weblink Table 6 Fifteen Largest PC(USA) Congregations Based on Membership Size, 2014, Research Services, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), PDF, January 8, 2017, The first two Parliament of the World's Religions in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago.NEWS, Avant, Gerry, Parliament of World's Religions,weblink September 11, 1993, Many international religious leaders have visited Chicago, including Mother Teresa, the Dalai LamaBOOK, Greg, Watts, Mother Teresa: Faith in the Darkness,weblink 2009, Lion Books, 978-0-7459-5283-3, 67–, and Pope John Paul II in 1979.NEWS, Davis, Robert, Pope John Paul II in Chicago,weblink September 27, 2013, Chicago Tribune, October 5, 1979, {{clear}}


{{See also|List of companies in the Chicago metropolitan area}}File:Federal-reserve-bank-of-chicago.JPG|thumb|left|Federal Reserve Bank of ChicagoFederal Reserve Bank of ChicagoChicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates.WEB,weblink Gross Domestic Product by Metropolitan Area, 2016first=website=bea.govURL-STATUS=DEAD TITLE=MOODY'S: CHICAGO'S ECONOMY MOST BALANCED IN US (JANUARY 23, 2003) World Business Chicago. In 2007, Chicago was named the fourth-most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index."London named world's top business center by MasterCard", CNN, June 13, 2007. Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for calendar year 2014.HTTP://WWW.SITESELECTION.COM/ISSUES/2015/MAR/TOP-METROS.CFMFIRST=PATTYPUBLISHER=SITESELECTION.COMWORK=THE WASHINGTON POST ACCESSDATE=APRIL 17, 2010, In 2009 Chicago placed ninth on the UBS AG list of the world's richest cities.HTTP://WWW.CITYMAYORS.COM/ECONOMICS/USB-PURCHASING-POWER.HTML PUBLISHER=CITY MAYORS John Crerar (industrialist)>John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry.File:Chicago Board Of Trade Building.jpg|upright|thumb|The Chicago Board of Trade BuildingChicago Board of Trade BuildingChicago is a major world financial center, with the second-largest central business district in the United States.WEB,weblink North America's largest downtown business districts by office space, according to Colliers (compare, places) – City vs. City – Page 26 – City-Data Forum,, September 26, 2016, The city is the seat of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the Bank's Seventh District. The city has major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) by Chicago's CME Group. In 2017, Chicago exchanges traded 4.7 billion derivatives with a face value of over one quadrillion dollars. Chase Bank has its commercial and retail banking headquarters in Chicago's Chase Tower.WEB,weblink JPMorgan History | The History of Our Firm,, November 6, 2010, Academically, Chicago has been influential through the Chicago school of economics, which fielded some 12 Nobel Prize winners.The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest labor pool in the United States with about 4.63 million workers.WEB, Chicago Area Employment — February 2018,weblink, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 3, 2018, Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago.NEWS,weblink FORTUNE 500 2007: States – Illinois, September 13, 2007,, The city of Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims three Dow 30 companies: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001,WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2008, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC Loughborough University, April 29, 2009, McDonald's and Walgreens Boots Alliance.WEB, Dow 30 Companies - CNNMoney,weblink, 21 July 2019, For six consecutive years since 2013, Chicago was ranked the nation's top metropolitan area for corporate relocations.WEB, Chicago Named Nation's Top Metro Area for Corporate Relocation For the Sixth Straight Year,weblink World Business Chicago, 21 July 2019, 25 March 2019, Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Boeing, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare division of General Electric. In addition to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago in 2001, and United Airlines in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp North America, and agriculture giant Archer Daniels Midland. Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Although the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center. Lured by a combination of large business customers, federal research dollars, and a large hiring pool fed by the area's universities, Chicago is also the site of a growing number of web startup companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, Basecamp, Groupon, Feedburner, Grubhub and NowSecure.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, February 22, 2010, Why You Should Start a Company in ... Chicago,, February 19, 2010, November 16, 2010, Prominent food companies based in Chicago include the world headquarters of Conagra, Ferrara Candy Company, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Quaker Oats, and US Foods.Chicago has been a hub of the Retail sector since its early development, with Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Marshall Field's. Today the Chicago metropolitan area is the headquarters of several retailers, including Walgreens, Sears, Ace Hardware, Claire's, ULTA Beauty and Crate & Barrel.Late in the 19th century, Chicago was part of the bicycle craze, with the Western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs,{{harvnb|Norcliffe|2001|p=107}} while early in the 20th century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the Brass Era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907.{{harvnb|Clymer|1950|p=178}} Chicago was also the site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company.Chicago is a major world convention destination. The city's main convention center is McCormick Place. With its four interconnected buildings, it is the largest convention center in the nation and third-largest in the world.WEB,weblink Retrieved January 26, 2010,, September 26, 1987, April 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2010, Chicago also ranks third in the U.S. (behind Las Vegas and Orlando) in number of conventions hosted annually.NEWS, Carpenter, Dave, Las Vegas rules convention world,weblink USA Today, Associated Press, April 26, 2006, January 6, 2014, Chicago's minimum wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the nation and will incrementally reach $13 per hour by 2019.WEB,weblink City of Chicago :: City of Chicago Minimum Wage,,

Culture and contemporary life

{{Further|Culture of Chicago|List of people from Chicago|List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago}}File:New National Hellenic Museum during the day.jpg|thumb|The National Hellenic Museum in Greektown is one of several ethnic museums comprising the Chicago Cultural AllianceChicago Cultural AllianceThe city's waterfront location and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over a third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the south.WEB, Chicago Demographics,weblink City of Chicago, August 21, 2013, The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These districts include the Mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park neighborhood; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown;WEB, Zeldes, Leah A., Opaa! Chicago Taste of Greece flies this weekend, Dining Chicago, Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc., August 27, 2009,weblink September 14, 2013, Little Italy, along Taylor Street; Chinatown in Armour Square; Polish Patches in West Town; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge.WEB, Ethnic Dining in Chicago,weblink Frommers, September 14, 2013, Downtown is the center of Chicago's financial, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the site of Grant Park and many of the city's skyscrapers. Many of the city's financial institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called "The Loop", which is an eight-block by five-block area of city streets that is encircled by elevated rail tracks. The term "The Loop" is largely used by locals to refer to the entire downtown area as well. The central area includes the Near North Side, the Near South Side, and the Near West Side, as well as the Loop. These areas contribute famous skyscrapers, abundant restaurants, shopping, museums, a stadium for the Chicago Bears, convention facilities, parkland, and beaches.(File:ChicagoJazzClubAndys.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A Chicago jazz club)Lincoln Park contains the Lincoln Park Zoo and the Lincoln Park Conservatory. The River North Gallery District features the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of New York City.Lakeview is home to Boystown, the city's large LGBT nightlife center. The Chicago Pride Parade, held the last Sunday in June, is one of the world's largest with over a million people in attendance.WEB,weblink How Chicago’s Pride Parade Grew from a Small March to a Big Event, 2019-06-28, WTTW Chicago, en-US, 2019-10-09, N Halsted St would be considered the epicenter of Boystown.NEWS, Peregrin, Tony, Instagreeter Program Launches in Boystown,weblink 1 April 2019, Chicago Tribune, 25 April 2012, (File:Greetings From Chicago Mural.jpg|thumb|Greetings from Chicago Mural in Logan Square)The South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park is the home of former US President Barack Obama. It also contains the University of Chicago, ranked one of the world's top ten universities,WEB, The World University Rankings,weblink Times Higher Education, September 2, 2013, and the Museum of Science and Industry. The {{convert|6|mi|adj=on}} long Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Two of the city's largest parks are also located on this side of the city: Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, and is the site of the aforementioned museum; and slightly west sits Washington Park. The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of parkland called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago. The South Side hosts one of the city's largest parades, the annual African American Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, which travels through Bronzeville to Washington Park. Ford Motor Company has an automobile assembly plant on the South Side in Hegewisch, and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago are also on the South Side.The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city. Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park's Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People's Parade, as well as the National Museum of Mexican Art and St. Adalbert's Church in Pilsen. The Near West Side holds the University of Illinois at Chicago and was once home to Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Studios, the site of which has been rebuilt as the global headquarters of McDonald's.The city's distinctive accent, made famous by its use in classic films like The Blues Brothers and television programs like the Saturday Night Live skit "Bill Swerski's Superfans", is an advanced form of Inland Northern American English. This dialect can also be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short 'a' sound as in "cat", which can sound more like "kyet" to outsiders. The accent remains well associated with the city.Gordon, Matthew J. (2004). "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology". Kortmann, Bernd, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar W. Schneider and Clive Upton (eds). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Volume 1: Phonology, Volume 2: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 297.

Entertainment and the arts {{anchor|Entertainment, the arts, and performing arts}}

{{See also|Theater in Chicago|Visual arts of Chicago|Music of Chicago}}File:Chicago Theatre blend.jpg|thumb|The Chicago TheatreChicago TheatreFile:Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago, Illinois, Estados Unidos, 2012-10-20, DD 09.jpg|thumb|Jay Pritzker PavilionJay Pritzker PavilionFile:Gateway Theatre (Chicago).jpg|thumb|upright|The spire of the Gateway Theatre is modeled on the Royal Castle in WarsawRoyal Castle in WarsawRenowned Chicago theater companies include the Goodman Theatre in the Loop; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Victory Gardens Theater in Lincoln Park; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater at Navy Pier. Broadway In Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters: the Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre, Bank of America Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place. Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago area. Chicago's theater community spawned modern improvisational theater, and includes the prominent groups The Second City and I.O. (formerly ImprovOlympic).The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) performs at Symphony Center, and is recognized as one of the best orchestras in the world.WEB,weblink Chicago Symphony Tops U.S. Orchestras, Tom, Huizenga, NPR, November 21, 2008, December 31, 2008, Also performing regularly at Symphony Center is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more diverse and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Ravinia Festival, located {{convert|25|mi|km|0}} north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. The Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by Lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956,WEB
, About the Lithuanian Opera Company, Inc. in Chicago
, September 14, 2006
, Lithuanian Opera Co.
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, December 21, 2005
, mdy-all
, and presents operas in Lithuanian.The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago has several other contemporary and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Chicago Dance Crash.Other live-music genre which are part of the city's cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. The city is the birthplace of house music (a popular form of electronic dance music) and industrial music, and is the site of an influential hip hop scene. In the 1980s and 90s, the city was the global center for house and industrial music, two forms of music created in Chicago, as well as being popular for alternative rock, punk, and new wave. The city has been an epicenter for rave culture, since the 1980s. A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie. Annual festivals feature various acts, such as Lollapalooza and the Pitchfork Music Festival. A 2007 report on the Chicago music industry by the University of Chicago Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago third among metropolitan U.S. areas in "size of music industry" and fourth among all U.S. cities in "number of concerts and performances".WEB,weblink Chicago Music City: A Summary Report on the Music Industry in Chicago, Lawrence Rothfield, Don Coursey, Sarah Lee, Daniel Silver, Wendy Norri, The Cultural Policy Center at the University of Chicago, November 21, 2007, November 8, 2012, Chicago has a distinctive fine art tradition. For much of the twentieth century, it nurtured a strong style of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Henry Darger is one of the most celebrated figures of outsider art.Chicago contains a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall.Chicago also has a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually. The McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade is seen across the nation on WGN-TV and WGN America, featuring a variety of diverse acts from the community, marching bands from across the country, and is the only parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every year.WEB, Wulf, Lauren, Best Free Thanksgiving Events In Chicago,weblink WBBM-TV, CBS Chicago, September 2, 2013,


(File:Chicago River ferry.jpg|thumb|Ferries offer sightseeing tours and water-taxi transportation along the Chicago River and Lake Michigan.)File:Michigan Avenue - Chicago.jpg|thumb|The Magnificent Mile hosts numerous upscale stores, as well as landmarks like the Chicago Water TowerChicago Water Tower(File:Navy Pier 1190x1585.jpg|thumb|upright|Aerial View of Navy Pier at Night){{As of|2014|alt=In 2014}}, Chicago attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million overseas visitors.WEB, 2014 Chicago Tourism Profile,weblink Choose Chicago, 2015, June 10, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2016, These visitors contributed more than {{US$|13.7}} billion to Chicago's economy. Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination. A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Chicago the sixth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.WEB,weblink 2017 City and Neighborhood Rankings, 2017, Walk Score, August 10, 2019, Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just south of Soldier Field. The historic Chicago Cultural Center (1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries and exhibit halls. The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a {{convert|38|ft|adj=on}} Tiffany glass dome. Grant Park holds Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain (1927), and the Art Institute of Chicago. The park also hosts the annual Taste of Chicago festival. In Millennium Park, the reflective Cloud Gate public sculpture by artist Anish Kapoor is the centerpiece of the AT&T Plaza in Millennium Park. Also, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter season. Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, along with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry's detailed, stainless steel band shell, the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Behind the pavilion's stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque.Navy Pier, located just east of Streeterville, is {{convert|3000|ft|abbr=on}} long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed a DW60 Ferris wheel. Dutch Wheels, a world renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel.WEB,weblink Ferris Wheel 2016 {{!, Navy Pier|website=Navy Pier|language=en-US|access-date=April 22, 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=April 1, 2016|url-status=dead}} It features 42 navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two kids. It also has entertainment systems inside the gondolas as well as a climate controlled environment. The DW60 stands at approximately {{convert|196|ft|m|abbr=on}}, which is 46 ft taller than the previous wheel. The new DW60 is the first in the United States and is the sixth tallest in the U.S.WEB,weblink 13 Things You Didn't Know About Navy Pier's New Ferris Wheel,weblink July 1, 2017, dead, Chicago was the first city in the world to ever erect a ferris wheel.On June 4, 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a {{convert|10|acre|abbr=on|adj=on}} lakefront park, surrounding three of the city's main museums, each of which is of national importance: the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Park, which includes the renowned Art Institute of Chicago. Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. The University of Chicago Oriental Institute has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. Other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of African American History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry.With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 14, 2015, The Obama Presidential Center,, The Willis Tower (formerly named Sears Tower) is a popular destination for tourists. The Willis Tower has an observation deck open to tourists year round with high up views overlooking Chicago and Lake Michigan. The observation deck includes an enclosed glass balcony that extends 10 feet out on the side of the building. Tourists are able to look straight down.In 2013, Chicago was chosen as one of the "Top Ten Cities in the United States" to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler.WEB, Destination Awards and Accolades,weblink Choose Chicago, December 4, 2013, NEWS, Top Ten Cities in the United States: Readers' Choice Awards,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 18, 2013, December 4, 2013, Condé Nast Traveler,


{{See also|Culture of Chicago#Food and drink|Chicago farmers' markets}}File:Giordanos stuffed pizza.jpg|thumb|Chicago-style stuffed pizzaChicago-style stuffed pizzaFile:Polish Market in Chicago.jpeg|thumb|A Polish market in Chicago]]Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno.WEB, Bendersky, Ari, Chicago's Deep Dish History: It All Started With Uno's,weblink, April 27, 2013, The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city.WEB, Fischer, MD, Stuart J., Chicago: Landmarks, Pizza, Politics, and Jazz,weblink American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, April 27, 2013, Most famous for its pizza in Chicago include favorites, such as Lou Malnati's and Giordano's.The Chicago-style hot dog, typically an all-beef hot dog, is loaded with an array of toppings that often includes pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, April 15, 2003, Classic Chicago Hot Dog, 1999, September 3, 2007, Emril Lagasse, Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style hot dog frown upon the use of ketchup as a garnish, but may prefer to add giardiniera.WEB,weblink Recipe Detail: Chicago Style Hot Dog, dead,weblink August 15, 2008, BOOK, The Slow Food guide to Chicago: Restaurants, markets, bars, Gibson, Kelly, Portia Belloc Lowndes, 2008, Chelsea Green Publishing, 978-1-931498-61-6, 384,weblink no self-respecting Chicagoan would think of using ketchup as a condiment ..., February 18, 2010, BOOK, Fodor's Chicago 2010, Fodor's, 2009, Fodor's, 978-1-4000-0860-5, 352,weblink Make sure to never add ketchup to your Chicago-style hot dog: a major no-no among hot dog aficionados., February 18, 2010, A distinctly Chicago sandwich, the Italian beef sandwich is thinly sliced beef simmered in au jus and served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera. A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage. The Maxwell Street Polish is a grilled or deep-fried kielbasa—on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard, and hot sport peppers.WEB, Zeldes, Leah A., City of the big sandwiches: Four uncommon Chicago meals on a bun, Dining Chicago, Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc., January 22, 2010,weblink June 16, 2010, Chicken Vesuvio is roasted bone-in chicken cooked in oil and garlic next to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a sprinkling of green peas. The Puerto Rican-influenced jibarito is a sandwich made with flattened, fried green plantains instead of bread. The mother-in-law is a tamale topped with chili and served on a hot dog bun.WEB, Sula, Mike,weblink Omnivorous: On the Trail of the Delta Tamale, Chicago Reader, July 3, 2011, The tradition of serving the Greek dish saganaki while aflame has its origins in Chicago's Greek community.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 8, 2002, History, The Parthenon, May 30, 2011, The appetizer, which consists of a square of fried cheese, is doused with Metaxa and flambéed table-side.NEWS, Leah A, Zeldes, How to Eat Like a Chicagoan,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink October 1, 2002, Chicago's Restaurant Guide, September 30, 2002, September 30, 2002, One the world's most decorated restaurants and a recipient of three Michelin stars, Alinea is located in Chicago. Well-known chefs who have had restaurants in Chicago include: Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country's "most exceptional dining destination".WEB, Robb Report Editors Name Chicago As Country's Finest Dining Destination,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, January 7, 2014, Robb Report,


{{Further|Chicago literature}}File:Carl Sandburg NYWTS.jpg|thumb|upright|Carl SandburgCarl SandburgChicago literature finds its roots in the city's tradition of lucid, direct journalism, lending to a strong tradition of social realism. In the Encyclopedia of Chicago, Northwestern University Professor Bill Savage describes Chicago fiction as prose which tries to "capture the essence of the city, its spaces and its people". The challenge for early writers was that Chicago was a frontier outpost that transformed into a global metropolis in the span of two generations. Narrative fiction of that time, much of it in the style of "high-flown romance" and "genteel realism", needed a new approach to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago.WEB,weblink Fiction,, Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary tradition that would stand the test of time,WEB,weblink Literary Cultures,, and create a "city of feeling" out of concrete, steel, vast lake, and open prairie.WEB,weblink Literary Images of Chicago,, Much notable Chicago fiction focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in check.At least three short periods in the history of Chicago have had a lasting influence on American literature.WEB,weblink Chicago Literary Renaissance,, These include from the time of the Great Chicago Fire to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the period of the Great Depression through the 1940s.What would become the influential Poetry magazine was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who was working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. The magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, and John Ashbery.Goodyear, Dana, "The Moneyed Muse: What can two hundred million dollars do for poetry?", article, The New Yorker, February 19 and 26 double issue, 2007 T. S. Eliot's first professionally published poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", was first published by Poetry. Contributors have included Ezra Pound, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, and Carl Sandburg, among others. The magazine was instrumental in launching the Imagist and Objectivist poetic movements. From the 1950s through 1970s, American poetry continued to evolve in Chicago.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the New York School Poets, Diggory, Terence, April 22, 2015, Infobase Learning, 9781438140667, en, In the 1980s, a modern form of poetry performance began in Chicago, the Poetry Slam.BOOK,weblink Hearts and Hands: Creating Community in Violent Times, Rodriguez, Luis, January 4, 2011, Seven Stories Press, 9781609800574, en,


{{multiple image|align = right|direction = vertical|width = 225|image1 = Soldier field 2006.jpg|width1 =|alt1 =|caption1 =|image2 = Wrigley field 720.jpg|width2 =|alt2 =|caption2 =|header =|header_align = |header_background =|footer = Top: Soldier Field; Bottom: Wrigley Field|footer_align = |footer_background =|background color =}}Sporting News named Chicago the "Best Sports City" in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010.NEWS,weblink Sweet home Chicago: Best Sports City 2010, Sporting News, October 2010, December 1, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, Along with Boston, Chicago is the only city to continuously host major professional sports since 1871, having only taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago Fire. Additionally, Chicago is one of the six cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with New York and Los Angeles, is one of three cities to have won soccer championships as well. Several major franchises have won championships within recent years â€“ the Bears (1985), the Bulls (1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998), the White Sox (2005), the Cubs (2016), the Blackhawks (2010, 2013, 2015), and the Fire (1998). Chicago has the third most franchises in the four major North American sports leagues with five, behind the New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas, and have six top-level professional sports clubs if the Major League Soccer (MLS) Chicago Fire Soccer Club, who play in nearby Bridgeview, are included.The city has two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 (New York hosted only one between 1958 and early 1962). The two teams have faced each other in a World Series only once: in 1906, when the White Sox, known as the "Hitless Wonders," defeated the Cubs, 4-2.The Cubs are the oldest Major League Baseball team to have never changed their city;BOOK, Santo, Ron, Ron Santo, Pepe, Phil, Phil Pepe, April 1, 2005, Few and Chosen Cubs: Defining Cubs Greatness Across the Eras, Few and Chosen, Chicago, Illinois, Triumph Books, Preface by Phil Pepe, xxi, 978-1-57243-710-4,weblink they have played in Chicago since 1871, and continuously so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago Fire. They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876.WEB,weblink MLB Teams and Baseball Encyclopedia -,, April 20, 2016, They have won three World Series titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the dubious honor of having the two longest droughts in American professional sports: They had not won their sport's title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series.The White Sox have played on the South Side continuously since 1901, with all three of their home fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another. They have won three World Series titles (1906, 1917, 2005) and six American League pennants, including the first in 1901. The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants.The Chicago Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League (NFL), have won nine NFL Championships, including the 1985 Super Bowl XX. The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, also started out in the city, but is now known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team,WEB,weblink Team Encyclopedias and Records {{!,||access-date=October 8, 2016}} and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field. Soldier Field re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation.{{multiple image|align = right|direction = vertical|width = 225|image1 = United Center 060716.jpg|width1 =|alt1 =|caption1 =|image2 = US Cellular.jpg|width2 =|alt2 =|caption2 =|header =|header_align = |header_background =|footer = Top: United Center; Bottom: Guaranteed Rate Field|footer_align = |footer_background =|background color =}}The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world.NEWS, Cahill, Dan, December 22, 2015, Bulls are second-most popular U.S. team on Facebook,weblink Chicago Sun-Times, Sun-Times Media Group, December 21, 2016, During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons.WEB, Martin, Clare, The Bulls Dynasty,weblink NBA, November 10, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2013, dead, BOOK, Markovits, Andrei S., Andrei Markovits, Gaming the World: How Sports Are Reshaping Global Politics and Culture, 2010, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 978-0-691-13751-3, 89,weblink Rensmann, Lars, They also boast the youngest player to win the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, Derrick Rose, who won it for the 2010–11 season.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 5, 2011, Chicago's Derrick Rose Wins 2010–11 Kia NBA MVP Award,, May 3, 2011, The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL) began play in 1926, and are one of the "Original Six" teams of the NHL. The Blackhawks have won six Stanley Cups, including in 2010, 2013, and 2015. Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play at the United Center.{|class="wikitable sortable"|+ Major league professional teams in Chicago (ranked by attendance)!scope="col" |Club!scope="col" |League!scope="col" |Sport!scope="col" |Venue!scope="col" |Attendance!scope="col" |Founded!scope="col" |Championships!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago BearsNFLAmerican football>Football|Soldier Field61,1421919NFL Championships>Championships (1 Super Bowl)!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago CubsMLB|Baseball|Wrigley Field41,6491870|3 World Series!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago BlackhawksNHL|Ice hockey|United Center21,6531926|6 Stanley Cups!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago BullsNBA|Basketball|United Center20,7761966|6 NBA Championships!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago White SoxMLB|Baseball|Guaranteed Rate Field40,6151900|3 World Series!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago FireMLSassociation football>Soccer|SeatGeek Stadium17,3831997|1 MLS Cup, 1 Supporters Shield!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago SkyWNBA|Basketball|Wintrust Arena10,3872006WNBA Finals>WNBA Championships!scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: center;" |Chicago Red StarsNWSLassociation football>Soccer|SeatGeek Stadium3,1982006USASA National Women's Open>National Women's CupFile:20070909 Chicago Half Marathon.JPG|left|thumb|Chicago Half Marathon on Lake Shore Drive on the South Side.]]The Chicago Fire Soccer Club is a member of Major League Soccer (MLS) and plays at SeatGeek Stadium in suburban Bridgeview, after playing its first eight seasons at Soldier Field. The Fire have won one league title and four U.S. Open Cups, since their founding in 1997. In 1994, the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field.Chicago will be home to a new USL team starting in 2020. They plan to play in a 20,000 seat stadium located in Lincoln Park.NEWS,weblink USL Chicago 2020 {{!,|last=Staff||date=November 21, 2017|work=United Soccer League|access-date=May 11, 2018|language=en-us}} The Chicago Sky is a professional basketball team playing in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). They play home games at the Wintrust Arena. The team was founded before the 2006 WNBA season began.The Chicago Marathon has been held each year since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place. The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 20, 2006, July 25, 2007, World Marathon Majors, The LaSalle Bank Marathon, Five area colleges play in Division I conferences: two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons (Big East Conference) and the Northwestern Wildcats (Big Ten Conference)—and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars (Western Athletic Conference); the Loyola Ramblers (Missouri Valley Conference); and the UIC Flames (Horizon League).WEB, NCAA Members By Division,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, April 15, 2013, NCAA, September 25, 2013,

Parks and greenspace

{{Multiple image
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When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which means "City in a Garden". Today, the Chicago Park District consists of more than 570 parks with over {{convert|8000|acre}} of municipal parkland. There are 31 sand beaches, a plethora of museums, two world-class conservatories, and 50 nature areas.WEB, History,weblink Chicago Park District, September 23, 2014, Lincoln Park, the largest of the city's parks, covers {{convert|1200|acre}} and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, D.C.WEB, City Park Facts Report,weblink The Trust for Public Land, September 23, 2014, 30, February 2014, There is a historic boulevard system,"Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District" map, City of Chicago. Retrieved March 31, 2016. a network of wide, tree-lined boulevards which connect a number of Chicago parks."Biking the Boulevards with Geoffrey Baer" {{webarchive|url= |date=March 22, 2016 }}, WTTW. Retrieved March 31, 2016. The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 12, 2010, Chicago's Park & Boulevard System, University of Illinois at Chicago, In the vicinity of Maxwell Street Market – Virtual Museum (, April 7, 2016, Bledstein, Burton J., Project Director, A number of Chicago neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the 19th century. The building of the boulevard system continued intermittently until 1942. It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of interconnected streets."Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District", The Cultural Landscape Foundation. Retrieved March 31, 2016. Part of the system in the Logan Square Boulevards Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985."Logan Square and Boulevards", The Cultural Landscape Foundation. Retrieved May 18, 2016.With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the nation's largest municipal harbor system.WEB, Harbors,weblink Chicago Park District, October 9, 2013, In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern corner of one of Chicago's oldest parks, Grant Park in the Chicago Loop.The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's outskirts,WEB, Forest Preserve District of Cook County,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 5, 2012, University of Illinois at Chicago, August 28, 2013, including both the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo in Brookfield.WEB, Affiliates,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 8, 2012, Forest Preserve District of Cook County, August 28, 2013, Washington Park is also one of the city's biggest parks; covering nearly {{convert|400|acres|-1|abbr=on}}. The park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago.

Law and government


File:Daley Plaza 060716.jpg|thumb|left|Daley Plaza with Picasso statue and City Hall in background. State law courts are in the Daley Plaza Building at right]]The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. The current mayor is Lori Lightfoot. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. As well as the mayor, Chicago's clerk and treasurer are also elected citywide. The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city.WEB, City Council, Your Ward & Alderman,weblink City of Chicago, October 13, 2013, The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget.WEB, Chicago Government,weblink City of Chicago, October 13, 2013, The Chicago Police Department provides law enforcement and the Chicago Fire Department provides fire suppression and emergency medical services for the city and its residents. Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court system, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal system. In the state court, the public prosecutor is the Illinois State's Attorney; in the Federal court it is the United States Attorney.


During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations.Schneirov 1998, pp 173–174 For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States; with Chicago's Democratic vote the state of Illinois has been "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. Even before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, only to lose statewide due to large Democratic margins in Chicago. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding.Chicago contains less than 25% of the state's population, but it is split between eight of Illinois' 19 districts in the United States House of Representatives. All eight of the city's representatives are Democrats; two Republican has only represented a significant portion of the city twice since 1973, for one term each–Robert P. Hanrahan from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997.Machine politics persisted in Chicago after the decline of similar machines in other large U.S. cities.Montejano 1998, pp 33–34 During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington (in office 1983–1987). From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago was under the leadership of its longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois State seats. The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed.Formerly a state legislator representing Chicago and later a US Senator, the city is home of former United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama. The Obamas' residence is located near the University of Chicago in Kenwood on the city's south side.WEB,weblink With Michelle Obama In Town, Speculation About Future For Their Home, Derrick, Blakley,,


File:Chicago Police SUV.jpg|thumb|Chicago Police DepartmentChicago Police DepartmentChicago had a murder rate of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among US cities with 100,000 people or more.NEWS, Fenton, Justin, Baltimore ranked 6th in murder rate in 2012,weblink October 1, 2014, The Baltimore Sun, June 3, 2013, This was higher than in New York City and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower murder rates and lower total homicides. However, it was less than in many smaller American cities, including New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit, which had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago in 2015 compared with 416 the year before, a 12.5% increase, as well as 2,900 shootings—13% more than the year prior, and up 29% since 2013. Chicago had more homicides than any other city in 2015 in total but not on per capita basis, according to the Chicago Tribune.NEWS,weblink Munshi, Neil, Chicago toll rises despite gun clampdown, October 1, 2014, Financial Times, January 31, 2013, In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department reported that the city experienced a dramatic rise in gun violence, with 4,331 shooting victims. The department also reported 762 murders in Chicago for the year 2016, a total that marked a 62.79% increase in homicides from 2015.Ansari, Azadeh and Rosa Flores (January 2, 2017). "Chicago's 762 homicides in 2016 is highest in 19 years." CNN. Retrieved January 5, 2017. In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department and the Federal ATF announced a new task force, similar to past task forces, to address the flow of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns.WEB,weblink As feds help Chicago on guns, Trump aide says city's crime more about 'morality', Jeremy, Gorner,, July 1, 2017, According to reports in 2013, "most of Chicago's violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain control of drug-selling territories",NEWS, Lippert, John,weblink Heroin Pushed on Chicago by Cartel Fueling Gang Murders, Bloomberg, September 17, 2013, October 12, 2013, and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which is active in several American cities. By 2006, the cartel sought to control most illicit drug sells.WEB, Morning Edition,weblink Probing Ties Between Mexican Cartel And Chicago's Violence, NPR, September 17, 2013, October 12, 2013, Violent crime rates vary significantly by area of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but other sections have much higher rates of crime. In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people;WEB,weblink Rahm Emanuel's performance as Chicago mayor, Crain's Chicago Business, April 20, 2016, the murder rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, low crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000.WEB,weblink Rahm Emanuel's performance as Chicago mayor, Crain's Chicago Business, April 20, 2016, The number of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city's population was over 3 million people (a murder rate of about 29 per 100,000), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, (a murder rate of 34 per 100,000).NEWS, Heinzmann, David, Chicago falls out of 1st in murders,weblink October 1, 2014, Chicago Tribune, January 1, 2003,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2014, dead, However, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest total since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago's homicide tally remained low during 2005 (449), 2006 (452), and 2007 (435) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003.WEB,weblink Murder rate jumps in 2008, ABC News, May 4, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2011, dead, WEB,weblink Chicago's Murder Rate Double American Soldiers Killed in Iraq, Tres Sugar, September 5, 2008, In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 (10% down).WEB, Illinois: Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, Table 8,weblink FBI, October 1, 2014, 2009, and in 2010 Chicago's murder rate fell to 435 (16.14 per 100,000), a 5% decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965.NEWS, Chicago homicides in 2010 fell to lowest level since 1965,weblink Gorner, Jeremy, January 3, 2011, January 7, 2011, Chicago Tribune, In 2011, Chicago's murders fell another 1.2% to 431 (a rate of 15.94 per 100,000).WEB,weblink Crime in the United States 2011 ('Metropolitan Statistical Area'), FBI, January 23, 2013, but shot up to 506 in 2012.WEB,weblink Tracking Homicides in Chicago, Chicago Tribune ('RedEye'), January 23, 2013, WEB,weblink 2012 Homicides, Google Drive, January 23, 2013, dead,weblink May 27, 2013, In 2012, Chicago ranked 21st in the United States in numbers of homicides per person, and in the first half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of violent crime, including homicide (down 26%).NEWS, Wrongly Accused, Chicago Tribune, July 26, 2013, Zorn, Section 1, 23, Chicago ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest number of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percent.WEB,weblink Police: Chicago Reports 415 Murders In 2013, Lowest Since 1965, January 1, 2014, In 2013, the city's murder rate was only slightly higher than the national average as a whole.WEB,weblink Chicago's 2014 murder total on track for another low, but shootings rise, Lansu, Michael, December 28, 2014, Homicide Watch Chicago, ChicagoSun-Times, December 10, 2015, 397 slayings in 1965,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2015, dead, mdy-all, ) According to the FBI, St. Louis, New Orleans, Detroit, and Baltimorehad the highest murder rate along with several other cities.WEB,weblink Chicago homicide rate compared: Most big cities don't recover from spikes right away, Yuliana, Romanyshyn, Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago $2.5 billion in 2012.NEWS, Tim, Jones, John, McCormick, Chicago Killings Cost $2.5 Billion as Murders Top N.Y.'s,weblink October 1, 2014, Bloomberg News, May 22, 2013,

Employee pensions

In September 2016, an Illinois state appellate court found that cities do not have an obligation under the Illinois Constitution to pay certain benefits if those benefits had included an expiration date under whichever negotiated agreement they were covered. The Illinois Constitution prohibits governments from doing anything that could cause retirement benefits for government workers to be "diminished or impaired." In this particular case, the fact that the workers' agreements had expiration dates let the city of Chicago set an expiration date of 2013 for contribution to health benefits for workers who retired after 1989.NEWS,weblink Appeals panel: IL governments can pare back retiree health coverage, if benefits included 'expiration date', Bilyk, Jonathan, September 22, 2016, Cook County Record, April 20, 2018, en,


File:Harold Washington Library, Chicago, IL - front oblique.jpg|thumb|upright|Since its completion in 1991, the Harold Washington Library has appeared in Guinness World RecordsGuinness World Records

Schools and libraries

Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is the governing body of the school district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selective-admission magnet schools. There are eleven selective enrollment high schools in the Chicago Public Schoolsweblink{{Dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} designed to meet the needs of Chicago's most academically advanced students. These schools offer a rigorous curriculum with mainly honors and Advanced Placement (AP) courses.WEB,weblink Chicago Public Schools : Selective enrollment, August 30, 2010, Chicago Public Schools,weblink" title="">weblink August 27, 2010, dead, Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois.WEB,weblink These Are the Best High Schools in Illinois,,weblink June 28, 2018, Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked second, Jones College Prep is third, and the oldest magnet school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is ranked fourth."6 CPS High Schools Rank Among Top 10 in Illinois", WGN-TV, May 13, 2015. Retrieved February 16, 2016. The magnet school with the largest enrollment is Lane Technical College Prep High School.{{citation needed|date=December 2014}} Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education.WEB,weblink Lane Tech College Prep – The School of Champions,, July 5, 2013, Chicago high school rankings are determined by the average test scores on state achievement tests.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, November 1, 2010, Top 100 Chicago-area high schools, October 30, 2010, Chicago Sun-Times, The district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,545 students (2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment), is the third-largest in the U.S.WEB, At-a-glance: Stats and Facts,weblink Chicago Public Schools, October 2, 2014, September 17, 2014, On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago Teachers Union went on strike for the first time since 1987 over pay, resources and other issues.NEWS,weblink Chicago teachers on strike, Time Out Chicago Kids, September 10, 2012, According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago's "choice system", where students who test or apply and may attend one of a number of public high schools (there are about 130), sorts students of different achievement levels into different schools (high performing, middle performing, and low performing schools).WEB, Lutton, Linda, Brendan, Metzger, The Big Sort,weblink WBEZ, October 2, 2014, July 16, 2014, Chicago has a network of Lutheran schools,{{harvnb|Pogorzelski|Maloof|2008|p=58}} and several private schools are run by other denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridge. Several private schools are completely secular, such as the Latin School of Chicago in the Near North Side neighborhood, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the British School of Chicago and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North and the Morgan Park Academy. There are also the private Chicago Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories (visual arts, theatre, musical theatre, dance, and music) of the arts.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}}WEB,weblink Chicago High School for the Arts,, September 26, 2016, The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. Rita of Cascia High School, De La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. Ignatius College Preparatory School, Mount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School.The Chicago Public Library system operates 79 public libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city.

Colleges and universities

File:Harper Midway Chicago.jpg|thumb|left|The University of Chicago, as seen from the Midway PlaisanceMidway PlaisanceSince the 1850s, Chicago has been a world center of higher education and research with several universities. These institutions consistently rank among the top "National Universities" in the United States, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. Top universities in Chicago are: the University of Chicago; Illinois Institute of Technology; Loyola University Chicago; DePaul University; Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago. Other notable schools include: Chicago State University; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Illinois Institute of Art â€“ Chicago; East–West University; National Louis University; North Park University; Northeastern Illinois University; Robert Morris University Illinois; Roosevelt University; Saint Xavier University; Rush University; and Shimer College.WEB,weblink Chicago, Illinois Colleges and Universities,, January 8, 2017, William Rainey Harper, the first president of the University of Chicago, was instrumental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901.WEB, History,weblink 2009, Joliet Junior College, July 19, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 1, 2009, His legacy continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago: Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College.Chicago also has a high concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, graduate schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago Divinity School.


{{Further|Media in Chicago|List of fiction set in Chicago|Chicago International Film Festival}}File:W-G-N Studios Tribune Square, Chicago (60792).jpg|thumb|WGN began in the early days of radio and developed into a multi-platform broadcaster, including a cable television super-station. ]]


The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York City and Los Angeles and a major media hub.WEB,weblink Nielsen Media 2009–2010 Local Market Estimates, September 27, 2009, Nielsen Media Research, Broadcast Employment Services, May 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2008, dead, mdy-all, Each of the big four U.S. television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television station in Chicago (WBBM 2, WLS 7, WMAQ 5 and WFLD 32, respectively). Former CW affiliate WGN-TV 9, which is owned by the Tribune Media, is carried with some programming differences, as "WGN America" on cable and satellite TV nationwide and in parts of the Caribbean.File:Harpo Studios Chicago - Oprah.jpeg|thumb|The former Harpo StudiosHarpo StudiosChicago has also been the home of several prominent talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, Steve Harvey Show, The Rosie Show, The Jerry Springer Show, The Phil Donahue Show, The Jenny Jones Show, and more. The city also has one PBS member station (its second: WYCC 20, removed its affiliation with PBS in 2017WEB,weblink Window to The World Communications presents WYCC MHz Worldview beginning April 23, 2018 {{!, WTTW Chicago|work=Window To The World Communications |publisher=WTTW |access-date=March 29, 2019}}): WTTW 11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop's Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group.{{as of|2018}}, Windy City Live is Chicago's only daytime talk show, which is hosted by Val Warner and Ryan Chiaverini at ABC7 Studios with a live weekday audience. Since 1999, Judge Mathis also films his syndicated arbitration-based reality court show at the NBC Tower. Beginning in January 2019, Newsy began producing 12 of its 14 hours of live news programming per day from its new facility in Chicago.


Two major daily newspapers are published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the Tribune having the larger circulation. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik ZwiÄ…zkowy (Polish Daily News), Draugas (the Lithuanian daily newspaper), the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity,NEWS
, Chauncey, Hollingsworth
, Shakey Ground: Arts Magazines Find Chicago's Landscape Still Hostile To New Ventures
, Chicago Tribune
, A vast expanse of the local cultural landscape lay unexplored between the realm of free arts weeklies like NewCity and the Reader and commercial ventures like Chicago magazine ... NewCity wasn't quite as sophisticated two years ago as it is now.
, May 10, 1995
, October 31, 2010
, Staff writer
, Chicago Daily News II: This Time It's Digital
, Chicago Tribune
, The competition ... Newcity are in the digital space, ...
, December 9, 2005
, October 31, 2010
, StreetWise and the Windy City Times. The entertainment and cultural magazine Time Out Chicago and GRAB magazine are also published in the city, as well as local music magazine Chicago Innerview. In addition, Chicago is the recent home of satirical national news outlet, The Onion, as well as its sister pop-culture publication, The A.V. Club.WEB, The Onion celebrates controversial Chicago move with banjo playing, steak tartare,weblink Crain's Chicago Business, June 11, 2013,

Movies and filming

Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed and/or set in the city such as The Untouchables, The Blues Brothers, The Matrix, Brewster's Millions, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight,Dhoom 3, (Transformers: Dark of the Moon), (Transformers: Age of Extinction), (Transformers: The Last Knight), Divergent, (Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice), Sinister 2, Suicide Squad, and (Batman: Gotham by Gaslight).Chicago has also been the setting of a number of television shows, including the situation comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married... with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up. The city served as the venue for the medical dramas ER and Chicago Hope, as well as the fantasy drama series Early Edition and the 2005–2009 drama Prison Break. Discovery Channel films two shows in Chicago: Cook County Jail and the Chicago version of Cash Cab. Other notable shows include CBS's The Good Wife and Mike and Molly.Chicago is currently the setting for Showtime's Shameless, and NBC's Chicago Fire, Chicago P.D. and Chicago Med.WEB,weblink City of Chicago :: TV Shows by Year,, October 8, 2016, All three Chicago franchise shows are filmed locally throughout Chicago.


Chicago has five 50,000 watt AM radio stations: the CBS Radio-owned WBBM and WSCR; the Tribune Broadcasting-owned WGN; the Cumulus Media-owned WLS; and the ESPN Radio-owned WMVP. Chicago is also home to a number of national radio shows, including Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont on Sunday evenings.Chicago Public Radio produces nationally aired programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me!.


In 2005, indie rock artist Sufjan Stevens created a concept album about Illinois titled Illinois; many of its songs were about Chicago and its history.

Video games

Chicago is also featured in a few video games, including Watch Dogs and Midtown Madness, a real-life, car-driving simulation game. Chicago is home to NetherRealm Studios, the developers of the Mortal Kombat series.



{{Further|Transportation in Chicago}}(File:Circle Interchange Chicago.jpg|thumb|Aerial photo of the Jane Byrne Interchange, opened in the 1960s)Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third-largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore.Madigan 2004, p.52.The city of Chicago has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 26.5 percent of Chicago households were without a car, and increased slightly to 27.5 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.JOURNAL, Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map, Governing,weblink May 4, 2018,


{{Further|Roads and expressways in Chicago}}Seven mainline and four auxiliary interstate highways (55, 57, 65 (only in Indiana), 80 (also in Indiana), 88, 90 (also in Indiana), 94 (also in Indiana), 190, 290, 294, and 355) run through Chicago and its suburbs. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents (Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan) and one named after two-time Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson.The Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state maintained routes in the entire state of Illinois.WEB,weblink Illinois Department of Transportation,, April 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 28, 2010,

Transit systems

File:Chicago (ILL) Union Station, great Hall, 1925.jpg|thumb|upright|Chicago Union StationChicago Union StationThe Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace.
  • The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the City of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs outside of the Chicago city limits. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midway and O'Hare Airports. The CTA's rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24‑hour service which makes Chicago one of a handful of cities around the world (and one of two in the United States, the other being New York City) to offer rail service 24 hours a day, every day of the year, within the city's limits.
  • Metra, the nation's second-most used passenger regional rail network, operates an 11-line commuter rail service in Chicago and throughout the Chicago suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares its trackage with Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District's South Shore Line, which provides commuter service between South Bend and Chicago.
  • Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit."New Yorkers are top transit users", by Les Christie,, June 29, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
Greyhound Lines provides inter-city bus service to and from the city, and Chicago is also the hub for the Midwest network of Megabus (North America).

Passenger rail

File:20110821 AmtrakEmpireBuilder.jpg|thumb|Amtrak train on the Empire Builder route departs Chicago from Union Station ]]Amtrak long distance and commuter rail services originate from Union Station. Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation. The services terminate in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago â€“ New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was never completed.

Bicycle-sharing system

Chicago's Department of Transportation oversees operation of Divvy, North America's largest bicycle-sharing system (by geography), allowing residents and visitors the ability to check out public bikes from any of hundreds of automated stations located over a large area of the city, take them for short rides, and return them to any station of their choosing.NEWS, Frillman, Carrie, Chicago's Divvy Bike Share Will be Third in U.S. to Reach 10 Million Riders,weblink February 7, 2017, Chicago Patch,, December 29, 2016, Divvy was initially launched in 2013 with 750 bikes and 75 docking stationsWEB, Chicago Welcomes Divvy Bike Sharing System,weblink February 7, 2017, and has since expanded to 5,800 bikes and 580 stations {{as of|2016|December|lc=y}}.NEWS, Vivanco, Leonor, Divvy approaches milestone: 10 million rides,weblink February 7, 2017, Chicago Tribune, December 29, 2016,

Freight rail

Chicago is the largest hub in the railroad industry.WEB,weblink About, April 20, 2016, Six of the seven Class I railroads meet in Chicago, with the exception being the Kansas City Southern Railway.Appendix C: Regional Freight Transportation Profiles. Assessing the Effects of Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level. U.S. Department of Transportation â€“ Federal Highway Administration (April 2005). {{as of|2002}}, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days).WEB, Winsor, Jeromie,weblink Metropolitan Planning Council,, July 14, 2003, May 4, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 30, 2012, According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via rail to, from, or through Chicago is forecast to increase nearly 150 percent between 2010 and 2040.WEB, CREATE Program Benefits Fact Sheets,weblink CREATE, July 20, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2015, CREATE, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to significantly improve the speed of freight movements in the Chicago area.WEB, CREATE projects,weblink CREATE,, July 20, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 13, 2015,


{{Further|Transportation in Chicago#Airports}}File:Chicago O'Hare International Airport.jpg|right|thumb|O'Hare International AirportO'Hare International AirportChicago is served by O'Hare International Airport, the world's busiest airport measured by airline operations,WEB,weblink Annual Traffic Data – 2015 Preliminary, Airports Council International, May 6, 2015, on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side. In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic.WEB,weblink Preliminary Traffic Results for 2005 Show Firm Rebound (March 14, 2006), dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 23, 2006,  {{small|(520 KB)}}. Airports Council International. Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport and Chicago Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternative Chicago area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O'Hare and Midway. In recent years the state of Illinois has been leaning towards building an entirely new airport in the Illinois suburbs of Chicago.NEWS, Metsch, Steve, Top IDOT official says third airport will be built,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, August 1, 2012, June 11, 2013, Chicago Sun-Times, The City of Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline.

Port authority

The Port of Chicago consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District (formerly known as the Chicago Regional Port District). The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.WEB, Calumet Harbor and River,weblink US Army Corps of Engineers, June 12, 2013,
  • Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes {{convert|100|acre|km2}} of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over {{convert|780,000|m2|ft2|abbr=off|sp=us}} of storage.
  • Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River {{convert|6|mi|km}} inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over {{convert|29,000|m2|ft2|abbr=off|sp=us}} adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing.
  • Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet.
  • The Illinois International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends {{convert|60|mi|km}} from Chicago's city limits.


Electricity for most of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana border to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Recently, the city began installing wind turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy.WEB,weblink,, June 20, 2003, May 4, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 5, 2008, WEB,weblink,, May 4, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, WEB, Martin LaMonica Staff Writer, CNET News,weblink 'Micro' wind turbines are coming to town | CNET,, May 4, 2009, Natural gas is provided by Peoples Gas, a subsidiary of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago.Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet area. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert recyclable refuse from landfills.WEB,weblink Waste Disposal,, March 31, 2012, Because of low participation in the blue bag programs, the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling like other cities. This proved successful and blue bins were rolled out across the city.WEB,weblink What really happens to Chicago's blue cart recycling?, Bentley, Chris, July 1, 2015, WBEZ91.5 Chicago Public Media, Chicago Public Media, December 10, 2015,

Health systems

File:Prentice Chicago 060816.jpg|thumb|upright|Prentice Women's Hospital on the Northwestern Memorial HospitalNorthwestern Memorial HospitalThe Illinois Medical District is on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Center, ranked as the second best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–16, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest trauma centers in the nation.WEB, Havertz, Rieke, Counting Bullets: A Night at a Chicago Trauma Unit,weblink Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, September 2, 2013, Two of the country's premier academic medical centers reside in Chicago, including Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2017–18weblink the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab (formerly named the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago), which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report;WEB, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago,weblink U.S. News & World Report, September 2, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 19, 2013, the new Prentice Women's Hospital; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago.The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the second largest medical school in the United States (2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign).WEB,weblink Fact sheet,, In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove.The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago.

Sister cities

{{See also|List of diplomatic missions and trade organizations in Chicago}}Chicago has 28 sister cities around the world.WEB, Chicago Sister Cities,weblink 2009, Chicago Sister Cities International, July 22, 2009, Like Chicago, many of them are or were the second-most populous city or second-most influential city of their country, or they are the main city of a country that has had large numbers of immigrants settle in Chicago. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties.NEWS, Chicago has assembled a sorority of sister cities,weblink Chicago Tribune, July 31, 2001, June 22, 2013, Leroux, Charles, To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a yearly festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities. In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegation and formal exchanges. In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine (originally of the Soviet Union), that was originally established as part of the Chicago-Kiev sister cities program.WEB, Celia, Berdes, PhD, Levin, Andrew,weblink Annual Report 2008, 5–7, Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society, Director Emeritus James Webster Looks Backward, Forward, July 1, 2009, {{dead link|date=May 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Sister cities{{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Warsaw (Poland) 1960
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Milan (Italy) 1973
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Osaka (Japan) 1973
  • {{flagdeco|MAR}} Casablanca (Morocco) 1982
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Shanghai (China) 1985
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Shenyang (China) 1985
  • {{flagdeco|SWE}} Gothenburg (Sweden) 1987
  • {{flagdeco|GHA}} Accra (Ghana) 1989
  • {{flagdeco|CZE}} Prague (Czech Republic) 1990WEB,weblink Partnerská mÄ›sta HMP, August 5, 2013, July 18, 2013, Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"], Czech, Prague – Twin Cities HMP,weblink" title="">weblink June 25, 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|UKR}} Kiev (Ukraine) 1991
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Mexico City (Mexico) 1991
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Toronto (Canada) 1991
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} Birmingham (United Kingdom) 1993
  • {{flagdeco|LTU}} Vilnius (Lithuania) 1993
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Hamburg (Germany) 1994
  • {{flagdeco|ISR}} Petah Tikva (Israel) 1994
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Paris (France) 1996 (friendship and cooperation agreement only)WEB,weblink Mairie de Paris,weblink" title="">weblink International relations: special partners, December 25, 2008, October 14, 2007,
  • {{flagdeco|GRC}} Athens (Greece) 1997Not according official list of Greek government(PDF)
  • {{flagdeco|ZAF}} Durban (South Africa) 1997
  • {{flagdeco|IRL}} Galway (Ireland) 1997
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Moscow (Russia) 1997
  • {{flagdeco|CHE}} Lucerne (Switzerland) 1998WEB,weblink Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern, August 1, 2013, Stadt Luzern, German,weblink" title="">weblink June 21, 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} Delhi (India) 2001
  • {{flagdeco|JOR}} Amman (Jordan) 2004
  • {{flagdeco|SRB}} Belgrade (Serbia) 2005
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} São Paulo (Brazil) 2007WEB,weblink Lei nº 14.471, de 10 de julho de 2007 – Radar Municipal,,
  • {{flagdeco|PAK}} Lahore (Pakistan) 2007
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Busan (South Korea) 2007
  • {{flagdeco|COL}} Bogotá (Colombia) 2009
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Sydney (Australia) 2019
{{div col end}}

See also






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  • {{citation|last = Buisseret|first = David|title = Historic Illinois From The Air|year = 1990|publisher = The University of Chicago Press|isbn = 0-226-07989-9|lccn = 89020648}}
  • {{citation|author=Clymer, Floyd|authorlink=Floyd Clymer|title = Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925|publisher=Bonanza Books|year = 1950|location = New York|oclc=1966986|ref=harv}}
  • {{citation|last = Condit|first = Carl W.|authorlink = Carl W. Condit|title = Chicago 1910–29: Building, Planning, and Urban Technology|year = 1973|publisher = The University of Chicago Press|isbn = 0-226-11456-2|lccn = 72094791|ref = harv|url =weblink}}
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  • {{citation|last = Genzen|first = Jonathan|title = The Chicago River: A History in Photographs|year = 2007|publisher = Westcliffe Publishers, Inc.|isbn = 978-1-56579-553-2|lccn = 2006022119 |ref=harv}}
  • {{citation|last = Granacki|first = Victoria|title = Chicago's Polish Downtown|year = 2004|publisher = Arcadia Pub|isbn = 978-0-7385-3286-8|lccn = 2004103888 |ref=harv}}
  • {{citation|last1 = Grossman|first1 = James R.|last2 = Keating |first2 = Ann Durkin |last3 = Reiff |first3 = Janice L.|title = The Encyclopedia of Chicago|year = 2004|publisher = University of Chicago Press|isbn = 0-226-31015-9|oclc = 54454572|ref=harv}}
  • {{citation|last1 = Jirasek|first1 = Rita Arias|last2 = Tortolero|first2 = Carlos|title = Mexican Chicago|year = 2001|publisher = Arcadia Pub|isbn = 978-0-7385-0756-9|lccn = 2001088175 |ref=harv}}
  • {{citation|last=Lowe|first=David Garrard|title=Lost Chicago|year=2000|location=New York|publisher=Watson-Guptill Publications|lccn=00107305|isbn=0-8230-2871-2|ref=harv|url=}}
  • {{citation|last = Madigan|first = Charles|authorlink = Charles Madigan|title = Global Chicago|year = 2004|publisher = University of Illinois Press|location = Urbana|isbn = 0-252-02941-0|oclc = 54400307|editor = Madigan, Charles|ref = harv|url =weblink}}
  • {{citation|last = Miller|first = Donald L.|title = City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America|year = 1996|publisher = Simon and Schuster|location = New York|isbn = 0-684-80194-9|oclc = 493430274|ref = harv|url =weblink}}
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External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Chicago.ogg|2005-07-22}} {{Chicago}}{{Navboxes|list ={{Community areas of Chicago}}{{Neighborhoods in Chicago}}{{Cook County, Illinois}}{{DuPage County, Illinois}}{{Chicago metropolitan area}}{{Chicago Landmarks}}{{Illinois}}{{Midwestern United States}}{{Pan American Games host cities}}{{Illinois cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{World's most populated urban areas}}}}{{Subject bar|portal1= Chicago|portal2= Illinois |portal3= United States|commons=yes|wikt=yes|n=yes|n-search=Category:Chicago|q=yes|s=yes|b=yes|voy=yes|v=yes|d=yes|d-search=Q1297}}{{Authority control}}

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