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Zagreb
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{{About|the Croatian capital city}}{{short description|Capital and largest city of Croatia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2016}}{{EngvarB|date=December 2016}}







factoids
St. Mark's Square| photo2a = Teatro Nacional, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-13, DD 02.JPG{{!}}Croatian National Theater in Zagreb| photo2b = Archivo Nacional, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-20, DD 01.JPG{{!}}Croatian State Archives| photo3a = Business Centre T-Com Zagreb 2 - Architect Marijan Turkulin.jpg{{!}}Highrise buildings| photo3b = Zagreb Tram Dubrava.JPG{{!}}Zagreb Tram| photo4a = Pabellón del Arte, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-20, DD 05.JPG{{!}}Art Pavilion
| spacing = 1
| position = center
| color_border = white
| color = grey
| border = grey
| size = 260
| foot_montage = Clockwise, from top: St. Mark's Square, Croatian State Archives, Zagreb Tram, Art Pavilion, Cibona & HOTO towers and Croatian National Theatre.}}| mapsize = 230px| map_caption = Location of Zagreb in Croatia| pushpin_map = Croatia#Europe| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_map_caption =
45N59region:HR|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountryCroatia}}Counties of Croatia>County| subdivision_type2 = border|23px) City of Zagreb| subdivision_name2 = Roman Catholic Diocese of Zagreb>RC diocese| established_date2 = 1094Golden Bull of 1242>Free royal city| established_date3 = 1242| parts_type = SubdivisionsDistricts of Zagreb>city districts218 local committees (70 settlements)| government_footnotes = Mayor–council government>Mayor-CouncilMilan Bandić 365 - The Party of Labour and Solidarity>BM 365List of mayors of Zagreb>Mayor| leader_name = Milan BandićZagreb Assembly>City Assembly| leader_name1 = {hide}Collapsible list
|title = 51 members
|frame_style= border: none; padding: 0;
|list_style=text-align:left;display:none;
|
{edih}| unit_pref = MetricPUBLISHER=CITY OF ZAGREB, STATISTICS DEPARTMENT DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=11 OCTOBER 2007, | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 641| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = 202.4| area_metro_km2 = 3719| elevation_footnotes = JOURNAL,weblink PDF, Statistički ljetopis Grada Zagreba 2007, 2013, 12 November 2008, 1330-3678, Croatian, English, | elevation_m = 158| elevation_ft = 518| elevation_min_m = 122| population_total = 790,017| population_as_of = 2011 census| population_footnotes = | population_est = 812,635| pop_est_as_of = 2019WEBSITE=POPULATION.CITYLANGUAGE=EN, 14 September 2016, | population_density_km2 =4,055 | population_metro = 1,228,941| population_note = Croatian language>hr)Zagreber (en) Purchasing Power Parity>PPP)| blank_info = 2017| blank1_name =  - Total| blank1_info = $25 billion / €22.7 billion| blank2_name =  - Per capita| blank2_info = $32,404 / €28,237Human Development Index>HDI (2017)|blank3_info = 0.89weblink – very high| postal_code_type = Postal code| postal_code = HR-10 000, HR-10 010, HR-10 020, HR-10 040, HR-10 090| area_code = +385 1Telephone numbers in Croatia>Area codeVehicle registration plates of Croatia>ZGweblink}}| footnotes = | city_logo = | citylogo_size = | image_dot_map = | dot_mapsize = | dot_map_caption = | dot_x = | dot_y = | established_title4 = Unified| established_date4 = 1850| population_density_metro_km2 = autoCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| elevation_max_m = 1035}}Zagreb ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|z|ɑː|É¡|r|É›|b|,_|ˈ|z|æ|É¡|r|É›|b|,_|z|ɑː|ˈ|É¡|r|É›|b}};BOOK, Wells, John C., 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 978-1-4058-8118-0, BOOK, Roach, Peter, 2011, Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-15253-2, {{IPA-sh|zǎːɡreb|hr|hr-Zagreb.ogg}})WEB, Hrvatski jezični portal,weblink 23 March 2015, is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.WEB, Grad Zagreb službene stranice,weblink 20 June 2017, It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately {{convert|122|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level.WEB, OSNOVNI PODACI O GRADU ZAGREBU,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zagreb, Zagreb... – ZPR – FER,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070730134020weblink">weblink yes, 30 July 2007, 20 June 2017, The estimated population of the city in 2018 was 820 678weblink The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million, approximately a quarter of the total population of Croatia.Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day. The oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo.WEB, ArheoloÅ¡ki park ANDAUTONIJA,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, ArheoloÅ¡ki park ANDAUTONIJA u Ščitarjevu – ArheoloÅ¡ki muzej u Zagrebu,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Povijest – Andautonija,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120726004638weblink">weblink yes, 26 July 2012, 20 June 2017, WEB, Andautonija – Turistička zajednica Zagrebačke županije,weblink 20 June 2017, The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242.WEB, Muzej grada Zagreba – 5. Slobodni kraljevski grad na Gradecu,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Kralj Bela IV Gradecu izdao Zlatnu bulu kojom je postao slobodni kraljevski grad,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, slobodni kraljevski gradovi i trgoviÅ¡ta | Hrvatska enciklopedija,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, slobodni kraljevski gradec – Grad Zagreb službene stranice,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zlatna bula Bele IV. – Hrvatska enciklopedija,weblink 20 June 2017, In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor,WEB, Zagrebački gradonačelnici – Grad Zagreb službene stranice,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Popis gradonačelnika grada Zagreba / ZGportal Zagreb,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Izabran prvi zagrebački gradonačelnik u povijesti – 1851.,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, 15. svibnja 1851. – tko je bio prvi gradonačelnik Zagreba? – narod.hr,weblink 20 June 2017, Janko Kamauf.Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from Zagreb County),WEB, Kakav je status Grada Zagreba? – Ministarstvo uprave,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Popis županija, gradova i općina,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Sustav lokalne i područne (regionalne) samouprave,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zakon o Gradu Zagrebu – Zakon.hr,weblink 20 June 2017, and is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts.WEB, Gradske četvrti – Grad Zagreb službene stranice,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Gradske četvrti grada Zagreba / ZGportal Zagreb,weblink 21 June 2017, WEB, Doznajte kako su glasale pojedine gradske četvrti Zagreba – Dnevnik.hr,weblink 20 June 2017, Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as PodsljemeWEB, Gradska četvrt Podsljeme – Grad Zagreb službene stranice,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Karta Podsljeme – Zagreb – Karta Zagreba,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Gradska četvrt Podsljeme / ZGportal Zagreb,weblink 20 June 2017, and SesveteWEB, Udaljenost Sesvete - Zagreb - Udaljenosti.com,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Karta Sesvete – Zagreb – Karta Zagreba,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Sesvete – Karta Zagreba,weblink 20 June 2017, districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain,WEB, Medvednica / Simboli grada Zagreba / ZGportal Zagreb,weblink 20 June 2017, making the city's geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over {{convert|30|km|0|abbr=off}} east-west and around {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=off}} north-south.WEB, Zagreb – Google Karte,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Karta Zagreba,weblink 20 June 2017, The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia.WEB, Zagreb – naÅ¡a metropola,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zagreb – moderna metropola bogate povijesti – HUP Zagreb,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Grad Zagreb – Velegrad zelenog srca – Jutarnji List,weblink 21 June 2017, Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries.WEB, Republika Grad Zagreb – STav,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Unitarna i centralizirana Hrvatska zrela za redizajn – Glas Slavonije,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Sindikati traže izdvajanje Grada Zagreba iz statističke podjele RH,weblink 20 June 2017, Almost all of the largest Croatian companies, media, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector.

Name

File:Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (sculpture).jpg|thumb|left|Sculpture representing the Triune KingdomTriune Kingdom(File:BASA-142K-1-488-1-Zagreb.jpeg|thumb|Ante Starčević Square)File:Zlatna_bula_Bele_IV.gif|thumb|The Golden Bull of 1242, whereby King Béla IV proclaimed Gradec a royal free cityroyal free cityThe etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, and was increasingly used for the city in the 17th century.Zagrabia in Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi's Mercurio Geografico (Dalmatia Istria Bosnia Servia Croatia parte di Schiavonia [...], Rome, c. 1692; swaen.com).The name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.Cod. Dipl. II 42: rex diuina gratia inspirante ... Zagrabiensem constituit episcopatum videlicet ut quos error idolatrie a dei cultura extraneos fecerat, episcopalis cuira ad viam veritatis reduceret.Mladen ANČIĆ, "Dva teksta iz sredine 14. stoljeća. Prilog poznavanju „društvenog znanja“ u Hrvatskom Kraljevstvu ("Two works from the middle of the 14th century: Contribution to the understanding of “social knowledge” in the Croatian Kingdom") Starohrvatska prosvjeta III.40 (2013). The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson.An even older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag (recorded from c. 1200 and in use until the 18th century).For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, such as Csepreg.Décsy, Gyula in: Jean-Claude Boulanger (ed.) Actes du XVIe Congrès international des sciences onomastiques: Québec, Université Laval, 16–22 août 1987 : le nom propre au carrefour des études humaines et des sciences sociales, Presses Université Laval (1990), {{ISBN|978-2-7637-7213-4}}. p. 202.The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/grębъ|*grębъ) which means hill, uplift. (However, note Serbo-Croatian brȇg < Proto-Slavic (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/bergъ|*bergъ), which also means '(smaller) hill', and za brȇg 'to or toward the hill' for the seemingly metathesized variant in Hungarian, Zabrag – modified from assumed *Zabreg because of Hungarian vowel harmony? –, mentioned above.) An Old Croatian reconstructed name (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/Zagrębъ|*Zagrębъ) is manifested through the German name of the city Agram.WEB, Neke praslavenske riječi u hrvatskome – Hrčak – Srce,weblink 10 July 2017, The name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period; this name has been classified as "probably of Roman origin"Frank Moore Colby, Talcott Williams Dodd, The New International Encyclopaedia, Volume 1, 1918, p. 239.but according to Décsy (1990) it could be an Austrian German reanalysis of *Zugram.In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Agranum (the name of an unrelated Arabian city in Strabo), Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis (also Mons Crecensis, in reference to Grič (Gradec)).In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb (:wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/za|za)-(:wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/grobъ|grab-), meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić (c. 1260–1323) is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water.Nikola Štambak, Zagreb (2004), p. 77.In another legend,WEB, ‘BILA JEDNOM MANDA BAJNA, GRABILA JE IZ BUNARA’ Legenda o Manduševcu i nastanku imena Zagreb,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, LEGENDA O IMENU ZAGREBA: Što se krije iza priče o Mandi i žednom junaku?,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Poznate i nepoznate legende o Zagrebu i okolici! - Narodni.NET,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Manduševac, fontana po kojoj je Zagreb dobio ime,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zagreb nije oduvijek bio Zagreb. Znate li kako se zvao? – Večernji.hr,weblink 20 June 2017, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando! ("Scoop, Manda!").weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071224154308weblink">"Legend about Zagreb". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved on 12 November 2008.

History

(File:Kaptol s katedralom 1686.jpg|thumb|left|Kaptol 1686.)File:The_Zagreb_Cathedral_renovated_according_to_designs_of_Hermann_Bolle_(end_of_19_century).jpg|thumb|left|Zagreb CathedralZagreb CathedralFile:Jelacicev_trg_1933.jpg|thumb|left|Ban Jelačić SquareBan Jelačić SquareFile:staritrgburze.jpg|thumb|right|Croatian Nobles Square in 1930s.]]The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD.WEB,weblink The Roman town of Andautonia, 8 November 2008, Andautonia Archaeological Parkweblink >archive-date=7 December 2008, The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, Zagreb, inhabited mainly by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, and the larger, western Gradec, Zagreb>Gradec, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour.HTTP://WWW.HRT.HR/ARHIV/NDD/10LISTOPAD/1016%20JELACIC.HTML PUBLISHER=CROATIAN RADIOTELEVISION YEAR= ACCESSDATE=30 OCTOBER 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160305010027/HTTP://WWW.HRT.HR/ARHIV/NDD/10LISTOPAD/1016%20JELACIC.HTML DF=, During the period of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatian independence referendum, 1991>Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital.HTTP://NARODNE-NOVINE.NN.HR/CLANCI/SLUZBENI/1991_06_31_875.HTML >TITLE=DEKLARACIJU O PROGLAšENJU SUVERENE I SAMOSTALNE REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE (DECLARATION ON THE SOVEREIGNTY AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE CROATIAN REPUBLIC) LAST=SLUZBENI LISTYEAR=, 27 May 2013,

Early Zagreb

The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A.D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill; the border between the two being the Medveščak stream. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town (Gornji Grad) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own judicial system.

16th to 18th centuries

There were numerous connections between the Kaptol diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for both economic and political reasons, but they weren't known as an integrated city, even as Zagreb became the political centre and, representing both Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, first convened at Gradec. Zagreb was chosen as the seat of the Ban of Croatia in 1621 under ban Nikola Frankopan.At the invitation of the Croatian Parliament, the Jesuits came to Zagreb and built the first grammar school, the St. Catherine's Church and monastery. In 1669, they founded an academy where philosophy, theology and law were taught, the forerunner of today's University of Zagreb.During the 17th and 18th centuries, Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and the plague. In 1776, the royal council (government) moved from Varaždin to Zagreb and during the reign of Joseph II Zagreb became the headquarters of the Varaždin and Karlovac general command.WEB,weblink The city of Zagreb, hrt.hr, Croatian Radiotelevision, 2 July 2006weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070117124718weblink">weblink >archivedate= 17 January 2007,

19th to mid-20th century

In the 19th century, Zagreb was the centre of the Croatian National Revival and saw the erection of important cultural and historic institutions.In 1850, the town was united under its first mayor – Janko Kamauf.The first railway line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most and Sisak was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks. The Zagreb waterworks was opened in 1878.After the 1880 Zagreb earthquake, up to the 1914 outbreak of World War I, development flourished and the town received the characteristic layout which it has today.The first horse-drawn tram was used in 1891. The construction of the railway lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterised by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central European cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres and cinemas. An electric power plant was built in 1907.{{multiple image|align=center|image2=Zagreb (29255640143).jpg|width2=365|caption2=Panoramic view of Zagreb|image1= Zagreb_(29588612210).jpg|width1=430Gradec, Zagreb>Upper Town – Gradec}}Since 1 January 1877, the Grič cannon is fired daily from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday.The first half of the 20th century saw a considerable expansion of Zagreb. Before World War I, the city expanded and neighbourhoods like Stara Peščenica in the east and Črnomerec in the west were created. After the war, working-class districts such as Trnje emerged between the railway and the Sava, whereas the construction of residential districts on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica was completed between the two World Wars.In the 1920s, the population of Zagreb increased by 70 percent — the largest demographic boom in the history of the town. In 1926, the first radio station in the region began broadcasting from Zagreb, and in 1947 the Zagreb Fair was opened.During World War II, Zagreb became the capital of the Independent State of Croatia, which was backed by Nazi Germany and the Italians. The history of Zagreb in World War II became rife with incidents of regime terror and resistance sabotage, and the Ustaša regime had thousands of people executed during the war in and near the city. The city was liberated by the Partisans at the end of the war. From 1945 until 1990, Zagreb was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, one of the six constituent socialist republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Modern Zagreb

File:Zagreb_41.jpg|thumb|left|Column with Statue of Virgin Mary with four Angels, KaptolStatue of Virgin Mary with four Angels, KaptolFile:Zagreb - 2015 - panoramio (5).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Ban Jelačić SquareBan Jelačić Square(File:King Tomislav statue in Zagreb 2018.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|King Tomislav Square)The area between the railway and the Sava river witnessed a new construction boom after World War II. After the mid-1950s, construction of new residential areas south of the Sava river began, resulting in Novi Zagreb (Croatian for New Zagreb), originally called "Južni Zagreb" (Southern Zagreb).JOURNAL,weblink O imaginarnim kartama Južnog= Novog Zagreba, Zarez, Maretić, Mirko, № 222, 10 January 2008, 25 February 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090515163924weblink">weblink 15 May 2009, Croatian, Today Novi Zagreb is divided in two city districts: Novi Zagreb-zapad (WestNovi Zagreb) and Novi Zagreb-istok (East Novi Zagreb)The city also expanded westward and eastward, incorporating Dubrava, Podsused, Jarun, Blato and other settlements.The cargo railway hub and the international airport Pleso were built south of the Sava river. The largest industrial zone (Žitnjak) in the south-eastern part of the city represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region. Zagreb also hosted the Summer Universiade in 1987.During the 1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence, it was a scene of some sporadic fighting surrounding its JNA army barracks, but escaped major damage. In May 1995, it was targeted by Serb rocket artillery in two rocket attacks which killed seven civilians.An urbanised area connects Zagreb with the surrounding towns of Zaprešić, Samobor, Dugo Selo and Velika Gorica. Sesvete was the first and the closest area to become a part of the agglomeration and is already included in the City of Zagreb for administrative purposes and now forms the easternmost city district.WEB,weblink SAS Output, Dzs.hr, 15 September 2011, Cells left-aligned, table centred">

Area and population development{|class"wikitable" style"margin: 1em auto 1em auto;" |+ Cells left-aligned, table centred

! style="width:50px;"|Year! style="width:80px;"|Area (km2)! style="width:80px;"|Population (within city limits at that time)! style="width:80px;"|Population (within today's city limits)13682,810from the household census17423.335,60018053.337,706population census without clergy and nobility(~11 000 in total)185025.416,036185725.416,65748,266186925.419,85754,761188025.430,83067,188189025.440,26882,848190064.3761,002111,565191064.3779,038136,351192164.37108,674167,765193164.37185,581258,024194874.99279,623356,5291953235.74350,829393,9191961495.60430,802478,0761971497.95602,205629,89619811,261.54768,700723,06519911,715.55933,914777,8262001641.36779,145779,1452011641.36792,875792,875The data in column 3 refers to the population in the city borders as of the census in question. Column 4 is calculated for the territory now defined as the City of Zagreb (Narodne novine 97/10).HTTP://WWW.ZAGREB.HR/ZGSTAT/DOCUMENTS/LJETOPIS%202007/058-080.PDF TITLE=STATISTIčKI LJETOPIS GRADA ZAGREBA 2007. – 2. STANOVNIšTVO ACCESSDATE=12 NOVEMBER 2008 LANGUAGE=CROATIAN, ENGLISH ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20081028232442/HTTP://WWW1.ZAGREB.HR/ZGSTAT/DOCUMENTS/LJETOPIS%202007/058-080.PDF, 28 October 2008,

Geography

Climate

(File:Zelena_potkova_istok.jpg|thumb|left|King Tomislav Square)File:Zrtava_fasizma.jpg|thumb|right|Square of the Victims of FascismSquare of the Victims of Fascism{{climate chart| Zagreb (Zagreb, City of Zagreb) 3.7 | 43.2 6.8 | 38.9 11.9 | 52.6 16.3 | 59.3 21.5 | 72.6 24.5 | 95.3 26.7 | 77.4 26.3 | 92.3 22.1 | 85.8 15.8 | 82.9 8.9 | 80.1 4.6 | 59.6|float=right|source=Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service }}The climate of Zagreb is classified as an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), but with significant continental influences and very closely bordering on a humid continental climate (Dfb) as well as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). Zagreb has four separate seasons. Summers are warm, at the end of May the temperatures start rising and it is often pleasant with occasional thunderstorms. Heatwaves can occur but are short-lived. Temperatures rise above {{convert|30|C}} on an average 14.6 days each summer. Rainfall is abundant in the summertime and it continues to be in autumn as well. Zagreb is Europe's 9th wettest capital, behind Luxembourg and ahead of Brussels, Belgium. Autumn in its early stages is mild with an increase of rainy days and precipitation as well as a steady temperature fall towards its end. Morning fog is common from mid-October to January with northern city districts at the foothills of the Medvednica mountain as well as those along the Sava river being more prone to all-day fog accumulation. Winters are cold with a precipitation decrease pattern. Even though there is no discernible dry season, February is the driest month with 39 mm of precipitation. On average there are 29 days with snowfall with first snow falling in early November. Springs are generally mild and pleasant with frequent weather changes and are windier than other seasons. Sometimes cold spells can occur, mostly in its early stages. The average daily mean temperature in the winter is around {{convert|1|°C}} (from December to February) and the average temperature in the summer is {{convert|22.0|C|1}}.WEB,weblink Zagreb Climate Normals, 2 December 2015, Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, The highest recorded temperature at the Maksimir weather station was {{convert|40.4|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in July 1950, and lowest was {{convert|-27.3|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in February 1956.WEB,weblink Mjesečne vrijednosti za Zagreb Maksimir u razdoblju1949−2014, Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Croatian, 3 December 2015, A temperature of {{convert|-30.5|C}} was recorded on the since defunct Borongaj Airfield in February 1940.WEB, Marković, ĐurÄ‘ica, Najledeniji dani u naÅ¡oj zemlji,weblink Meteo-info.hr, 22 August 2018, hr, 21 December 2011, {{Weather box|location= Zagreb (1971–2000, extremes 1949–2014)|metric first= Y|single line= Y|Jan record high C = 19.4|Feb record high C = 22.2|Mar record high C = 26.0|Apr record high C = 30.5|May record high C = 33.7|Jun record high C = 37.6|Jul record high C = 40.4|Aug record high C = 39.8|Sep record high C = 34.0|Oct record high C = 28.3|Nov record high C = 25.4|Dec record high C = 22.5|year record high C = 40.4|Jan high C = 3.7|Feb high C = 6.8|Mar high C = 11.9|Apr high C = 16.3|May high C = 21.5|Jun high C = 24.5|Jul high C = 26.7|Aug high C = 26.3|Sep high C = 22.1|Oct high C = 15.8|Nov high C = 8.9|Dec high C = 4.6|year high C = 15.8|Jan mean C = 0.3|Feb mean C = 2.3|Mar mean C = 6.4|Apr mean C = 10.7|May mean C = 15.8|Jun mean C = 18.8|Jul mean C = 20.6|Aug mean C = 20.1|Sep mean C = 15.9|Oct mean C = 10.5|Nov mean C = 5.0|Dec mean C = 1.4|year mean C = 10.7|Jan low C = -3.0|Feb low C = -1.8|Mar low C = 1.6|Apr low C = 5.2|May low C = 9.8|Jun low C = 13.0|Jul low C = 14.7|Aug low C = 14.4|Sep low C = 10.8|Oct low C = 6.2|Nov low C = 1.4|Dec low C = -1.7|year low C = 5.9|Jan record low C = -24.3|Feb record low C = -27.3|Mar record low C = -18.3|Apr record low C = -4.4|May record low C = -1.8|Jun record low C = 2.5|Jul record low C = 5.4|Aug record low C = 3.7|Sep record low C = -0.6|Oct record low C = -5.6|Nov record low C = -13.5|Dec record low C = -19.8|year record low C = -27.5|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 43.2|Feb precipitation mm = 38.9|Mar precipitation mm = 52.6|Apr precipitation mm = 59.3|May precipitation mm = 72.6|Jun precipitation mm = 95.3|Jul precipitation mm = 77.4|Aug precipitation mm = 92.3|Sep precipitation mm = 85.8|Oct precipitation mm = 82.9|Nov precipitation mm = 80.1|Dec precipitation mm = 59.6|year precipitation mm = 840.1|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 9.8|Feb precipitation days = 9.4|Mar precipitation days = 11.0|Apr precipitation days = 13.0|May precipitation days = 13.5|Jun precipitation days = 13.7|Jul precipitation days = 11.2|Aug precipitation days = 10.4|Sep precipitation days = 10.4|Oct precipitation days = 10.9|Nov precipitation days = 11.3|Dec precipitation days = 11.0|year precipitation days = 135.6|unit snow days = 1.0 cm|Jan snow days = 10.3|Feb snow days = 7.1|Mar snow days = 1.8|Apr snow days = 0.2|May snow days = 0.0|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.0|Oct snow days = 0.0|Nov snow days = 2.9|Dec snow days = 6.7|year snow days = 29.0|Jan humidity = 82.5|Feb humidity = 76.4|Mar humidity = 70.3|Apr humidity = 67.5|May humidity = 68.3|Jun humidity = 69.7|Jul humidity = 69.1|Aug humidity = 72.1|Sep humidity = 77.7|Oct humidity = 81.3|Nov humidity = 83.6|Dec humidity = 84.8|year humidity = 75.3|Jan sun = 55.8|Feb sun = 98.9|Mar sun = 142.6|Apr sun = 168.0|May sun = 229.4|Jun sun = 234.0|Jul sun = 275.9|Aug sun = 257.3|Sep sun = 189.0|Oct sun = 124.0|Nov sun = 63.0|Dec sun = 49.6|year sun = |Jan percentsun = 23|Feb percentsun = 39|Mar percentsun = 43|Apr percentsun = 45|May percentsun = 54|Jun percentsun = 55|Jul percentsun = 63|Aug percentsun = 63|Sep percentsun = 54|Oct percentsun = 41|Nov percentsun = 26|Dec percentsun = 23|year percentsun = 47| Jan uv =1| Feb uv =2| Mar uv =3| Apr uv =5| May uv =7| Jun uv =8| Jul uv =8| Aug uv =7| Sep uv =5| Oct uv =3| Nov uv =1| Dec uv =1|source = Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service and Weather Atlas|date=August 2010}}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Zagreb!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Mean daily daylight hours9.010.012.014.015.016.015.014.013.011.09.09.012.3!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather AtlasWEB,weblink Zagreb, Croatia – Climate data, Weather Atlas, 9 March 2017,

Cityscape

File:St._Marks_Sq_Zagreb_pano.jpg|St. Mark's Square: Banski dvori (Croatian Government residence), St. Mark's Church, Croatian ParliamentFile:Panorama Save.JPG|Sava flowing through Zagreb.The most important historical high-rise constructions are Neboder on Ban Jelačić Square, Cibona Tower (1987) and Zagrepčanka (1976) on Savska Street, Mamutica in Travno (Novi Zagreb – istok district, built in 1974) and Zagreb TV Tower on Sljeme (built in 1973).WEB,weblink Zagreb hoteli – putovanje u Zagreb, 27 August 2015, 19 December 2014, Blogger, Croatian, In the 2000s, the City Assembly approved a new plan that allowed for the many recent high-rise buildings in Zagreb, such as the Almeria Tower, Eurotower, HOTO Tower, Zagrebtower and one of the tallest skyscrapers Sky Office Tower.WEB
,weblink
, Sky Office – Zagreb
, 27 August 2015
,
, Sky Office
, Croatian
, yes
,weblink
, 17 August 2015
,
, WEB,weblink Sky Office Tower, Zagreb, 27 August 2015, Empoirs, In Novi Zagreb, the neighbourhoods of Blato and Lanište expanded significantly, including the Zagreb Arena and the adjoining business centre.WEB,weblink Blato i Lanište postaju najsuvremeniji dio Zagreba?, novi-zagreb.hr, 28 March 2008, 27 July 2008, Croatian, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721101337weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, Due to a long-standing restriction that forbade the construction of 10-story or higher buildings, most of Zagreb's high-rise buildings date from the 1970s and 1980s and new apartment buildings on the outskirts of the city are usually 4–8 floors tall. Exceptions to the restriction have been made in recent years, such as permitting the construction of high-rise buildings in Lanište or Kajzerica.WEB
,weblink
, Na Laništu gradnja iznad 9 katova
, 21 September 2009
, 21 June 2007
, Javno.hr
, Croatian
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090115193913weblink">weblink
, 15 January 2009
,
, File:Banski dvori, Zagreb, Croatia.jpg|Banski dvoriFile:Gornji Grad (13023646063).jpg|Kamenita vrataFile:Estatua de San Jorge mató al Dragón, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-13, DD 01.JPG|Saint George Slaying the DragonFile:Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Zagreb.jpg|Serbian Orthodox CathedralFile:Glazbena akademija, Zagreb - jug.jpg|Academy of MusicFile:Koncertna dvorana-Zagreb.JPG|Vatroslav Lisinski Concert HallFile:20.08.2010. Sljeme (1031 ) - panoramio.jpg|Sljeme cable carFile:Zgrada HRT-Zagreb.JPG|Croatian Radiotelevision buildingFile:Nsk23.jpg|National and University Library in ZagrebFile:Zgrada INA Zagreb.jpg|INA headquarters

Surroundings

{{further|Zagreb County|Prigorje|Hrvatsko Zagorje|Turopolje}}File:Sljeme (31374028193).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Sljeme, a peak of the MedvednicaMedvednica(File:Oltar domovine Medvedgrad 2009.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|right|Altar of the Homeland)File:Medvedgrad 2014.JPG|thumb|right|upright=0.9|MedvedgradMedvedgradThe wider Zagreb area has been continuously inhabited since the prehistoric period, as witnessed by archaeological findings in the Veternica cave from the Paleolithic and excavation of the remains of the Roman Andautonia near the present village of Šćitarjevo.Picturesque former villages on the slopes of Medvednica, Šestine, Gračani and Remete, maintain their rich traditions, including folk costumes, Šestine umbrellas, and gingerbread products.To the north is the Medvednica Mountain (), with its highest peak Sljeme (1,035 m), where one of the tallest structures in Croatia, Zagreb TV Tower is located. The Sava and the Kupa valleys are to the south of Zagreb, and the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje is located on the other (northern) side of the Medvednica hill. In mid-January 2005, Sljeme held its first World Ski Championship tournament.From the summit, weather permitting, the vista reaches as far as Velebit Range along Croatia's rocky northern coast, as well as the snow-capped peaks of the towering Julian Alps in neighbouring Slovenia. There are several lodging villages, offering accommodation and restaurants for hikers. Skiers visit Sljeme, which has four ski-runs, three ski-lifts and a chairlift.The old Medvedgrad, a recently restored medieval (wikt:Special:Search/burg|burg) was built in the 13th century on Medvednica hill. It overlooks the western part of the city and also hosts the Shrine of the Homeland, a memorial with an eternal flame, where Croatia pays reverence to all its heroes fallen for homeland in its history, customarily on national holidays. The ruined medieval fortress Susedgrad is located on far-western side of Medvednica hill. It has been abandoned since the early 17th century, but it is visited during the year.Zagreb occasionally experiences earthquakes, due to the proximity of Žumberak-Medvednica fault zone.SEISMOGENIC ZONES OF NORTHWESTERN CROATIA {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160206110700weblink |date=6 February 2016 }} GNGTS 2008 It's classified as an area of high seismic activity.WEB,weblink Earthquake – Zagreb, Croatia – Embassy of the United States, usembassy.gov, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160206090402weblink">weblink 6 February 2016, dmy-all, The area around Medvednica was the epicentre of the 1880 Zagreb earthquake (magnitude 6.3), and the area is known for occasional landslide threatening houses in the area.WEB,weblink Potresi na zagrebačkom području, dpuljic, hgi-cgs.hr, The proximity of strong seismic sources presents a real danger of strong earthquakes. Croatian Chief of Office of Emergency Management Pavle Kalinić stated Zagreb experiences around 400 earthquakes a year, most of them being imperceptible. However, in case of a strong earthquake, it's expected that 3,000 people would die and up to 15,000 would be wounded.WEB,weblink STIŽU UPUTE KAKO SE PONAŠATI: "Potresi se stalno događaju. Zagreb ih ima 400 godišnje", 14 January 2016, net.hr,

Demographics

(File:Zagreb_SPOT_1038.jpg|thumb|left|Zagreb by SPOT Satellite)File:Oktogon palaca Prve hrvatske stedionice s 01052012 roberta f.jpg|thumb|right|Oktogon, urban passageway in city center ]]File:Street - panoramio (15).jpg|thumb|Tkalčićeva StreetTkalčićeva StreetFile:Klovicevi_dvori_Zagreb.jpg|thumb|Klovićevi Dvori GalleryKlovićevi Dvori GalleryFile:Mamutica Zagreb 20110620 2877.jpg|right|thumb|Mamutica in East Novi Zagreb city district (Travno local committee area), an apartment complex built in 1974 as the Croatian version of the plattenbau, largest building (by volume) in Zagreb and in CroatiaCroatiaZagreb is by far the largest city in Croatia in terms of area and population. The official 2011 census counted 792,325 residents,WEB,weblink GRADSKI URED ZA STRATEGIJSKO PLANIRANJE I RAZVOJ GRADA – Odjel za statistiku, Zagreb city council, www1.zagreb.hr, 2011, 16 June 2011, WEB,weblink About Croatia – Population of Croatia, About Croatia, Information provided by the Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011, 16 June 2011, although due to a substantial immigrant influx the number of people residing in the city is much higher.Zagreb metropolitan area population is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants,WEB,weblink City Mayors: Largest cities and their mayors in 2011 (Countries A-D), City Mayors & Tann vom Hove, citymayors.com, 2010, City Mayors & Tann vom Hove, 29 June 2011, as it includes the Zagreb County.WEB,weblink PDF, Spatial and functional changes in recent urban development of Zagreb, 2007, 6 November 2008, Delo (newspaper), Delo, Sić, Miroslav, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217230924weblink">weblink 17 December 2008, Zagreb metropolitan area makes approximately a quarter of a total population of Croatia.In 1997, the City of Zagreb itself was given special County status, separating it from Zagreb County,Narodne novine 62/01, 125/08 although it remains the administrative centre of both.The majority of its citizens are Croats making up 93% of the city's population (2011 census). The same census records around 55,000 residents belonging to ethnic minorities: 17,526 Serbs (2.22%), 8,119 Bosniaks (1.03%), 4,292 Albanians (0.54%), 2,755 Romani (0.35%), 2,132 Slovenes (0.27%), 1,194 Macedonians (0.15%), 1,191 Montenegrins (0.15%), and a number of other smaller communities.WEB,weblink Population by Ethnicity, By Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census, Census 2011, Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 16 April 2015, {|class="infobox" style="float:right; font-size:85%;"Largest groups of foreign residentsHTTPS://WWW.DZS.HR/HRV/CENSUSES/CENSUS2011/RESULTS/HTM/H01_01_04/H01_01_04_RH.HTML>TITLE=POPULATION BY NATIONALITY, 2011FIRST=WEBSITE=ARCHIVE-URL=DEAD-URL=, 22 August 2011, !Nationality ||Population (2011)Serbia}}17.526Bosnia and Herzegovina}}8.119Albania}}4.292Romani people>Romani|2.755Slovenia}}2.132Macedonia}}1.194Montenegro}}1.191Czech Republic}}835Hungary}}825Italy}}399Germany}}|364Ukraine}}|332Russia}}|331

City districts

Since 14 December 1999 City of Zagreb is divided into 17 city districts (gradska četvrt, pl. gradske četvrti):{{Croatian Census 2011|format= HTML|url=weblink|title= Population by age and sex, by districts of City of Zagreb|accessdate= 31 August 2014}}WEB,weblink City of Zagreb – Population by districts, Census 2001, Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 20 January 2011, {|class="sortable wikitable" style="text-align:right"! #! District! Area (km²)! Population(2011)! Population(2001)! Populationdensity (2001)Donji grad (Zagreb) >|14,956.2Gornji Grad – Medveščak 10.12 31,279 36,384 3,593.5Trnje, Zagreb >|6,146.2Maksimir 14.35 49,448 49,750 3,467.1Peščenica – Žitnjak 35.30 56,446 58,283 1,651.3Novi Zagreb – istok 16.54 59,227 65,301 3,947.1Novi Zagreb – zapad 62.59 58,025 48,981 782.5Trešnjevka – sjever 5.83 55,342 55,358 9,498.6Trešnjevka – jug 9.84 66,595 67,162 6,828.1CČrnomerec 24.33 39,040 38,762 1,593.4Gornja Dubrava 40.28 62,221 61,388 1,524.1Donja Dubrava, Zagreb >|3,321.1Stenjevec 12.18 51,849 41,257 3,387.3Podsused – Vrapče 36.05 45,771 42,360 1,175.1Podsljeme 60.11 19,249 17,744 295.2Sesvete 165.26 70,633 59,212 358.3Brezovica, Zagreb >|85.4 class="sortbottom"TOTAL641.43792,875779,1451,214.9{{Clear}}City districts are subdivided in 218 local committees as primary units of local self-government."zagreb.hr – Local self-government". Retrieved 28 September 2016.(File:Zagreb_welcomes_you.jpg|thumb|Model of the city by Damir Mataušić)

Settlements

(File:Palaca Farkas Cvjetni trg Zagreb 01052012 roberta f.jpg|thumb|Petar Preradović Square)File:2007-08-20 - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Ilica, the main shopping street in Zagreb ]]The city itself is not the only standalone settlement in the City of Zagreb administrative area – there are a number of larger urban settlements like Sesvete and Lučko and a number of smaller villages attached to it whose population is tracked separately.{{Croatian Census 2011|accessdate= 31 August 2014|S|21}} There are 70 settlements in the City of Zagreb administrative area:{{Div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}{{Clear}}

Government and politics

{{See also|List of mayors of Zagreb|Zagreb Assembly}}The current mayor of Zagreb is Milan Bandić (BM 365 –Labour and Solidarity Party). He was confirmed as mayor on 4 June 2017 (Zagreb local elections 2017, second round). Two deputy mayors (vice mayoresses) are Jelena Pavičić-Vukičević and Olivera Jurković-Majić.The Zagreb Assembly is composed of 51 representatives. Last elections were held on 21 May 2017 (Zagreb local elections). The current structure of the city assembly by party lines is as follows (2 December 2017):WEB, zagreb.hr – Političke stranke u Gradskoj skupštini (The Political parties structure),weblink 2 March 2017, {{Zagreb Assembly (structure)}}

Elections

Administration

File:Stara gradska vijecnica Zagreb.jpg|thumb|right|Zagreb Old City Hall ]]According to the Constitution, the city of Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia, has a special status. As such, Zagreb performs self-governing public affairs of both city and county. It is also the seat of the Zagreb County which encircles Zagreb.The city administration bodies are the Zagreb City Assembly (Gradska skupština Grada Zagreba) as the representative body and the mayor of Zagreb (Gradonačelnik Grada Zagreba) who is the executive head of the city.The City Assembly is the representative body of the citizens of the City of Zagreb elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal suffrage in direct elections by secret ballot using proportional system with d'Hondt method in a manner specified by law. There are 51 representatives in the City Assembly, among them president and vice-presidents of the assembly are elected by the representatives.(File:Gradsko poglavarstvo-Zagreb.JPG|thumb|Zagreb City Administration)Prior to 2009, the mayor was elected by the City Assembly. It was changed to direct elections by majoritarian vote (two-round system) in 2009. The mayor is the head of the city administration and has two deputies (directly elected together with him/her). The term of office of the mayor (and his/her deputies) is four years. The mayor (with the deputies) may be recalled by a referendum according to law (not less than 20% of all electors in the City of Zagreb or not less than two-thirds of the Zagreb Assembly city deputies have the right to initiate a city referendum regarding recalling of the mayor; when a majority of voters taking part in the referendum vote in favour of the recall, provided that majority includes not less than one third of all persons entitled to vote in the City of Zagreb, i.e. ⅓ of persons in the City of Zagreb electoral register, the mayor's mandate shall be deemed revoked and special mayoral by-elections shall be held).In the City of Zagreb the mayor is also responsible for the state administration (due to the special status of Zagreb as a "city with county rights", there isn't State Administration Office which in all counties performs tasks of the central government).City administration offices, institutions and services (18 city offices, 1 public institute or bureau and 2 city services) have been founded for performing activities within the self-administrative sphere and activities entrusted by the state administration.The city administrative bodies are managed by the principals (appointed by the mayor for a four-year term of office, may be appointed again to the same duty). The City Assembly Professional Service is managed by the secretary of the City Assembly (appointed by the Assembly).Local government is organised in 17 city districts (or city borroughs) represented by City District Councils. Residents of districts elect members of councils."zagreb.hr – Zagreb in brief (City administration)". Retrieved 29 September 2016.

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia}}

Twin towns — sister cities

Zagreb is twinned with the following towns and cities:WEB,weblink Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb, © 2006–2009 City of Zagreb, 23 June 2009, WEB, Gradovi prijatelji grada Zagreba,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Na Bundekfestu prvi put i gradovi prijatelji-Rim, Beč, Budimpešta i Ljubljana,weblink 20 June 2017, {{colbegin}}
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Bologna, Italy (since 1963)
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Mainz, Germany (since 1967)
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Saint Petersburg, Russia (since 1968)WEB,weblink Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties, Saint Petersburg City Government, 23 March 2008, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20090224073839weblink">weblink 24 February 2009,
  • {{flagicon|NOR}} Tromsø, Norway (since 1971)
  • {{flagicon|ARG}} Buenos Aires, Argentina (since 1972)
  • {{flagicon|JPN}} Kyoto, Japan (since 1972)WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Kyoto City, 21 January 2014, City of Kyoto,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140121151906weblink">weblink 21 January 2014, yes,
  • {{flagicon|POR}} Lisbon, Portugal (since 1977)WEB,weblink Lisboa – Geminações de Cidades e Vilas, 23 August 2013, Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities], Portuguese, Lisbon – Twinning of Cities and Towns, WEB,weblink Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa, 23 August 2013, Camara Municipal de Lisboa, Portuguese, Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131031202617weblink">weblink 31 October 2013,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Pittsburgh, USA (since 1980)
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Shanghai, China (since 1980)
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Budapest, Hungary (since 1994)WEB,weblink Budapest – Testvérvárosok, 14 August 2013, Budapest FÅ‘város Önkormányzatának hivatalos oldala [Official site of the Municipality of Budapest], Hungarian, Budapest – Twin Cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130809185135weblink">weblink 9 August 2013, yes,
  • {{flagicon|BOL}} La Paz, Bolivia (since 2000)
  • {{flagicon|BIH}} Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 2001)WEB,weblink Fraternity cities on Sarajevo Official Web Site, copyright, © City of Sarajevo 2001–2008, 9 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201150030weblink">weblink 1 December 2008,
  • {{flagicon|SVN}} Ljubljana, Slovenia (since 2001)WEB,weblink Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje, 27 July 2013, Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City), Slovenian, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130626075304weblink">weblink 26 June 2013,
  • {{flagicon|MNE}} Podgorica, Montenegro (since 2006)
  • {{flagicon|IRN}} Tabriz, Iran (since 2006)WEB,weblink سفير كرواسي در تهران: "زاگرب" با تبريز خواهر خوانده مي‌شود, Farsnews.com, 23 December 2015,
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Ankara, Turkey (since 2008)WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Ankara, ankara.bel.tr,
  • {{flagicon|UK}} London, United Kingdom (since 2009)
  • {{flagicon|Kosovo}} Prizren, Kosovo{{efn|name=kosovo-status}} (since 2010)
  • {{flagicon|NMK}} Skopje, North Macedonia (since 2011)
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Warsaw, Poland (since 2011)WEB,weblink Gradovi prijatelji grada Zagreba, 25 August 2015, ZGportal Zagreb,
  • {{flagicon|KAZ}} Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (since 2014)WEB,weblink Declaration of intent signed by Akim of Astana and Mayor of Croatias capital, 4 July 2014, 9 October 2014, Akimat of Astana,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015024125weblink">weblink 15 October 2014, yes, dmy-all,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Rome, Italy (since 2014)
  • {{flagicon|Austria}} Vienna, Austria (since 2014)
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Petrinja, Croatia (since 2015)WEB, Zagreb i Petrinja postaju gradovi prijatelji,weblink 20 June 2017,
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Vukovar, Croatia (since 2016)WEB, Vukovar i Zagreb gradovi prijatelji: Povelju o prijateljstvu potpisali Bandić i Penava,weblink 20 June 2017,
{{colend}}

Partner cities

The city has partnership arrangements with:{|class="wikitable"' valign="top"|
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Kraków in Poland (since 1975)WEB,weblink Kraków otwarty na Å›wiat, www.krakow.pl, 19 July 2009,
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Tirana, Albania.WEB,weblink Twinning Cities: International Relations, 23 June 2009, Municipality of Tirana, www.tirana.gov.al, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111010042121weblink">weblink 10 October 2011, Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 25 January 2008.

Culture

Tourism

Zagreb is an important tourist center, not only in terms of passengers traveling from the rest of Europe to the Adriatic Sea, but also as a travel destination itself. Since the end of the war, it has attracted close to a million visitors annually, mainly from Austria, Germany and Italy, and in recent years many tourists from far east (South Korea, Japan, China, and last two years, from India). It has become an important tourist destination, not only in Croatia, but considering the whole region of southeastern Europe. There are many interesting sights and happenings for tourists to attend in Zagreb, for example, the two statues of Saint George, one at the Republic of Croatia Square, the other at Kamenita vrata, where the image of Virgin Mary is said to be only thing that hasn't burned in the 17th-century fire. Also, there is an art installation starting in Bogovićeva street, called Nine Views. Most people don't know what the statue "Prizemljeno Sunce" (The Grounded Sun) is for, and just scrawl graffiti or signatures on it, but it's actually the Sun scaled down, with many planets situated all over Zagreb in scale with the Sun. There are also many festivals and events throughout the year, which made Zagreb a year-round tourist destination for many years already.File:Zagrebacka Uspinjaca i Lotrscak 01052012 roberta f.jpg|Zagreb FunicularFile:Záhřeb, Zrinjevac, park.jpg|ZrinjevacFile:Gornji grad aerial.jpg|GradecFile:Mirogoj - panoramio.jpg|Mirogoj CemeteryFile:Regent super foto 2.jpg|Esplanade Zagreb HotelFile:Maksimir 1007-2.JPG|Maksimir ParkFile:Euroazijski ris Lynx lynx Zagreb 112010 1.jpg|Eurasian lynx at the Zagreb ZooFile:Štrukli iz Okrugljaka.jpg|ŠtrukliThe historical part of the city to the north of Ban Jelačić Square is composed of the Gornji Grad and Kaptol, a medieval urban complex of churches, palaces, museums, galleries and government buildings that are popular with tourists on sightseeing tours. The historic district can be reached on foot, starting from Jelačić Square, the centre of Zagreb, or by a funicular on nearby Tomićeva Street. Each Saturday, (from April till the end of September), on St. Mark's Square in the Upper town, tourists can meet members of the Order of The Silver Dragon (Red Srebrnog Zmaja), who reenact famous historical conflicts between Gradec and Kaptol. It's a great opportunity for all visitors to take photographs of authentic and fully functional historical replicas of medieval armour.In 2010 more than 600,000WEB,weblink Broj turistickih dolazaka, poslovni.hr, 12 January 2012, tourists visited the city, with a 10%WEB,weblink Broj turista najvise porastao u Zagrebu, kigo.hr, 12 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130301124403weblink">weblink 1 March 2013, increase seen in 2011. In 2012 a total of 675 707 touristsWEB,weblink U Zagrebu više turista i noćenja, Ministry of Tourism, 27 September 2013, visited the city.The record number of tourists visited Zagreb in 2017. – 1.286.087, up 16% compared to the year before, which generated 2.263.758 overnight stays, up 14,8%.

Souvenirs and gastronomy

File:Licitars2.jpg|thumb|right|Licitar hearts, a popular souvenir]]Numerous shops, boutiques, store houses and shopping centers offer a variety of quality clothing. There are about fourteen big shopping centers in Zagreb. Zagreb's offerings include crystal, china and ceramics, wicker or straw baskets, and top-quality Croatian wines and gastronomic products.Notable Zagreb souvenirs are the tie or cravat, an accessory named after Croats who wore characteristic scarves around their necks in the Thirty Years' War in the 17th century and the ball-point pen, a tool developed from the inventions by Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, an inventor and a citizen of Zagreb.Many Zagreb restaurants offer various specialties of national and international cuisine. Domestic products which deserve to be tasted include turkey, duck or goose with mlinci (a kind of pasta), štrukli (cottage cheese strudel), sir i vrhnje (cottage cheese with cream), kremšnite (custard slices in flaky pastry), and orehnjača (traditional walnut roll).

Museums

File:Archivo Nacional, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-13, DD 01.JPG|thumb|left|Croatian State ArchivesCroatian State ArchivesFile:Museo Mimara, Zagreb, Croacia, 2014-04-20, DD 01.JPG|thumb|left|Mimara MuseumMimara MuseumFile:Záhřeb, muzeum umění a řemesel.jpg|thumb|left|Museum of Arts and Crafts ]]File:Hrvatsko društvo likovnih umjetnika.jpg|thumb|left|Meštrović PavilionMeštrović PavilionFile:Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Zg 111209 1.jpg|thumb|left|Museum of Contemporary Art ]]Zagreb's numerous museums reflect the history, art and culture not only of Zagreb and Croatia, but also of Europe and the world. Around thirty collections in museums and galleries comprise more than 3.6 million various exhibits, excluding church and private collections.The Archaeological Museum (19 Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square) collections, today consisting of nearly 450,000 varied archaeological artefacts and monuments, have been gathered over the years from many different sources. These holdings include evidence of Croatian presence in the area.WEB
,weblink
, The History and Activities of the Archeological Museum
, 2 July 2006
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060518052905weblink">weblink
, 18 May 2006
, yes
,
, The most famous are the Egyptian collection, the Zagreb mummy and bandages with the oldest Etruscan inscription in the world (Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis), as well as the numismatic collection.Modern Gallery () holds the most important and comprehensive collection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by 19th- and 20th-century Croatian artists. The collection numbers more than 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the centre of Zageb, overlooking the Zrinjevac Park. A secondary gallery is the Josip Račić Studio at Margaretska 3.WEB, Modern Gallery, Moderna Galerija,weblink 8 October 2010, Croatian Natural History Museum (1 Demetrova Street) holds one of the world's most important collection of Neanderthal remains found at one site.WEB,weblink Croatian Natural History Museum, 2 July 2006, These are the remains, stone weapons and tools of prehistoric Krapina man. The holdings of the Croatian Natural History Museum comprise more than 250,000 specimens distributed among various collections.Technical Museum (18 Savska Street) was founded in 1954 and it maintains the oldest preserved machine in the area, dating from 1830, which is still operational. The museum exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment. There are some distinct sections in the museum: the Planetarium, the Apisarium, the Mine (model of mines for coal, iron and non-ferrous metals, about {{convert|300|m|ft|abbr=on}} long), and the Nikola Tesla study.WEB,weblink Technical Museum, 2 July 2006, WEB,weblink Tehnički muzej, Croatian, Technical Museum, Zagreb, Croatia, Official web site, 27 December 2010, Museum of the City of Zagreb (20 Opatička Street) was established in 1907 by the Association of the Braća Hrvatskog Zmaja. It is located in a restored monumental complex (Popov toranj, the Observatory, Zakmardi Granary) of the former Convent of the Poor Clares, of 1650.WEB,weblink Museum of the City of Zagreb, 2 July 2006, The Museum deals with topics from the cultural, artistic, economic and political history of the city spanning from Roman finds to the modern period. The holdings comprise over 80,000 items arranged systematically into collections of artistic and mundane objects characteristic of the city and its history.Arts and Crafts Museum (10 Republic of Croatia Square) was founded in 1880 with the intention of preserving the works of art and craft against the new predominance of industrial products. With its 160,000 exhibits, the Arts and Crafts Museum is a national-level museum for artistic production and the history of material culture in Croatia.WEB,weblink Arts and Crafts Museum, 2 July 2006, Ethnographic Museum (14 Ivan Mažuranić Square) was founded in 1919. It lies in the fine Secession building of the one-time Trades Hall of 1903. The ample holdings of about 80,000 items cover the ethnographic heritage of Croatia, classified in the three cultural zones: the Pannonian, Dinaric and Adriatic.WEB,weblink Ethnographic Museum, The Zagreb Tourist Board, 6 December 2012, Mimara Museum (5 Roosevelt Square) was founded with a donation from Ante "Mimara" Topić and opened to the public in 1987. It is located in a late 19th-century neo-Renaissance palace.WEB,weblink Mimara Museum, 2 July 2006, The holdings comprise 3,750 works of art of various techniques and materials, and different cultures and civilisations.Croatian Museum of Naïve Art (works by Croatian primitivists at 3 Ćirilometodska Street) is one of the first museums of naïve art in the world. The museum holds works of Croatian naïve expression of the 20th century. It is located in the 18th-century Raffay Palace in the Gornji Grad.The museum holdings consist of almost 2000 works of art – paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known world artists.WEB,weblink Croatian Naïve Art Museum, 2 July 2006, From time to time, the museum organises topics and retrospective exhibitions by naïve artists, expert meetings and educational workshops and playrooms.The Museum of Contemporary Art was founded in 1954. Its new building hosts a rich collection of Croatian and international contemporary visual art which has been collected throughout the decades from the nineteen-fifties till today. The museum is located in the centre of Novi Zagreb, opened in 2009. The old location, 2 St. Catherine's Square, is part of the Kulmer Palace in the Gornji Grad.WEB,weblink The Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb, 20 January 2010, Other museums and galleriesValuable historical collections are also found in the Croatian School Museum, the Croatian Hunting Museum, the Croatian Sports Museum, the Croatian Post and Telecommunications Museum, the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) Glyptotheque (collection of monuments), and the HAZU Graphics Cabinet.The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters (11 Zrinski Square) offers permanent holdings presenting European paintings from the 14th to 19th centuries,WEB,weblink About Strossmayer's Old Masters Gallery, 2 July 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927234334weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, and the Ivan Meštrović Studio, (8 Mletačka Street) with sculptures, drawings, lithography portfolios and other items, was a donation of this great artist to his homeland The Museum and Gallery Center (4 Jesuit Square) introduces on various occasions the Croatian and foreign cultural and artistic heritage. The Art Pavilion (22 King Tomislav Square) by Viennese architects Hellmer and Fellmer who were the most famous designers of theatres in Central Europe is a neo-classical exhibition complex and one of the landmarks of the downtown. The exhibitions are also held in the impressive Meštrović building on Žrtava Fašizma Square — the Home of Croatian Fine Artists. The World Center "Wonder of Croatian Naïve Art" (12 Ban Jelačić Square) exhibits masterpieces of Croatian naïve art as well as the works of a new generation of artists. The Modern Gallery (1 Hebrangova Street) comprises all relevant fine artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Museum of Broken Relationships at 2 Ćirilometodska holds people's mementos of past relationships.WEB,weblink Museum of Broken Relationships, New.brokenships.com, 5 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111120183225weblink">weblink 20 November 2011, WEB,weblink Museum of Broken Relationships: BBC video, Bbc.co.uk, 13 December 2010, 5 May 2014, NEWS,weblink A Poignant Trail of Broken Hearts, All on Display, 15 February 2010, The New York Times, It is the first private museum in the country.WEB,weblink The Museum of Broken Relationships, En.wikinoticia.com, 25 November 2010, 3 June 2011, Lauba House (23a Baruna Filipovića) presents works from Filip Trade Collection, a large private collection of modern and contemporary Croatian art and current artistic production.WEB,weblink People and Art House Lauba, Lauba.hr, 5 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140508124605weblink">weblink 8 May 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Lauba-The Youngest Centenarian in Town, pogledaj.to, 25 April 2011, 18 July 2011,

Events

File:Advent in Zagreb 20161229 DSC 6557P.jpg|left|upright=1.35|thumb|Zagreb won the ‘Best European Christmas Market’ title three years in a row from 2015 to 2017.WEB,weblink Zagreb treći put zaredom proglašen najboljom adventskom destinacijom na Starom kontinentu - Glavni grad Hrvatske pobijedio u glasovanju i Beč i Budimpeštu, Jutarnji.hr, 13 September 2018, ]](File:Croatian_National_Theatre_in_Zagreb_in_2018.jpg|right|thumb|Croatian National Theatre)File:Kinosc.jpg|right|thumb|Golden Pram award of the Zagreb Film FestivalZagreb Film FestivalZagreb developed its Advent several years, and it has been awarded Best Christmas Market 3 years in a row.Best Christmas Markets in Europe 2018; Hosting numerous events for 6 weeks, from December 1 till January 6.Advent in Zagreb;Zagreb Advent & Christmas Market;Zagreb has been, and is, hosting some of the most popular mainstream artists, in the past few years their concerts held the Rolling Stones, U2, Eric Clapton, Deep Purple, Bob Dylan, David Bowie, Roger Waters, Depeche Mode, Prodigy, Beyoncé, Nick Cave, Jamiroquai, Manu Chao, Massive Attack, Metallica, Snoop Dogg, Lady Gaga, Duran Duran as well as some of world most recognised underground artists such as Dimmu Borgir, Sepultura, Melvins, Mastodon and many more. Zagreb is also a home of the INmusic festival, one of the biggest open air festivals in Croatia which is being held every year, usually at the end of June. There are also many jazz festivals like Zagreb Jazz Festival which was the host for some of the most popular artists from world jazz scene like Pat Metheny or Sonny Rollins just to name a few. Zagreb is also home of many others club festivals like Žedno uho where many of indie, rock, metal and electronica artists like Animal Collective, Melvins, Butthole Surfers, Crippled Black Phoenix, NoMeansNo, The National (band), Mark Lanegan, Swans (band), Mudhoney etc. made there performances around the clubs and concert halls of Zagreb. This is mostly recognised because of the city's location, and its good traffic relations with other neighbouring European capital cities such as Vienna and Budapest. This is the effort of Zagreb community to increase the percentage of tourist visits during the summer time, as Croatia, in general, is a popular destination for many people around the globe during the vacation period.

Performing arts

(File:Festival_of_Lights_20190321_DSC_9204.jpg|right|thumb|Festival of Lights)There are about 20 permanent or seasonal theatres and stages. The Croatian National Theater in Zagreb was built in 1895 and opened by emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. The most renowned concert hall named "Vatroslav Lisinski", after the composer of the first Croatian opera, was built in 1973.Animafest, the World Festival of Animated Films, takes place every even-numbered year, and the Music Biennale, the international festival of avant-garde music, every odd-numbered year. It also hosts the annual ZagrebDox documentary film festival. The Festival of the Zagreb Philharmonic and the flowers exhibition Floraart (end of May or beginning of June), the Old-timer Rally annual events. In the summer, theatre performances and concerts, mostly in the Upper Town, are organised either indoors or outdoors. The stage on Opatovina hosts the Zagreb Histrionic Summer theatre events.Zagreb is also the host of Zagrebfest, the oldest Croatian pop-music festival, as well as of several traditional international sports events and tournaments. The Day of the City of Zagreb on 16 November is celebrated every year with special festivities, especially on the Jarun lake in the southwestern part of the city.

Recreation and sports

File:Arena Zagreb 2009.jpg|thumb|left|Arena ZagrebArena ZagrebFile:Stadion Maksimir panoramics 13-07-2011.jpg|thumb|left|Maksimir StadiumMaksimir StadiumFile:Prva vožnja SQT2019 žene.png|thumb|right|Snow Queen Trophy is a World Cup alpine ski race in Zagreb.]]File:Jarun Lake aerial view.jpg|thumb|right|Jarun LakeJarun LakeFile:Dvorana Dražen Petrović.jpg|thumb|left|Dražen Petrović Basketball HallDražen Petrović Basketball HallZagreb is home to numerous sports and recreational centres. Recreational Sports Center Jarun, situated on Jarun Lake in the southwest of the city, has fine shingle beaches, a world-class regatta course, a jogging lane around the lake, several restaurants, many night clubs and a discothèque. Its sports and recreation opportunities include swimming, sunbathing, waterskiing, angling and other water sports, but also beach volleyball, football, basketball, handball, table tennis, and mini-golf.Dom Sportova, a sport centre in northern Trešnjevka features six halls. The largest two have seating capacity of 5,000 and 3,100 people, respectively.WEB,weblink Ustanova Upravljanje sportskim objektima – Dvorane Doma sportova, Globaldizajn, www.globaldizajn.hr, sportskiobjekti.hr, This centre is used for basketball, handball, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, tennis, etc. It also hosts music events.Arena Zagreb was finished in 2008. The 16,500-seat arenaArena Zagreb{{circular reference|date=October 2015}} hosted the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship.The Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall seats 5,400 people. Alongside the hall is the {{convert|94|m|ft|adj=on}} high glass Cibona Tower.Sports Park Mladost, situated on the embankment of the Sava river, has an Olympic-size swimming pool, smaller indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a sunbathing terrace, 16 tennis courts as well as basketball, volleyball, handball, football and field hockey courts.A volleyball sports hall is within the park.Sports and Recreational Center Šalata, located in Šalata, only a couple hundred meters from the Jelačić Square, is most attractive for tennis players. It comprises a big tennis court and eight smaller ones, two of which are covered by the so-called "balloon", and another two equipped with lights. The centre also has swimming pools, basketball courts, football fields, a gym and fitness centre, and a four-lane bowling alley. Outdoor ice skating is a popular winter recreation. There are also several fine restaurants within and near the centre.Maksimir Tennis Center, located in Ravnice east of downtown, consists of two sports blocks. The first comprises a tennis centre situated in a large tennis hall with four courts. There are 22 outdoor tennis courts with lights. The other block offers multipurpose sports facilities: apart from tennis courts, there are handball, basketball and indoor football grounds, as well as track and field facilities, a bocci ball alley and table tennis opportunities.Recreational swimmers can enjoy a smaller-size indoor swimming pool in Daničićeva Street, and a newly opened indoor Olympic-size pool at Utrine sports centre in Novi Zagreb. Skaters can skate in the skating rink on Trg Sportova (Sports Square) and on the lake Jarun Skaters' park. Hippodrome Zagreb offers recreational horseback riding opportunities, while horse races are held every weekend during the warmer part of the year.The 38,923Stadion Maksimir{{circular reference|date=October 2015}}-seat Maksimir Stadium, last 10 years under renovation, is located in Maksimir in the northeastern part of the city. The stadium is part of the immense Svetice recreational and sports complex (ŠRC Svetice), south of the Maksimir Park. The complex covers an area of {{convert|276440|m2|acre|0|abbr=on}}. It is part of a significant Green Zone, which passes from Medvednica Mountains in the north toward the south. ŠRC Svetice, together with Maksimir Park, creates an ideal connection of areas which are assigned to sport, recreation and leisure.The latest larger recreational facility is Bundek, a group of two small lakes near the Sava in Novi Zagreb, surrounded by a partly forested park. The location had been used prior to the 1970s, but then went to neglect until 2006 when it was renovated.Some of the most notable sport clubs in Zagreb are: NK Dinamo Zagreb, KHL Medveščak Zagreb, RK Zagreb, KK Cibona, KK Zagreb, KK Cedevita, NK Zagreb, HAVK Mladost and others.The city hosted the 2016 Davis Cup World Group final between Croatia and Argentina.

Religion

File:20130609 Zagreb 013.jpg|Zagreb Cathedral exterior|alt=File:Crkva sv. Marka (Zagreb).jpg|St. Mark's Church exterior|alt=File:Iglesia_de_Santa_Catarina,_Zagreb,_Croacia,_2014-04-13,_DD_01.jpg|St. Catherine churchFile:Sacred_Heart_Basilica,_Zagreb_1.JPG|Basilica of The Sacred Heart of JesusFile:Zagreb, Croàcia (agost 2013) - panoramio (13).jpg|Greek Catholic Co-cathedral of Saints Cyril and Methodius|alt=File:Zagreb,_Cro%C3%A0cia_(agost_2013)_-_panoramio_(4).jpg|Serbian Orthodox Cathedral|alt=File:Evangelicka crkvena opcina Zagreb 01052012 5 roberta f.jpg|Evangelical Lutheran ChurchFile:Crkva_Majke_Bo%C5%BEje_Remetske.jpg|Church of Lady of RemeteFile:Zagrebačka džamija.jpg|Islamic CenterFile:Crkva_Sv._Blaža,_Zagreb.jpg|Church of Saint Blaise, ZagrebThe Archdiocese of Zagreb is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Croatia, serving as its religious centre. The current Archbishop is Josip Cardinal Bozanić. The Catholic Church is the largest religious organisation in Zagreb, Catholicism being the predominant religion of Croatia, with over 1.1 million adherents.WEB,weblink Zagreb(Archdiocese)-Statistics, Zagreb(Archdiocese), 3 May 2012, Zagreb is also the Episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana of the Serbian Orthodox Church.Islamic religious organisation of Croatia has the see in Zagreb. Current president is Mufti Aziz Hasanović. There used to be a mosque in the Meštrović Pavilion during World War IIMeštrović Pavilion at the Žrtava Fašizma Square, but it was relocated to the neighbourhood of Borovje in Peščenica. Mainstream Protestant churches have also been present in Zagreb – Evangelical (Lutheran) Church and Reformed Christian (Calvinist) Church. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is also present in the Zagreb neighbourhood of Jarun whereas Jehovah's Witnesses have their headquarters in Central Zagreb.WEB,weblink Crkva Isusa Krista Svetaca Poslijednih Dana, www.crkvaisusakrista.hr, 2 September 2012, In total there are around 40 non-Catholic religious organisations and denominations in Zagreb with their headquarters and places of worship across the city making it a large and diverse multicultural community.There is also significant Jewish history through the Holocaust: weblink

Economy and infrastructure

File:Neboder Ilica Zagreb.jpg|Neboder|alt=File:Sky Office Tower 03.JPG|Sky Office Tower|alt=File:Zagrepcanka_dan.jpg|Zagrepčanka|alt=File:Centar Strojarska 20150307 DSC 0013.JPG|Centar Strojarska|alt=File:Eurotower I-Zagreb.JPG|Eurotower|alt=File:Cibona Tower upwards.jpg|Cibona Tower|alt=File:HOTO toranj Savska Zagreb.jpg|HOTO Tower|alt=File:Four Points Panorama Hotel Zagreb.jpg|Panorama Hotel Zagreb|alt=File:Chromos Tower Zagreb cropped.jpg|Chromos Tower|alt=File:Vjesnik bok.jpg|Vjesnik|alt=The most important branches of industry are: production of electrical machines and devices, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, food and drink processing. Zagreb is an international trade and business centre, as well as an essential transport hub placed at the crossroads of Central Europe, the Mediterranean and the Southeast Europe.WEB,weblink About Zagreb Economy, 2 July 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614151640weblink">weblink 14 June 2006, Almost all of the largest Croatian as well as Central European companies and conglomerates such as Agrokor, INA, Hrvatski Telekom have their headquarters in the city.The only Croatian stock exchange is the Zagreb Stock Exchange (), which is located in Eurotower, one of the tallest Croatian skyscrapers.According to 2008 data, the city of Zagreb has the highest PPP and nominal gross domestic product per capita in Croatia at $32,185 and $27,271 respectively, compared to the Croatian averages of $18,686 and $15,758.WEB,weblink Zagreb – City Office for Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, 25 April 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130720022211weblink">weblink 20 July 2013, dmy-all, As of May 2015, the average monthly net salary in Zagreb was 6,669 kuna, about €870 (Croatian average is 5,679 kuna, about €740).WEB,weblink Prosječna plaća u Zagrebu 990 kuna viša od hrvatskog prosjeka, Index.hr, 31 January 2016, WEB, Foto: Marijan Sušenj/PIXSELL,weblink Znate li koliko iznosi prosječna plaća u Hrvatskoj? – Vijesti – hrvatska – Večernji list, Vecernji.hr, 5 May 2014, At the end of 2012, the average unemployment rate in Zagreb was around 9.5%.WEB,weblink Službene stranice Grada Zagreba – Zaposlenost i nezaposlenost, Zagreb.hr, 5 October 2013, 5 May 2014, 34% of companies in Croatia have headquarters in Zagreb, and 38.4% of the Croatian workforce works in Zagreb, including almost all banks, utility and public transport companies.WEB, CENTRALIZIRANA HRVATSKA Analiza Jutarnjeg – zaposleni Zagrepčani primaju 50 posto veće plaće od Varaždinaca!,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Centralizacija: Zagreb troši triput više od Rijeke, Splita i Osijeka zajedno,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Grabar Kitarović: Demografska slika Hrvatske je ogroman problem,weblink 20 June 2017, Companies in Zagreb create 52% of total turnover and 60% of total profit of Croatia in 2006 as well as 35% of Croatian export and 57% of Croatian import.WEB,weblink PDF, Gospodarstvo Grada Zagreba i Zagrebačke županije, 11 December 2007, 11 November 2008, Croatian Chamber of Economy, Croatian, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217230926weblink">weblink 17 December 2008, WEB
,weblink
, Economic Profile of Zagreb Chamber of Commerce
, Croatian Chamber of Commerce, Zagreb Chamber of Commerce
, 25 January 2008
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080115172243weblink">weblink
, 15 January 2008
, hr
, yes
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Transport

Highways

{{further|Highways in Croatia}}File:Petlja Držićeva Slavonska.jpg|thumb|left|Slavonska AvenueSlavonska AvenueFile:ZET Zagreb.png|thumb|upright=1.6|The ZET network of daytime tram lines in 2009 (Line 5 has since been extended to Maksimir and Kapelska and Hanuševa stops were removed)]]Zagreb is the hub of five major Croatian highways.The highway A6 was upgraded in October 2008 and leads w:A7 (Croatia)#Route description|from Zagreb to Rijeka]], and forming a part of the Pan-European Corridor Vb. The upgrade coincided with the opening of the bridge over the Mura river on the A4 and the completion of the Hungarian M7, which marked the opening of the first freeway corridor between Rijeka and Budapest.WEB
,weblink
, From Zagreb to Rijeka in an hour
, 22 October 2008
, 11 November 2008
, Product of Croatia
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715120400weblink">weblink
, 15 July 2011
, dmy-all
, The A1 starts at the Lučko interchange and concurs with the A6 up to the Bosiljevo 2 interchange, connecting Zagreb and Split ({{As of|2008|10}} Vrgorac). A further extension of the A1 up to Dubrovnik is under construction. Both highways are tolled by the Croatian highway authorities Hrvatske autoceste and Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb.{{citation needed|date=October 2012}}Highway A3 (formerly named Bratstvo i jedinstvo) was the showpiece of Croatia in the SFRY. It is the oldest Croatian highway.WEB, Zbirka.si,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160311035630weblink">weblink yes, 11 March 2016, PRAZNOVANJE ROJSTNEGA DNE ZA OTROKE – NASVETI!, Brotherhood and Unity Motorway, Slovenian, 27 August 2015, {{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB, Radio Television of Serbia,weblink Vremeplov, Time machine, Serbian, 1 April 2010, 17 August 2015, A3 forms a part of the Pan-European Corridor X. The highway starts at the Bregana border crossing, bypasses Zagreb forming the southern arch of the Zagreb bypass and ends at Lipovac near the Bajakovo border crossing. It continues in Southeast Europe in the direction of Near East. This highway is tolled except for the stretch between Bobovica and Ivanja Reka interchanges.WEB, Hrvatske autoceste,weblink Autocesta A3 – Bregana–Zagreb–Lipovac, Motorway A3 – Bregana–Zagreb–Lipovac, PDF, 3 July 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110220231220weblink">weblink 20 February 2011, 21 June 2017, Highway A2 is a part of the Corridor Xa.WEB,weblink South East Europe Core Regional Transport Network Development Plan, May 2006, 13 November 2008, South-East Europe Transport Observatory, It connects Zagreb and the frequently congested Macelj border crossing, forming a near-continuous motorway-level link between Zagreb and Western Europe.WEB,weblinktitle= Project appraisal document on a proposed loan to the Republic of Croatia, 27 September 2000, 13 November 2008World Bank Group>The World Bank, Forming a part of the Corridor Vb, highway A4 starts in Zagreb forming the northeastern wing of the Zagreb bypass and leads to Hungary until the Goričan border crossing. It is often used highway around Zagreb.WEB, Autocesta koja koči Hrvatsku,weblink 20 June 2017, The railway and the highway A3 along the Sava river that extend to Slavonia (towards Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Osijek and Vukovar) are some of the busiest traffic corridors in the country.WEB,weblink Zagreb Transportation, 2 July 2006, The railway running along the Sutla river and the A2 highway (Zagreb-Macelj) running through Zagorje, as well as traffic connections with the Pannonian region and Hungary (the Zagorje railroad, the roads and railway to Varaždin – Čakovec and Koprivnica) are linked with truck routes.WEB,weblink Izvješće o mreži, 67, 2009, 13 November 2008, Croatian RailwaysSplit, Croatia>Split operates on a high-speed tilting trains line via the Lika region (renovated in 2004 to allow for a five-hour journey); a faster line along the Una river valley is currently in use only up to the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.WEB,weblink Nagibni vlakovi više nisu nagibni, 20 September 2004, Pupačić, Tomislav, 13 November 2008, Vjesnik, Croatian, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20090108164504weblink">weblink 8 January 2009, dmy-all,

Roads

File:Domovinski most Zg 0907.JPG|left|thumb|Homeland bridgeHomeland bridgeFile:Rotor Zagreb.jpg|thumb|right|Roundabout in New Zagreb – west ]]The city has an extensive avenue network with numerous main arteries up to ten lanes wide and Zagreb bypass, a congested four-lane highway encircling most of the city. Traffic jams and daytime parking space are a great problem in the wider city centre area during the rush hour. Finding a parking space is supposed to be made somewhat easier by the construction of new underground multi-story parking lots (Importanne Center, Importanne Gallery, Lang Square, Tuškanac, Kvaternik Square, Klaić Street, etc.). The busiest roads are the main east-west arteries, former Highway "Brotherhood and Unity", consisting of Ljubljanska Avenue, Zagrebačka Avenue and Slavonska Avenue; and the Vukovarska Avenue, the closest bypass of the city centre. The avenues were supposed to alleviate traffic problem, but most of them are today gridlocked at rush hour and others, like Branimirova Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue which are gridlocked for the whole day.WEB, PROMETNI KOLAPS Gužve zbog asfaltiranja Avenije Dubrovnik trajat će do kraja kolovoza,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, Zbog radova velike gužve u Novom Zagrebu, Avenija Dubrovnik djelomično zatvorena do srijede,weblink 20 June 2017, WEB, 10 projekata koji bi riješili gradske gužve u Zagrebu – na čekanju,weblink 20 June 2017, European routes E59, E65 and E70 serve Zagreb.{{See also|Zagreb bypass}}

Bridges

Zagreb has seven road traffic bridges across the river Sava, and they all span both the river and the levees, making them all by and large longer than {{convert|200|m|ft|abbr=on}}. In downstream order, these are:{|class="wikitable"! Name (English)! Name (Croatian)! Year Finished! Type of bridge! Road that goes over! Other InformationZagreb#Bridges>Podsused Bridge|Podsusedski most|1982|Two-lane road bridge with a commuter train line (not yet completed)Samobor>Samoborska Road|Connects Zagreb to its close suburbs by a road to Samobor, the fastest route to Bestovje, Sveta Nedelja and Strmec.Zagreb#Bridges>Jankomir Bridge|Jankomirski most|1958, 2006 (upgrade)|Four lane road bridge|Ljubljanska Avenue|Connects Ljubljanska Avenue to the Jankomir interchange and Zagreb bypass.|Adriatic Bridge|Jadranski most|1981|Six lane road bridge (also carries tram tracks)Adriatic Sea>Adriatic Avenue|The most famous bridge in Zagreb. The bridge spans from Savska Street in the north to the Remetinec Roundabout in the south.Zagreb#Bridges>Sava Bridge|Savski most|1938|Pedestrian since the construction of the Adriatic BridgeSava>Savska Road|The official name at the time of building was New Sava bridge, but it is the oldest still standing bridge over Sava. The bridge is known among experts due to some construction details.NEWS,weblink Bridges across the Sava River in Zagreb, Neven Crnobrnja, Croatian, Građevinar, 57, 12, 2006, Hrvatski savez građevinskih inženjera, Zagreb, Croatia, 20 January 2011, Liberty Bridge, Zagreb>Liberty Bridge|Most slobode|1959|Four lane road bridgeVećeslav Holjevac>Većeslav Holjevac Avenue|It used to hold a pair of bus lanes, but due to the increasing individual traffic and better tram connections across the river, those were converted to normal lanes.Zagreb#Bridges>Youth Bridge|Most mladosti|1974|Six lane road bridge (also carries tram tracks)|Marin Držić AvenueNovi Zagreb to the districts of Trnje, Zagreb>Trnje, Peščenica – Žitnjak, Donja Dubrava, Zagreb>Donja Dubrava and Maksimir.|Homeland Bridge|Domovinski most|2007|Four-lane road bridge (also carries two bicycle and two pedestrian lanes; has space reserved for light railroad tracks)Workforce>Radnička (Workers') RoadPeščenica – Žitnjak>Peščenica via Radnička street to the Zagreb bypass at Kosnica. It is planned to continue towards Zagreb Airport at Pleso and Velika Gorica, and on to state road D31 going to the south.There are also two rail traffic bridges across the Sava, one near the Sava bridge and one near Mičevec, as well as two bridges that are part of the Zagreb bypass, one near Zaprešić (west), and the other near Ivanja Reka (east).Two additional bridges across the river Sava are proposed: Jarun Bridge and Bundek Bridge.

Public transportation

File:Nextbike NSK Zagreb 20150307 DSC 0037.JPG|thumb|left|Nextbike Zagreb ]]File:19-06-16-Zagreb-DJI_0183.jpg|thumb|right|Main Railway Station ]]File:ZET tram&bus.jpg|thumb|right|ZET tram and city bus]]File:HŽ Class 6112 1.JPG|thumb|right|Newest model of the Zagreb city trains system]]Public transportation in the city is organised in several layers: the inner parts of the city are mostly covered by trams, the outer city areas and closer suburbs are linked with buses and rapid transit commuter rail.The public transportation company ZET (Zagrebački električni tramvaj, Zagreb Electric Tram) operates trams, all inner bus lines, and the most of the suburban bus lines, and it is subsidised by the city council.The national rail operator Croatian Railways (Hrvatske željeznice, HŽ) runs a network of urban and suburban train lines in the metropolitan Zagreb area, and is a government-owned corporation.The funicular (uspinjača) in the historic part of the city is a tourist attraction.Taxi market has been liberalized in early 2018WEB,weblink Ministar Butković: Novim Zakonom o prijevozu u cestovnom prometu jeftiniji i dostupniji taksi za sve građane, Government of the Republic of Croatia, and numerous transport companies have been allowed to enter the market; consequently, the prices significantly dropped whereas the service was immensely improved so the popularity of taxis in Zagreb has been increasing from then onwards.

Tram network

Zagreb has an extensive tram network with 15 day and 4 night lines covering much of the inner- and middle-suburbs of the city. The first tram line was opened on 5 September 1891 and trams have been serving as a vital component of Zagreb mass transit ever since. Trams usually travel at speeds of {{convert|30|-|50|km/h|0|abbr=off}}, but slow considerably during rush hour. The network operates at the curb whereas on larger avenues its tracks are situated inside the green belts.An ambitious program, which entailed replacing old trams with the new and modern ones built mostly in Zagreb by companies Končar elektroindustrija and, to a lesser extent, by TŽV Gredelj, has recently been finished. The new "TMK 2200", trams by the end of 2012 made around 95% of the fleet.WEB
,weblink
, Predstavljen 71. niskopodni tramvaj
, 8 January 2008
, 27 December 2007
, Zagrebački električni tramvaj (ZET)
, Croatian
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071231084927weblink">weblink
, 31 December 2007
, yes
,
,

Suburban rail network

The commuter rail network in Zagreb has existed since 1992. In 2005, suburban rail services were increased to a 15-minute frequency serving the middle and outer suburbs of Zagreb, primarily in the east-west direction and to the southern districts. This has enhanced the commuting opportunities across the city.WEB,weblink Zagreb kupuje 18 vlakova za brži prigradski promet, 1 August 2008, Vojković, Ana Marija, 8 December 2008, Croatian, 24 sata (Croatia), 24 sata, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928005631weblink">weblink 28 September 2011, A new link to the nearby town of Samobor has been announced and is due to start construction in 2014. This link will be standard-gauge and tie in with normal Croatian Railways operations. The previous narrow-gauge line to Samobor called Samoborček was closed in the 1970s.JOURNAL,weblink Uskoro Samoborček i novi prigradski vlakovi, Croatian, 28 November 2007, 31 July 2008, Zagrebački komunalni vjesnik, № 362, PDF, 134 KB, 11, 1845-4968, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080910055608weblink">weblink 10 September 2008, dmy-all,

Air traffic

File:Zagreb_Airport_New_Terminal.jpg|thumb|right|New terminal of the Franjo Tudjman Airport ]]Zagreb Airport {{airport codes|ZAG|LDZA}} is the main Croatian international airport, a {{convert|17|km|mi|abbr=on}} drive southeast of Zagreb in the city of Velika Gorica. The airport is also the main Croatian airbase featuring a fighter squadron, helicopters, as well as military and freight transport aircraft.WEB,weblink Franjo Tuđman Airport terminal, 2 July 2006, The airport had 2,77 millions of passengers in 2016 with a new passenger terminal being opened in late March 2017 that can accommodate up to 5,5 million passengers.Zagreb also has a second, smaller airport, Lučko {{airport codes|2=LDZL}}. It is home to sports aeroplanes and a Croatian special police unit, as well as being a military helicopter airbase. Lučko used to be the main airport of Zagreb from 1947 to 1959.WEB
,weblink
, Zagreb Airport – History
, 2 October 2008
, Croatian
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080801145700weblink">weblink
, 1 August 2008
, yes
,
, A third, small grass airfield, Buševec, is located just outside Velika Gorica. It is primarily used for sports purposes.WEB,weblink Usprkos teškoćama leti se dalje, 10 October 1999, 31 July 2008, Kosović, Vedran, Vjesnik, Croatian, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090108075005weblink">weblink 8 January 2009,

Education

{{further|List of high schools in Zagreb}}File:Great_Hall_of_the_Rectorate_of_the_University_of_Zagreb.jpg|thumb|right|Great Hall of the Rectorate, University of ZagrebUniversity of ZagrebZagreb has 136 primary schools and 100 secondary schools including 30 gymnasia.WEB,weblink Primary schools, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports, 27 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070711194353weblink">weblink 11 July 2007, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Secondary schools, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports, 27 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071023023302weblink">weblink 23 October 2007, dmy-all, There are 5 public higher education institution and 9 private professional higher education schools.WEB,weblink Higher education institutions, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports, 3 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070609114433weblink">weblink 9 June 2007, dmy-all,

University

{{further|List of universities in Croatia}}Founded in 1669, the University of Zagreb is the oldest continuously operating university in Croatia and one of the largestWEB, About University,weblink 23 July 2017, WEB, Croatia: University of Zagreb – KTH,weblink 23 July 2017, WEB, University of Zagreb – CENTER FOR EUROPEAN EDUCATION,weblink 23 July 2017, WEB, University of Zagreb, Croatia – Europe Engage,weblink 23 July 2017, WEB, University of Zagreb – Top Universities,weblink 23 July 2017, yes,weblink 29 July 2017, dmy-all, WEB, 4th Ensec Conference-Zagreb-Croatia,weblink 23 July 2017, and oldest universities in the Southeastern Europe. Ever since its foundation, the university has been continually growing and developing and now consists of 29 faculties, three art academies and the Croatian Studies Centre. More than 200,000 students have attained the Bachelor's degree at the university, which has also assigned 18,000 Master's and 8,000 Doctor's degrees.WEB,weblink Zagreb in brief, 11 November 2008, City of Zagreb, {{As of|2011}}, the University of Zagreb is ranked among 500 Best Universities of the world by the weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110925025850weblink">Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities.Zagreb is also the seat of two private universities: the Catholic University of Croatia and the Libertas International University; as well as numerous public and private polytehnics, colleges and higher professional schools.{{which|date=July 2019}}

See also

References

Footnotes

{{notelist |refs ={{Kosovo-note}}|2}}

Citations

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Cresswell, Peterjon, Atkins, Ismay, Dunn, Lily, Time Out Croatia,weblink 10 July 2006, Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA, First, London, Berkeley & Toronto, 978-1-904978-70-1,

External links

{{Sister project links|Zagreb|voy=Zagreb}} {{Geographic location|Centre = Zagreb|North = Varaždin|Northeast = Bjelovar|East = Dugo Selo|Southeast = Velika GoricaOdra, Zagreb>Odra|Southwest = Karlovac|West = Samobor|Northwest = Zaprešić}}{{Zagreb}}{{Zagreb history}}{{County seats of Croatia}}{{Counties of Croatia}}{{Croatian cities}}{{List of European capitals by region}}{{Capital cities of the European Union}}{{Hero Cities of SFRJ}}{{Eurovision Song Contest}}{{Authority control}}

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