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Croatia
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{{pp-semi-protected|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|sovereign republic in Southeast Europe}}{{Use British English|date=August 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2015}}{{good article}}{{Coord|45|10|N|15|30|E|display=title}}







factoids
{hide}efn>name=a|In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority languages of Croatia:
* :* :* :* :* :* :* :* :* :* {edih}| image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg
Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino"()(File:Lijepa nasa domovino instrumental.ogg|center)| image_map = EU-Croatia.svglocation_color=dark green region_color=dark grey European Union >subregion_color=green |legend=}}| image_map2 = Croatia - Location Map (2013) - HRV - UNOCHA.svgCoat of arms of Zagreb.svg|size=18px}} Zagreb45N0type:city}}| largest_city = capitalCroatian language>Croatian{{efnApart from Croatian, Regions of Croatia have Minority languages of Croatia>official regional languages that are used for official government business and commercially. Istria County is Italian language in CroatiaHTTP://WWW.PRAVOSUDJE.HR/EUROPSKA-POVELJA-O-REGIONALNIM-ILI-MANJINSKIM-JEZILAST=DATE=4 NOVEMBER 2011PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF JUSTICE (CROATIA)ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131227001603/HTTP://WWW.PRAVOSUDJE.HR/EUROPSKA-POVELJA-O-REGIONALNIM-ILI-MANJINSKIM-JEZIURL-STATUS=DEADSerbian language in Croatia>speak standard Serbian.HTTPS://WWW.ECONOMIST.COM/THE-ECONOMIST-EXPLAINS/2017/04/10/IS-SERBO-CROATIAN-A-LANGUAGE>TITLE=IS SERBO-CROATIAN A LANGUAGE?FIRST=WORK=THE ECONOMISTLANGUAGE=EN, Other notable–albeit significantly less present–minority languages in Croatia include: Czech language, Hungarian language>Hungarian, and Slovak.}}| languages_type = Writing systemLatin alphabet>Latin{{efnThe Croatian language is legally Croatian language#Official status>protected by federal law. Efforts to alter the official writing system, on a local level, has drawn considerable backlash.}}90.42% Croats Serbs of Croatia>Serbs 5.22% others}}E}}item_style=white-space:nowrap; Christianity >4.57% Irreligion in Croatia >1.47% Islam in Croatia >2.90% others}}| religion_year = 2011Croatian}}Unitary state>Unitary Parliamentary republic Republic>constitutional republicPresident of Croatia>President| leader_name1 = Kolinda Grabar-KitarovićPrime Minister of Croatia>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Andrej PlenkovićSpeaker of the Croatian Parliament>Speaker of Parliament| leader_name3 = Gordan Jandroković| legislature = SaborDuchy of Croatia>Duchy| established_date1 = 7th centuryKingdom of Croatia (925–1102)>Kingdom| established_date2 = 925| established_event3 = Personal union with Hungary| established_date3 = 1102Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)>Habsburg Monarchy| established_date4 = 1 January 1527| established_event5 = Secession fromAustria-Hungary| established_date5 = 29 October 1918| established_event6 = Creation of Yugoslavia| established_date6 = 4 December 1918Independence of Croatia>Decision on independence| established_date7 = 25 June 1991| established_event8 = Erdut Agreement| established_date8 = 12 November 19952013 enlargement of the European Union>Joined the European Union| established_date9 = 1 July 2013| area_km2 = 56,594| area_rank = 124th| area_sq_mi = 21,851| percent_water = 1.09PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESS-DATE=22 JULY 2019, S}}| population_estimate_year = 2019| population_census_year = 2011| population_estimate_rank = 127th| population_census_rank = 128th| population_density_km2 = 73| population_density_sq_mi = 189| population_density_rank = 109thTITLE=WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK DATABASE, OCTOBER 2018 – CROATIA, International Monetary Fund, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 84th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $27,664| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 56th| GDP_nominal = $61.586 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 81st| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $15,137| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 57th| Gini = 29.7| Gini_year = 2018| Gini_change = decrease ACCESSDATE=21 JULY 2017, | Gini_rank = 17th| HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase | HDI = 0.831 YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 46thCroatian kuna>Kuna| currency_code = HRKCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Central European Summer Time>CESTCommon Era>CE)| drives_on = right| calling_code = +385St. JosephHTTP://WWW.SABOR.HR/SV-JOSIP-ZASTITNIK-HRVATSKE-DOMOVINETITLE=HRVATSKI SABOR – POVIJESTARCHIVE-DATE=6 MARCH 2018DF=DMY-ALL, .hr and .eu}}| today = }}Croatia ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Croatia.ogg|k|r|oÊŠ|ˈ|eɪ|ʃ|É™}}, {{respell|kroh|AY|shÉ™}}; , {{IPA-sh|xř̩ʋaːtskaː|pron}}), officially the Republic of Croatia (, {{Audio|Hr-Republika Hrvatska.oga|listen}}),{{efn|IPA transcription of "Republika Hrvatska": ({{IPA-sh|ˈrepÇ”blika ˈxř̩ʋaːtskaː|hr}}).}} is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of {{convert|56594|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi-backed client-state, the Independent State of Croatia. In response, a resistance movement developed. This led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration.A sovereign state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. It is a member of the European Union (EU), the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.Croatia's economy is dominated by service, industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Etymology

{{multiple image | align = right | total_width = 250 | direction = horizontal image1 = Apoxyomène de Croatie exposé au musée du Louvre -04.JPG | alt1 = image2 = Tanais Tablet B.png| alt2 = MapCroatian Apoxyomenos, Ancient Greece>Ancient Greek statue 2nd or 1st century BC.Right: Tanais Tablet B, name Khoroáthos highlighted}}The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/xorvatъ|*Xorvat), from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-.BOOK, Alemko Gluhak, Hrvatski etimološki rječnik, Croatian Etymological Dictionary, Croatian, August Cesarec, 1993, 953-162-000-8, The word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait- which is the native name of Arachosia.The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.WEB, University of Kansas, Marc L. Greenberg, The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia,weblink April 1996, 14 October 2011, The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").JOURNAL,weblink Branko, Fučić, Branko Fučić, Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi, The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions, Slovo (journal), Slovo, Old Church Slavonic Institute, 21, September 1971, Croatian, 227–254, 14 October 2011, The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|p=27}} The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|p=|pp=195–198}}

History

Prehistory

The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina.JOURNAL, Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica, Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture, 1334-4366, December 2010, 8, 2, Igor Salopek, Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information, 197–202,weblink 15 October 2011, 21682056, Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country.JOURNAL, Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department, 0473-0992, Study of the Neolithic and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica, 93–122, 30, 1, April 2008, Tihomila Težak-Gregl, 15 October 2011,weblink The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures.JOURNAL, Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department, 0473-0992, The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol, 25–40, 29, 1, December 2005, Jacqueline Balen, 15 October 2011,weblink JOURNAL, Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department, 0473-0992, Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske, A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia Neolithic, Croatian, 43–48, 27, 1, December 2003, Tihomila Težak-Gregl, 15 October 2011,weblink The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.JOURNAL, Prilozi Instituta Za Arheologiju U Zagrebu, Institut za arheologiju, 1330-0644, 19, 1, July 2002, A Contribution to Understanding Continuous Habitation of Vinkovci and its Surroundings in the Early Iron Age, Prilog poznavanju naseljenosti Vinkovaca i okolice u starijem željeznom dobu, Croatian, 79–100, Hrvoje Potrebica, Marko Dizdar,weblink 15 October 2011,

Antiquity

{{See|Dalmatia (Roman province)}}Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar,BOOK,weblink John Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1995, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 978-0-631-19807-9, 114, ... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ..., 15 October 2011, Korčula, and Vis.BOOK,weblink John Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1995, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 978-0-631-19807-9, 115, The third Greek colony known in this central sector of the Dalmatian coast was Issa, on the north side of the island Vis., 3 April 2012, In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305.BOOK, Edward Gibbon, John Bagnell Bury, John Bagnell Bury, Daniel J. Boorstin, Daniel J. Boorstin, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Modern Library, 1995, New York, 335, 978-0-679-60148-7,weblink 27 October 2011, Edward Gibbon, During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.BOOK,weblink J. B. Bury, History of the later Roman empire from the death of Theodosius I. to the death of Justinian, 408, Macmillan Publishers, 1923, 15 October 2011, J. B. Bury, The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum.BOOK,weblink Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic, Andrew Archibald Paton, 1861, 218–219, Trübner, 15 October 2011, The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain and there are several competing theories, Slavic and Iranian being the most frequently put forward. The most widely accepted of these, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats from the territory of White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets containing Greek inscription of given names Χορούαθος, Χοροάθος, and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people.JOURNAL, Migracijske I Etničke Teme, 1333-2546, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, September 2007, 23, 3, 251–268, Emil HerÅ¡ak, Boris NikÅ¡ić, Croatian, Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje), Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements),weblink {{Clear}}

Middle Ages

File:Balkans925.png|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav ]]According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century. However, that claim is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|p=|pp=249–293}} Eventually two dukedoms were formed—Duchy of Pannonia and Duchy of Croatia, ruled by Ljudevit and Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia at the time.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|pp=157–160}}File:Oton_Ivekovic,_Dolazak_Hrvata_na_Jadran.jpg|thumb|right|Arrival of Croats to the Adriatic Sea, Oton IvekovićOton IvekovićThe Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|pp=169–170}} According to the Constantine VII Christianization of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed and generally Christianization is associated with the 9th century.JOURNAL, Bogoslovska Smotra, University of Zagreb, Catholic Faculty of Theology, 0352-3101, April 1968, 3–4, 37, Antun Ivandija, PokrÅ¡tenje Hrvata prema najnovijim znanstvenim rezultatima, Christianization of Croats according to the most recent scientific results, Croatian, 440–444,weblink The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was Duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879.{{sfn|Mužić|2007|p=|pp=195–198}}Tomislav was the first king of Croatia, styled as such in a letter of Pope John X in 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings.JOURNAL, Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest, 30, 1, 0353-295X, 281–290, Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba, Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav, Croatian, Vladimir Posavec, March 1998, 16 October 2011,weblink The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar KreÅ¡imir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089).JOURNAL, Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest, 29, 1, 0353-295X, 11–20, Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II., Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae in age of Stjepan II, Croatian, Lujo Margetić, January 1997, 16 October 2011,weblink Lujo Margetić, When Stjepan II died in 1091 ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Dmitar Zvonimir's brother-in-law Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown. This led to a war and personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102 under Coloman.JOURNAL, Scrinia Slavonica, 1332-4853, Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje, Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije, Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue, Croatian,weblink Ladislav Heka, October 2008, 8, 1, 152–173, 16 October 2011, File:BaÅ¡ka tablet.jpg|thumb|right|The BaÅ¡ka tablet, the oldest evidence of the glagolitic scriptglagolitic scriptFor the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor (parliament) and a ban (viceroy) appointed by the king.WEB,weblink Povijest saborovanja, History of parliamentarism, Croatian, Sabor, 18 October 2010, 2 December 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202061135weblink">weblink dmy, The period saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas.The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia by 1428, with exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia against the Ottoman Empire while respecting its political rights.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=|pp=422–423}} This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan and Zrinski families to prominence and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families.JOURNAL, Povijesni Prilozi,weblink 0351-9767, Croatian Institute of History, July 2005, 28, 28, 7–22, Márta Font, Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku, Croatian, Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia in the Middle Ages, 17 October 2011,

Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary

{{See|Croatian–Ottoman wars}}File:Johann Peter Krafft 005.jpg|thumb|right|Croatian Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured as a national hero for his defence of Szigetvár against the invading Ottoman Turksinvading Ottoman TurksFollowing the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia was split into civilian and military territories, with the partition formed in 1538. The military territories would become known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Imperial control. Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and stabilisation of borders.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=|pp=422–423}}During the Great Turkish War (1683–1698), Slavonia was regained but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=|pp=422–423}} The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars.{{sfn|Lane|1973|p=409}}The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats migrated towards Austria and the present-day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers.WEB, Croatian Cultural Association in Burgenland,weblink Croatian, Povijest Gradišćanskih Hrvatov, History of Burgenland Croats, 17 October 2011, 14 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114132821weblink">weblink dmy-all, To replace the fleeing population, the Habsburgs encouraged the Christian populations of Bosnia to provide military service in the Military Frontier. Most of the transferred population were Orthodox Vlachs (a term used for a community of mostly Orthodox refugees, mainly Serbs){{Citation |last=Botica |first=Ivan |title=Prilog istraživanju najstarijega spomena vlaškoga imena u hrvatskoj historiografiji |url=http://www.ffzg.unizg.hr/pov/pov2/files/3zavod/RADOVI-ZHP-online/botica.pdf |year=2005 |location=Zagreb |volume=37 |publisher=Zavod za hrvatsku povijest |issn=0353-295X |pages=35–46| ref=harv}} and the peak of transferring was during the 16th century.BOOK,weblink Gordana Uzelac, The Development of the Croatian Nation: An Historical And Sociological Analysis, Edwin Mellen Press, 978-0773457911, 260, 2006, 14 November 2018, BOOK,weblink Branimir Anzulovic, Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide, New York University Press, 978-0-8147-0671-8, 43, 1999, 14 November 2018, BOOK,weblink Stanko Guldescu, The Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom: 1526–1792, The Hague, Mouton, 978-9027905369, 72, 1970, 14 November 2018, The Croatian Parliament supported King Charles III's Pragmatic Sanction and signed their own Pragmatic Sanction in 1712.WEB,weblink Hrvatski sabor, Subsequently, the emperor pledged to respect all privileges and political rights of Kingdom of Croatia and Queen Maria Theresa made significant contributions to Croatian matters.File:Jellasics harcosai kozott.jpg|thumb|left|Ban Josip Jelačić fought Hungarians in 1848 and 1849Hungarians in 1848 and 1849Between 1797 and 1809 the First French Empire gradually occupied the entire eastern Adriatic coastline and a substantial part of its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=|pp=422–423}} In response the Royal Navy started the blockade of the Adriatic Sea leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811.{{sfn|Adkins|Adkins|2008|p=|pp=359–362}} The Illyrian Provinces were captured by the Austrians in 1813, and absorbed by the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This led to formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and restoration of the Croatian Littoral to the Kingdom of Croatia, now both under the same crown.BOOK,weblink Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822, Grove Press, 978-0-8021-3744-9, 180, 2000, 17 October 2011, Harold Nicolson, The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture.JOURNAL, Cris: časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci, 1332-2567,weblink Nikša Stančić, Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja, Croatian National Revival – goals and achievements, 6–17, 10, 1, February 2009, 7 October 2011, Croatian, During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić helping defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering a period of Germanization policy.JOURNAL, Review of Croatian History, Croatian Institute of History, 1845-4380, 4, 1, December 2008, Ante Čuvalo, Josip Jelačić – Ban of Croatia, 13–27,weblink 17 October 2011, File:Austria-Hungary map.svg|thumb|The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (no. 17) was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary created in 1868 following the Croatian-Hungarian SettlementCroatian-Hungarian SettlementBy the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary, and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 when kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were united.WEB,weblink Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary, H-net.org, 16 May 2010, The Kingdom of Dalmatia remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of Corpus separatum introduced in 1779.After Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Croatian Military Frontier was abolished and the territory returned to Croatia in 1881,{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=|pp=422–423}} pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian settlement.JOURNAL, Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta Sveučilišta U Rijeci, 1330-349X, University of Rijeka,weblink Ladislav Heka, Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska, Croatian, Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips, 28, 2, December 2007, 10 April 2012, 931–971, JOURNAL, Politička Misao, 0032-3241, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences, Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886, Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886, Croatian,weblink Branko Dubravica, 159–172, 38, 3, January 2002, 20 June 2012, Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia as a federal unit, were stopped by advent of World War I.BOOK, Max Polatschek, Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung, German, 978-3-85002-284-2, Amalthea, 1989, 231, 17 October 2011,weblink

Yugoslavia (1918–1991)

On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.BOOK, World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1, Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, 978-1-85109-420-2, 1286, 2005, ABC-CLIO, 27 October 2011,weblink The Croatian Parliament never ratified a decision to unite with Serbia and Montenegro. The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of Croatian Parliament and historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy.File:Radic_govori_na_skupstini.jpg|thumb|left|Stjepan Radić, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who advocated federal organisation of the Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928]]The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) led by Stjepan Radić.JOURNAL, Scrinia Slavonica, Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch, 1332-4853,weblink 3, 1, November 2003, Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine, Croatian, Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932, 17 October 2011, 452–470, The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929.JOURNAL, Radovi Zavoda Za Povijesne Znanosti HAZU U Zadru, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1330-0474,weblink 203–218, 51, November 2009, Zlatko Begonja, Ivan Pernar o hrvatsko-srpskim odnosima nakon atentata u Beogradu 1928. godine, Croatian, Ivan Pernar on Croatian-Serbian relations after 1928 Belgrade assassination, 17 October 2011, The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia.BOOK, Yugoslavia's ruin: the bloody lessons of nationalism, a patriot's warning, Cvijeto Job, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-1784-4, 9, 2002, 27 October 2011,weblink The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation of Yugoslavia, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.{{sfn|Klemenčič|Žagar|2004|p=|pp=121–123}}File:Jelačićev trg 12.5.1945.jpg|thumb|right|People of Zagreb celebrating liberation from Axis powers by Yugoslav People's ArmyYugoslav People's ArmyIn April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany and Italy. Following the invasion the territory, parts of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a Nazi-backed puppet state. Parts of Dalmatia were annexed by Italy, and the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje by Hungary.{{sfn|Klemenčič|Žagar|2004|p=|pp=153–156}} The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše. NDH was trying to establish such an internal structure that would be consistent with that of the Third Reich and fascist Italy so its authorities introduced racial laws against Jews, Roma and Serbs many of whome were imprisoned in concentration camps.WEB, ustaše - Hrvatska enciklopedija,weblink 23 December 2018, In the same time, antifascist Croats were targeted by the regime as well. The number of Croats killed in the NDH is estimated to be approximately 200,000, either by Ustaše, as members of the resistance movement, or as Axis collaborators.BOOK,weblink Bogoljub Kočović, Sahrana jednog mita: žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji, Serbian, Burial of a Myth: World War II Victims in Yugoslavia, Otkrovenje, 2005, 978-86-83353-39-2, 18 October 2011, Bogoljub Kočović, BOOK, Philip J. Cohen, David Riesman, Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History, 978-0-89096-760-7, 106–111, Texas A&M University Press, 1996,weblink 17 October 2011, Chetniks killed between 18,000 and 32,000 Croats in whole of Yugoslavia.JOURNAL, Vladimir Geiger, Croatian Institute of History, Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherand) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators, Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate, VIII, 1,weblink 85–87, 2012, Furthermore, it is estimated that Ustashe regime systematically murdered somewhere between 200,000 and 340,000 Serbs.BOOK, Yeomans, Rory, The Utopia of Terror: Life and Death in Wartime Croatia,weblink 2015, Boydell & Brewer, 978-1-58046-545-8, harv, 18, BOOK, Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005,weblink Indiana University Press, 2006, New York, 978-0-253-34656-8, harv, 114, WEB, US Holocaust Museum, USHMM, Jasenovac,weblink US Holocaust Museum, A resistance movement soon emerged. On 22 June 1941,Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007. {{ISBN|978-953-6308-71-2}}, str. 441–442. the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, as the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe.BOOK, Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, 2007, Naklada Pavičić, 978-953-6308-71-2, 441–442, This sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, a communist multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito.NEWS, Večernji list, Croatian,weblink Josipović: Antifašizam je duhovni otac Domovinskog rata, Josipović: Anti-Fascism is a Spiritual Forerunner of the Croatian War of Independence, 22 June 2011, Matea Vipotnik, 14 October 2011, 17 May 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130517085659weblink">weblink dmy, The movement grew rapidly and at the Tehran Conference in December 1943 the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies.JOURNAL, Historijski Zbornik, 0351-2193, Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu, December 2008, 61, 2, Karakaš Obradov Marica, Saveznički zračni napadi na Split i okolicu i djelovanje Narodne zaštite u Splitu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata, Allied aerial attacks on Split and its surrounding and Civil Guard activity in Split during the World War II, Croatian,weblink 323–349, 17 October 2011, With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and air power, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy and Austria by May 1945, during which thousands of members of the Ustaše, as well as Croat refugees, were killed by the Yugoslav Partisans.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink History of Croatia, World War II, C.W. Bracewell, John R. Lampe, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012, 25 March 2013, The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament of Croatia in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level.JOURNAL, Pro Tempore – časopis Studenata Povijesti, Klub studenata povijesti ISHA, 1334-8302, Marko Maurović, Josip protiv Josifa, Josip vs. Iosif, Croatian, 73–83, 1, May 2004,weblink 17 October 2011, WEB, Sabor,weblink Croatian, Predsjednik Sabora Luka Bebić na obilježavanju 64. obljetnice pobjede nad fašizmom i 65. obljetnice trećeg zasjedanja ZAVNOH-a u Topuskom, Speaker of the Parliament, Luka Bebić, at celebration of the 64th anniversary of the victory over fascism and the 65th anniversary of the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH session in Topusko, 9 May 2009, 17 October 2011, 19 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119084444weblink">weblink dmy-all, File:Nixontito19712.jpg|thumb|Josip Broz Tito led SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White HouseWhite HouseAfter World War II, Croatia became a single-party socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language.JOURNAL, Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest, 31, 1, 0353-295X, 317–318, Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – Građa za povijest Deklaracije, Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles, Ivica Šute, April 1999, Croatian,weblink The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and decentralization of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring of 1971, suppressed by Yugoslav leadership.NEWS, Jutarnji list, Croatian,weblink Heroina Hrvatskog proljeća, Heroine of the Croatian Spring, 6 August 2009, Vlado Vurušić, 14 October 2011, 6 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120806045846weblink">weblink dmy, Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.JOURNAL, Roland Rich, Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, European Journal of International Law, 1993, 1, 4, 36–65,weblink 18 October 2011, 10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a035834, Following the death of Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in 1980, the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated, with national tension fanned by the 1986 SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=433}}NEWS, Reuters,weblink Leaders of a Republic In Yugoslavia Resign, The New York Times, 12 January 1989, 7 February 2010, 6 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121106113747weblink">weblink dmy, In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation.JOURNAL, Davor Pauković, Centar za politološka istraživanja,weblink Croatian, Posljednji kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: uzroci, tijek i posljedice raspada, Last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia: Causes, Consequences and Course of Dissolution, 1 June 2008, Časopis Za Suvremenu Povijest, 1, 1, 21–33, PDF, 1847-2397, 11 December 2010, In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further.NEWS, The Independent,weblink Obituary: Franjo Tudjman, Branka Magas, 13 December 1999, 17 October 2011, 10 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121110024351weblink">weblink dmy, Some of Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Chuck Sudetic, Croatia's Serbs Declare Their Autonomy, 2 October 1990, 11 December 2010, 12 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121112065457weblink">weblink dmy, Chuck Sudetic, BOOK, Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States,weblink 272–278, 978-1-85743-058-5, 1998, Routledge, 16 December 2010,

Independence (1991–present)

File:Serb T-55 Battle of the Barracks.JPG|thumb|left|Destroyed Yugoslav Army tank, a scene from the Croatian War of IndependenceCroatian War of IndependenceAs tensions rose, Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991. However, the full implementation of declaration only came into effect on 8 October 1991.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink 2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands, Chuck Sudetic, 26 June 1991, 12 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121110162855weblink">weblink 10 November 2012, live, dmy, WEB, Official web site of the Croatian Parliament, Sabor,weblink Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia, 7 October 2004, 29 July 2012, 7 August 2012, dead,weblink dmy-all, In the meantime, tensions escalated into overt war when the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and various Serb paramilitary groups attacked Croatia.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Army Rushes to Take a Croatian Town, Chuck Sudetic, 4 November 1991, 29 July 2012, 29 July 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120729183641weblink">weblink dmy, Chuck Sudetic, By the end of 1991, a high-intensity conflict fought along a wide front reduced Croatia to control of only about two-thirds of its territory.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Croatia Clashes Rise; Mediators Pessimistic, 19 December 1991, 29 July 2012, 15 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121115174401weblink">weblink dmy, NEWS, Los Angeles Times,weblink Serbian Forces Press Fight for Major Chunk of Croatia, Charles T. Powers, 1 August 1991, 29 July 2012, 16 May 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516054837weblink">weblink dmy, Charles T. Powers, The various Serb paramilitary groups then began pursuing a campaign of killing, terror and expulsion against the Croats in the rebel territories, killing thousandsUtjecaj srbijanske agresije na stanovništvo Hrvatske, Index.hr, 11. prosinca 2003., pristupljeno 12. rujna 2015. of Croat civilians and expelling or displacing as many as 400,000 Croats and other non-Serbs from their homes.WEB, SUMMARY OF JUDGEMENT FOR MILAN MARTIĆ,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071215084458weblink">weblink dead, 15 December 2007, 28 August 2019x, File:Tuđman i Ana Havel.jpg|thumb|right|Franjo Tuđman was the first democratically elected President of CroatiaPresident of CroatiaOn 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community members, and subsequently the United Nations.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Slovenia and Croatia Get Bonn's Nod, Stephen Kinzer, 24 December 1991, 29 July 2012, 20 June 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120620034701weblink">weblink dmy, Stephen Kinzer, NEWS,weblink 3 Ex-Yugoslav Republics Are Accepted Into U.N., The New York Times, Paul L. Montgomery, 23 May 1992, 29 July 2012, 11 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121111013548weblink">weblink dmy, Paul L. Montgomery, The war effectively ended in August 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia;NEWS, Los Angeles Times,weblink Croats Declare Victory, End Blitz, Dean E. Murphy, 8 August 1995, 18 December 2010, 12 October 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121012140454weblink">weblink dmy, the event is commemorated each year on 5 August as Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day and the Day of Croatian Defenders.WEB,weblink Officials Issue Messages for Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day, www.total-croatia-news.com, en-gb, 2019-08-04, Following the Croatian victory, about 200,000 Serbs from the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina fled from the region and their lands were subsequently settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina.BOOK, Janine Natalya Clark, 2014, International Trials and Reconciliation: Assessing the Impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Routledge, London, 978-1-31797-475-8,weblink 28, The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, with the process concluded in January 1998.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink An Ethnic Morass Is Returned to Croatia, Chris Hedges, 16 January 1998, 18 December 2010, 18 May 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518201803weblink">weblink dmy, Chris Hedges, File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|right|Croatia has been a member of the European UnionEuropean UnionFollowing the end of the war, Croatia faced the challenges of post-war reconstruction, the return of refugees, advancing democratic principles, protection of human rights and general social and economic development. The post-2000 period is characterized by democratization, economic growth and structural and social reforms, as well as problems such as unemployment, corruption and the inefficiency of the public administration.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}Croatia joined the Partnership for Peace on 25 May 2000WEB,weblink Partnerstvo za mir – Hrvatska enciklopedija, www.enciklopedija.hr, and become a member of the World Trade Organization on 30 November 2000.WEB,weblink MVEP • Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO), www.mvep.hr, On 29 October 2001, Croatia signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union,WEB,weblink Kronologija: Težak put od priznanja do kucanja na vrata EU, submitted a formal application for the EU membership in 2003,WEB,weblink Kada je i kome Republika Hrvatska podnijela zahtjev za članstvo u Europskoj uniji?, uprava.gov.hr, was given the status of candidate country in 2004,WEB,weblink Kako je izgledao put Republike Hrvatske ka punopravnom članstvu u Europskoj uniji?, uprava.gov.hr, and began accession negotiations in 2005.WEB,weblink Evo kako je izgledao hrvatski put prema EU!, In November 2000 and March 2001, the Parliament amended the Constitution changing its bicameral structure back into historic unicameral and reducing the presidential powers.WEB,weblink History and Development of Croatian Constitutional Judicature - Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia, www.usud.hr, Although Croatia experienced a significant boom in the economy in the early 2000s, the increase of the government debt and the absence of concrete reforms led to a financial crisis in 2008 which forced the government to cut public spending thus provoking a public outcry.Ivo Goldstein, Povijest Hrvatske 1945-2011, 3. svezak, EPH Media d.o.o. On 1 April 2009, Croatia joined NATO.WEB,weblink Hrvatska postala članica NATO saveza, A wave of anti-government protests organized via Facebook took place in early 2011 as general dissatisfaction with political and economic state grew.JOURNAL,weblink Et tu, Zagreb?, The Economist, 6 March 2011, The majority of Croatian voters voted in favour of country's EU membership at the 2012 referendum.WEB,weblink Croatia voters back EU membership, 1 June 2018, www.bbc.com, Croatia completed EU accession negotiations in 2011 and joined the European Union on 1 July 2013.WEB,weblink Croatia celebrates on joining EU, 1 July 2013, www.bbc.com, Croatia was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015 when Hungary's closure of its borders with Serbia forced over 700,000 migrants to use Croatia as a transit country on their way to Western Europe.WEB,weblink Šenada Šelo Šabić, Croatia's response to the refugee crisis, European Expression, Issue 100, 2016,

Geography

(File:Satellite image of Croatia in September 2003.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite image of Croatia)Croatia is located in Central and Southeast Europe, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. It borders Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.WEB, Croatian Bureau of Statistics,weblink 2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, December 2010, 7 October 2011, The territory covers {{convert|56594|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}}, consisting of {{convert|56414|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} of land and {{convert|128|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} of water. It is the 127th largest country in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps with the highest point of the Dinara peak at {{convert|1831|m|ft|abbr=off}} near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south to the shore of the Adriatic Sea which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which are permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres and Krk, each of them having an area of around {{convert|405|km2||abbr=off}}.File:Plitvice_Lakes_National_Park_(2).jpg|thumb|right|Plitvice Lakes is the most visited national park of Croatia]]File:Alančić_09.jpg|thumb|right|Velebit is the largest mountain rangemountain rangeThe hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje and the flat plains of Slavonia in the east which is part of the Pannonian Basin are traversed by major rivers such as Danube, Drava, Kupa, and Sava. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Vojvodina. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in the country in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, and hydropower. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps.WEB,weblink Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj, Presence of Karst in Croatia, Croatian, Croatian Geographic Society, 18 December 2006, Mate Matas, 18 October 2011, geografija.hr, 9 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120609163634weblink">weblink dmy, There are a number of deep caves in Croatia, 49 of which are deeper than {{convert|250|m|2|abbr=on}}, 14 of them deeper than {{convert|500|m|2|abbr=on}} and three deeper than {{convert|1000|m|2|abbr=on}}. Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue.WEB, BBC,weblink The best national parks of Europe, 28 June 2011, 11 October 2011, 1 July 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120701184734weblink">weblink dmy,

Biodiversity

File:Telascica-Cliff.JPG|thumb|right|Telašćica Nature Park is one of 444 protected areas of Croatia ]]File:Kopački rit wooden trail.JPG|thumb|right|Wooden trail through nature park Kopački Rit in Osijek-Baranja CountyOsijek-Baranja CountyCroatia can be subdivided between a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology. The country is consequently one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia—Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and Continental in the remaining areas. One of the most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats.The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are the habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are also significantly present in the country, as they cover {{convert|2490000|ha||abbr=off}} representing 44% of Croatian land surface. Other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats.BOOK, State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia),weblink Biodiversity of Croatia, 2006, Jasminka Radović, Kristijan Čivić, Ramona Topić, 953-7169-20-0, 13 October 2011, In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.WEB, 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems,weblink Venue, 13 October 2011, There are 37,000 known species in Croatia, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000. The claim is supported by nearly 400 new taxa of invertebrates discovered in Croatia in the first half of the 2000s alone. There are more than a thousand endemic species, especially in Velebit and Biokovo mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species.The most serious threat to species is loss and degradation of habitats. A further problem is presented by invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia algae.The invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect the benthic habitat. Indigenous sorts of cultivated plants and breeds of domesticated animals are also numerous. Those include five breeds of horses, five breeds of cattle, eight breeds of sheep, two breeds of pigs, and a poultry breed. Even the indigenous breeds include nine endangered or critically endangered ones. There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in the preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network.

Climate

File:Winter bora in Senj.jpg|thumb|Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of SenjSenjMost of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between {{convert|-3|°C|°F|lk=on}} in January and {{convert|18|°C|°F|lk=off}} in July. The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar where snowy forested climate is found at elevations above {{convert|1200|m|ft|abbr=off}}. The warmest areas of Croatia are at the Adriatic coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by the Mediterranean climate, as the temperature highs are moderated by the sea. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas. The lowest temperature of {{convert|-35.5|°C|°F|lk=off}} was recorded on 3 February 1919 in ÄŒakovec, and the highest temperature of {{convert|42.8|°C|°F|lk=off}} was recorded on 4 August 1981 in Ploče.{{sfn|Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015||p=42}}WEB, NajviÅ¡a izmjerena temperatura zraka u Hrvatskoj za razdoblje od kada postoje meteoroloÅ¡ka motrenja,weblink Klima.hr, Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, 1 August 2017, hr, 21 July 2017, Mean annual precipitation ranges between {{convert|600|mm|in|abbr=off}} and {{convert|3500|mm|in|abbr=off}} depending on geographic region and prevailing climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (BiÅ¡evo, Lastovo, Svetac, Vis) and in the eastern parts of Slavonia. However, in the latter case, it occurs mostly during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara mountain range and in Gorski kotar.{{sfn|Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015|p=42}}Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area, prevailing winds are determined by local area features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as the cool northeasterly bura or less frequently as the warm southerly jugo. The sunniest parts of the country are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the middle and southern Adriatic Sea area in general, and northern Adriatic coast, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year.{{sfn|Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015|p=43}}

Politics

{{further|Politics of Croatia|Human rights in Croatia}}{{Wide image |File:St._Marks_Sq_Zagreb_pano.jpg|900px|St. Mark's Square in Zagreb – Left-to-right: Banski dvori official residence of the Croatian Government, St. Mark's Church and Croatian Parliament}}The Republic of Croatia is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance. With the collapse of the ruling communist party in SFR Yugoslavia, Croatia organized its first multi-party elections and adopted its present constitution in 1990.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Evolution in Europe; Conservatives Win in Croatia, 9 May 1990, 14 October 2011, It declared independence on 8 October 1991 which led to the break-up of Yugoslavia and countries international recognition by the United Nations in 1992. Under its 1990 Constitution, Croatia operated a semi-presidential system until 2000 when it switched to a parliamentary system.NEWS, BBC News,weblink Croatia country profile, 20 July 2011, 14 October 2011, Government powers in Croatia are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers.WEB, Government of Croatia,weblink Political Structure, 6 May 2007, 14 October 2011, File:Vlada predstavljanje.jpg|thumb|right|Grand Hall of the Croatian Parliament − SaborCroatian Parliament − SaborThe President of the Republic () is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. The most recent presidential elections were held on 11 January 2015, when Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović won. She took the oath of office on 15 February 2015.WEB, Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia,weblink Ivo Josipović – biography, 14 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110924132153weblink">weblink 24 September 2011, dmy-all, The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity.WEB, Government of Croatia,weblink Members of the Government, 14 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130604052735weblink">weblink 4 June 2013, dmy-all, As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The Government is seated at Banski dvori in Zagreb. Since 19 October 2016, Croatian Prime Minister has been Andrej Plenković.A unicameral parliament () holds legislative power. A second chamber, the House of Counties, set up in 1993 pursuant to the 1990 Constitution, was abolished in 2001. The number of Sabor members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The sessions of the Sabor take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December.WEB, Sabor,weblink About the Parliament, 14 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160706061905weblink">weblink 6 July 2016, dead, dmy-all, The two largest political parties in Croatia are the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.WEB, Sabor, Members of the 6th Parliament,weblink 14 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160706062229weblink">weblink 6 July 2016, dead, dmy-all,

Law and judicial system

{{further|Law of Croatia}}File:Ustavni sud RH nakon obnove.jpg|thumb|Seat of the Constitutional Court on the St. Mark's Square, ZagrebSt. Mark's Square, ZagrebCroatia has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving merely as implementers and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by German and Austrian legal systems. Croatian law is divided into two principal areas—private and public law. By the time EU accession negotiations were completed on 30 June 2010, Croatian legislation was fully harmonised with the Community acquis.WEB, Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Croatia,weblink Overview of EU–Croatia relations, 14 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120326105744weblink">weblink 26 March 2012, dmy-all, The main law in the county is the Constitution adopted on December 22, 1990.The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. In addition, there are also Administrative, Commercial, County, Misdemeanor, and Municipal courts.WEB, Croatian Supreme Court,weblink Croatian, Ustavne odredbe, Provisions of the Constitution, 21 May 2010, 14 October 2011, Cases falling within judicial jurisdiction are in the first instance decided by a single professional judge, while appeals are deliberated in mixed tribunals of professional judges. Lay magistrates also participate in trials.WEB,weblink Zakon o sudovima, State's Attorney Office is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors that is empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences.WEB,weblink Državno odvjetništvo Republike Hrvatske, www.dorh.hr, Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. Croatia's security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (SOA).

Administrative divisions

{{Further|Counties of Croatia|NUTS of Croatia}}Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages.JOURNAL, Školska knjiga, Historijski Zbornik, 5, 1–2, 1952,weblink Oleg Mandić, Croatian, O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku, On some issues of social system of Croatia in the Middle Ages, 131–138, 9 September 2011, The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, and Istria. The traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|p=429}}File:Varaždin - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Varaždin, capital of Croatia between 1767 and 1776, is the seat of Varaždin county; Pictured: Old Town fortress, one of 15 Croatia's sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list ]]Communist-ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions. In 1918, the Transleithanian part of Croatia was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Osijek, Požega, Varaždin, Vukovar, and Zagreb, and the 1992 legislation established 14 counties in the same territory.{{sfn|Biondich|2000|p=11}}NEWS, Narodne novine, 30 December 1992, 9 September 2011, Croatian, Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj, Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828162010weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. Borders of the counties changed in some instances since, with the latest revision taking place in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities.NEWS, Narodne novine, 28 July 2006, 9 September 2011, Croatian, Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj, Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act,weblink Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level places the entire country in a single unit, while there are three NUTS 2 regions. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, and Adriatic Croatia. The latter encompasses all the counties along the Adriatic coast. Northwest Croatia includes Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Međimurje, Varaždin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb counties and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar-Syrmia counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS Local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to the cities and municipalities of Croatia.WEB, Council of Europe, Croatian,weblink Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska, Croatia National Report, January 2010, 25 February 2012, {{Croatian counties|style=float:left; font-size:95%; border:3px; max-width:480px; width:50%;}}{| class="sortable wikitable" cellspacing=2 style="margin-top:7px; margin-right:0px; background:none; text-align:left; font-size:90%;" style="font-size:100%; text-align:right;"! County !! Seat !! Area (km²)!! PopulationBjelovar-Bilogora County>Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"119,743Brod-Posavina County>Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"158,559Dubrovnik-Neretva County>Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"122,783Istria County>Istria Pazin style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"208,440Karlovac County>Karlovac Karlovac style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"128,749Koprivnica-Križevci County>Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"115,582Krapina-Zagorje County>Krapina-Zagorje Krapina style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"133,064Lika-Senj County>Lika-Senj Gospić style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"51,022Međimurje County>Međimurje Čakovec style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"114,414Osijek-Baranja County>Osijek-Baranja Osijek style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"304,899Požega-Slavonia County>Požega-Slavonia Požega, Croatia >1,845 style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"|78,031Primorje-Gorski Kotar County>Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"296,123Šibenik-Knin County>Šibenik-Knin Šibenik style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"109,320Sisak-Moslavina County>Sisak-Moslavina Sisak style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"172,977Split-Dalmatia County>Split-Dalmatia Split, Croatia >4,534 style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"|455,242Varaždin County>Varaždin Varaždin style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"176,046Virovitica-Podravina County>Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"84,586Vukovar-Srijem County>Vukovar-Srijem Vukovar style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"180,117Zadar County>Zadar Zadar style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"170,398Zagreb County >3,078 style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"|317,642City of Zagreb >641 style="text-align:right;padding-right:2px"|792,875

Foreign relations

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries.WEB, t-portal,weblink Croatian, S kojim državama nemamo diplomatske odnose?, Which countries do we have no diplomatic relations with?, Drago Pilsel, 5 May 2011, 24 September 2011, {{As of|2017}}, Croatia maintains a network of 54 embassies, 28 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and UNICEF.WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia),weblink Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices to Croatia, 24 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928000722weblink">weblink 28 September 2011, dmy-all, In 2009, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381 personnel and expended 648.2 million kuna (€86.4 million).WEB, State Audit Office (Croatia), Croatian,weblink Izviješće o obavljenoj reviziji – Ministarstvo vanjskih poslova i europskih integracija, Audit Report – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, August 2010, 24 September 2010, Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia itself.WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia),weblink Foreign Policy Aims, 24 September 2011, File:Podizanje NATO zastave 070409 pano 1.jpg|thumb|right|Flag hoisting ceremony at Ministry of Defence marking Croatian accession to the NATONATOSince 2003, Croatian foreign policy has focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU).NEWS, Nacional (weekly), Nacional,weblink 517, hr, Mesićeva podrÅ¡ka UN-u blokira ulazak Hrvatske u NATO, Mesić's support to the UN blocks Croatian NATO accession, 17 October 2005, Eduard Å oÅ¡tarić, 24 September 2011, 18 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418224342weblink">weblink dmy, WEB, Sabor,weblink Izvješća o aktivnostima saborskih dužnosnika – rujan 2005: Odbor za parlamentarnu suradnju i odnose s javnošću SkupÅ¡tine Zapadnoeuropske unije posjetio Hrvatski sabor, Report on activities of Parliament officials – September 2005: Western European Union parliamentary cooperation and public relations committee visits Croatian Parliament, Croatian, 26 September 2005, 24 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118190958weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, dead, dmy-all, In December 2011, Croatia completed the EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011.WEB,weblink EU closes accession negotiations with Croatia, 30 June 2011, European Commission, 24 September 2011, WEB, European Union,weblink Croatia signs EU accession treaty, 9 December 2011, 12 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120123185048weblink">weblink 23 January 2012, dmy-all, Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 marking the end of a process started in 2001 by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement and Croatian application for the EU membership in 2003.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Croatia Given Conditional Approval to Join E.U. in 2013, 10 June 2011, Stephen Castle, 24 September 2011, A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia–Slovenia border disputes.NEWS, BBC News,weblink EU stalls over talks with Croatia, 10 March 2005, 22 December 2011, NEWS, BBC News, Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid,weblink 11 September 2009, 22 December 2011, The latter should be resolved through an Arbitration Agreement of 4 November 2009, approved by national parliaments and a referendum in Slovenia.,NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Slovenians Seem to Favor Arbitration in Border Dispute With Croatia, 6 June 2010, Reuters, 24 September 2011, but due to the events during arbitration Croatia does not accept results. As of 2019, Croatia has unsolved border issues with all neighbouring former Yugoslav countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia).NEWS, www.total-croatia-news.com,weblink Overview of Croatia's Border Disputes with BiH, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Liberland, 22 January 2017, 1 January 2019, Another strategic Croatian foreign policy goal for the 2000s was NATO membership. Croatia was included in the Partnership for Peace in 2000, invited to NATO membership in 2008 and formally joined the alliance on 1 April 2009.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Bush Champions Expansive Mission for NATO, 5 April 2008, Steven Lee Myers, 24 September 2011, NEWS, BBC News,weblink Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia, 1 April 2009, 24 September 2011, Croatia became a member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming presidency in December 2008.WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia),weblink Membership of the Republic of Croatia in the UN Security Council 2008–2009, 24 September 2011,weblink" title="archive.today/20130107231744weblink">weblink dead, 7 January 2013, The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area.NEWS,weblink Karamarko: Granični nadzor prema EU ukidamo 2015., Karamarko: Border control towards the EU shall be abolished in 2015, Croatian, Stojan de Prato, 4 February 2011, Večernji list, 2 July 2011,

Military

File:US Navy 021029-N-1955P-020 Navy aircraft participate in Joint Wings 2002.jpg|thumb|Croatian Air Force and US NavyUS NavyFile:Providing security (7296490988).jpg|thumb|Croatian army soldiers - training exercise during the Immediate Response 2012 (IR12) training event held in SlunjSlunjThe Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President of Croatia. According to the constitution, the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and in case of immediate threat during wartime he issues orders directly to the General Staff.WEB,weblink Chain of Command in the CAF, Croatian Ministry of Defence, 2 July 2012, Following the 1991–95 war defence spending and CAF size have been in constant decline. {{As of|2005}} military spending was an estimated 2.39% of the country's GDP, which placed Croatia 64th in a ranking of all countries.WEB,weblink World Factbook, 9 September 2011, Central Intelligence Agency, Since 2005 the budget was kept below 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994.WEB,weblink SIPRI Military Expenditure Database, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 9 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328072123weblink">weblink 28 March 2010, Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, CAF also went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years prior to Croatia's accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006 the CAF is set to employ 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between the ages of 18 and 30 in peacetime.Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008. Until 2008 military service was compulsory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for an eight-month civilian service.NEWS,weblink Vojni rok u Hrvatskoj kraći, nego drugdje u Europi i NATO-u, Milan Jelovac, 23 January 2001, Vjesnik, Croatian, 9 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120127065234weblink">weblink 27 January 2012, dead, dmy-all, {{As of|2011|4}} the Croatian military had 120 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces, including 95 serving as part of the UNDOF in the Golan Heights.WEB,weblink Broj pripadnika OSRH u mirovnim misijama UN-a, 16 April 2011, Croatian Ministry of Defence, Croatian, 9 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120319094842weblink">weblink 19 March 2012, dmy-all, {{As of|2011}} an additional 350 troops serve as part of the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and another 20 with the KFOR in Kosovo.NEWS,weblink Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan, 8 December 2010, eZadar, Croatian, 9 September 2011, NEWS,weblink Kosorica u službenom posjetu Kosovu, 24 August 2011, Index.hr, Croatian, 9 September 2011, Croatia also has a significant military industry sector which exported around US$120 million worth of military equipment and armament in 2010.NEWS,weblink 4 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120404120455weblink">weblink Hrvatski izvoz oružja i opreme lani narastao na 650 milijuna kuna, Franičević, Mile, 6 March 2011, Vjesnik, Croatian, 9 September 2011, dmy-all, Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000 manufactured by HS Produkt and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are also locally produced and successfully marketed to other countries.

Economy

{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;" style="background:#efefef;"! colspan=5 style="text-align:center;"| The largest Croatian companies by turnover in 2015WEB, Deloitte,weblink Croatian, 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe, 500 largest Central European companies, 9 September 2011, 2016, WEB, Deloitte, Croatian,weblink Rang lista 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe, Ranking of the 500 Largest Central European Companies, 9 September 2016, ! style="text-align:center;"| Rank|| style="text-align:center;"| Name|| style="text-align:center;"| Revenue(Mil. â‚¬) || style="text-align:center;"| Profit(Mil. â‚¬) Agrokor {{increase}} 6,435 {{increase}} 131 INA (company) >| {{increase}} 122 Konzum {{increase}} 1,711 {{increase}} 18 Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) {{increase}} 1,694 {{decrease}} 260 List of companies of Croatia >| {{increase}} 17Croatia is classified as a high-income economy by the United Nations.WEB,weblink World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017, 156, United Nations, 2017, 25 September 2017, International Monetary Fund data projects that Croatian nominal GDP stands at $60,688 billion, or $14,816 per capita for 2018, while purchasing power parity GDP stands at $107.406 billion, or $26,221 per capita.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018, International Monetary Fund, IMF.org, 1 February 2019, According to Eurostat, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 63% of the EU average in 2018.WEB,weblink GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat, ec.europa.eu, 1 February 2019, Real GDP growth in 2018 was 2,6 per cent.WEB,weblink Real GDP growth rate, Eurostat, 21 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060822000014weblink">weblink 22 August 2006, dead, dmy, The average net salary of a Croatian worker in January 2019 was 6,400 HRK per month (roughly 865 EUR), and the average gross salary was 8,670 HRK per month (roughly 1,175 EUR).WEB,weblink Republic Of Croatia – Croatian Bureau Of Statistics, Dzs.hr, 23 March 2017, {{as of|2019|July}}, the unemployment rate dropped to 7.2% from 9.6% in December 2018. The number of unemployed persons was 106.703. Unemployment Rate in Croatia in years 1996–2018 averaged 17.38%, reaching an all-time high of 23.60% in January 2002 and a record low of 8.40% in September 2018.WEB,weblink Croatia Unemployment Rate, The Global Economy.com, 3 February 2019, In 2017, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 70.1% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 26.2% and agriculture accounting for 3.7% of GDP.WEB,weblink Europe :: Croatia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, According to 2017 data, 1.9% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 27.3% by industry and 70.8% in services. The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. In 2018, Croatian exports were valued at 108  billion kuna (€14.61 billion) with 176 billion kuna (€23.82 billion) worth of imports. Croatia's largest trading partner was the rest of the European Union, with top three countries being Germany, Italy and Slovenia.WEB,weblink ROBNA RAZMJENA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE S INOZEMSTVOM U 2018.KONAÄŒNI PODACI/FOREIGN TRADE IN GOODS OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA, 2018 FINAL DATA, www.dzs.hr, File:Istria3.JPG|thumb|Istrian vineyards; Wine is produced in nearly all regions of Croatia]]Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditures accounting for as much as 40% of GDP.WEB,weblink Background Note: Croatia, United States Department of State, 4 December 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100527221958weblink">weblink 27 May 2010, dmy-all, A backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially on issues of land ownership and corruption, are particular concerns. In the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index, published by Transparency International, the country is ranked 60th with a score of 48, where zero denotes "highly corrupt" and 100 "very clean".WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 12, Transparency International, transparency.org, 1 February 2019, In June 2013, the national debt stood at 59.5% of the nation's GDP.WEB,weblink Croatia National Debt on Country Economy, countryeconomy.com, 3 December 2013,

Tourism

File:Island Brac (20785918360).jpg|thumb|upright=1.0|Zlatni Rat beach on the Island of Brač is one of the foremost spots of tourism in Croatiatourism in CroatiaTourism dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of Croatian GDP. Annual tourist industry income for 2017 was estimated at €9.5 billion.WEB,weblink Prihodi u 2017. najbolje pokazuju napredak hrvatskog turizma, Revenue in 2017 show best Croatian tourism's progress, hr.n1info.com, N1 (television), N1, hr, 30 March 2018, 22 April 2018, dmy-all, Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy of Croatia in terms of increased business volume observed in retail business, processing industry orders and summer seasonal employment. The industry is considered an export business, because it significantly reduces the country's external trade imbalance.NEWS, Vjesnik,weblink 14 June 2012, dead,weblink Croatian, Iako čini gotovo petinu BDP-a, i dalje niskoprofitabilna grana domaće privrede, Even though it comprises nearly a fifth of the GDP, it is still a low-profit branch of the national economy, Tomislav Pili, Davor Verković, 1 October 2011, 20 October 2011, dmy-all, Since the end of the Croatian War of Independence, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers, with more than 11 million tourists each year.{{sfn|2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|p=412}} The most numerous are tourists from Germany, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, and Poland as well as Croatia itself.{{sfn|2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|p=415}} Length of a tourist stay in Croatia averaged 4.9 days in 2011.WEB, T-Hrvatski Telekom, t-portal.hr, Croatian,weblink 14 September 2011, Turistički prihod porast će prvi put nakon 2008., Tourist income to rise for the first time since 2008, 21 October 2011, The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Opatija was the first holiday resort. It first became popular in the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it had become one of the most significant European health resorts.WEB, Opatija Tourist Board,weblink History of Opatija, 21 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120429102936weblink">weblink 29 April 2012, dmy-all, Later a number of resorts sprang up along the coast and islands, offering services catering to both mass tourism and various niche markets. The most significant are nautical tourism, as there are numerous marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on appeal of medieval coastal cities and numerous cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer agrotourism, mountain resorts, and spas. Zagreb is also a significant tourist destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts.WEB, Croatian National Tourist Board,weblink Activities and attractions, 21 October 2011, Croatia has unpolluted marine areas reflected through numerous nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches.WEB,weblink Croatia, 21 October 2011, Foundation for Environmental Education, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111202124844weblink">weblink 2 December 2011, dmy-all, Croatia is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world.WEB,weblink UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, October 2007, 23 April 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130910050655weblink">weblink 10 September 2013, dmy-all, About 15% of these visitors, or over one million per year, are involved with naturism, an industry for which Croatia is world-famous. It was also the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts.WEB,weblink Croatian highlights, Croatia, Euro-poi.com, 26 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130224034343weblink">weblink 24 February 2013, dmy-all,

Infrastructure

{{See also|Transport in Croatia|Energy in Croatia}}File:Krk_Bridge_Tihi_Kanal-2.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.0|Krk BridgeKrk BridgeFile:Kroatien Autobahnen (aktueller Stand).svg|thumb|Highway network in Croatia ]]File:Zagreb_Airport_New_Terminal.jpg|thumb|right|New terminal of the Franjo Tudjman Airport ]]The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly developed motorway network, largely built in the late 1990s and especially in the 2000s (decade). By September 2011, Croatia had completed more than {{convert|1100|km|abbr=off}} of motorways, connecting Zagreb to most other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors.JOURNAL, University of Rijeka, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies,weblink The integration of the Republic of Croatia into the Pan-European transport corridor network, Tanja Poletan Jugović, Pomorstvo, 20, 1, 49–65, 11 April 2006, 14 October 2010, NEWS, Narodne Novine, Croatian,weblink Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste, Decision on classification of public roads as motorways, 25 July 2007, 18 October 2010, NEWS, Narodne Novine, Croatian,weblink Odluka o izmjenama i dopunama odluke o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste, Decision on amendments and additions to the Decision on classification of public roads as motorways, 30 January 2009, 18 October 2010, The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and the A3, passing east–west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia.WEB, Hrvatske ceste,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221195254weblink">weblink dead, 21 February 2011, Traffic counting on the roadways of Croatia in 2009 – digest, 1 May 2010, A widespread network of state roads in Croatia acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting all major settlements in the country. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by several EuroTAP and EuroTest programs.WEB,weblink EuroTest, Eurotestmobility.com, 3 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110430010646weblink">weblink 30 April 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel, Javno.com, 3 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090115220041weblink">weblink 15 January 2009, dmy-all, Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning {{convert|2722|km|abbr=off}}, including {{convert|984|km|abbr=off}} of electrified railways and {{convert|254|km|abbr=off}} of double track railways.{{sfn|2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|p=346}} The most significant railways in Croatia are found within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb. All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways.NEWS, Vjesnik, Skuplje koriÅ¡tenje pruga uniÅ¡tava HŽ, More Expensive Railway Fees Ruin Croatian Railways, Croatian, 10 May 2011, Tomislav Pili,weblink 14 June 2012, dead,weblink 26 October 2011, dmy-all, There are international airports in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, and Zagreb.WEB, Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia),weblink Air transport, 10 October 2011, The largest and busiest is Franjo TuÄ‘man Airport in Zagreb.WEB,weblinkSjednice/2016/5+sjednica+Vlade5+-+8.pdf, Wayback Machine, 5 March 2016, 30 March 2018, bot: unknown,weblinkSjednice/2016/5%20sjednica%20Vlade5%20-%208.pdf, 5 March 2016, dmy-all, {{as of|2011|January}}, Croatia complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating.WEB,weblink FAA Raises Safety Rating for Croatia, Federal Aviation Administration, 26 January 2011, 27 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130626094211weblink">weblink 26 June 2013, dead, dmy-all, The busiest cargo seaport in Croatia is the Port of Rijeka and the busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar.WEB, World Bank, Croatian, Riječka luka –jadranski "prolaz" prema Europi, The Port of Rijeka – Adriatic "gateway" to Europe, 3 March 2006, 13 October 2011,weblink {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB, Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia),weblink Luke, Ports, Croatian, 24 August 2011, In addition to those, a large number of minor ports serve an extensive system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in addition to ferry lines to several cities in Italy.WEB, Agencija za obalni linijski pomorski promet,weblink Croatian, Plovidbeni red za 2011. godinu, Sailing Schedule for Year 2011, 27 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715203314weblink">weblink 15 July 2011, dmy-all, The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII.WEB, Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia),weblink Plovni putovi, Navigable routes, Croatian, 10 September 2011, There are {{convert|610|km|abbr=off}} of crude oil pipelines in Croatia, connecting the Port of Rijeka oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, as well as several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year.WEB, Jadranski naftovod,weblink The JANAF system, 8 October 2011, The natural gas transportation system comprises {{convert|2113|km|abbr=off}} of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems.WEB, Plinacro,weblink Transportni sustav, Transport system, Croatian, 8 October 2011, Croatian production of energy sources covers 85% of nationwide natural gas demand and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production structure comprised use of natural gas (47.7%), crude oil (18.0%), fuel wood (8.4%), hydro power (25.4%) and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production in Croatia reached 12,725 GWh and Croatia imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs. The bulk of Croatian imports are supplied by the KrÅ¡ko Nuclear Power Plant, 50% owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity.WEB, EU Business,weblink Croatia, Slovenia's nuclear plant safe: Croatian president, 28 March 2011, 8 October 2011,

Demographics

With an estimated population of 4.13 million in 2019, Croatia ranks 127th by population in the world.World Population Prospects 2019, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Its population density stood in 2018 at 72,9 inhabitants per square kilometer, making Croatia one of the more sparsely populated European countries.WEB,weblink Croatia in Figures, 9 September 2019, Croatian Bureau of StatisticsList of countries by life expectancy>life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 76.3 years in 2018.{{Largest cities of Croatia}}{{Clear}}{{Historical populations|type =|footnote = As of 29 June 2011 2854558 3161456 3460584 3443375 3785455 3779958 3936022 4159696 4426221 4601469 4784265 4492049 4456096}}The total fertility rate of 1.41 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 6.18 children born per woman in 1885.{{citation|url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/children-born-per-woman?year=1800&country=AUT|title=Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries|author=Max Roser|date=2014|work=Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation}} Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. Croatia subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.3 years.{{citation|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hr.html|title= The World FactBook - Croatia|date=July 12, 2018|work=The World Factbook}}{{PD-notice}} Since the late 1990s, there has been a positive net migration into Croatia, reaching a level of more than 26,000 net immigrants in 2018.WEB, Limun.hr,weblink U Hrvatskoj dvostruko viÅ¡e doseljenika, Twice as many immigrants in Croatia, 21 July 2007, 12 October 2011, WEB,weblink MIGRACIJA STANOVNIÅ TVA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE U 2018./MIGRATION OF POPULATION OF REPUBLIC OF CROATIA, 2018, www.dzs.hr, The Croatian Bureau of Statistics forecast that the population may shrink to 3.85 million by 2061, depending on actual birth rate and the level of net migration.WEB, Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Croatian,weblink Projekcija stanovniÅ¡tva Republike Hrvatske 2010. – 2061., Projection of Population of the Republic of Croatia 2010–2061, 2011, 9 September 2019, The population of Croatia rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with exception of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following two world wars. The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s.JOURNAL, Snježana MrÄ‘en, Mladen Friganović, June 1998, The demographic situation in Croatia, Geoadria, Hrvatsko geografsko druÅ¡tvo – Zadar, 1331-2294, 3, 1, 29–56,weblink 10.15291/geoadria.45, In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured each year to increase permit quotas for foreign workers, reaching an all-time high of 68.100 in 2019.WEB,weblink Vlada usliÅ¡ila molbe: Povećane kvote dozvola za strane radnike, www.vecernji.hr, In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia is trying to entice emigrants to return.JOURNAL, Politička Misao: Croatian Political Science Review, 0032-3241, 35, 5, 2008,weblink The Policy of Immigration in Croatia, Nick Vidak, 57–75, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science, 15 October 2010, File:Croatiapop.svg|thumb|left|Population pyramidPopulation pyramidThe population decrease was also a result of the Croatian War of Independence. During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly occupied areas, more than 400,000 Croats were either removed from their homes by the rebel Serb forces or fled the violence.WEB,weblink Summary of judgement for Milan Martić, 12 June 2007, United Nations, 21 June 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071215084458weblink">weblink 15 December 2007, dead, During the final days of the war in 1995, about 150−200,000 Serbs fled before the arrival of Croatian forces during the Operation Storm.NEWS, {{harvid, BBC News, 5 August 2005, |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4747379.stm|publisher=BBC News|title=Evicted Serbs remember Storm|date=5 August 2005|first=Matt|last=Prodger|authorlink=Matt Prodger|archivedate=23 October 2012|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121023091143weblink|url-status=live}}WEB, {{harvid, UNSC, 23 August 1995, |url=https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/1995/730|format=PDF|date=23 August 1995|publisher=United Nations Security Council|title=Report of the Secretary-General Submitted Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1009 (1995)|page=3}} After the war, the number of displaced persons fell to about 250,000. The Croatian government has taken care of displaced persons by the social security system, and since December 1991 through the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees.WEB, Domovinski rat - Hrvatska enciklopedija,weblink 24 December 2018, Most of the territories which were abandoned during the Croatian War of Independence were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly from north-western Bosnia, while some of the displaced people returned to their homes.WEB, Index.hr,weblink Croatian, Savez udruga Hrvata iz BiH izabrao novo čelniÅ¡tvo, Union of associations of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats elects new leadership, 28 June 2003, 12 October 2011, WEB, Office of the President of Croatia,weblink Croatian, 29 06 2010 – Benkovac, 29 June 2010, 12 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101127220818weblink">weblink 27 November 2010, According to the 2013 United Nations report, 17.6% of Croatia's population were foreign-born immigrants.WEB,weblink International Migration and Development, esa.un.org, Majority of the inhabitants of Croatia are Croats (90.4%), followed by Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks (0.73%), Italians (0.42%), Albanians (0.41%, Roma (0.40%), Hungarians (0.33%), Slovenes (0.25%), Czechs (0.22%), Montenegrins (0.11%), Slovaks (0.11%), Macedonians (0.10%), and others (2.12%). Approximately 4 million Croats live abroad.WEB,weblink "U Hrvatskoj je loÅ¡e i preporučam svakom mladom čovjeku da ode u Njemačku", Dnevnik.hr,

Religion

{{bar boxTITLE=4. POPULATION BY ETHNICITY AND RELIGIONCROATIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS>ACCESSDATE=17 DECEMBER 2012, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Roman Catholicism|yellow|86.28}}{{bar percent|Eastern Orthodoxy|darkred|4.44}}{{bar percent|Islam|Green|1.47}}{{bar percent|Protestantism|blue|0.34}}{{bar percent|Atheism or Agnosticism|black|4.57}}{{bar percent|Others and unspecified|grey|3.24}}}}Croatia has no official religion. Freedom of religion is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal before the law and separated from the state.Croatian Constitution, Article 41According to the 2011 census, 91.36% of Croatians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 86.28% of the population, after which follows Eastern Orthodoxy (4.44%), Protestantism (0.34%) and other Christian (0.30%). The largest religion after Christianity is Islam (1.47%). 4.57% of the population describe themselves as non-religious.{{Croatian Census 2011|R}}File:Å ibenik, Katedrala sv. Jakova - sjeveroistok.jpg|thumb|right| Cathedral of St. James in Å ibenik was included on the UNESCO Cultural World Heritage List in 20002000In the Eurostat Eurobarometer Poll of 2010, 69% of the population of Croatia responded that "they believe there is a God".WEB, Special Eurobarometer 341, "Biotechnology",weblink 209, In a 2009 Gallup poll, 70% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?"WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131014034457weblink">weblink 14 October 2013, Gallup Global Reports, Gallup (company), Gallup, 7 October 2013, However, only 24% of the population attends religious services regularly.WEB,weblink Final Topline, 19 June 2017, Pew,

Languages

Croatian is the official language of Croatia, and became the 24th official language of the European Union upon its accession in 2013.NEWS, Narodne Novine, Croatian,weblink Ustav Republike Hrvatske, Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, 9 July 2010, 11 October 2011, NEWS, Večernji list, Croatian,weblink Hrvatski postaje 24. službeni jezik Europske unije, Croatian Becomes the 24th Official Language of the European Union, 5 November 2011, Sandra Veljković, Stojan de Prato, 11 October 2011, Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian, and Slovak.WEB, Sabor,weblink Izviješće o provođenju ustavnog zakona o pravima nacionalnih manjina i utrošku sredstava osiguranih u državnom proračunu Republike Hrvatske za 2007. godinu za potrebe nacionalnih manjina, Croatian, Report on Implementation of Constitutional Act on National Minority Rights and Expenditure of Funds Appropriated by the 2007 State Budget for Use by the National Minorities, 28 November 2008, 27 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509061001weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, (File:Hrvatska narječja.png|thumb|Map of the dialects of Croatia)According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens of Croatia declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language is represented in Croatia by more than 0.5% of native speakers among population of Croatia.{{Croatian Census 2011|T}} Croatian is a member of the South Slavic languages of Slavic languages group, and is written using the Latin alphabet. There are three major dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, with standard Croatian based on the Shtokavian dialect. The Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are distinguished by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.WEB, Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics, Croatian, Organska podloga hrvatskog jezika, Organic Base of the Croatian Language,weblink 11 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110807082335weblink">weblink 7 August 2011, dmy-all, Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century.JOURNAL, Croatica et Slavica Iadertina, 1845-6839, Značenje narodnoga preporoda za hrvatski jezik, Significance of the National Revival for Croatian Language, Croatian, Branka Tafra, February 2007, 2,weblink 43–55, 10 October 2011, In Yugoslavia, from 1972 to 1989, the language was constitutionally designated as the "Croatian literary language" and the "Croatian or Serbian language". It was the result of the resistance to "Serbo-Croatian" in the form of a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language and Croatian Spring.JOURNAL, Kolo (magazine), Kolo, Matica hrvatska, 1331-0992, 2009, 1–2,weblink Položaj hrvatskoga jezika u svijetu danas, Position of Croatian Language in the World Today, Croatian, Mate Kapović, 26 October 2011, Croatians are protective of their Croatian language from foreign influences and are known for Croatian linguistic purism, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian, and Turkish words were changed and altered to Slavic looking or sounding ones).A 2011 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language.WEB, Index.hr,weblink Croatian, Istraživanje: Tri posto visokoobrazovanih ne zna niti jedan strani jezik, Hrvati uglavnom znaju engleski, Survey: Three per cent of higher educated people can not speak any foreign languages, Croats mostly speak English, 5 April 2011, 11 October 2011, According to a survey ordered by the European Commission in 2005, 49% of Croatians speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, 14% speak Italian, and 10% speak French. Russian is spoken by 4% each, and 2% of Croatians speak Spanish. However, there are large municipalities that have minority languages that include substantial populations that speak these languages. An odd-majority of Slovenes (59%) have a certain level of knowledge of Croatian.WEB,weblink February 2006, Europeans and their languages – European commission special barometer FEB2006, European Commission, 15 January 2010, The country is a part of various language-based international associations most notably the European Union Language Association.WEB,weblink Croatia, 2016-07-05, European Union, European Commission, en, 2018-03-02,

Education

File:University_of_Zagreb.jpg|thumb|right|University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern EuropeSoutheastern EuropeFile:Trg sv. Trojstva Osijek1.jpg|thumb|right|The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek ]]Literacy in Croatia stands at 99.2 per cent.WEB, Croatian Bureau of Statistics,weblink Population aged 10 and over by sex and illiterates by age, 2011 census, 26 December 2015, A worldwide study about the quality of living in different countries published by Newsweek in August 2010 ranked the Croatian education system at 22nd, to share the position with Austria.MAGAZINE,weblink Newsweek study of Health, Education, Economy and Politics ranks the globe's top nations, Newsweek, 15 August 2010, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100831130227weblink">weblink 31 August 2010, live, dmy, Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school.Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. {{As of|2017}}, there are 2,049 elementary schools and 701 schools providing various forms of secondary educationweblink Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognized minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Italian, Czech, German, Hungarian, and Serbian languages.{{sfn|2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|p=488}}File:National and University Library in Zagreb.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|National and University Library.]]There are 137 elementary and secondary level music and art schools, as well as 120 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults. Nationwide leaving exams () were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education.WEB, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Croatia), Croatian,weblink Državna matura, 12 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160326060402weblink">weblink 26 March 2016, dmy-all, Croatia has eight public universities, the University of Dubrovnik, University of Osijek, University of Pula, University of Rijeka, University of Split, University of Zadar and University of Zagreb, and two private universities, Catholic University of Croatia and Dubrovnik International University.WEB,weblink Institut za razvoj obrazovanja – Pregled institucija, Iro.hr, 2017-03-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306211642weblink">weblink 6 March 2017, dead, dmy-all, The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002.WEB, University of Zadar,weblink Croatian, O nama, About us, 15 October 2011, The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe.WEB, University of Zagreb,weblink University of Zagreb 1699–2005, 15 October 2011, There are also 15 polytechnics, of which two are private, and 30 higher education institutions, of which 27 are private. In total, there are 55 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 157 thousand students.There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008. Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡ković Institute in Zagreb.NEWS, Jutarnji list, Croatian,weblink 60. roÄ‘endan Instituta RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡ković: Svijetu je dao ciklotron, spojeve i novi katalizator, The 60th Anniversary of the RuÄ‘er BoÅ¡ković Institute: It Presented the World with a Cyclotron, Compounds and a New Catalyst, 9 June 2010, 12 October 2011, The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866.WEB, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts,weblink The Founding of the Academy, 12 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100606084626weblink">weblink 6 June 2010, dmy-all, Croatia has been the home of many (:Category:Croatian inventors|famous inventors), including Fausto Veranzio, Giovanni Luppis, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, Franjo Hanaman and Nikola Tesla, as well as scientists, such as Franciscus Patricius, Nikola NaljeÅ¡ković, Nikola Vitov Gučetić, Josip Franjo Domin, Marino Ghetaldi, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Andrija Mohorovičić, Ivan Supek, Ivan Đikić, Miroslav Radman and Marin Soljačić. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to two Croatian laureates, Lavoslav Ružička (1939) and Vladimir Prelog (1975).

Health

File:KBC Rebro aerial.jpg|thumb|right|University Hospital Centre ZagrebUniversity Hospital Centre ZagrebCroatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen.JOURNAL, Revija za socijalnu politiku, 1330-2965, SiniÅ¡a Zrinščak, Croatian, Socijalna politika u kontekstu korjenite druÅ¡tvene transformacije postkomunističkih zemalja, Social Policy in the Context of Thorough Social Transformation of Post-Communist Countries, 135–159, February 2003, 10, 2,weblink 12 October 2011, 10.3935/rsp.v10i2.124, The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2017, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 22.0 billion kuna (€3.0 billion).{{sfn|2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|p=549}} Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending.NEWS, Vjesnik, Croatian,weblink 17 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111217063855weblink">weblink Ulaskom u EU Hrvatska će imati najveću potroÅ¡nju za zdravstvo, After the EU accession Croatia will have the maximum healthcare spending, Marijana Matković, 27 September 2011, 12 October 2011, dead, dmy-all, In 2017, Croatia spent around 6.6% of its GDP on healthcare.WEB,weblink Puni džepovi: europski smo rekorderi potroÅ¡nje, imamo najskuplju vlast u cijeloj Europskoj uniji!, 30 March 2018, In 2015, Croatia ranked 36th in the world in life expectancy with 74.7 years for men and 81.2 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 3 per 1,000 live births.WEB,weblink Life expectancy increases by 5 years, but inequalities persist, World Health Organization, 30 March 2018, WEB,weblink World Population Prospects – Population Division, esa.un.org, United Nations, 30 March 2018, There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 79 hospitals and clinics with 23,967 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists. There are 6,379 private practice offices, and a total of 41,271 health workers in the country. There are 63 emergency medical service units, responding to more than a million calls. The principal cause of death in 2008 was cardiovascular disease at 43.5% for men and 57.2% for women, followed by tumours, at 29.4% for men and 21.4% for women. In 2009 only 13 Croatians had been infected with HIV/AIDS and six had died from the disease. In 2008 it was estimated by the WHO that 27.4% of Croatians over the age of 15 are smokers.WEB, Poslovni dnevnik,weblink U Hrvatskoj se puÅ¡i manje nego u EU, Fewer smokers in Croatia than in the EU, Croatian, 10 January 2008, Marija Crnjak, 12 October 2011, According to 2003 WHO data, 22% of the Croatian adult population is obese.WEB, World Health Organization,weblink Croatia, 12 October 2011,

Culture

File:TrogirView.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Historic centre of Trogir has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteBecause of its geographical position, Croatia represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroads of influences from western culture and the east—ever since the schism between the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire—and also from Mitteleuropa and Mediterranean culture.WEB, Croatian National Tourist Board,weblink Culture and History, 7 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111016185426weblink">weblink 16 October 2011, dmy-all, The Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th century proved crucial to the emancipation of the Croatian language and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures.The Ministry of Culture is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting the development of culture are undertaken at the local government level.WEB, Ministry of Culture (Croatia),weblink Croatian, Djelokrug, Scope of authority, 7 October 2011, The UNESCO's World Heritage List includes ten sites in Croatia. The country is also rich with intangible culture and holds 15 of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, ranking fourth in the world.WEB,weblink Browse the Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Register of good safeguarding practices – intangible heritage, UNESCO – Culture Sector, ich.unesco.org, A global cultural contribution from Croatia is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink STYLE; Dressed to Kill, Eric P. Nash, 30 July 1995, 12 October 2011, JOURNAL, Povijesni Prilozi,weblink 0351-9767, Croatian Institute of History, July 2008, 34, 34, 103–120, Vladimir Huzjan, PokuÅ¡aj otkrivanja nastanka i razvoja kravate kao riječi i odjevnoga predmeta, Croatian, The origin and development of the tie (kravata) as a word and as a garment, 17 October 2011, File:Trakošćan 2007.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Trakošćan CastleTrakošćan CastleFile:Dubrovnik june 2011..JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Historic centre of Dubrovnik has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteCroatia has 95 professional theatres, 30 professional children's theatres and 52 amateur theatres visited by more than 1.54 million viewers per year. The professional theatres employ 1,195 artists. There are 46 professional orchestras, ensembles, and choirs in the country, attracting an annual attendance of 317 thousand. There are 166 cinemas with attendance exceeding 4.814 million.{{sfn|2018 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|pp=512–513}}Croatia has 222 museums, visited by more than 2.7 million people in 2016. Furthermore, there are 1,768 libraries in the country, containing 26.8 million volumes, and 19 state archives.{{sfn|2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia|pp=520-521}}In 2010, 7,348 books and brochures were published, along with 2,676 magazines and 267 newspapers. There are also 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations operating in the country. In the past five years, film production in Croatia produced up to five feature films and 10 to 51 short films, with an additional 76 to 112 TV films. {{As of|2009}}, there are 784 amateur cultural and artistic associations and more than 10 thousand cultural, educational, and artistic events held annually. The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event—Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb Fair.NEWS, Jutarnji list,weblink Interliber: Nobelovci se prodaju za 20, bestseleri za 50, remek-djela za 100 kuna, Interliber: Nobel Laureates Sold for 20, Bestsellers for 50, Masterpieces for 100 Kuna, Croatian, Adriana PiteÅ¡a, 10 November 2010, 13 October 2011, Croatia is categorised as having established a very high level of human development in the Human Development Index, with a high degree of equality in HDI achievements between women and men. It promotes disability rights.WEB, European Union,weblink Conference on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Croatia, with regard to the persons with intellectual disabilities, 17 June 2009, 7 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509002650weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, dmy-all, Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia has gradually improved over the past decade, culminating in registered civil unions in July 2014, granting same-sex couples equal inheritance rights, tax deductions and limited adoption rights.NEWS, Croatia passes civil partnerships law,weblink 1 August 2014, PinkNews, 15 July 2014, However, in December 2013 Croatians voted in a constitutional referendum and approved changes to constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman.WEB,weblink Croats set constitutional bar to same-sex marriage, Radosavljević, Zoran, 1 December 2013, Reuters.com, 6 January 2014,

Arts and literature

File:Pula Arena, Istria, Croatia.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|1st-century Pula Arena was the sixth largest amphitheatre in the Roman EmpireRoman EmpireFile:Peristyle,_Split_1.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Historical nucleus of Split with the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteFile:de Gondola.jpg|thumb|upright|Ivan Gundulić, the most prominent{{Peacock term|date=September 2019}}Croatian Baroque poet ]]Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia and Istria exhibits Venetian influence.BOOK, A short history of Yugoslavia from early times to 1966, Cambridge University Press, CUP Archive, 978-0-521-09531-0, Stephen Clissold, Henry Clifford Darby,weblink 1968, 51–52, 30 November 2011, Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek (Tvrđa), Varaždin, and Karlovac.WEB,weblink Varaždin: Croatia's 'little Vienna', 17 June 2013, MacGregor, Sandra, Telegraph Media Group, 4 September 2013, NEWS, Jutarnji list,weblink Najljepši gradovi Sjeverne Hrvatske – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin, The Most Beautiful Cities of the Northern Croatia – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin, Croatian, 14 August 2010, 10 October 2011, Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture.JOURNAL, Radovi Instituta Za Povijest Umjetnosti, 0350-3437, Institute of Art History (Croatia), Croatian,weblink Darja Radović Mahečić, Sekvenca secesije – arhitekt Lav Kalda, Sequence of the Art Nouveau – Architect Lav Kalda, 2006, 30, 241–264, 10 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721100230weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, dmy-all, Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong Venetian and Renaissance influence in major urban areas exemplified in works of Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò Fiorentino such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik.The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Church of St. Donatus in Zadar.WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia),weblink Croatian Art History – Overview of Prehistory, 10 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111007184122weblink">weblink 7 October 2011, WEB, Zadar Tourist Board,weblink Church of Saint Donat, 10 October 2011, Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Croatia, there is a long history of artists in Croatia reaching the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture from Medieval Croatia. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea coast since the remainder of Croatia was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer.JOURNAL, Essehist, University of Osijek – Faculty of Philosophy, 1847-6236, September 2011, 2,weblink Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Rođeni Osječanin, Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Native of Osijek, Croatian, 70–73, Pavao Nujić, 10 October 2011, Croatian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Vlaho Bukovac and Ivan Meštrović.The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk island and dated to 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian.WEB, Island of Krk Tourist Board,weblink The Baška tablet, 13 October 2011, The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright and poet August Šenoa, children's writer Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, writer and journalist Marija Jurić Zagorka, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević and novelist and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature.WEB, Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography,weblink 11 February 2011, Croatian, Hrvatska književnost u 270.000 redaka, Croatian Literature in 270,000 Lines, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111217062534weblink">weblink 17 December 2011, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink A Reader's Guide to the Balkans, Robert D. Kaplan, 18 April 1993, The New York Times,

Media

In Croatia, the freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the Constitution.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Benfield, Richard W., Quick, Amanda C., World Press Encyclopedia, Croatia,weblink 13 September 2011, 2, Gale (publisher), Gale, 1, Detroit, 0-7876-5583-X, 2003, Croatia ranked 64th in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders which noted that journalists who investigate corruption, organised crime or war crimes face challenges and that the Government was trying to influence the public broadcaster HRT's editorial policies.WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2019, Reporters Without Borders, 10 September 2019, In its 2019 Freedom in the World report, the Freedom House classified freedoms of press and speech in Croatia as generally free from political interference and manipulation, noting that journalists still face threats and occasional attacksweblink The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society and culture.WEB, HINA,weblink About Hina, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011031419weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, dmy-all, File:Zgrada HRT Zagreb.jpg|thumb|Radio Zagreb, now a part of (Croatian Radiotelevision]], was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe.JOURNAL, Politička Misao, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences, 0032-3241, 38, 5, July 2002, Marina Mučalo: Radio in Croatia, book review, Darko Tomorad, 150–152, ){{as of|2018|December}}, there are fourteen nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT) operating four, Nova TV and RTL Televizija operating two of the channels each, and the remaining three operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o. and Author d.o.o. companies. In addition there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels.WEB, OdaÅ¡iljači i veze,weblink Popis programa digitalne televizije, List of Digital Television Programmes, Croatian, 23 December 2018, The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel.WEB, Croatian Radiotelevision,weblink HRT broadcasting via satellite, 20 May 2008, 13 October 2011, In 2018, there were 147 radio stations and 27 TV stations in Croatia.2018 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 510 Cable television and IPTV networks are gaining ground in the country, as the cable TV networks already serve 450 thousand people, 10% of the total population of the country.WEB, Lider,weblink Prva Internet televizija u Hrvatskoj, The First Internet Television in Croatia, Croatian, Sandra Babić, 15 January 2007, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111153124weblink">weblink 11 January 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, Jutarnji list,weblink Croatian, Već je 450 tisuća Hrvata preÅ¡lo na kabelsku i gleda 200 TV programa, 450 thousand Croats already switched to cable, watching 200 TV channels, Merita Arslani, 6 November 2010, 13 October 2011, In 2010, 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines were published in Croatia. The print media market is dominated by the Croatian-owned Hanza Media and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list, Večernji list and 24sata. Other influential newspapers are Novi list and Slobodna Dalmacija.WEB, Europapress Holding,weblink Print Products, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008011534weblink">weblink 8 October 2011, WEB, Styria Media Group,weblink Daily papers, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110921110603weblink">weblink 21 September 2011, In 2013, 24sata was the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list and Jutarnji list.JOURNAL,weblink Tisak u krizi: analiza trendova u Hrvatskoj od 2008. do 2013., Medijske Studije, 5, 10, December 2014, Vozab, Dina, hr, PDF, 26 December 2015, 141, Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT.NEWS, Jutarnji list,weblink Ministarstvo financira rekordan broj filmova, Ministry [of Culture] funding a record number of films, Croatian, 12 September 2006, Adriana PiteÅ¡a, 13 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120126125752weblink">weblink 26 January 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Croatian Radiotelevision,weblink Croatian, Potpora hrvatskim filmovima i koprodukcijama, Supporting Croatian Films and Co-Productions, 18 March 2011, 13 October 2011, Croatian cinema produces between five and ten feature films per year.BOOK, International Film Guide 2012, Ian Hayden, Smith, 2012, 978-1908215017, 94, Pula Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions.NEWS, Vjesnik,weblink 17 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111217063907weblink">weblink Trierova trijumfalna apokalipsa, Trier's Triumphant Apocalypse, Vedran Jerbić, 12 July 2011, 13 October 2011, Croatian, dmy-all, Animafest Zagreb, founded in 1972, is the prestigious annual film festival entirely dedicated to the animated film. The first greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by DuÅ¡an Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz ().NEWS, Vjesnik,weblink 17 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111217063842weblink">weblink "Surogat" napunio pola stoljeća, "Ersatz" celebrates half a century, Croatian, Božidar Trkulja, 29 May 2011, 13 October 2011, dmy-all, Croatian film producer Branko Lustig won the Academy Awards for Best Picture for Schindler's List and Gladiator.WEB, Total Croatia News,weblink Film Producer Branko Lustig Becomes Honorary Citizen of Zagreb, 10 September 2019,

Cuisine

File:Vino Teran (Croatia).jpg|thumb|190px|left|Teran wine from Istria CountyIstria CountyFile:Homar_3.jpg|thumb|190px|right|Lobster from DalmatiaDalmatiaCroatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia and Istria draw upon culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, as well as condiments such as olive oil and garlic. The continental cuisine is heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, and Turkish culinary styles. In that area, meats, freshwater fish and vegetable dishes are predominant.WEB, Croatian National Tourist Board,weblink 13 October 2011, Gastronomy and enology, There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental region in the northeast of the country, especially Slavonia, is capable of producing premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk wines are similar to those produced in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm. Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres. Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive production and consumption of beer started;NEWS,weblink Kako je pivo doÅ¡lo u Hrvatsku, Skenderović, Robert, 2002, Hrvatska revija, Croatian, 10 September 2011, the annual consumption of beer in 2008 was 83.3 litres per capita which placed Croatia in 15th place among the world's countries.WEB,weblink 2008 Per-Capita Beer Consumption by Country, 21 December 2009, Kirin Institute of Food and Lifestyle Report Vol. 22, Kirin Brewery Company, 10 September 2011,

Sports

File:Cilic_WM17_(30)_(36016692952).jpg|thumb|190px|left|Marin Čilić, Croatian professional tennistennisThere are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia.JOURNAL, JAHR, University of Rijeka,weblink Is sports system fair?, 1847-6376, 2, 3, May 2011, Biserka Perman, 8 October 2011, 159–171, Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are members of chess and contract bridge associations. Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.WEB, Croatian Football Federation,weblink About Croatian Football Federation, 8 October 2011, The Prva HNL football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the country. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators.WEB, Index.hr, Croatian,weblink Evo vam Lige 16: Na utakmicama HNL-a prosječno 1911, There's league 16: Average attendance at HNL matches stands at 1911, 24 May 2011, 8 October 2011, File:Croatia_WC2018_final.jpg|thumb|280px|Croatia national football team came in second at the 2018 World Cup ]]Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 44 Olympic medals, including 15 gold medals—at the1996 and 2004 Summer Olympics in handball, 2000 Summer Olympics in weightlifting, 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympics in alpine skiing, 2012 Summer Olympics in discus throw, trap shooting, and water polo, and in 2016 Summer Olympics in shooting, rowing, discus throw, sailing and javelin throw.WEB, Olympic medalists, Croatian Olympic Committee,weblink 9 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120121013401weblink">weblink 21 January 2012, dmy-all, In addition, Croatian athletes won 16 gold medals at world championships, including four in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics held in 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2017, one in handball at the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, two in water polo at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships and 2017 World Aquatics Championships, one in rowing at the 2010 World Rowing Championships, six in alpine skiing at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships held in 2003 and 2005 and two at the World Taekwondo Championships in 2011 and 2007. Croatian athletes also won Davis cup in 2005 and 2018. The Croatian national football team came in third in 1998 and second in the 2018 FIFA World Cup.Croatia hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games and several European Championships.The governing sports authority in the country is the Croatian Olympic Committee (), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games.WEB, Croatian Olympic Committee,weblink Croatian Olympic Committee, hoo.hr, 9 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110704233649weblink">weblink 4 July 2011, dmy-all,

See also

Notes

{{notelist|group=efn}}{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist}}

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  • BOOK, Frederic Chapin, Lane, Frederic C. Lane, Venice, a Maritime Republic, JHU Press, 1973, 978-0-8018-1460-0,weblink 18 October 2011, harv,
  • BOOK, Manus I., Midlarsky, The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century,weblink 25 March 2013, First, 20 October 2005, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-1-139-44539-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Branka, MagaÅ¡, Croatia Through History: The Making of a European State, Saqi Books, 2007, 978-0-86356-775-9,weblink 18 October 2011,
  • BOOK, Ivan, Mužić, Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća, Croatian Ninth Century History, Croatian,weblink 978-953-263-034-3, 2007, Naklada BoÅ¡ković, 14 October 2011, harv,
  • BOOK, Tomasevich, Jozo, 2001, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration, Stanford University Press, Stanford Univ, 978-0-8047-3615-2,weblink harv,
  • WEB, {{harvid, DIP, 1990 (a), |year=1990|publisher=Croatian State Electoral Committee|location=Zagreb, Croatia|language=Croatian|url=http://www.izbori.hr/arhiva/pdf/1990/1990_2_1_Sabor_Statistika_Stat_podaci.pdf|title=Statistički pokazatelji o provedenim izborima za zastupnike u Sabor Socijalističke Republike Hrvatske – Prilog|trans-title=Statistical Indicators on Performed Elections of Representatives in the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Croatia – Annex|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150514021334weblink|archivedate=14 May 2015|df=dmy-all}}
  • {{Croatia Yearbook 2013|ref={{SfnRef|2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia}}}}
  • {{Croatia Yearbook 2015|ref={{SfnRef|Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015}}}}

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