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Kosovo Force
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{{short description|North Atlantic Treaty Organisation-led international peacekeeping force}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2017}}







factoids
|size=3,500 personnel|nickname="KFOR"Major General>MG Lorenzo D'Addario, EI|garrison=|battles=Yugoslav Wars|notable_commanders=|website=weblinkbordercenter)Flag of NATO>Flag (2008–09)}}The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force in Kosovo. Its operations are gradually reducing until Kosovo's Security Force, established in 2009, becomes self sufficient.WEB, NATO's role in Kosovo,weblink nato.int, 6 December 2018, 29 November 2018, KFOR entered Kosovo on 11 June 1999,WEB,weblink Defense.gov News Article: Larger Kosovo Force Takes to Field, archive.defense.gov, en, 2017-04-08, two days after the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. At the time, Kosovo was facing a grave humanitarian crisis, with military forces from Yugoslavia in action against the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in daily engagements. Nearly one million people had fled Kosovo as refugees by that time, and many did not permanently return.KFOR is gradually transferring responsibilities to the Kosovo Police and other local authorities. Currently, 28 states contribute to the KFOR, with a combined strength of more than 3,500 military and civilian personnel.WEB, KFOR Key Facts and Figures,weblink nato.int, 25 May 2019,

Objectives

(File:KFOR Sectors 2002.jpg|thumb|300px|Map of the KFOR's sectors in 2002.)KFOR focuses on building a secure environment and guarantee the freedom of movement through all Kosovo territory for all citizens, irrespective of their ethnic origins, in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1244.The Contact Group countries have said publicly that KFOR will remain in Kosovo to provide the security necessary to support the final settlement of Kosovo authorities.WEB,weblink NATO Topics: Kosovo Force (KFOR) – How did it evolve?, Nato.int, 20 February 2008, 28 April 2010, 5 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110605181328weblink">weblink

Structure

(File:KFOR Structur.2006.PNG|thumb|300px|KFOR Task Forces, 2006)KFOR contingents were grouped into five multinational brigades and a lead nation designated for each multinational brigade.WEB,weblink Lessons from Kosovo: The KFOR Experience, Wentz, Larry, All national contingents pursued the same objective to maintain a secure environment in Kosovo.In August 2005, the North Atlantic Council decided to restructure KFOR, replacing the five existing multinational brigades with five task forces, to allow for greater flexibility with, removing restrictions on the cross-boundary movement of units based in different sectors of Kosovo. Then in February 2010, the Multinational Task Forces became Multinational Battle Groups and in March 2011, KFOR was restructured again, into just two multinational battlegroups; one based at Camp Bondsteel, and one based at Peć.NEWS,weblink 2 January 2011, US troops to guard Kosovo's border, Southeast European Times, setimes.com, Muhamet Brajshori, 29 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121103011449weblink">weblink 3 November 2012, In August 2019, the KFOR structure was streamlined. Under the new structure, the former Multinational Battlegroups are reflagged as Regional Commands, with Regional Command-East (RC-E) based at Camp Bondsteel, and Regional Command-West (RC-W) based at Camp Villaggio Italia.

Structure 2019

Contributing states

File:Turkish KFOR soldiers in riot training.jpg|thumb|Turkish Land ForcesTurkish Land Forces(File:German KFOR troops patrol southern Kosovo, summer 1999.jpg|thumb|German KFOR soldiers patrol southern Kosovo in 1999.)File:MSU_Carabinieri_2019.jpg|thumb|KFOR-MSU Carabinieri with two RG-12RG-12File:Kosovo-metohija-koreni-duse019.jpg|thumb|Italian Army KFOR soldier protecting Serb civilians in Orahovac during the 2004 unrest.]]At its height, KFOR troops consisted of 50,000 men and women coming from 39 different NATO and non-NATO nations. The official KFOR website indicated that in 2008 a total 14,000 soldiers from 34 countries were participating in KFOR.WEB,weblink KFOR Press Release, Nato.int, 28 April 2010, The following list shows the number of troops which have participated in the KFOR mission. Most of the force has been downsized since 2008; current numbers are reflected here as well:WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 5 October 2009, Kosovo Force (KFOR), NATO, 22 March 2013, WEB,weblink 20130422_130419-kfor-placemat, Nato.int, 22 April 2013, {| class="wikitable sortable"! rowspan="2" | Country! colspan="3" | Membership! rowspan="2" style="width:55px;" | Status! rowspan="2" | StrengthWEB, Contributing Nations,weblink JFC Naples, 25 August 2019, ! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Ref.! style="width:55px;" | UNWEB, Member states,weblink United Nations, 25 August 2019, ! style="width:55px;" | NATOWEB, NATO member countries,weblink NATO, 25 August 2019, ! style="width:55px;" | EUWEB, The 28 member countries of the EU,weblink European Union, 25 August 2019, Albania}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 29| Armenia}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 41| Austria}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 430| Bulgaria}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 22| Canada}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 5| Croatia}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 34| Czech Republic}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 10| Denmark}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 35| Estonia}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0WEBSITE=ERR.EE DATE=2 NOVEMBER 2018, Finland}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 20| France}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0TITLE=WITH MILITARY COMMITMENTS IN AFRICA, FRANCE TO LEAVE KOSOVO PUBLISHER=REUTERS LOCATION=PRISTINA, 28 November 2013, Georgia}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}Withdrawn}} 0WEBSITE=CIVIL.GE ACCESSDATE=25 AUGUST 2019, 15 April 2008, Germany}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 100| Greece}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 111| Hungary}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 385| Ireland}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 12| Italy}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 542| Lithuania}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 1| Luxembourg}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=LUXEMBOURG TIMES DATE=10 MAY 2016, Moldova}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 41| Montenegro}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 1| Morocco}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=JFC NAPLES DATE=18 JANUARY 2014, Netherlands}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=JFC NAPLES LOCATION=PRISTINA, 24 March 2017, Norway}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 2| Poland}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 240| Portugal}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 3| Romania}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 57| Russia}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=NATO DATE=2 JULY 2003, Slovakia}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=THE SLOVAK SPECTATOR DATE=4 OCTOBER 2010, Slovenia}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 242| Spain}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Withdrawn}} 0PUBLISHER=BBC NEWS DATE=23 MARCH 2009, Sweden}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 4| Switzerland}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 190| Turkey}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 246| Ukraine}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 40| United Kingdom}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Active}} 23| United States}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Active}} 659| ! 37! 37! 26! 24! 28! rowspan="2" | 3,526! rowspan="2" | Ref.! colspan="5" | Countries

KFOR commanders

  1. Mike Jackson (United Kingdom, 10 June 1999 – 8 October 1999)
  2. Klaus Reinhardt (Germany, 8 October 1999 – 18 April 2000)
  3. {{ill|Juan Ortuño Such|es}} (Spain, 18 April 2000 – 16 October 2000)
  4. {{ill|Carlo Cabigiosu|it}} (Italy, 16 October 2000 – 6 April 2001)
  5. {{ill|Thorstein Skiaker|no}} (Norway, 6 April 2001 – 3 October 2001)
  6. {{ill|Marcel Valentin|fr}} (France, 3 October 2001 – 4 October 2002)
  7. {{ill|Fabio Mini|it}} (Italy, 4 October 2002 – 3 October 2003)
  8. {{ill|Holger Kammerhoff|de}} (Germany, 3 October 2003 – 1 September 2004)
  9. {{ill|Yves de Kermabon|fr}} (France, 1 September 2004 – 1 September 2005)
  10. {{ill|Giuseppe Valotto|it}} (Italy, 1 September 2005 – 1 September 2006)
  11. {{ill|Roland Kather|de}} (Germany, 1 September 2006 – 31 August 2007)
  12. Xavier de Marnhac (France, 31 August 2007 – 29 August 2008)
  13. {{ill|Giuseppe Emilio Gay|it}} (Italy, 29 August 2008 – 8 September 2009)
  14. {{ill|Markus J. Bentler|de}} (Germany, 8 September 2009 – 1 September 2010)
  15. Erhard Bühler (Germany, 1 September 2010 – 9 September 2011)
  16. {{ill|Erhard Drews|de}} (Germany, 9 September 2011 – 7 September 2012)
  17. {{ill|Volker Halbauer|de}} (Germany, 7 September 2012 – 6 September 2013)
  18. Salvatore Farina (Italy, 6 September 2013 – 3 September 2014)
  19. {{ill|Francesco Figliuolo|it}} (Italy, 3 September 2014 – 7 August 2015)
  20. {{ill|Guglielmo Luigi Miglietta|it}} (Italy, 7 August 2015 – 1 September 2016)
  21. {{ill|Giovanni Fungo|it}} (Italy, 1 September 2016 – 15 November 2017)
  22. Salvatore Cuoci (Italy, 15 November 2017 – 28 November 2018)
  23. Lorenzo D'Addario (Italy, 28 November 2018 – present)
Note: The terms of service are based on the official list of the KFOR commandersWEB,weblink KFOR Commanders, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE, 9 January 2016, and another article.WEB,weblink Nato's role in Kosovo, NATO, 30 November 2015, 9 January 2016,

Kosovo peacekeeping

File:MSU Carabinieri Winter 2018.jpg|thumb|KFOR-MSU Carabinieri patrol in Mitrovica near the New Bridge (2018).]]

Events

On 9 June 1999 the Military Technical Agreement or Kumanovo Agreement between KFOR and the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia was signed by NATO General Sir Mike Jackson and Yugoslavia Colonel General Svetozar Marjanovic concluding the Kosovo War. This agreement outlined a rapid withdrawal of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Forces from Kosovo, assigning to the KFOR Commander the airspace control over Kosovo and pending the later United Nations Security Council Resolution’s approval, the deployment of KFOR to Kosovo. WEB, Military Technical Agreement between the International Security Force ("KFOR") and the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia, NATO, 1999-06-09,weblink 2008-08-15, On 10 June 1999 the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1244 authorizing the deployment in Kosovo of an international civil and security presence for an initial period of 12 months. The civil presence was represented by the United Nations Mission In Kosovo (UNMIK), while the security presence was led by KFOR. WEB, RESOLUTION 1244 (1999),weblink undocs.org, 9 March 2017, en, Following the adoption of UNSCR 1244, General Jackson, acting on the instructions of the North Atlantic Council, made immediate preparations for the rapid deployment of the security force (Operation Joint Guardian), mandated by the United Nations Security Council. The first NATO-led elements entered Kosovo at 5 a.m. on 12 June. On 21 June, the UCK undertaking of demilitarization and transformation was signed by COMKFOR and the Commander in Chief of the UCK (Mr. Hashim Thaci), moving KFOR into a new phase of enforcing the peace and supporting the implementation of a civil administration under the auspices of the United Nations.Within three weeks of KFOR entry, more than half a million out of those who had left during the bombing were back in Kosovo. However, in the months following KFOR deployment, approximately 150,000 Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo while many of the remaining civilians were subjected to violence and intimidation from ethnic Albanians.BOOK, Abrahams, Fred, Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo, 2001, Human Rights Watch, 9781564322647, 454-456,weblink October 28, 2000 the first Municipal Assembly Elections were held. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe(OSCE) announced that approximately 80% of the population participated in this vote for local representatives. The final results were certified by the Special Representative for Kosovo of the UN Secretary-General, Dr Bernard Kouchner, on 7 November. WEB, Kosovo municipal election results,weblinklanguage=en, KFOR was initially composed of 40,000 troops from NATO countries. Troop levels were reduced to 26,000 by June 2003, then to 17,500 by the end that year. Combat troops were reduced more than support troops. KFOR tried to deal with this by transferring tasks to UNMIK and the Kosovo Police Service (KPS), but UNMIK was also reducing its number of international police, and KPS were not numerous enough or competent enough to take over from KFOR.The 2004 unrest in Kosovo was the worst ethnic violence since 1999, leaving hundreds wounded and at least 14 people dead. On 17 and 18 March 2004, a wave of violent riots swept through Kosovo, triggered by two incidents perceived as ethnically-motivated acts. The first incident, on 15 March 2004, a 18-year-old Serb was shot near the all Serb village of Čaglavica, near Pristina. WEB, Peace at Any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo,weblink undocs.org, 9 March 2017, en, WEB, The Failure to Protect,weblink undocs.org, 9 March 2017, en, On 16 March, three Albanian children drowned in the Ibar River in the village of Čabar, near the Serb community of Zubin Potok. A fourth boy survived. It was speculated that he and his friends had been chased into the river by Serbs in revenge for the shooting of Ivić the previous day, but this claim has not been proven. NEWS,weblink BBC, No evidence over Kosovo drownings, 2004-04-28, 2010-01-05, According to Human Rights Watch, the violence in March of 2004 left 19 dead, 954 wounded, 550 homes destroyed, twenty-seven Orthodox churches and monasteries burned, and leaving approximately 4,100 Serbs, Roma, Ashkali (Albanian-speaking Roma), and other non-Albanian minorities displaced. Nineteen people, eight Kosovo Serbs and eleven Kosovo Albanians, were killed and over a thousand wounded-including more than 120 KFOR soldiers and UNMIK police officers, and fifty-eight Kosovo Police Service (KPS) officers.WEB, Anti-Minority Violence in Kosovo, March 2004,weblink HumanRightsWatch, July 25, 2004, The 10 February 2007 protest in Kosovo resulted in 2 deaths and many injuries. A crowd of ethnic Albanians in Pristina protested against a UN plan, also known as the Ahtisaari Plan, they felt fell short of granting full independence for Kosovo. The proposals, unveiled 2 February, recommended a form of self-rule and was strongly opposed by Serbia. The UN Security Council did not endorse the plan. NEWS, Two dead following Kosovo clashes,weblink 7 October 2018, NEWS, Kosovo's path to independence,weblink 2 February 2018, On February 17, 2008 unrest followed Kosovo's declaration of independence . Some Kosovo Serbs opposed to secession boycotted the move by refusing to follow orders from the central government in Pristina and attempted to seize infrastructure and border posts in Serb-populated regions. There were also sporadic instances of violence against international institutions and governmental institutions, predominantly in North Kosovo. After declaring independence, the Kosovo government introduced new customs stamps, a symbol of their newly declared sovereignty. Serbia refused to recognize the customs stamps which led to the de facto prohibition of both direct import of goods from Kosovo to Serbia, as well as transit to third countries. Goods from Serbia, however, could still be freely imported into Kosovo. NEWS, Kosovo and Serbia battle over customs stamps,weblink NEWS, About EULEX,weblink Pursuant to the Statement by the President of the Security Council on 26 November 2008 (S/PRST/2008/44), UNMIK was restructured and its rule of law executive tasks were transferred to (EULEX). EULEX maintains a limited residual capability as a second security responder and provides continued support to Kosovo Police’s crowd and riot control capability.NEWS, Rule of law in Kosovo and the Mandate of UNMIK,weblink .NEWS, About EULEX,weblink The 25 August 2009 Pristina protests resulted in vehicle damages and multiple injuries.On 22 July 2010, the International Court of Justice delivered its advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence declaring that "the adoption of the declaration of independence of the 17 February 2008 did not violate general international law because international law contains no 'prohibition on declarations of independence'," nor did the adoption of the declaration of independence violate UN Security Council Resolution 1244, since this did not describe Kosovo's final status, nor had the Security Council reserved for itself the decision on final status.20 July 2011 Kosovo banned all imports from Serbia and introduced 10 percent tax for imports from Bosnia as both countries blocked exports from Kosovo. WEB,weblink Kosovo bans Serbian imports, taxes Bosnian goods, 20 July 2011, On 26 July 2011, a series of confrontations in North Kosovo began with a Kosovo Police operation to seize two border outposts along the Kosovo Serbia border and consequent clashes continued until 23 November. The clashes, resulting in multiple deaths and injuries, were over differences between who would administer the border crossings between Kosovo and Serbia along with what would happen with the revenue collected from the customs and removal of roadblocks to secure freedom of movement. 3 September 2011 a deal to unblock the impasse between Serbia and Kosovo over exports was struck at EU-led negotiations in Brussels. Serbia agreed to accept goods marked “Kosovo Customs”, while Pristina gave up including state emblems, coats of arms, flags, or use of the word “republic” allowing Kosovo to interpret the label as referring to the customs of independent Kosovo, whereas Serbia could see it as a provincial customs label. WEB,weblink Kosovo, Serbia Reach Customs Deal, 3 September 2011, On 14 and 15 February 2012, a North Kosovo referendum on accepting the institutions of the Republic of Kosovo was held in North Kosovo. 1 June 2012 Kosovo Serbs and a KFOR soldier were wounded when peacekeepers tried to dismantle Serb barricades, among the last on major roads yet to be dismantled, blocking traffic. WEB,weblink Kosovo Serbs and NATO troops clash in tense north, 1 Jun 2012, On 8 February 2013, a series of protests began against increases in electricity bills which later turned into protests against corruption. On 19 April 2013, the Belgrade Pristina Normalization Agreement was signed between the governments of Kosovo and Serbia. Prior, North Kosovo functioned independently from the institutions in Kosovo by refusing to recognize Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence and the Government of Kosovo opposed any kind of parallel government for Serbs. BBC, Could Balkan break-up continue?, 22.02.08WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713171806weblink">weblink "Koha ditore": Kosovska vlada bez ingerencija na severu Kosova - Vesti dana - Vesti Krstarice, 13 July 2011, Kosovo PM: End to Parallel Structures, BalkanInsight.com, March 7, 2008 The Brussels Agreement abolished the parallel structures and both governments agreed upon creating a Community of Serb Municipalities. The association was expected to be officially formed in 2016 but continued discussions has resulted in not forming the Community. By signing the Agreement, the European Union’s Commission considered Serbia had met key steps in its relations with Kosovo and recommended that negotiations for accession of Serbia to the European Union be opened.WEB,weblink EU Commission recommends start of Serbia membership talks, 2013-04-22, 2013-06-20, Reuters, Several days after the agreement was reached, the European Commission recommended authorizing the launch of negotiations between the EU and Kosovo on the Stabilisation and Association Process. WEB,weblink Recommendation for a COUNCIL DECISION authorising the opening of negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Union and Kosovo, European Commission, 2013-04-22, 2013-08-17, The 2014 student protest in Kosovo demanded the resignation or dismissal of the University of Pristina Rector. Students threw red paint and rocks at the Kosovo Police who responded with tear gas. 30 Kosovo Police officers were injured and more than 30 students were arrested. WEB,weblink Police clash with students in Kosovo, dozens reported injured, 2014-02-07, The upper airspace over Kosovo, skies over 10,000 feet, was re-opened for civilian traffic overflights on 3 April 2014. This followed a decision by the North Atlantic Council to accept the offer by the Government of Hungary to act as a technical enabler through its national air navigation service provider, Hungarocontrol.WEB,weblink NATO re-opens the upper airspace over Kosovo for civilian air traffic overflights, 2014-04-04, The 2015 Kosovo protests were a series of violent protests calling for the resignation of a Minister and the passage of a bill on Trepca Mines ownership. On 6 January protestors claiming that among the pilgrims visiting a local church for Orthodox Christmas included displaced Serbs from Gjakova involved in war crimes against Albanians in 1998-1999 threw blocks of ice at the bus breaking one of its windows. Kosovo Police arrested two protestors. The Minister For Community and Return, who accompanied the pilgrims, made a statement that was perceived by Kosovo Albanians as an ethnic slur leading to riots. The rioters, which included students and opposition parties, demanded his resignation and he was dismissed by the Kosovo Prime Minister. WEB,weblink In Kosovo, a Fear of 'The Other' is allowing 'our own' to get away with internal damage to the state, 2016-10-28, K2.0, en-GB, The Kosovo government’s announcement it was postponing a decision on the privatization process of the Trepca mining complex after Serb Kosovo Parliamentary Representatives protested claiming that the Serbian government had the right to retain ownership was met with student-led protests in Pristina, Lipljan and Ferizaj/Urosevac, Kosovo Albanian Miners in South Trepca and Kosovo Serbian Miners in North Trepca. Trepca’s lead, zinc and silver mines once accounted for 75 percent of the mineral wealth of socialist Yugoslavia, employing 20,000 people. Trepca now operates at a minimum level to keep the mines alive employing several thousand miners. The Trepca mines are under the oversight of the Kosovo Privatization Agency.WEB,weblink Delays Over Trepca Ignite Protests in Kosovo, 2015-01-20, 9 January 2016, thousands of protestors wanted the government to withdraw from a border demarcation agreement with Montenegro and an agreement to set up a Community of Serb Municipalities. Police fired tear gas responding to protesters who threw Molotov cocktails and set fire to a government building. The Kosovo Assembly later withdrew the agreements. WEB,weblink Large anti-government protest in Kosovo turns violent., 2016 Zululand Observer, 9 Jan 2016, File:MSU Carabinieri Mitrovica Summer 2017.jpg|thumb|KFOR-MSU Carabinieri patrol in Mitrovica near the St. Dimitri Orthodox Church (2017).]]On 14 January 2017, the Belgrade-Kosovska Mitrovica train incident happened when rhetoric was exchanged between Kosovo and Serbian Officials after Serbia announced restarting train service between Kosovo and Serbia and Kosovo responded stating that the train would be stopped at the border. The initial train was painted in the colors of the Serbian flag with the words “Kosovo is Serbia” printed down the side which was considered provocative by Kosovo Officials and Kosovo Officials stated that Police would stop it at the border. The train travelled from Belgrade to the border town of Raska and returned never crossing into Kosovo.NEWS,weblink Kosovo accused of 'provoking war' after stopping Serbian train at border, 2017-01-15, The Independent, 2018-03-28, en-GB, Train service between Kosovo and Serbia remains non-existent.On 21 March 2018, Kosovo's Assembly ratified the border agreement with Montenegro. The European Union set ratification as a condition before it would grant Kosovo nationals visa-free access to the pass-port free Schengen area. WEB,weblink Kosovo Parliament Approves Montenegro Border Deal, 21 March 2018, 8 September, Serbia’s President visited North Kosovo’s Gazivode Lake, an important source of Kosovo’s water. The following day, his planned visit to the majority-Serb village Banje was cancelled by the Kosovo government after Kosovo Albanian protestors put up barricades at the village’s entrance. WEB,weblink Kosovo-Serbia Deal ‘Not Even Close’, Vucic Says, 10 September 2018, 29 Sept, Kosovo’s President visited Gazivode Lake. Serbia accused Kosovo police of seizing control of the lake and briefly detaining workers and Kosovo said police were there to provide security for the visit and nobody was detained. A Kosovo Serbian representative said Serbia was putting its military as well as police under high alert as a result. WEB,weblink Kosovo president visits disputed area after similar visit by Serbian leader, 29 September 2018, 20 November The international police agency (INTERPOL), rejected Kosovo's membership. WEB,weblink Kosovo Fails For Third Time To Win Interpol Membership, 20 November 2018, On 21 November, Kosovo imposed an import tax on Serbian and Bosnia Herzogovina goods. Kosovo said the tariff would be lifted when Serbia recognizes its sovereignty and stops blocking it from joining international organizations and Serbia said it will not participate in further dialogue until the measure is lifted. WEB,weblink European Parliament Urges Kosovo To Drop 100 Percent Tariff On Serbian Goods, 3 March 2019,

KFOR fatalities

File:RCMP in Kosovo.jpg|thumb|300px|Marines from the U.S. provide security for Canadian policemen as they investigate a mass gravemass graveSince the KFOR entered Kosovo in June 1999, soldiers from Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States were killed in the line of duty.The biggest fatal event is that of the 42 Slovak soldiers dead in a military plane crash in Hungary.In 20 years, more than 200 NATO soldiers have lost their lives as part of KFOR.

References

{{reflist|2}}

External links

{{commons category|KFOR (Kosovo Force)}} {{Kosovo topics}}{{Authority control}}

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