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{{About|the capital city|the region and county of England|Greater London|the historic city and financial district within London|City of London|other uses|London (disambiguation)}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use British English|date=January 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2019}}

| map_caption = Interactive map outlining London| pushpin_map_caption = Location within the United KingdomLocation within EuropeLocation within Earth| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map = UK#Europe#Earth5126039region:GB|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Sovereign State| subdivision_name = United KingdomConstituent Country}}Regions of England>RegionCounties of England>Counties| subdivision_name1 = EnglandGreater London>London (coterminous)| subdivision_name3 = Greater LondonCity of LondonRoman Empire>Romans| established_date = AD 47Number 1 Poultry (ONE 94), Museum of London Archaeology, 2013. Archaeology Data Service, The University of York. as LondiniumDistricts of England>DistrictsCity of London & London borough#List of boroughs>32 boroughsDirectly elected mayors in England and Wales>Executive mayoralty and deliberative assembly within unitary constitutional monarchyGreater London Authority• Mayor of London>Mayor Sadiq Khan (Lab)• London Assembly| total_type = Total| area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 1572| area_metro_km2 = 8382| area_urban_km2 = 1737.9| area_blank1_title = City of London| area_blank1_km2 = 2.90| area_blank2_title = Greater London| area_blank2_km2 = 1569| elevation_footnotes = WEB,weblink London weather map, The Met Office, 26 August 2018,weblink live, 3 August 2018, | elevation_m = 11| population_total = 8,908,081| population_as_of = 2018| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = 5,666| population_blank1_title = City of LondonList of cities in the United Kingdom>67th)| population_blank2_title = Greater London| population_blank2 = 8,899,375| population_urban = 9,787,426PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESSDATE=7 MAY 2019, (1st)| population_demonyms = Londoner(2017)}}WEBSITE=WWW.ONS.GOV.UK,
  • WEB, Regional economic activity by gross value added (balanced), UK: 1998 to 2017,weblink, | demographics1_title1 = Total
GBP>£431 billion(${{To USDGBRround=yes}} billion)| demographics1_title2 = Per capitaGBP>£48,857(${{formatnum:{{To USDGBRround=yes}}}})Human Development Index>HDI (2017)URL=HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/,, – very highPostcodes in the United Kingdom>Postcode areas| postal_code =
{{collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
| title = 22 areas
| {{postcode|E}}, {{postcode|EC}}, {{postcode|N}}, {{postcode|NW}}, {{postcode|SE}}, {{postcode|SW}}, {{postcode|W}}, {{postcode|WC}}, {{postcode|BR}}, {{postcode|CR}}, {{postcode|DA}}, {{postcode|EN}}, {{postcode|HA}}, {{postcode|IG}}, {{postcode|KT}}, {{postcode|RM}}, {{postcode|SM}}, {{postcode|TW}}, {{postcode|UB}}, {{postcode|WD}}
| ({{postcode|CM}}, {{postcode|TN}}; partially)
}}| area_codes =
{{collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
| title = 9 area codes
| 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992
}}| leader_title = London Assembly
London Assembly constituencies>14 constituenciesParliament of the United Kingdom>UK ParliamentList of Parliamentary constituencies in London>73 constituencies| leader_title2 = European ParliamentLondon (European Parliament constituency)>London constituency| timezone = Greenwich Mean Time| utc_offset = ±00:00{{!}}UTC| timezone_DST = British Summer Time| utc_offset_DST = +1Police in the United Kingdom>PoliceCity of London Police>City of London MetropolitanFire services in the United Kingdom>Fire and RescueLondon Fire Brigade>LondonAmbulance service>AmbulanceLondon Ambulance Service>LondonAirports of London>AirportsLondon Heathrow Airport>Heathrow (International Air Transport Association airport code) London City Airport>City (International Air Transport Association airport code)Outside London:Gatwick Airport>Gatwick (International Air Transport Association airport code)London Stansted Airport>Stansted (International Air Transport Association airport code)Luton Airport>Luton (International Air Transport Association airport code)London Southend Airport>Southend (SEN)| blank_name_sec2 = GeoTLD| blank_info_sec2 = .london| website =}}{{short description|Capital of the United Kingdom}} London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink London, 23 September 2014, Collins Dictionary, n.d., WEB,weblink The World Factbook, 1 February 2014, Central Intelligence Agency, 23 February 2014, Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its {{convert|50|mi|adj=on}} estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans.WEB,weblink n.d.,weblink" title="">weblink Roman London, Museum of London, 22 March 2008, dead, The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just {{convert|1.12|sqmi|km2}} and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits.NEWS,weblink London Government Act: Essex, Kent, Surrey and Middlesex 50 years on, BBC News, Joshua Fowler, 5 July 2013, NEWS,weblink The big debate: Is Bromley in London or Kent?, Bromley Times, Laurence Cawley, 1 August 2013, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 14 July 2014, Croydon, London or Croydon, Surrey?, Croydon Advertiser, Joanna Till, 14 February 2012, WEB,weblink Government Offices for the English Regions, Fact Files: London, Office for National Statistics, 4 May 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2008, BOOK, Elcock, Howard, Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities, Routledge, London, 1994, 978-0-415-10167-7, 368, harv, See also: Independent city § National capitals. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.BOOK, Jones, Bill, Kavanagh, Dennis, Moran, Michael, Norton, Philip, Politics UK, Pearson Education, 2007, 978-1-4058-2411-8, 868, harv, Harlow, The London Mayor is not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London who heads the City of London Corporation, which administers the City of London.Lieutenancies Act 1997London is considered to be one of the world's most important global citiesWEB,weblink Global Power City Index 2017, 23 November 2018, Institute for Urban Strategies â€“ The Mori Memorial Foundation, NEWS,weblink London: the everything capital of the world, The Guardian, Adewunmi, Bim, 10 March 2013, London, WEB,weblink What's The Capital Of The World?, More Intelligent Life, 4 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2013, and has been termed the world's most powerful,WEB,weblink Global Power City Index 2018, The Mori Memorial Foundation, 6 December 2018, most desirable,WEB,weblink The Global Property Handbook a collaboration with Warburg Realty and Barnes International Realty - Wealth-X Report, Wealth-X, 6 December 2018, most influential,NEWS,weblink London the most influential city in the world according to Forbes, Prince, Rosa, 18 August 2014, 6 December 2018, The Daily Telegraph, London, most visited,PRESS RELEASE,weblink London Retains Crown in 2015 MasterCard Global Destinations Cities Index, MasterCard, 6 December 2018, most expensive,WEB,weblink London is World's Most Expensive City {{!, PropertyTime||access-date=6 December 2018}}WEB,weblink London Ranked Most Expensive to Live and Work, But Sydney & Los Angeles Offer Best Value,, 6 December 2018, innovative,WEB,weblink Innovation Citiesâ„¢ Index 2016-2017 : Global - by 2thinknow City Rankings, 23 February 2017, Innovation Cities Program & Index, 6 December 2018, sustainable,WEB,weblink Citizen Centric Cities {{!, 2018 Arcadis Sustainable Cities Index|last=Arcadis| |access-date=6 December 2018}} most investment friendly,WEB,weblink London triumphs as world's most attractive city for foreign investment, 17 September 2015, Information Age, 6 December 2018, and most popular for workNEWS,weblink London is crowned most popular city in the world for work, 25 June 2018, London Evening Standard, 6 December 2018, city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.MAGAZINE,weblink The World's Most Influential Cities 2014, 2 March 2015, Forbes, NEWS,weblink London is 'the most desirable city in the world to work in', study finds, 2 March 2015, The Independent, London, Dearden, Lizzie, 7 October 2014, London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance.WEB,weblink London is on fire as the West's fastest growing city, 22 January 2015, CNN Money, It is one of the largest financial centresweblink Retrieved 7 October 2018. and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP.Rankings of cities by metropolitan area GDP can vary as a result of differences in the definition of the boundaries and population sizes of the areas compared, exchange rate fluctuations and the method used to calculate output. London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world. A report by the McKinsey Global Institute published in 2012 estimated that London had a city GDP of US$751.8 billion in 2010, compared to US$764.2 billion for Paris, making them respectively the sixth- and fifth-largest in the world. A report by PricewaterhouseCoopers published in November 2009 estimated that London had a city GDP measured in purchasing power parity of US$565 billion in 2008, compared to US$564 billion for Paris, making them respectively the fifth- and sixth-largest in the world. The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of 14.9 million for London compared to 11.8 million for Paris, whilst the PricewaterhouseCoopers study used a metropolitan area with a population of 8.59 million for London compared to 9.92 million for Paris.NEWS,weblink The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025, 28 September 2012, Foreign Policy, Washington DC, September–October 2012, WEB,weblink Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025, PricewaterhouseCoopers, 16 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2010, dead, NEWS,weblink London, The Independent, Simon, Calder, 22 December 2007, London, capital of the world, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 November 2009, Teodorczuk, Tom, London is the world capital of the 21st century ... says New York, London Evening Standard, 20 March 2007, PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 November 2011, London is world capital of culture says LSE expert, London School of Economics, 11 March 2008, It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivalsNEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 June 2011, London tops ranking of destination cities, 12 June 2012, The Independent, London, 1 June 2011, and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic.WEB,weblink Beijing to overtake London as world's largest aviation hub, 12 June 2012, Centre for Aviation, It is the leading investment destination,WEB,weblink Global Cities Investment Monitor 2017, 5 September 2017, KPMG,weblink" title="">weblink 5 September 2017, dead, WEB,weblink Global Cities Investment Monitor 2016, 12 September 2016, KPMG, WEB,weblink Global Investor Intentions Survey 2015, 27 August 2015, CBRE, WEB,weblink London Top Target for Global Investors, Secondary Markets Gain Popularity, 27 August 2015, World Property Journal, hosting more international retailersWEB,weblink Global Retail Report 2014, 27 August 2015, CBRE, WEB,weblink Bourke, Joanna, London retains title as world's most international shopping destination, London Evening Standard, 18 May 2015, 27 August 2015, and ultra high-net-worth individualsWEB,weblink The Wealth Report 2015, 27 August 2015, Knight Frank, WEB,weblink Bourke, Joanna, NYC Is No Longer the No. 1 City for the Super-Wealthy, Curbed, 11 March 2015, 27 August 2015, than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe,PRESS RELEASE, 20 August 2008,weblink Number of international students in London continues to grow, Greater London Authority,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2010, dead, and is home of world-class institutions such as Imperial College London in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and the London School of Economics in economics, finance, and business.WEB,weblink Times Higher Education World University Rankings, WEB,weblink Top Universities: Imperial College London, WEB, Top Universities: LSE,weblink 21 September 2019, In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.WEB,weblink IOC elects London as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012, 6 July 2005, International Olympic Committee, 3 June 2006, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.WEB,weblink Languages spoken in the UK population, National Centre for Language, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, {{webarchive|format=addlarchives|url=|date=13 February 2005}} Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,908,081,WEB,weblinklast= date=28 September 2018 publisher=Office for National Statistics >accessdate=15 August 2019, the most populous of any List of cities in the European Union by population within city limitsHTTP://WWW.STATISTICS.GOV.UK/CCI/NUGGET.ASP?ID=384 PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090108101256/HTTP://WWW.STATISTICS.GOV.UK/CCI/NUGGET.ASP?ID=384URL-STATUS=DEAD, and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population.HTTP://DATA.LONDON.GOV.UK/DATASTORE/APPLICATIONS/FOCUS-LONDON-POPULATION-AND-MIGRATION >ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101016225915/HTTP://DATA.LONDON.GOV.UK/DATASTORE/APPLICATIONS/FOCUS-LONDON-POPULATION-AND-MIGRATION ARCHIVE-DATE=16 OCTOBER 2010 PUBLISHER=GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY Greater London Built-up Area>London's urban area is the second List of urban areas in the European Union, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.HTTP://WWW.NOMISWEB.CO.UK/ARTICLES/747.ASPX PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS >ACCESSDATE=29 JUNE 2013, The population within the London commuter belt is the List of metropolitan areas in the European Union with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.{{refn>According to the Eurostat (Eurostat), London has the largest Larger Urban Zones>Larger Urban Zone in the EU. Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition.WEBSITE=LONDON.GOV.UK ACCESSDATE=27 JANUARY 2017PUBLISHER=CHANNEL 4 REF=HARV ARCHIVEDATE=10 MAY 2011, live, London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement in Greenwich where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and Greenwich Mean Time.WEB,weblink Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UNESCO, 26 November 2008, Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events. These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.NEWS,weblink West End Must Innovate to Renovate, Says Report, 15 November 2010, What's On Stage, 25 January 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, London, dead, The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.{{TOC limit|limit=3}}


"London" is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;{{Harvnb|Mills|2001|p=139}} for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").NEWS,weblink UK's oldest hand-written document 'at Roman London dig', BBC News, 1 June 2016, 1 June 2016, Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.NEWS,weblink London, Ackroyd, Peter, The New York Times, 28 October 2008, 2 December 2001, 978-0-7011-7279-4, Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English.Theodora Bynon, 'London's Name', Transactions of the Philological Society, 114:3 (2016), 281–97, {{doi|10.1111/1467-968X.12064}}.The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.JOURNAL, Coates, Richard, 1998, A new explanation of the name of London, Transactions of the Philological Society, 96, 2, 203–229, 10.1111/1467-968X.00027, harv, However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.Peter Schrijver, Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages, Routledge Studies in Linguistics, 13 (New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 57.Until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and Greater London.{{Harvnb|Mills|2001|p=140}} "London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN".WEB, LDN Flood Week 2017,weblink 11 September 2018,weblink 12 September 2018, live, 9 November 2017,



In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge.JOURNAL, Denison, Simon, First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall, British Archaeology, July 1999, 46,weblink 15 April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, live, This bridge either crossed the Thames or reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC.In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC,WEB, London's Oldest Prehistoric Structure,weblink BAJR, 19 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2018, live, 3 April 2015, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge.WEB, Milne, Gustav, London's Oldest Foreshore Structure!,weblink Frog Blog, Thames Discovery Programme, 15 April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank where the River Effra flows into the Thames.

Roman London

File:Map of London, 1300.svg|thumb|In 1300, the City was still confined within the Roman walls.]]Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion of AD 43.BOOK, Roman London, Perring, Dominic, 1991, Routledge, London, 978-0-203-23133-3, 1, harv, This lasted only until around AD 61, when the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it to the ground.WEB,weblink British History Timeline â€”Roman Britain, BBC, 7 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000.BOOK, London Civic Theatre: City Drama and Pageantry from Roman Times to 1558, Anne Lancashire,weblink Cambridge University Press, 2002, 19, 978-0-521-63278-2,

Anglo-Saxon and Viking period London

With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London ceased to be a capital, and the walled city of Londinium was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued in the area of St Martin-in-the-Fields until around 450.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2009, Museum of London, The last days of Londinium, 31 March 2013, live, From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed slightly west of the old Roman city.WEB,weblink The early years of Lundenwic, The Museum of London,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2008, dead, By about 680, the city had regrown into a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated Viking assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.WEB,weblink Viking Attacks, 19 January 2016, Wheeler, Kip, File:Siege of London (MS 1168).jpg|thumb|upright|The Lancastrian siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist sally]]The Vikings established Danelaw over much of eastern and northern England; its boundary stretched roughly from London to Chester. It was an area of political and geographical control imposed by the Viking incursions which was formally agreed by the Danish warlord, Guthrum and the West Saxon king Alfred the Great in 886. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that Alfred "refounded" London in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Vince, Alan, 2001, London, Lapidge, Michael, Blair, John, Keynes, Simon, Scragg, Donald, The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, Blackwell, 978-0-631-22492-1, By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."BOOK, Frank Stenton, Stenton, Frank, 1971, Anglo-Saxon England, 538–539, Oxford University Press, 3rd, 978-0-19-280139-5, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Blair, John, 2001, Westminster, Lapidge, Michael, Blair, John, Keynes, Simon, Scragg, Donald, The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, Blackwell, 978-0-631-22492-1,

Middle Ages

File:Westminster Abbey by Canaletto, 1749.jpg|thumb|left|Westminster Abbey, as seen in this painting (by Canaletto, 1749), is a World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteAfter winning the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England in the newly completed Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.WEB,weblink History â€“ 1066 â€“ King William, BBC, 5 May 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2009, live, William constructed the Tower of London, the first of the many Norman castles in England to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city, to intimidate the native inhabitants.WEB,weblink A History of British Architecture â€” White Tower, Tinniswood, Adrian, Adrian Tinniswood, BBC, 5 May 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 13 February 2009, live, In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.WEB,weblink UK Parliament â€” Parliament: The building, 9 November 2007, UK Parliament, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Palace of Westminster, UK Parliament, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2008, dead, In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal English court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place. For most purposes this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.BOOK, Schofield, John, Vince, Alan, Alan Vince, Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003, 978-0-8264-6002-8,weblink 26, harv, Disaster struck in the form of the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.JOURNAL,weblink Black Death,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, BBC History, 3 November 2008, harv, London was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.WEB,weblink Richard II (1367–1400), BBC, 12 October 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, London was also a centre of England's Jewish population before their expulsion by Edward I in 1290. Violence against Jews took place in 1190, after it was rumoured that the new King had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation.WEB, Jacobs, Joseph, England,weblink Jewish Encyclopedia,, 1906, In 1264 during the Second Barons' War, Simon de Montfort's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts.{{Citation |publisher = Continuum |ol = 24816680M |isbn = 978-1-84725-186-2 |location = London |title = The King's Jews |url =weblink |author = Robin R. Mundill |lccn = 2010282921 |oclc = 466343661 |date = 2010|pages=88–99}}

Early modern

(File:London - John Norden's map of 1593.jpg|thumb|Map of London in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed.)During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, and much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.Pevsner, Nikolaus. London I: The Cities of London and Westminster rev. edition, 1962. Introduction p. 48. In 1475, the Hanseatic League set up its main trading base (kontor) of England in London, called the Stalhof or Steelyard. It existed until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg sold the property to South Eastern Railway.EB1911, Steelyard, Merchants of the, Woollen cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable.J. G. Pounds (1976). "An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Part 1330". p. 430. CUP ArchiveBut the reach of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean Sea normally lay through Antwerp and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan. Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565, there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.Ramsay, George Daniel (1986). The Queen's Merchants and the Revolt of the Netherlands: The End of the Antwerp Mart. Volume 2, pp. 1 and 62–63. Manchester University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-7190-1849-7}} The Royal Exchange was founded.The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange: including notices of many of his contemporaries. With illustrations, Volume 2, pp. 80–81, John William Burgon, E. Wilson, 1839. Mercantilism grew, and monopoly trading companies such as the East India Company were established, with trade expanding to the New World. London became the principal North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre. By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact. There was an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, in the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November 1605.BOOK, James I, Durston, Christopher, 1993, Routledge, London, 978-0-415-07779-8, 59, harv, In 1637, the government of Charles I attempted to reform administration in the area of London. The plan called for the Corporation of the City to extend its jurisdiction and administration over expanding areas around the City. Fearing an attempt by the Crown to diminish the Liberties of London, a lack of interest in administering these additional areas, or concern by city guilds of having to share power, the Corporation refused. Later called "The Great Refusal", this decision largely continues to account for the unique governmental status of the City.Doolittle, Ian (2014) ‘The Great Refusal’: Why Does the City of London Corporation Only Govern the Square Mile?, The London Journal, 39:1, 21-36, {{DOI|10.1179/0305803413Z.00000000038}}.File:Vertue's 1738 plan of the London Lines of Communication.jpg|thumb|left|Vertue's 1738 plan of the Lines of Communication, built during the English Civil WarEnglish Civil WarIn the English Civil War the majority of Londoners supported the Parliamentary cause. After an initial advance by the Royalists in 1642, culminating in the battles of Brentford and Turnham Green, London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the Lines of Communication. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months.David Flintham. Civil War fortifications of London {{webarchive|url= |date=16 January 2009 }}, Fortified Places {{Webarchive|url= |date=9 April 2008 }}, 13 July 2009The fortifications failed their only test when the New Model Army entered London in 1647,Harrington, Peter (2003). English Civil War Fortifications 1642–51, Volume 9 of Fortress, 9, Osprey Publishing, {{ISBN|1-84176-604-6}}. p. 57 and they were levelled by Parliament the same year.David Flintham. Civil War fortifications of London {{webarchive|url= |date=16 January 2009 }}, Fortified Places {{Webarchive|url= |date=9 April 2008 }}, 18 August 2008. Citing:
  • The English Civil War – A Contemporary Account, Caliban Books, London, (1996), Vol. 3, p. 33.
  • Whitelocke, in Victor T. C. Smith The Defences of London During the English Civil War, Fort, Volume 25, Fortress Study Group, (1997). p. 79.
London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,WEB,weblink A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England 1348–1665, Urban Rim, 4 December 2009, 3 May 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2009, dead, culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.WEB,weblink Story of the plague, Channel 4,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, live, File:Great Fire London.jpg|thumb|The Great Fire of LondonGreat Fire of LondonThe Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.BOOK, Pepys, Samuel, Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 45: August/September 1666, 2 September 1666, 1893, Mynors Bright (decipherer), Henry B. Wheatley,weblink harv, 978-0-520-22167-3,weblink" title="">weblink 13 August 2013, live, Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert HookeWEB,weblink London After the Great Fire: Civil War and Revolution, Schofield, John, 17 February 2011, BBC History, 4 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2009, live, WEB,weblink Rebuilding after the fire, Museum of London,weblink" title="">weblink 1 February 2008, live, BOOK,weblink The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire, Thomas Fiddian, 1940, 27 April 2008, as Surveyor of London.The curious life of Robert Hooke, the man who measured London by Lisa Jardine In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral was completed. During the Georgian era, new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream. London's development as an international financial centre matured for much of the 1700s.In 1762, George III acquired Buckingham House and it was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force."Thief Taker, Constable, Police". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). In total, more than 200 offences were punishable by death,NEWS, Jackson, Peter,weblink Rough justice â€“ Victorian style, BBC News, 3 August 2009, 13 December 2011, including petty theft.NEWS,weblink National Affairs: Capital punishment: a fading practice, Time, New York, 21 March 1960, 13 December 2011, Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday.WEB,weblink The Foundling Hospital, BBC History, 17 February 2011, 13 December 2011, File:Fotografi av Royal Exchange. London, England - Hallwylska museet - 105857.tif|thumb|left|View to the Royal Exchange in the City of London in 1886]]The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press. Following the invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies, many financiers relocated to London, especially a large Jewish community, and the first London international issue{{clarify|date=January 2017}} was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world leading war fleet, acting as a serious deterrent to potential economic adversaries of the United Kingdom. The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.BOOK,weblink Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium, Coispeau, Olivier, 2016, World Scientific, 978-981-310-884-4, In 1888, London became home to a series of murders by a man known only as Jack the Ripper and It has since become one of the world's most famous unsolved mysteries.According to Samuel Johnson:}}

Late modern and contemporary

(File:British recruits August 1914 Q53234.jpg|thumb|British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914)London was the world's largest city from {{circa}}1831 to 1925. London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics,WEB,weblink Hidden extras: cholera comes to Victorian London, The Science Museum, London, 13 December 2011, claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.WEB, Brown, Robert W.,weblink London in the Nineteenth Century, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 13 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2011, Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital. London was bombed by the Germans during the First World War,JOURNAL, Goebel, Stefan, White, Jerry, 2016, London and the First World War, London Journal, 41, 3, 1–20, 10.1080/03058034.2016.1216758,weblink and during the Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.WEB,weblink Bomb-Damage Maps Reveal London's World War II Devastation, 18 May 2016,, 18 June 2017, Immediately after the war, the 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium, at a time when London was still recovering from the war.NEWS,weblink LIFE at the 1948 London Olympics, Ronk, Liz, 27 July 2013,, 18 June 2017, File:LondonBombedWWII full.jpg|thumb|left|A bombed-out London street during the Blitzthe BlitzFrom the 1940s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, primarily from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan,BOOK, Christopher Hibbert, Ben Weinreb, John Keay, Julia Keay, The London Encyclopaedia (3rd Edition), Pan Macmillan, 2010, 428, making London one of the most diverse cities worldwide. In 1951, the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank.NEWS,weblink 1951: King George opens Festival of Britain,, 18 June 2017, The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea soup fogs" for which London had been notorious.NEWS,weblink The Return of London's Fog, CORTON, CHRISTINE L., 6 November 2015,, NYT, 18 June 2017, Primarily starting in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London subcultureNEWS,weblink The Diamond Decades: The 1960s, Brown, Mick, 29 May 2012,, 18 June 2017, associated with the King's Road, ChelseaWEB,weblink Swinging Sixties: Take a walk down Chelsea's King's Road in the '60s, Robson, David, 8 September 2016,, 18 June 2017, and Carnaby Street.NEWS,weblink Magical memory tour of London, 15 July 2007,, 18 June 2017, MacLean, Rory, The role of trendsetter was revived during the punk era.BOOK, Gregory Byrne Bracken, Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city's architectural treasures... Journey Through London's Urban Landscapes, Marshall Cavendish International, 2011, 10, In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London Council was created.WEB,weblink The rise and fall of the GLC, Webber, Esther, 31 March 2016,, 18 June 2017, During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, London was subjected to bombing attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican ArmyNEWS,weblink Timeline – Worst IRA bomb attacks on mainland Britain, Cutler, David, 16 May 2011, Reuters, 18 June 2017, for two decades, starting with the Old Bailey bombing in 1973.WEB,weblink How Britain's history with the IRA made it resilient to attacks, 24 March 2017, WEB,weblink Timeline: London's Explosive History, Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot.NEWS,weblink The legacy of the Brixton riots, John, Cindi, 5 April 2006,, 18 June 2017, Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s.NEWS,weblink London's population hits 8.6m record high, BBC News, 2 February 2015, 19 June 2017, The principal ports for London moved downstream to Felixstowe and Tilbury, with the London Docklands area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the Canary Wharf development. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the 1980s.WEB,weblink Canary Wharf timeline: from the Thatcher years to Qatari control, Zolfagharifard, Ellie, 14 February 2014, Guardian, 19 June 2017, The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the North Sea.NEWS,weblink The Thames Barrier has saved London – but is it time for TB2?, Hanlon, Michael, 18 February 2014,, 19 June 2017, The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, which left London without a central administration until 2000 when London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority.NEWS,weblink 1986: Greater London Council abolished,, 20 June 2017, To celebrate the start of the 21st century, the Millennium Dome, London Eye and Millennium Bridge were constructed.WEB,weblink Millennium projects: 10 years of good luck, Ijeh, Ike, 25 June 2010,, 20 June 2017, On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics, making London the first city to stage the Olympic Games three times.NEWS,weblink London beats Paris to 2012 Games, BBC Sport, 6 July 2005, 28 September 2012, On 7 July 2005, three London Underground trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks.NEWS,weblink 7 July Bombings: Overview, BBC News, London, 28 April 2008, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2006, live, In 2008, Time named London alongside New York City and Hong Kong as Nylonkong, hailing it as the world's three most influential global cities.BOOK, Ben Derudder, International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, 422, In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, the highest level since 1939.WEB, Population Growth in London, 1939–2015,weblinkweblink Feb 2015, live, London Datastore, Greater London Authority, 7 July 2015, During the Brexit referendum in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but a majority of London constituencies voted to remain in the EU.WEB,weblink Thousands call on Sadiq Khan to declare London's independence, 24 June 2016,


{{Politics of London}}

Local government

The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier. Citywide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.WEB,weblink Who runs London, London Government, 29 March 2017, The GLA consists of two elected components: the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year.The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Southwark. The mayor since 2016 has been Sadiq Khan, the first Muslim mayor of a major Western capital.NEWS, James, William, Piper, Elizabeth, Labour's Khan becomes first Muslim mayor of London after bitter campaign,weblink 19 September 2016, Reuters, 7 May 2016, NEWS,weblink London Elections 2016: Results, BBC News, 7 May 2016, The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the London Plan, which was most recently revised in 2011.WEB,weblink The London Plan, Greater London Authority, 25 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2012, live, The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation.WEB,weblink London Government Directory, London Government, 29 March 2017, They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA)weblink London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater London. It is run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third largest fire service in the world.WEB,weblink Who we are, London Fire Brigade, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, National Health Service ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust, the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance service in the world.WEB,weblink About us, London Ambulance Service NHS Trust, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dead, The London Air Ambulance charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames,WEB,weblink Station list, 2007, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2010, dead, NEWS,weblink Thames lifeboat service launched, 2 January 2002, BBC News, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2004, live, which is under the jurisdiction of the Port of London Authority from Teddington Lock to the sea.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 December 2013, Port of London Act 1968, 30 November 2013,

National government

London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. Many government departments, as well as the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street, are based close to the Palace of Westminster, particularly along Whitehall.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2008, 10 Downing Street â€” Official Website, 26 April 2008, live, The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this sobriquet was first applied to England itself, and not to Westminster, by John Bright)NEWS,weblink BBC, 6 June 2008, 3 June 1998, UK Politics: Talking Politics â€” The 'Mother of Parliaments',weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2004, live, because it has been a model for many other parliamentary systems. There are 73 Members of Parliament (MPs) from London, elected from local parliamentary constituencies in the national Parliament. {{as of|2015|May}}, 49 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, and three are Liberal Democrat.WEB, General Election Results 2017,weblink London DataStore, 15 October 2017, Greater London Authority, 8 June 2017, Download the spreadsheet and count up, The UK government ministerial post of Minister for London was created in 1994 and currently occupied by Nick Hurd.NEWS,weblink Nick Hurd announced as London Minister, 2018-11-14, 2019-09-12, en-GB,

Policing and crime

Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police Service, overseen by the Mayor through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 11 April 2013, About MOPAC, Greater London Authority, 4 May 2013, WEB,weblink MPA: Metropolitan Police Authority, Metropolitan Police Authority, 22 May 2012, 4 May 2013, The City of London has its own police force â€“ the City of London Police.WEB,weblink Policing, Greater London Authority, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 21 January 2008, dead, The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail, London Underground, Docklands Light Railway and Tramlink services.WEB,weblink Areas, British Transport Police, 25 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead, A fourth police force in London, the Ministry of Defence Police, do not generally become involved with policing the general public.Crime rates vary widely by area, ranging from parts with serious issues to parts considered very safe. Today crime figures are made available nationally at Local AuthorityWEB,weblink Home Office Interactive Crime Atlas,, 13 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2010, and Ward level.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 23 October 2009, National Policing Improvement Agency: Local Crime Mapping, In 2015 there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014.NEWS,weblink London murder rate up 14% over the past year, ITV News, 24 January 2016, 16 February 2016, The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 April 2009, Metropolitan Police Crime Mapping Data Tables,, 13 December 2011, Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There have been 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.Sadiq Khan holds City Hall summit on how to tackle violent crime The Guardian



(File:London by Sentinel-2.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|Satellite view of London in June 2018)London, also referred to as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England and the top-level subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis.London is not a city in the sense that the word applies in the United Kingdom, that of having city status granted by the Crown. The small ancient City of London at its core once comprised the whole settlement, but as its urban area grew, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to amalgamate the city with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number of ways for different purposes.JOURNAL, Beavan, Charles, Bickersteth, Harry, Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court, Saunders and Benning, 1865,weblink harv, Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the London post town, within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.BOOK, Stationery Office, The Inner London Letter Post, H.M.S.O, 1980, 978-0-10-251580-0, 128, harv, BOOK, London Postcode and Administrative Boundaries, Geographers' A-Z Map Company, Geographers' A-Z Map Company, 2008, 6, 978-1-84348-592-6, harv, The London telephone area code (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some places just outside are included. The Greater London boundary has been aligned to the M25 motorway in places.WEB,weblink The Essex, Greater London and Hertfordshire (County and London Borough Boundaries) Order, 1993, Office of Public Sector Information, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2010, live, Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt,BOOK, Dilys, M Hill, Urban Policy and Politics in Britain, St. Martin's Press, 2000, 978-0-312-22745-6, 268, harv, although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined Greater London Urban Area. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.WEB,weblink London in its Regional Setting, London Assembly, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2008, dead, Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London.BOOK,weblink London Government Act 1963, Office of Public Sector Information, 6 May 2008, 978-0-16-053895-7,weblink" title="">weblink 17 August 2010, dead, The city is split by the River Thames into North and South, with an informal central London area in its interior. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are about {{Coord|51|30|26|N|00|07|39|W|type:city(7,000,000)_region:GB}}.WEB,weblink London â€” Features â€” Where is the Centre of London?, BBC, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 17 August 2010, live, However the geographical centre of London, on one definition, is in the London Borough of Lambeth, just 0.1 miles to the northeast of Lambeth North tube station.WEB,weblink Where Is The Centre Of London? An Update, M@, 30 April 2014, Londonist, 6 May 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2016,


Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies.WEB,weblink Lieutenancies Act 1997, OPSI, 7 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2010, dead, The area of Greater London includes areas that are part of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.BOOK, Barlow, I. M., Metropolitan Government, 1991, Routledge, 346, harv, London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.{{refn|According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government',(1994) Collins English Dictionary, Collins Education plc. London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town'Oxford English Reference Dictionary, Oxford English. and many other authorities."HC 501 0304.PDF" (PDF). Parliament Publications|group=note}}Its position was formed through constitutional convention, making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's uncodified constitution. The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.JOURNAL, Schofield, John, June 1999, British Archaeology, British Archaeology, 45, 1357-4442,weblink 6 May 2008, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2011, live, More recently, Greater London has been defined as a region of England and in this context is known as London.


File:London from Primrose Hill May 2013.jpg|thumb|London from Primrose HillPrimrose HillGreater London encompasses a total area of {{convert|1583|km2|sqmi}}, an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of {{convert|4542|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}}. The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of {{convert|8382|km2|sqmi}} has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of {{convert|1510|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}}.WEB,weblink Metropolis: 027 London, World Association of the Major Metropolises, 3 May 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, Modern London stands on the Thames, its primary geographical feature, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. Historically London grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.BOOK,weblink London: A History, Francis, Sheppard, 10, Oxford University Press, 2000, 978-0-19-285369-1, 6 June 2008, Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.WEB,weblink Flooding, UK Environment Agency, 19 June 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 15 February 2006, dead, The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of the British Isles (up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of England, Wales and Ireland) caused by post-glacial rebound.WEB,weblink "Sea Levels" â€“ UK Environment Agency, Environment Agency, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 23 May 2008, dead, WEB,weblinkweblink New coastland map could help strengthen sea defences, 7 October 2009, Durham University, 22 August 2018, 21 August 2018, live, In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.NEWS, David, Adam,weblink Thames Barrier gets extra time as London's main flood defence, The Guardian, UK, 31 March 2009, 7 November 2009, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live,


{{climate chart| London, United Kingdom8.1|55.28.4|40.911.3|41.614.2|43.717.9|49.422.4|45.123.5|44.523.2|49.519.9|49.115.5|68.511.1|59.08.3|55.2|float=right|clear=none}}London has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb ) receiving less precipitation than Rome, Bordeaux, Lisbon, Naples, Sydney or New York City.WEB,weblink Climate statistics for Australian locations,, WEB,weblink Weather Information for Naples,, 5 October 2006, 4 May 2013, The Weather Network 18 November 2011Prévisions météo de Météo-France – Climat en France{{dead link|date=July 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} 18 November 2011World Weather Information Service – Toulouse 18 November 2011WEB,weblink Climate New York – New York and Weather averages New York, US Climate, Data, Temperature extremes in London range from {{convert|38.1|°C|°F|1}} at Kew during August 2003JOURNAL, August 2003 weather, 10.1256/wea.10.04B, 59, 9, Weather, 239–246, 2004, Burt, Stephen, Eden, Philip, 2004Wthr...59..239B, down to {{convert|-21.1|°C|°F}}.weblink However, an unofficial reading of {{convert|-24|°C|°F}} was reported on 3 January 1740.WEB,weblink What's The Coldest It's Ever Been In London?, 6 December 2016, Londonist, 10 April 2019, Conversely, the highest unofficial temperature ever known to be recorded in the United Kingdom occurred in London in the 1808 heat wave. The temperature was recorded at {{convert|105|°F|°C|1}} on 13 July. It is thought that this temperature, if accurate, is one of the highest temperatures of the millennium in the United Kingdom. It is thought that only days in 1513 and 1707 could have beaten this.WEB,weblink Trevor Harley Weather History in July, 6 June 2019, Londonist, 9 June 2019, Since records began in London (first at Greenwich in 184weblink the warmest month on record is July 1868, with a mean temperature of {{convert|22.5|°C|°F}} at Greenwich whereas the coldest month is December 2010, with a mean temperature of {{convert|-6.7|°C|°F}} at Northolt.WEB,weblink Search | Climate Data Online (CDO) | National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 1 August 2019,weblink 29 July 2019, dead, Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. London's average July high is 24 Â°C (74 Â°F). On average each year, London experiences 31 days above {{convert|25|°C|°F|1}} and 4.2 days above {{convert|30.0|°C|°F|1}} every year. During the 2003 European heat wave there were 14 consecutive days above {{convert|30|°C|°F|1}} and 2 consecutive days when temperatures reached {{convert|38|°C|°F}}, leading to hundreds of heat-related deaths.JOURNAL, The impact of the 2003 heat wave on daily mortality in England and Wales and the use of rapid weekly mortality estimates, Eurosurveillance, 10, 7, 1 July 2005, H, Johnson, RS, Kovats, G, McGregor, J, Stedman, M, Gibbs, H, Walton6,weblink There was also a previous spell of 15 consecutive days above {{convert|32.2|°C|°F|1}} in 1976 which also caused many heat related deaths.WEB,weblink TWO content, TheWeatherOutlook, 10 April 2019, The previous record high was {{convert|38|°C|°F}} in August 1911 at the Greenwich station. Droughts can also, occasionally, be a problem, especially in summer. Most recently in Summer 2018WEB,weblink This Summer Is The Driest In 57 Years, Met Office Confirms, 19 July 2018, HuffPost UK, 10 April 2019, and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December.WEB,weblink EIP - Droughts,, 10 April 2019, However, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the spring of 1893.WEB,weblink Philip Eden: Longest drought for 2 years -,, 10 April 2019, Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy snow is rare but snow usually happens at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable urban heat island effect,WEB,weblink London's Urban Heat Island: A Summary for Decision Makers, Greater London Authority, October 2006, 29 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 August 2012, making the centre of London at times {{convert|5|C-change|0}} warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, {{convert|15|mi}} west of London, with the London Weather Centre.NEWS, Ever warmer as temperatures rival France,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, 9 June 2004, Eden, Philip, Although London and the British Isles have a reputation of frequent rainfall, London's average of {{convert|602|mm|inch}} of precipitation annually actually makes it drier than the global average.WEB,weblink World total annual rainfall map, El Dorado Weather, 9 June 2019, The absence of heavy winter rainfall leads to many climates around the mediterranean having more annual precipitation than London.{{London weatherbox}}


London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Wembley and Whitechapel. These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs.Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.WEB,weblink London boroughs â€” London Life, GLA, London Government, 3 November 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2007, dead, BOOK, Dogan, Mattei, John D., Kasarda, The Metropolis Era, Sage, 1988, 99, 978-0-8039-2603-5,weblink harv, The City of London is the main financial district,WEB,weblink London as a financial centre, Mayor of London,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2008, dead, and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the Docklands to the east.The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.NEWS,weblink West End still drawing crowds, BBC News, 6 June 2008, 22 October 2001,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, live, West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.NEWS,weblink Super Rich, 17 April 2006, The Guardian, 7 June 2008, London, James, Meek,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live, The average price for properties in Kensington and Chelsea is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of central London.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 10 October 2016, Information on latest house prices in the Royal Borough, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, NEWS,weblink Average house prices in London jump 19 percent in a year, Rupert Jones, The Guardian, London, 8 August 2014, 24 September 2014, The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.NEWS,weblink 6 July 2005,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2006, Tomorrow's East End, Newsweek, Flynn, Emily, New York, live, The surrounding East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which was developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics.


File:Aerial Tower of London.jpg|thumb|The alt=|left(File:Trafalgar Square by Christian Reimer.jpg|thumb|Trafalgar Square and its fountains, with Nelson's Column on the right|alt=|left)London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey {{circa}}1515.WEB,weblink Hampton Court: The Lost Palace, BBC History, 29 March 2011, Foyle, Jonathan, 16 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, File:30 St Mary Axe from Leadenhall Street.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|30 St Mary Axe, also known as "the Gherkin", towers over alt=|rightPart of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Wren, neoclassical financial institutions such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate.The disused – but soon to be rejuvenated – 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St. Pancras and Paddington.WEB,weblink Paddington Station, Great Buildings, 6 June 2008, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2011, dead, The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area and Canary Wharf, high residential densities in inner London, and lower densities in Outer London.The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane, respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.NEWS,weblink Eco homes: Wooden it be lovely... ?, The Daily Telegraph, 12 October 2008, London, Sarah, Lonsdale, 27 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2013, live, In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square, are mostly in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London (see Tall buildings in London), including the 95-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest building in the European Union.Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape,NEWS,weblink Inside London's new 'glass egg', 16 July 2002, BBC News, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2009, live, the Art Deco BBC Broadcasting House plus the Postmodernist British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross and No 1 Poultry by James Stirling. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the O2 Arena.


{{Wide image|Palace_of_Westminster_from_the_dome_on_Methodist_Central_Hall.jpg|1000px|The Houses of Parliament and Elizabeth Tower on the right foreground, the London Eye on the left foreground and The Shard with Canary Wharf in the background; seen in September 2014}}

Natural history

The London Natural History Society suggest that London is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 per cent green space or open water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports 120 species of fish.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 12 February 2007, Wildlife in London, England: LNHS Home page,, They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in central London and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), two national nature reserves and 76 local nature reserves.London Natural History Society.Amphibians are common in the capital, including smooth newts living by the Tate Modern, and common frogs, common toads, palmate newts and great crested newts. On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms, common lizards, grass snakes and adders, are mostly only seen in Outer London.Laurie Tuffrey (27 July 2012). "London's amphibians and reptile populations mapped". The Guardian. London.File:Flickr - Duncan~ - Fox Trot.jpg|thumb|left|A fox on Ayres Street, Southwark, South LondonSouth LondonAmong other inhabitants of London are 10,000 red foxes, so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile (2.6 square kilometres) of London. These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament, where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Another broke into the grounds of Buckingham Palace, reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth{{nbsp}}II's prized pink flamingos. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole.WEB, The Garden Mammal Survey Report 2001,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 February 2013, The Mammal Society, The Mammal Society, 23 November 2015, "10,000 Foxes Roam London". James Owen in London for National Geographic News, 15 May 2006Other mammals found in Greater London are hedgehogs, rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels.WEB,weblink Mammals, The Royal Parks, In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest, a wide variety of mammals are found, including hare, badger, field, bank and water vole, wood mouse, yellow-necked mouse, mole, shrew, and weasel, in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog. A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping, about a mile from the Tower Bridge, which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 April 2010, London's first wild otter found, Peter Law, This Is Local London, Ten of England's eighteen species of bats have been recorded in Epping Forest: soprano, nathusius and common pipistrelles, noctule, serotine, barbastelle, daubenton's, brown Long-eared, natterer's and leisler's.WEB,weblink Mammals,, Among the strange sights seen in London have been a whale in the Thames,Liam O'Brien, (24 March 2013). "Dead whale found floating in the Thames Estuary 'will be examined'". The Independent on Sunday (London). while the BBC Two programme "Natural World: Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market, and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages.WEB,weblink BBC Nature – A Question of Nature: How hidden is the UK's wild side?, BBC Nature, Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.NEWS,weblink Richmond Park deer cull begins, Wandsworth Guardian, 5 November 2012, 9 November 2012, Rachel Bishop, London, Epping Forest is also known for its fallow deer, which can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population of melanistic, black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.NEWS,weblink In pictures: London's urban deer, London Evening Standard, NEWS,weblink Photographer snaps Muntjac deer in Mill Hill garden, Emma Innes, Edgware & Mill Hill Times, 14 June 2012, London,


{{Table London top 10 birth countries}}{{multiple image|caption_align=center|header_align=center
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width = 250
| header = London maps showing the percentage distribution of selected races according to the 2011 Census
| image1 = White Greater London 2011 census.png
| alt1 = White
| caption1 = White British
| image2 = Asian Greater London 2011 census.png
| alt2 = Asian
| caption2 = Asian British
| image3 = Black Greater London 2011 census.png
| alt3 = Black
| caption3 = Black British
}}The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population are foreign-born making London the city with the second largest immigrant population, behind New York City, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad."Most London babies have foreign-born parent {{Webarchive|url= |date=25 June 2018 }}". Financial Times. 1 December 2016. The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.BOOK, Beyond Black and White: Mapping New Immigrant Communities, Kyambi, Sarah, London, Institute for Public Policy Research, 2005, 978-1-86030-284-8, With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 at the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter enumeration."2011 Census. London population". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 27 May 2015However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition used.WEB,weblink The Principal Agglomerations of the World, City Population, 3 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2010, live, WEB,weblink British urban pattern: population data, 22 February 2010, March 2007, ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions, European Spatial Planning Observation Network, 119, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union and the second most populous in Europe. During the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in London.NEWS,weblink Immigration rise increases segregation in British cities, Leppard, David, 10 April 2005, The Times, 8 August 2009, London, {{subscription required}}The region covers an area of {{convert|1579|km2|sqmi}}. The population density is {{convert|5177|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}},BOOK,weblink Metropolis World Association of the Major Metropolises, 3 May 2010, 978-0-7306-2020-4, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, more than ten times that of any other (NUTS:UK|British region).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2008, Population density of London: by London borough, 2006, UK Statistics Authority, live, In terms of population, London is the 19th largest city and the 18th largest metropolitan region.NEWS, 'Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires,weblink 11 May 2014, BBC News Online, 11 May 2014, NEWS,weblink World's Most Expensive Cities 2004, CNN, 16 August 2007, 11 June 2004,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live,

Age structure and median age

In 2018, London's population by age is structured differently to the rest of England's. London has a higher proportion of children under the age of 5 than the rest of England. The children (aged younger than 14 years) constitutes a 21 percent in Outer London, and 28 percent in Inner London; the age group aged between 15 and 24 years are 12 percent in both Outer and Inner London; those aged between 25 and 44 years a 31 percent in Outer London and 40 percent in Inner London; the aged between 45 and 64 years formed the 26 and 21 percent in Outer and Inner London respectively; while in Outer London the aged 65 and older were the 13 percent, in Inner London were just the 9 percent.WEB,weblink London's population by age, Trust for London, The median age of London in 2017 is 36.5 years old.NEWS,weblink Where are the UK's youngest and oldest city populations?, Paul Swinney, Andrew Carter, BBC news, 19 March 2018,

Ethnic groups

{{Pie chart|thumb = left"2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics>ONS. Retrieved 3 July 2014|label1 = White British|value1 = 44.9|color1 = #003399|label2 = Other White|value2 = 14.9|color2 = #4080bf|label3 = Asian British|value3 = 18.4|color3 = #ff471a|label4 = Black British|value4 = 13.3|color4 = #ffff00|label5 = Arab British|value5 = 1.3|color5 = #66ff33|label6 = Mixed|value6 = 5|color6 = #ac00e6|label7 = Other|value7 = 2.2|color7 = #ffa31a}}According to the Office for National Statistics, based on the 2011 Census estimates, 59.8 per cent of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were White, with 44.9 per cent White British, 2.2 per cent White Irish, 0.1 per cent gypsy/Irish traveller and 12.1 per cent classified as Other White.20.9 per cent of Londoners are of Asian and mixed-Asian descent. 19.7 per cent are of full Asian descent, with those of mixed-Asian heritage comprising 1.2 of the population. Indians account for 6.6 per cent of the population, followed by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis at 2.7 per cent each. Chinese peoples account for 1.5 per cent of the population, with Arabs comprising 1.3 per cent. A further 4.9 per cent are classified as "Other Asian".15.6 per cent of London's population are of Black and mixed-Black descent. 13.3 per cent are of full Black descent, with those of mixed-Black heritage comprising 2.3 per cent. Black Africans account for 7.0 per cent of London's population, with 4.2 per cent as Black Caribbean and 2.1 per cent as "Other Black". 5.0 per cent are of mixed race.Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools.NEWS,weblink One fifth of children from ethnic minorities, Paton, Graeme, 1 October 2007, The Daily Telegraph, 7 June 2008, London, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2008, live, Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4 per cent were White, 19.8 per cent were Asian, 19 per cent were Black, 10.8 per cent were Mixed and 4 per cent represented another ethnic group.WEB, ONS,weblink LC2109EWls – Ethnic group by age,, 26 March 2015, In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000.NEWS,weblink Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth, The Guardian, London, 6 May 2008, Leo, Benedictus, 21 January 2005,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live, Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, {{as of|2010|alt=in 2010}}, London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33 per cent), up from 1,630,000 in 1997.The 2011 census showed that 36.7 per cent of Greater London's population were born outside the UK.WEB,weblink Census 2001: London, Office for National Statistics, 3 June 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, live, A portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.BOOK,weblink Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities, Kyambi, Sarah, 2005, 20 January 2007, 978-1-86030-284-8, Institute for Public Policy Research,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead, Estimates produced by the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were those born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria.WEB,weblink Table 1.4: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, July 2009 to June 2010, Office for National Statistics, 7 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 6 May 2011, dead, Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.


{{bar boxReligion in London>Religion in London (2011 census)HTTP://WWW.ONS.GOV.UK/ONS/PUBLICATIONS/RE-REFERENCE-TABLES.HTML?EDITION=TCM%3A77-286262 >TITLE=2011 CENSUS, KEY STATISTICS FOR LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN ENGLAND AND WALES DATE=11 DECEMBER 2012, 4 May 2013, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent(%)|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Christian|purple|48.4}}{{bar percent|No religion|red|20.7}}{{bar percent|Muslim|green|12.4}}{{bar percent|Undeclared|black|8.5}}{{bar percent|Hindu|Orange|5.0}}{{bar percent|Jewish|Blue|1.8}}{{bar percent|Sikh|yellow|1.5}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|Gold|1.0}}{{bar percent|Other|grey|0.6}}}}According to the 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings are Christians (48.4 per cent), followed by those of no religion (20.7 per cent), Muslims (12.4 per cent), no response (8.5 per cent), Hindus (5.0 per cent), Jews (1.8 per cent), Sikhs (1.5 per cent), Buddhists (1.0 per cent) and other (0.6 per cent).London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City of London. The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,WEB,weblink About Saint Paul's Cathedral, Dean and Chapter St Paul's, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2008, dead, while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.WEB,weblink Lambeth Palace Library, Lambeth Palace Library, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, {{multiple image
| direction = vertical
caption1=St Paul's Cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Londoncaption2=The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London is the second-largest Hindu temple in England and Europe.}}Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey.WEB,weblink Westminster Abbey, Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2011, live, The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales.WEB,weblink Westminster Cathedral, Westminster Cathedral, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2008, dead, Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 July 2014, Church of England Statistics, Church of England, 6 June 2008, harv, London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities.Notable mosques include the East London Mosque in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's ParkWEB,weblink London Central Mosque Trust Ltd, London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. & The Islamic Cultural Centre, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, live, and the Baitul Futuh of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Middle-Eastern Arab Muslims have based themselves around Mayfair, Kensington, and Knightsbridge in West London.WEB,weblink – The Art and Culture of the Diaspora – Sikh-Britons Second Wealthiest: Government Report,, WEB,weblink Comment: British Sikhs are the best example of cultural integration,, WEB,weblink Bill, Peter, The $300 billion Arabs are coming, London Evening Standard, 29 May 2008, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, There are large Bengali Muslim communities in the eastern boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Newham.Census 2001 Key Statistics, Local Authorities in England and Wales Office for National StatisticsLarge Hindu communities are in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which hosts what was, until 2006,"Opening for biggest Hindu temple". BBC News, 23 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2006. Europe's largest Hindu temple, Neasden Temple.WEB,weblink Hindu London, 6 June 2005, BBC London, 3 June 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2006, live, London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.NEWS,weblink £17 m Sikh temple opens, 30 March 2003, BBC News, 7 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2007, live, The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the City of London is affiliated to London's historic Sephardic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over 300 years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.WEB,weblink The Jewish Agency for Israel, Stanmore, 12 October 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, dead, The community set up the London Jewish Forum in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.NEWS, Paul, Jonny, 10 December 2006,weblink Livingstone apologizes to UK's Jews, The Jerusalem Post, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, live,


There are many accents traditionally associated with London. The most well known of the London accents long ago acquired the Cockney label from London's East End, which is heard both in London itself, and across the wider South East England region more generally."Cracking Up!". p. 178. The accent of a 21st-century Londoner varies widely; what is becoming more and more common amongst the under-30s however is some fusion of Cockney with a whole array of ethnic accents, in particular Caribbean, which form an accent labelled Multicultural London English (MLE).NEWS,weblink Jafaican and Tikkiny drown out the East End's Cockney twang, Jonathan, Brown, The Independent, London, 11 April 2006, 22 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, dead, The other widely heard and spoken accent is RP (Received Pronunciation) in various forms, which can often be heard in the media and many of other traditional professions and beyond, although this accent is not limited to London and South East England, and can also be heard selectively throughout the whole UK amongst certain social groupings. Since the turn of the century the Cockney dialect is less common in the East End and has 'migrated' east to Havering and the county of Essex.NEWS,weblink Forget Tower Hamlets - Romford is new East End, says Cockney language study, Ramzy, Alwakeel, Romford Recorder, London, 2 August 2013, NEWS,weblink Cockney dialect migrated to Essex, Dr Fox tells East End Cockney Festival, Mike, Brooke, The Docklands and East London Advertiser, 25 July 2013,


(File:City of London skyline from London City Hall - Sept 2015 - Crop Aligned.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world"London tops 2015 global financial centre rankings and knocks New York into second place". Retrieved 12 November 2015)London's gross regional product in 2016 was £408 billion, around a quarter of UK GDP,WEB, Office for National Statistics, 20 June 2018,weblink Regional gross value added (balanced), UK: 1998 to 2016, live,weblink 20 June 2018, 8 August 2019, while the economy of the London metropolitan area—the largest in Europe—generates about 30 per cent of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2008, The Economic Positioning of Metropolitan Areas in North Western Europe, December 2002, The Institute for Urban Planning and Development of the Paris ÃŽle-de-France Region, 27 August 2008, dead, London has five major business districts: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.NEWS,weblink Highgate trumps Chelsea as priciest postcode, Lowe, Felix, 19 February 2008, The Daily Telegraph, London, NEWS,weblink U.K.'s Most Expensive Postcodes, 12 December 2007, Forbes, London is the world's most expensive office market for the last three years according to world property journal (2015) report.WEB,weblink Top 10 Most Expensive Office Markets in the World Revealed, 27 September 2015, {{As of|2015}} the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – same value as that of Brazil's annual GDP.WEB,weblink London homes are worth $2 trillion, Frater, James, CNNMoney, 27 September 2015, 13 January 2015, The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics.WEB,weblink City Mayors: UK and European cities compared,, On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.WEB,weblink Price per Square Meter United Kingdom – British Cost per Square Meter, Global Property Guide, Global Property Guide,

The City of London

File:Paternoster Square.jpg|thumb|The London Stock Exchange at Paternoster Square and Temple Bar ]]London's finance industry is based in the City of London and Canary Wharf, the two major business districts in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.NEWS, After the fall, The Economist, 29 November 2007, London,weblink 15 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2012, live, NEWS,weblink Financial Centres â€” Magnets for money, 13 September 2007, The Economist, London, 15 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2009, live, London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time. This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading financial centre. Still, {{as of|2016|lc=y}} London tops the world rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI),WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 20,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2017, dead, 8 August 2019, and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index.WEB,weblink A.T. Kearney {{!, Global Management Consulting Firm - A.T. Kearney||access-date=20 June 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=20 June 2018|url-status=dead}}London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS.NEWS,weblink London's core role in euros under spotlight after Brexit vote, Reuters, Editorial, Reuters, 18 September 2016, Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of 2007–2008. However, by 2010 the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.NEWS,weblink The London Banking Center Is Beginning to Feel Like Itself Again., 21 January 2010, International Herald Tribune, The New York Times, Along with professional services headquarters, the City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London insurance market.Over half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.WEB,weblink London Stock Exchange, 2008, London Stock Exchange plc., 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2009, dead,

Media and technology

Media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 May 2006, London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6, November 2005, Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London, 19, 19 June 2006, The BBC is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the City. Many national newspapers are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.NEWS,weblink London tops world cities spending league, 29 April 2011, Reuters, 17 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 20 February 2011, live, Mark, Potter, The Port of London is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.A growing number of technology companies are based in London notably in East London Tech City, also known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014, the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD.WEB,weblink Availability,, In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future PRESS RELEASE,weblink London named as European City of the Future, 17 February 2014, London&Partners, in the 2014/15 list by FDi Magazine.NEWS,weblink European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15, 17 February 2014,, London, The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGNWEB, Gas distributors,weblink Ofgem, 19 January 2016, 20 June 2013, and UK Power Networks.WEB, Electricity distributor,weblink National Grid, 19 January 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2014, dead,


{{Multiple image|direction=vertical|image1=British Museum from NE 2 (cropped).JPG|caption1=The British Museum|caption2=The National Gallery}}London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.WEB,weblink Mastercard, WEB,weblink London and Partners, It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015.WEB,weblink Mastercard, Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in 2003,NEWS,weblink London is the HR centre of opportunity in the UK, 15 February 2005, Personnel Today, 3 June 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, and the city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK.WEB,weblink visitbritain, 22 April 2015, {{As of|2016}} London is the world top city destination as ranked by TripAdvisor users.NEWS,weblink London named No.1 city destination on TripAdvisor, 21 March 2016, BBC News, In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue) NEWS,weblink British Museum tops UK visitor attractions list, 7 March 2016, 19 January 2017,, BBC News,
  1. The British Museum: 6,820,686
  2. The National Gallery: 5,908,254
  3. The Natural History Museum (South Kensington): 5,284,023
  4. The Southbank Centre: 5,102,883
  5. Tate Modern: 4,712,581
  6. The Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington): 3,432,325
  7. The Science Museum: 3,356,212
  8. Somerset House: 3,235,104
  9. The Tower of London: 2,785,249
  10. The National Portrait Gallery: 2,145,486
The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.WEB,weblink London and Partners Statistics,


(File:Transport in London.png|thumb|Journeys in Greater London by mode from 1997–2017WEB,weblink Travel in London Report 11, )File:London - panoramio (206).jpg|thumb|Black London taxis ]]Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,WEB,weblink Transport for London, Transport for London, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2010, live, however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TFL).The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created. Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2007, How do I find out about transport in London?, Greater London Authority, 5 June 2008, dead,


File:Heathrow Terminal 5C Iwelumo-1.jpg|thumb|London Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic. (Terminal 5C is pictured)]]London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights.
  • London Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon, West London, was for many years the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.WEB,weblink BAA Heathrow: Official Website, BAA, 27 April 2008, In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.WEB,weblink Heathrow Airport Terminal 5, TMC Ltd, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, dead, In 2014, Dubai gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic.NEWS,weblink These are the world's busiest airports, 5 February 2018,
  • London Gatwick Airport,WEB,weblink BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport, BAA, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, live, south of London in West Sussex, handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airportWEB,weblink Gatwick by Numbers - Gatwick Airport,, 13 May 2018,weblink 16 June 2018, dead, and is the main base of easyJet,WEB,weblink Where We Are - easyJet CareerseasyJet Careers,, the UK's largest airline by number of passengers.WEB,weblink Airline data annual reports 2017 - UK Civil Aviation Authority,,
  • London Stansted Airport,BOOK,weblink BAA Stansted : Stansted Airport, 2008, BAA, 27 April 2008, 978-0-86039-476-1,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, live, north-east of London in Essex, has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airportWEB,weblink Facts and Figures - Stansted Airport,, and is the main base of Ryanair,WEB,weblink History of Ryanair - Ryanair's Corporate Website,, the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers.NEWS,weblink Domestic bliss, The Economist,
  • London Luton Airport, to the north of London in Bedfordshire, is used by several budget airlines for short-haul flights.BOOK,weblink London Luton Airport, London Luton Airport, 27 April 2008, 978-0-11-510256-1,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead,
  • London City Airport, the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in Newham, East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.WEB,weblink London City Airport â€” Corporate Information, London City Airport Ltd., 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2011, dead,
  • London Southend Airport, east of London in Essex, is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines.WEB, Londoners love our airport, 18 May 2018, Adam Cornell, live,weblinkweblink 18 May 2018, 8 August 2019, In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport.WEB,weblink Airport data 2017 - UK Civil Aviation Authority,,


Underground and DLR

File:Baker Street tube station MMB 19 S Stock.jpg|thumb|The London Underground is the world's oldest and third-longest rapid transitrapid transitThe London Underground, commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldestBOOK,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 May 2007, London Underground: History, Transport for London, 30 December 2012, 978-0-904711-30-1, harv, 1981, and third longestNEWS,weblink What is the largest metro system in the world?, 5 September 2015, City Metric, 12 June 2018, London, metro system in the world. The system serves 270 stationsJOURNAL, Key facts, Transport for London,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 29 May 2007, 15 October 2009, harv, and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.BOOK,weblink London Underground, Schwandl, Robert, 2001,, 24 September 2006, 978-3-936573-01-5,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2006, dead, It dates from 1863.NEWS,weblink Oyster card celebrates 150th Tube anniversary, BBC News, 10 December 2012, 10 January 2013, Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Tube breaks record for passenger numbers, Transport for London, 27 December 2007, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dead, An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the 2012 Summer Olympics.WEB, The London 2012 legacy,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 October 2012, Transport for London, 11 August 2013, The Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich and Lewisham.


File:700110 - London Blackfriars 3T13.JPG|thumb|A Blackfriars}}There are more than 360 railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2010, First Capital Connect, First Capital Connect, 27 April 2008, dead, London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers – Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes Waterloo East station) each year.WEB,weblink Rail Station Usage, Office of Rail Regulation, 24 October 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 5 July 2007, live, WEB,weblink Tube exits, Transport for London, 24 October 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2007, dead, {{rws|Clapham Junction}} is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing.With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail is expected to open in 2020/21.PRESS RELEASE,weblink CROSSRAIL LTD OUTLINES PLAN TO COMPLETE THE ELIZABETH LINE
, Crossrail, 25 April 2019, It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport.WEB,weblink Crossrail Regional Map, Crossrail, 8 September 2013, It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Crossrail's giant tunnelling machines unveiled, 2 January 2012, NEWS,weblink The Independent on Sunday, London, Crossrail delayed to save £1bn, 29 August 2010, Mark, Leftly,

Inter-city and international

File:St Pancras Railway Station 2012-06-23.jpg|thumb|St Pancras International is the main terminal for high speed Eurostar and High Speed 1 services, as well as commuter suburban Thameslink and inter-city East Midlands RailwayEast Midlands RailwayLondon is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.WEB, Rail,weblink London First, London First, 5 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2014, Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including Birmingham, Brighton, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Chester, Holyhead (for Dublin), Derby, Nottingham, Exeter, Sheffield, York, Southampton, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Cambridge, Newcastle upon Tyne, Edinburgh and Glasgow.Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains, such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St. Pancras International with Lille, Calais, Paris, Disneyland Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and other European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link and the Channel Tunnel.WEB,weblink Eurostar, Eurostar, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, The first high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent to London.WEB,weblink Highspeed, Southeastern, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead, There are plans for a second high speed line linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire.


Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste.August 2007, weblink" title="">Rail Freight Strategy, London Rail As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as container freight from the Channel Tunnel and English Channel ports, and nuclear waste for reprocessing at Sellafield.

Buses and trams

File:LT 480 (LTZ 1480) Go-Ahead London New Routemaster (20929161801).jpg|thumb|The red double decker bus is an iconic symbol of London.]]London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8,500 buses, more than 700 bus routes and around 19,500 bus stops.WEB, What we do – Buses,weblink Transport for London, Transport for London, 5 April 2014, In 2013, the network had more than 2 billion commuter trips per annum, more than the Underground. Around £850 million is taken in revenue each year. London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the worldWEB,weblink London's bus improvements get Parliamentary seal of approval, 23 May 2006, Transport For London, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dead, and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. The distinctive red double-decker buses are an internationally recognised trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.WEB,weblink London Black Cabs, London Black Cabs, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live, WEB,weblink Tube, Transport for London, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2011, dead, London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South London. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013.WEB, What we do – Trams,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 5 April 2014, Transport for London, Transport for London, 5 April 2014, Since June 2008 Transport for London has completely owned Tramlink, and it plans to spend £54m by 2015 on maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancements.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2009, Summer 2009, Transport for London, Tramlink Factsheet, 19 February 2010, dead,

Cable car

London's first and only cable car, known as the Emirates Air Line, opened in June 2012. Crossing the River Thames, linking Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged. Costing £60 million to build, it carries over 3,500 passengers every day, although this is very much lower than its capacity. Similar to the Santander Cycles bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline Emirates.


(File:Belgrave Road, Victoria, London - Boris Bikes - Santander Cycles by Elliott Brown.jpg|thumb|Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria in Central London)File:CycleSuperhighway2Stratford-London-P1300696.JPG|thumb|Segregated cycle lanes are being implemented across London. Cycle Superhighway 2 in Stratford]]In the whole Greater London Area, around 650,000 people use a bike everyday.WEB,weblink p.144, But out of a total population ofaround 8.8 million,WEB,weblink Greater London (United Kingdom): Boroughs - Population Statistics, Charts and Map,, this means that just around 7% of Greater London's population use a bike on an average day. This is a small proportion, when compared to many other cities in the world JOURNAL,weblink The 20 Most Bike-Friendly Cities on the Planet, Wired, 2 June 2015, A reason may well be the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year,WEB,weblink Slash to cycling budget false, says Transport for London, Joe, Robinson, 18 January 2018,, 14 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 15 August 2018, dead, equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.NEWS,weblink Where is the most cycle-friendly city in the world?, Athlyn, Cathcart-Keays, 5 January 2016, The Guardian, London, Cycling is nevertheless becoming increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a cycle hire scheme in July 2010 has been successful and generally well received. The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.WEB,weblink London Cycling Campaign, 20 November 2006, Rosanna Downes, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, dead, There are many cycle routes in London, including several Cycle Superhighways.

Port and river boats

From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.WEB,weblink ARCHIVED CONTENT] Provisional Port Statistics 2009, Department for Transport â€“, 26 April 2011,weblink 3 February 2011, dead, Most of this actually passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London.London has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers. These run up to every 20 minutes between Embankment Pier and North Greenwich Pier. The Woolwich Ferry, with 2.5 million passengers every year,Transport for London: Woolwich Ferry, 50 years on Retrieved 8 September 2013 is a frequent service linking the North and South Circular Roads. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London.


Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (in the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at {{convert|117|mi|km|abbr=on}} long.WEB, Highways Agency, 25 June 2018,weblink 25 June 2018, M25,weblink 25 June 2018, dead, The A1 and M1 connect London to Leeds, and Newcastle and Edinburgh.London is notorious for its traffic congestion, the average speed of a car in the rush hour being {{convert|10.6|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on}}.WEB, Mulholland, Hélène, Boris Johnson mulls 'intelligent' congestion charge system for London,weblink The Guardian, 16 March 2009, In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £10 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London.JOURNAL,weblink Charging Zone, Transport for London, 7 June 2008, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2011, dead, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2008, Who pays what, Transport for London, 7 June 2008, live, Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.WEB,weblink Residents, Transport for London, 7 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2011, live, London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users by 20,000 people, reduce road traffic by 10 to 15 per cent, increase traffic speeds by 10 to 15 per cent, and reduce queues by 20 to 30 per cent.Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. "London Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs. 15287084 (2008): 177,177–234. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars â€“ a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.Table 3 in Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. "London Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs.15287084 (2008): 177,177–234.


Tertiary education

File:Imperial College London MMB 02.jpg|thumb|Imperial College London, a world leading research university located in South KensingtonSouth KensingtonLondon is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the worldWEB,weblink QS World University Rankings® 2015/16, 26 September 2015, 11 September 2015, WEB,weblink Mayor of London says city is 'education capital of the world',, 26 September 2015, and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world.WEB,weblink Capital offer {{!, Times Higher Education|accessdate=26 September 2015|date=January 1990}} A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers report termed London the global capital of higher education.WEB,weblink Pricewaterhousecoopers, 26 September 2015, A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2014/15 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College London is ranked joint 2nd in the world, University College London (UCL) is ranked 5th, and King's College London (KCL) is ranked 16th.WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings – Overall for 2014, 13 November 2014, 11 September 2014, The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.NEWS,weblink The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2007 â€“ Profile for London School of Economics, Hipwell, Deirdre, 23 September 2007, The Sunday Times, 6 June 2008, London, harv, {{subscription required}} The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second best in the world by the Financial Times.NEWS,weblink FT Global MBA Rankings, Financial Times, 25 January 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2011, live, London, With 120,000 students in London,WEB,weblink About us, University of London, 1 December 2014, the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK.weblink" title="">HESA Statistics: United Kingdom. HESA. Retrieved 6 April 2015 It includes five multi-faculty universities â€“ City, King's College London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway and UCL â€“ and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the London Business School, the London School of Economics, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy of Music, the Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Veterinary College and the School of Oriental and African Studies.WEB,weblink Colleges and Institutes, University of London,weblink" title="">weblink 22 April 2011, live, 23 September 2010, Members of the University of London have their own admissions procedures, and some award their own degrees.A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including Brunel University, Imperial College London, Kingston University, London Metropolitan University,weblink" title="">About London Met London Metropolitan University, August 2008 University of East London, University of West London, University of Westminster, London South Bank University, Middlesex University, and University of the Arts London (the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe).NEWS,weblink University of the Arts London, 1 May 2008, The Guardian, 27 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live, London, In addition there are three international universities in London â€“ Regent's University London, Richmond, The American International University in London and Schiller International University.File:Royal College of Music - April 2007.jpg|thumb|The front façade of the Royal College of MusicRoyal College of MusicLondon is home to five major medical schools â€“ Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (part of Queen Mary), King's College London School of Medicine (the largest medical school in Europe), Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School and St George's, University of London â€“ and has a large number of affiliated teaching hospitals. It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight academic health science centres are based in the city â€“ Imperial College Healthcare, King's Health Partners and UCL Partners (the largest such centre in Europe).NEWS,weblink NHS hospitals to forge £2bn research link-up with university, Carvel, John, 7 August 2008, The Guardian, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, live, London, There are a number of business schools in London, including the London School of Business and Finance, Cass Business School (part of City University London), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School London, Imperial College Business School, the London Business School and the UCL School of Management. London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the Academy of Live and Recorded Arts, Central School of Ballet, LAMDA, London College of Contemporary Arts (LCCA), London Contemporary Dance School, National Centre for Circus Arts, RADA, Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance, the Royal College of Art, the Royal College of Music and Trinity Laban.File:Strand102.jpg|thumb|King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of LondonUniversity of London

Primary and secondary education

The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the London boroughs or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include Ashbourne College, Bethnal Green Academy, Brampton Manor Academy, City and Islington College, City of Westminster College, David Game College, Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College, Leyton Sixth Form College, London Academy of Excellence, Tower Hamlets College, and Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre. There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as City of London School, Harrow, St Paul's School, Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, University College School, The John Lyon School, Highgate School and Westminster School.


Leisure and entertainment

{{See also|List of annual events in London|West End theatre}}File:Open Happiness Piccadilly Circus Blue-Pink Hour 120917-1126-jikatu.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.9|left|Piccadilly CircusPiccadilly CircusLeisure is a major part of the London economy, with a 2003 report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to LondonWEB, Mayor of London – Spending Time: Londons Leisure Economy,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 19 December 2003,, 30 September 2015, at 25.6 events per 1000 people.WEB, Chadha, Aayush, UK Event Data – In Review,weblink, 11 December 2017, Globally, the city is amongst the big four fashion capitals of the world, and according to official statistics, London is the world's third busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city,WEB, 20 facts about London's culture {{!, London City Hall |url= | |accessdate=30 September 2015 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=1 October 2015}} and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.NEWS, Study puts London ahead of New York as centre for theatre,weblink Financial Times, 30 July 2014, 30 September 2015, 0307-1766, James, Pickford, File:Harrods at Night, London - Nov 2012.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.7|Harrods in KnightsbridgeKnightsbridgeWithin the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements.WEB,weblink Piccadilly Lights, Land Securities, 3 November 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, live, London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district (in Soho), and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops. The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century.Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: the new musical The New York Times referred to Andrew Lloyd Webber as "the most commercially successful composer in history" The United Kingdom's Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, as well as touring the country.WEB,weblink Theatres and concert halls, Your London, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2008, dead, File:Notting Hill Carnival 2014 (1).JPG|thumb|upright= 0.9|left|Scene of the annual Notting Hill CarnivalNotting Hill CarnivalIslington's {{convert|1|mi|km}} long Upper Street, extending northwards from Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the United Kingdom.JOURNAL, 2001: Public houses, BBC,weblink 4 June 2008, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly {{convert|1|mi|km}} long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores, including the world-famous Selfridges flagship store.JOURNAL,weblink The Londoner, Oxford Street gets its own dedicated local police team, September 2006, 19 June 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, harv, dead, Knightsbridge, home to the equally renowned Harrods department store, lies to the south-west.London is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan, and New York City. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.WEB,weblink Chinatown â€” Official website, Chinatown London, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead, File:Restaurante The Swan, Londres, Inglaterra, 2014-08-11, DD 113.jpg|thumb|Shakespeare's Globe is a modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the River ThamesRiver ThamesThere is a variety of annual events, beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, a fireworks display at the London Eye; the world's second largest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival, is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2008, One Queen, Two Birthdays, Royal Government, 27 September 2008, live, The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.NEWS,weblink East London Lines, Andreou, Roza, Celebrate the Bengali New Year this summer in Tower Hamlets, 25 May 2018,

Literature, film and television

File:Sherlock Holmes Museum.jpg|left|thumb|Sherlock Holmes Museum in Baker StreetBaker StreetLondon has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14th-century Canterbury Tales set out for Canterbury from London â€“ specifically, from the Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play The Alchemist, was set in the city. A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague.The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and (since the early 20th century) Bloomsbury. Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.WEB,weblink London in Literature, Bryn Mawr College, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, live, Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories. Also of significance is Letitia Elizabeth Landon's Calendar of the London Seasons (1834). Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the genre of psychogeography.{{wikisource|Calendar of the London Seasons/Calendar of the London Seasons|'Calendar of the London Seasons', by L. E. L.}}File:John Keats (4625082560).jpg|thumb|Keats House, where Keats wrote his Ode to a Nightingale. The village of HampsteadHampsteadLondon has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Twickenham, Ealing, Shepperton, Pinewood, Elstree and Borehamwood,WEB,weblink Film London – studio contacts,, and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho. Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.WEB,weblink Working Title Films, Universal Studios, 27 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, live, London has been the setting for films including Oliver Twist (1948), Scrooge (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), My Fair Lady (1964), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup (1966), The Long Good Friday (1980), Notting Hill (1999), Love Actually (2003), V For Vendetta (2005), (Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber Of Fleet Street) (2008) and The King's Speech (2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Helen Mirren, Gary Oldman, Christopher Nolan, Jude Law, Benedict Cumberbatch, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. {{As of|2008}}, the British Academy Film Awards have taken place at the Royal Opera House. London is a major centre for television production, with studios including BBC Television Centre, The Fountain Studios and The London Studios. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast by the BBC since 1985.

Museums and art galleries

File:Kensington Museums aerial 2011 b.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|left|Aerial view of Albertopolis. Albert Memorial, Royal Albert Hall and Royal College of Art are visible near the top; Victoria and Albert Museum and Natural History Museum at the lower end; Imperial College, Royal College of Music, and Science Museum lying in between.]]London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury, in 1753. Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square.In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as "Albertopolis", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the Victoria and Albert Museum (for the applied arts), the Natural History Museum, and the Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.WEB,weblink Organisation, National Portrait Gallery, 18 November 2013, The national gallery of British art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in 2000, this collection moved to Tate Modern, a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station.


File:Royal Albert Hall Crop, London - Nov 2012.jpg|thumb|The Royal Albert HallRoyal Albert HallLondon is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group, as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) and the Royal Albert Hall (The Proms). London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the London Coliseum. The UK's largest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several conservatoires are within the city: Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity Laban.File:Abbey Rd Studios.jpg|thumb|Abbey Road Studios, 3 Abbey Road, St John's WoodSt John's WoodLondon has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue, The O2 ArenaWEB,weblink, {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} and Wembley Arena, as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire. Several music festivals, including the Wireless Festival, South West Four, Lovebox, and Hyde Park's British Summer Time are all held in London.WEB, The best music festivals in London,weblink Time Out London, 27 January 2016, The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, Cliff Richard, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, The Small Faces, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, The Jam, Ultravox, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Adam Ant, Status Quo and Sade, derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.BOOK,weblink London's top 40 artists, 6 April 2006, BBC, 9 September 2008, 978-0-89820-135-2, London was instrumental in the development of punk music,WEB, {{Allmusic, explore, style/d204, yes, |website=AllMusic |title=Punk |accessdate=19 February 2010}} with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash, and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city. More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael's Wham!, Kate Bush, Seal, the Pet Shop Boys, Bananarama, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur, McFly, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Bloc Party, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse, Adele, Sam Smith, Ed Sheeran, Paloma Faith, Ellie Goulding, One Direction and Florence and the Machine.WEB,weblink History of music in London, The London Music Scene, 2 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dead, Walker, Tim (28 July 2008). "Mumford & Sons, The Luminaire, London". The Independent (London). Retrieved 13 October 2012.NEWS,weblink From the Dug Out and dreads to DMZ and dubstep: 10 classic club nights, Guardian Music Blog, London, Warren, Emma, 13 October 2012, 9 December 2011, London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, drum and bass, dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae, alongside local drum and bass. Music station BBC Radio 1Xtra was set up to support the rise of local urban contemporary music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom.

Notable people


Parks and open spaces

{{see also|List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London|List of local nature reserves in Greater London}}{{multiple image
| align = right
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| image1 = Aerial view of Hyde Park.jpg
| caption1 = Aerial view of Hyde Park
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}}A 2013 report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35,000 acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens.WEB,weblink London 'greenest city' in Europe, The largest parks in the central area of London are three of the eight Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent's Park to the north.WEB,weblink Kensington Gardens, 2008, The Royal Parks, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2010, dead, Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.WEB,weblink Madame Tussauds â€” Official website, Madame Tussauds, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dead, WEB,weblink Tourist Information, Madame Tussauds, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, live, Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at {{convert|256|ft|0}}Mills, A., Dictionary of London Place Names, (2001) is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline.Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, Green Park and St. James's Park.WEB,weblink Green Park, 2008, The Royal Parks, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2010, dead, A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including Hampstead Heath and the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the southeastWEB,weblink Greenwich Park, 2008, The Royal Parks, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2012, dead, and Bushy Park and Richmond Park (the largest) to the southwest,WEB,weblink Bushy Park, 2008, The Royal Parks, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Richmond Park, 2008, The Royal Parks, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2010, dead, Hampton Court Park is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the Historic Royal Palaces, unlike the eight Royal Parks.WEB,weblink Park details – Hampton Court, London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, 26 August 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2015, Close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.WEB,weblink Kew, History & Heritage, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 24 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2008, There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including Victoria Park in the East End and Battersea Park in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the {{convert|320|ha|acre|adj=on}} Hampstead Heath of North London,WEB,weblink City of London Corporation Hampstead Heath, City of London Corporation, 19 February 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, dead, and Epping Forest, which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres)WEB,weblink Epping Forest You & Your Dog, brochure, City of London, 13 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2011, in the east. Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation.WEB, Ramblers,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 29 October 2008, Corporation of London Open Spaces, Ramblers, 12 December 2011, WEB,weblink City of London, Green spaces, 27 July 2012, Hampstead Heath incorporates Kenwood House, a former stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.WEB,weblink Kenwood House, English Heritage, 26 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2010, live, Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.WEB,weblink Epping Forest,,


File:UK London - River Wandle, Carshalton.jpg|thumb|left|The River Wandle, Carshalton, in the London Borough of SuttonLondon Borough of Sutton Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. Areas that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead Heath, the eight Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks.WEB,weblink Inner London Ramblers – Walk Ideas, Phil Marson,, Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some {{convert|28|mi|km}} of which is within Greater London, and The Wandle Trail; this runs {{convert|12|mi|km}} through South London along the River Wandle, a tributary of the River Thames.WEB,weblink Wandle Trail – Map, Sustrans, Other long distance paths, linking green spaces, have also been created, including the Capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, London Outer Orbital Path ("Loop"), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk.Ideas for London walks from the Inner London Walking Group


File:Wembley Stadium interior.jpg|thumb|right|Wembley Stadium, home of the England football teamEngland football teamLondon has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012.WEB,weblink London 1908, International Olympic Committee, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2011, live, WEB,weblink London 1948, International Olympic Committee, 5 February 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2011, live, making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.WEB,weblink England â€” Introduction, Commonwealth Games Federation, 3 November 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, In 2017, London hosted the World Championships in Athletics for the first time.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 13 November 2011, London Defeats Doha to host 2017 International Athletics Championships,, 13 December 2011, London's most popular sport is football and it has five clubs in the English Premier League as of the 2019–20 season: Arsenal, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United.WEB, Barclays Premier League Clubs,weblink Premier League, Other professional teams in London are Fulham, Queens Park Rangers, Brentford, Millwall, Charlton Athletic, AFC Wimbledon and Barnet.File:Twickenham Stadium - May 2012.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.05|Twickenham, home of the England rugby union team, has an 82,000 capacity, the world's largest rugby union stadium.]]From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team.It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.WEB,weblink Wembley Stadium History â€” Official Website, Wembley National Stadium Limited., 29 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2008, dead, The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.JOURNAL,weblink Wembley Stadium â€” Presspack â€” Facts and Figures, Wembley National Stadium Limited, 6 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2008, dead, Two Aviva Premiership rugby union teams are based in London, Saracens and Harlequins.WEB,weblink Premiership Rugby: Clubs, Premier Rugby, 5 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dead, London Scottish, London Welsh and London Irish play in the RFU Championship club and other rugby union clubs in the city include Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C.. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.PRESS RELEASE, Twickenham Rugby Stadium, RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium in 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2008, 3 October 2006, harv, dead, File:Centre Court, 28 March 2012.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.05|Centre Court at (The Championships, Wimbledon|Wimbledon]]. First played in 1877, the Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.125 years of Wimbledon: From birth of lawn tennis to modern marvels CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2011)While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London â€“ the London Broncos in the top tier Super League, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in West Ealing, and the third tier League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, Haringey.One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2008, Wimbledon â€” official website, The All England Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC), 29 April 2008, dead, Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.NEWS, Traditional Final: It's Nadal and Federer, The New York Times, 7 May 2008, Christopher, Clarey, Federer said[:] 'I love playing with him, especially here at Wimbledon, the most prestigious tournament we have.',weblink 17 July 2008, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Will Kaufman & Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson, Britain and the Americas, Tennis, 2005, ABC-CLIO, 1 : Culture, Politics, and History, 978-1-85109-431-8, 958, this first tennis championship, which later evolved into the Wimbledon Tournament ... continues as the world's most prestigious event., NEWS, What Is The Most Prestigious Grand Slam Tennis Tournament?,weblink Forbes, New York, 30 May 2012, 25 June 2013, Burke, Monte, London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's WoodWEB,weblink About Lord's—the home of cricket â€” official website, 2008, MCC, 29 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2011, dead, and the Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington.WEB,weblink The Brit Oval â€” Official Website, 2008, Surrey CCC, 29 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2009, dead, Lord's has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup, and is known as the Home of Cricket.WEB,weblink Lord's ESPN CricInfo, live, Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a {{convert|26.2|mi|km}} course around the city,WEB,weblink Flora London Marathon 2008, London Marathon Ltd, 29 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2008, dead, and the University Boat Race on the River Thames from Putney to Mortlake.WEB,weblink The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race â€” Official Website, The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, 29 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live,

See also


{{reflist|group=upper-alpha|refs=City of London and Greater London}}{{Reflist|group="note"|30em}}




  • BOOK, Ackroyd, Peter, London: The Biography, Vintage, London, 2001, 978-0-09-942258-7, 880, harv, London: The Biography,
  • BOOK, Mills, David, Dictionary of London Place Names, Oxford Paperbacks, 2001, 978-0-19-280106-7, 45406491, harv,

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