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Corruption Perceptions Index
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{{Update|date=February 2018}}(File:Corruption Perception index 2018.svg|thumb|upright=2.35|Corruption Perceptions Index, 2018)The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sectorWEB, CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2017,weblink transparency.org, 29 January 2019, corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index,weblink Transparency International, Transparency International, 1 December 2011, Transparency International, Transparency International, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111213111904weblink">weblink 13 December 2011, The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)". Denmark and New Zealand are perceived as the least corrupt countries in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, ranking at 9 out of 100 since 2017.WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index 2017,weblink Transparency International, Transparency International, 14 August 2017, Transparency International, 2017,

Methods

{{Political corruption sidebar}}Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's (:de:Johann Graf Lambsdorff|Johann Graf Lambsdorff) to produce the CPI.WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005), 22 November 2005, The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1 The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts. Early CPIs used public opinion surveys. The institutions are: Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7 The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.WEB, Frequently asked questions (FAQs),weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2010, Transparency International, 24 August 2011, Transparency International, Transparency International, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110902224108weblink">weblink 2011-09-02, yes,

Validity

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and overabundance of regulation.All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.JOURNAL, Wilhelm, Paul G., International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education, Journal of Business Ethics, 35, 3, 177–189, Springer Netherlands, 2002, 10.1023/A:1013882225402, (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implications

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,JOURNAL, Shao, J., Ivanov, P. C., Podobnik, B., Stanley, H. E., Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors, 10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2, The European Physical Journal B, 56, 2, 157, 2007, 0705.0161, 2007EPJB...56..157S, as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.JOURNAL, Podobnik, B., Shao, J., Njavro, D., Ivanov, P. C., Stanley, H. E., Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment, 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2, The European Physical Journal B, 63, 4, 547, 2008, 0710.1995, 2008EPJB...63..547P, Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings

Legend:{| class="wikitable"! rowspan=2 | Scores! colspan=5 | Perceived as less corrupt! colspan=5 | Perceived as more corrupt
100–090 089–080 079–070 069–060 059–050 049–040 039-030 029–020 019–010 009–000
URLHTTP://WWW.TRANSPARENCY.ORG/NEWS/FEATURE/CORRUPTION_PERCEPTIONS_INDEX_2016#TABLE, title2016 official table, date25 January 2017, accessdate29 January 2017, WEB, urweblink titleOfficial announcement, publisherTransparency International, date25 January 2017, accessdate29 January 2017, ">

2012–2018 {| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center;"URLHTTP://WWW.TRANSPARENCY.ORG/NEWS/FEATURE/CORRUPTION_PERCEPTIONS_INDEX_2016#TABLE, title2016 official table, date25 January 2017, accessdate29 January 2017, WEB, urweblink titleOfficial announcement, publisherTransparency International, date25 January 2017, accessdate29 January 2017,

! rowspan=2| Rank! rowspan=2 style="width:150px;"| CountryorTerritory! colspan=2 | 2018WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 - Transparency International, Transparency International, 29 January 2017, ! colspan=2 | 2017WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 - Transparency International, Transparency International, 29 January 2017, ! colspan=2 | 2016WEB,weblink 2016 table, Transparency International, 29 January 2017, ! colspan=2 | 2015WEB,weblink 2015 table, Transparency International, 28 January 2016, ! colspan=2 | 2014WEB,weblink 2014 table, Transparency International, 16 December 2014, ! colspan=2 | 2013WEB,weblink 2013 table, Transparency International, 16 December 2014, ! colspan=2 | 2012WEB,weblink 2012 table, Transparency International, 16 December 2014, !Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score!data-sort-type="number" style="width:10px;" | Change in score from previous year!Score
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{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} -6data-sort-value="31"6931width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#E52F07color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="29"7129width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="28"7228width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="25"7525width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="27"7327width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +2data-sort-value="25"7525width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="24"7624width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −2data-sort-value="28"7228width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="28"7228width=100}}data-sort-value="-4"{{Percentage barc=#E52F07color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} -1data-sort-value="26"7426width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="27"7327width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="28"7228width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +4data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="-4"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="26"7426width=100}}data-sort-value="3"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +4data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −2data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="-5"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} -2data-sort-value="25"7525width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −4data-sort-value="31"6931width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#E52F07color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="30"7030width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#E52F07color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +2data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="-3"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +4data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} -1data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} -2data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +3data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -2data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -1data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −2data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +3data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountryname=Republic of the Congo}}data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="-3"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="23"7723width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −4data-sort-value="26"7426width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="19"8119width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +3data-sort-value="15"8515width=100}}data-sort-value="-4"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −4data-sort-value="23"7723width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="16"8416width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="16"8416width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="20"8020width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -5data-sort-value="22"7822width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Decrease}} −1data-sort-value="21"7921width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="3"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −2data-sort-value="16"8416width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +3data-sort-value="15"8515width=100}}data-sort-value="-6"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="15"8515width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +4data-sort-value="11"8911width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +4data-sort-value="8"9208width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#A11D08color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="16"8416width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +2data-sort-value="12"8812width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="11"8911width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -2data-sort-value="16"8416width=100}}data-sort-value="2"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −4data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="-1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="-5"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -3data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="9"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="8"9208width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#A11D08color=black{{Steady}} 0data-sort-value="8"9208width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#A11D08color=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} -1data-sort-value="14"8614width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −5data-sort-value="18"8218width=100}}data-sort-value="-2"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black{{Increase}} +3data-sort-value="17"8317width=100}}data-sort-value="-9"{{Percentage barc=#D8220Acolor=black|width=100}}
{{flagcountry{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="12"8812width=100}}data-sort-value="1"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Decrease}} −4data-sort-value="15"8515width=100}}data-sort-value="0"{{Percentage barc=#AE1905color=black{{Increase}} +1data-sort-value="14"8614width=100}}data-sort-value="0"
{{flagcountry|Somalia }}|| data-sort-value="10" |{{Percentage bar|90|c=#AE1905|10|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="1"|{{Increase}} +1||data-sort-value="9"|{{Percentage bar|91|c=#A11D08|9|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="-1"|{{Decrease}} -1||data-sort-value="10"|{{Percentage bar|90|c=#AE1905|10|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="2"|{{Increase}} +2||data-sort-value="8"|{{Percentage bar|92|c=#A11D08|08|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="0"|{{Steady}} 0||data-sort-value="8"|{{Percentage bar|92|c=#A11D08|08|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="0"|{{Steady}} 0||data-sort-value="08"|{{Percentage bar|92|c=#A11D08|08|color=black|width=100}}||data-sort-value="0"|{{Steady}} 0||data-sort-value="8"|{{Percentage bar|92|c=#A11D08|08|color=black|width=100}}

2011

The 20 top countries or regions that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 to 1): {| class="wikitable sortable"! # !! Country !! Score !! # !! Country/Region !! Score
| 8.5
2 {{DEN}} rowspan=2| 8.4
| 8.3
14 {{DEU}} rowspan=2|8.0
| {{JPN}}
16 {{AUT}} rowspan=3|7.8
| {{BRB}}
8 {{AUS}} rowspan=2| {{GBR}}
19 {{BEL}} rowspan=2|7.5
| {{IRL}}
Source:Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were: {| class="wikitable sortable"! # !! Country !! Score !! # !! Country !! Score
182 {{SOM}} rowspan=2172 {{GNQ}} rowspan=2|1.9
| {{BDI}}
180 {{MMR}} rowspan=2168 {{LBY}} rowspan=4|2.0
COD}} DR Congo
177 {{UZB}} rowspan=3| {{TCD}}
| {{AGO}}
164 {{YEM}} rowspan=4|2.1
175 {{IRQ}} rowspan=2| {{KGZ}}
| {{GIN}}
| {{CAM}}
Source:

2010

The 20 top countries or regions that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 down to 1): {| class="wikitable sortable"! # !! Country !! Score !! # !! Country/Region !! Score
1 {{DEN}} rowspan=311 {{ISL}} rowspan=2|8.5
| {{LUX}}
| 8.4
4 {{FIN}} rowspan=2| 8.0
15 {{AUT}} rowspan=2|7.9
| {{DEU}}
17 {{BRB}} rowspan=2|7.8
8 {{AUS}} rowspan=2| {{JPN}}
| 7.7
| 7.6
Source:Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were: {| class="wikitable sortable"! # !! Country !! Score !! # !! Country !! Score
| 1.9
176 {{MMR}} rowspan=2164 {{VEN}} rowspan=4|2.0
| {{KGZ}}
| {{GIN}}
172 {{UZB}} rowspan=3COD}} DR Congo
159 {{TJK}} rowspan=5|2.1
| {{RUS}}
| {{PNG}}
| {{LAO}}
| {{KEN}}
Source:

Criticism and limitations

The Index has been criticized on the basis of its methodology.WEB,weblink Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions Are They Anyway?, 2005, According to political scientist Dan Hough, three flaws in the Index include:NEWS, Here’s this year’s (flawed) Corruption Perception Index. Those flaws are useful.,weblink The Washington Post, 2016-01-27, 2016-01-27, 0190-8286, en-US, Dan, Hough,
  • Corruption is too complex to be captured by a single score. The nature of corruption in rural Kansas will, for instance, be different from that in the city administration of New York, yet the Index measures them in the same way.
  • By measuring perceptions of corruption, as opposed to corruption itself, the Index may simply be reinforcing stereotypes and cliches.
  • The Index only measures public-sector corruption, leaving out private actors. This for instance means the Libor scandal or the VW emissions scandal are not counted.
Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean. The local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement".NEWS, Werve, Jonathan, TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It,weblink Global Integrity, 2008-09-23, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514053437weblink">weblink 2013-05-14, In a 2013 article in Foreign Policy, Alex Cobham suggested that CPI should be dropped for the good of Transparency International. It argues that the CPI embeds a powerful and misleading elite bias in popular perceptions of corruption, potentially contributing to a vicious cycle and at the same time incentivizing inappropriate policy responses. Cobham writes, "the index corrupts perceptions to the extent that it's hard to see a justification for its continuing publication."WEB, Corrupting Perceptions, Cobham, Alex,weblink Foreign Policy, However, recent econometric analyses that have exploited the existence of natural experiments on the level of corruption and compared the CPI with other subjective indicators have found that, while not perfect, the CPI is argued to be broadly consistent with one-dimensional measures of corruption.WEB,weblink Can We Measure the Power of the Grabbing Hand? A Comparative Analysis of Different Indicators of Corruption, Hamilton, Alexander, 2017, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, In the United States, many lawyers advise international businesses to consult the CPI when attempting to measure the risk of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations in different nations. This practice has been criticized by the Minnesota Journal of International Law, which wrote that since the CPI may be subject to perceptual biases it therefore should not be considered by lawyers to be a measure of actual national corruption risk.Campbell, Stuart Vincent. "Perception is Not Reality: The FCPA, Brazil, and the Mismeasurement of Corruption" 22 Minnesota Journal of International Law 1, p. 247 (2013).Transparency International also publishes the Global Corruption Barometer, which ranks countries by corruption levels using direct surveys instead of perceived expert opinions, which has been under criticism for substantial bias from the powerful elite.Transparency International has warned that a country with a clean CPI score may still be linked to corruption internationally. For example, while Sweden had the 3rd best CPI score in 2015, one of its state-owned companies, TeliaSonera, was facing allegations of bribery in Uzbekistan.CPI index 2015. Accessed 2016-02-03.

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{commons category|Corruption by country}} {{Politics country lists}}{{Corruption}}

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