Hyde Park, London

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Hyde Park, London
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{{short description|Royal Park in London, United Kingdom}}{{EngvarB|date=May 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}

350ha}}PUBLISHER=ROYALPARKS.ORG.UK ACCESSDATE=11 DECEMBER 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20060113171536/HTTP://WWW.ROYALPARKS.ORG.UK/PARKS/HYDE_PARK/HISTORY.CFM DF=, | operator = The Royal Parks| visitation_num =| status = Open year}}}}Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London. It is the largest of four Royal Parks that form a chain from the entrance of Kensington Palace through Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, via Hyde Park Corner and Green Park past the main entrance to Buckingham Palace. The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water lakes.The park was established by Henry VIII in 1536 when he took the land from Westminster Abbey and used it as a hunting ground. It opened to the public in 1637 and quickly became popular, particularly for May Day parades. Major improvements occurred in the early 18th century under the direction of Queen Caroline. Several duels took place in Hyde Park during this time, often involving members of the nobility. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which The Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton, was erected.Free speech and demonstrations have been a key feature of Hyde Park since the 19th century. Speakers' Corner has been established as a point of free speech and debate since 1872, while the Chartists, the Reform League, the suffragettes, and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there. In the late 20th century, the park was known for holding large-scale free rock music concerts, featuring groups such as Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones and Queen. Major events in the park have continued into the 21st century, such as Live 8 in 2005, and the annual Hyde Park Winter Wonderland from 2007.


Hyde Park is the largest Royal Park in London. It is bounded on the north by Bayswater Road, to the east by Park Lane, and to the south by Knightsbridge. Further north is Paddington, further east is Mayfair and further south is Belgravia.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=423}} To the southeast, outside the park, is Hyde Park Corner, beyond which is Green Park, St. James's Park and Buckingham Palace Gardens. The park has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1987.{{NHLE|num=100814|desc=Hyde Park|access-date=11 July 2017|mode=cs2}}To the west, Hyde Park merges with Kensington Gardens. The dividing line runs approximately between Alexandra Gate to Victoria Gate via West Carriage Drive and the Serpentine Bridge. The Serpentine is to the south of the park area.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=423}} Kensington Gardens has been separate from Hyde Park since 1728, when Queen Caroline divided them. Hyde Park covers 142 hectares (350 acres),WEB,weblink Hyde Park,, 11 December 2011, no,weblink" title="">weblink 25 September 2010, and Kensington Gardens covers 111 hectares (275 acres),WEB,weblink Kensington Gardens,, 11 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2010, giving a total area of 253 hectares (625 acres).{{efn|By comparison, the combined area of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens is larger than the Principality of Monaco ({{convert|196|ha|acre|disp=or|abbr=off}}), though smaller than the Bois de Boulogne in Paris (845 hectares, or 2090 acres), New York City's Central Park ({{convert|341|ha|acre|disp=or|abbr=off}}), and Dublin's Phoenix Park (707 hectares, or 1,750 acres).}} During daylight, the two parks merge seamlessly into each other, but Kensington Gardens closes at dusk, and Hyde Park remains open throughout the year from 5 a.m. until midnight.


Early history

The park's name comes from the Manor of Hyde, which was the northeast sub-division of the manor of Eia (the other two sub-divisions were Ebury and Neyte) and appears as such in the Domesday Book. The name is believed to be of Saxon origin, and means a unit of land, the hide, that was appropriate for the support of a single family and dependents.BOOK,weblink Dictionary of British Place Names, Oxford University Press, 2012, 978-0-191-73944-6, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2017, Through the Middle Ages, it was property of Westminster Abbey, and the woods in the manor were used both for firewood and shelter for game.BOOK, Edward, Walford, Hyde Park, Old and New London, 4, London, 1878, 375–405,weblink 13 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2017,

16th–17th centuries

Hyde Park was created for hunting by Henry Vlll in 1536 after he acquired the manor of Hyde from the Abbey.{{sfn|Self|2014|p=28}} It was enclosed as a deer park and remained a private hunting ground until James I permitted limited access to gentlefolk,{{sfn|Humphreys|Bamber|2003|p=284}} appointing a ranger to take charge. Charles I created the Ring (north of the present Serpentine boathouses), and in 1637 he opened the park to the general public.{{sfn|Porter|2000|p=279}} It quickly became a popular gathering place, particularly for May Day celebrations. At the start of the English Civil War in 1642, a series of fortifications were built along the east side of the park, including forts at what is now Marble Arch, Mount Street and Hyde Park Corner. The latter included a strongpoint where visitors to London could be checked and vetted.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=423}}In 1652, during the Interregnum, Parliament ordered the then {{convert|620|acre|adj=on}} park to be sold for "ready money". It realised £17,000 with an additional £765 6s 2d for the resident deer.BOOK, John, Timbs, John Timbs, Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis,weblink 1855, D. Bogue, 644, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016, WEB,weblink House of Commons Journal Volume 7: 27 November 1652, British History Online, 17 March 2017, During the Great Plague of London in 1665, Hyde Park was used as a military camp.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=423}} Following the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Charles II retook ownership of Hyde Park and enclosed it in a brick wall. He restocked deer in what is now Buck Hill in Kensington Gardens. The May Day parade continued to be a popular event; Samuel Pepys took part in the park's celebrations in 1663 while attempting to gain the King's favour.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|pp=423–424}}

18th century

File:James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton; Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun from NPG.jpg|thumb|left|The Hamilton–Mohun Duel of 1712. Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun fighting James Hamilton, 4th Duke of HamiltonJames Hamilton, 4th Duke of HamiltonIn 1689, William III moved his residence to Kensington Palace on the far side of Hyde Park and had a drive laid out across its southern edge which was known as the King's Private Road. The drive is still in existence as a wide straight gravelled carriage track leading west from Hyde Park Corner across the southern boundary of Hyde Park towards Kensington Palace and now known as Rotten Row, possibly a corruption of rotteran (to muster), Ratten Row (roundabout way), Route du roi, or rotten (the soft material with which the road is covered).BOOK,weblink 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E Cobham Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, Henry Altemus, 1898;, 2000, 29 January 2009, no,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2008, It is believed to be the first road in London to be lit at night, which was done to deter highwaymen. In 1749, Horace Walpole was robbed while travelling through the park from Holland House.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}} The row was used by the wealthy for horseback rides in the early 19th century.BOOK, Dunton, Larkin, The World and its People, Silver, Burdett, 1894, 30, Hyde Park was a popular duelling spot during the 18th century, with 172 taking place, leading to 63 fatalities.{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=49}} The Hamilton–Mohun Duel took place there in 1712 when Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun fought James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton. Baron Mohun was killed instantly, while the Duke died shortly afterwards. John Wilkes fought Samuel Martin in 1772, as did Richard Brinsley Sheridan with Captain Thomas Mathews over the latter's libellous comments about Sheridan's fiancee Elizabeth Ann Linley. Edward Thurlow, 1st Baron Thurlow fought Andrew Stuart in a Hyde Park duel in 1770.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}} Military executions were common in Hyde Park at this time; John Rocque's Map of London, 1746 marks a point inside the park, close to the Tyburn gallows, as "where soldiers are shot."{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=37}}{{efn|This location is now where the A5 Edgware Road meets the A40 Marble Arch.MAP, John Rocque's Map of London, 1746,weblink no,weblink 4 July 2017, }}(File:Hyde Park London from 1833 Schmollinger map.jpg|thumb|Hyde Park c. 1833: Rotten Row is "The King's Private Road")The first coherent landscaping in Hyde Park began in 1726. It was undertaken by Charles Bridgeman for King George I, but following the king's death the following year, it continued with approval of his daughter-in-law, Queen Caroline.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=112}} Work was undertaken under the supervision of Charles Withers, the Surveyor-General of Woods and Forests. The principal effect of the work was to sub-divide Hyde Park and create Kensington Gardens.{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=40}}{{efn|Bridgeman was Royal Gardener 1728–38; designed the Round Pond in Kensington Gardens. Peter Willis, Charles Bridgeman and the English Landscape Garden (London and New York) 1978, devotes a chapter to Bridgeman's Royal Commissions.}} The Serpentine was formed by damming the River Westbourne, which runs through the park from Kilburn towards the Thames. It is divided from the Long Water by a bridge designed by George Rennie in 1826.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}The work was completed in 1733. The 2nd Viscount Weymouth was made Ranger of Hyde Park in 1739 and shortly after began digging the Serpentine lakes at Longleat.Timothy Mowl, "Rococo and Later Landscaping at Longleat", Garden History 23.1 (Summer 1995, pp. 56–66) p. 59, noting Jacob Larwood, The Story of London Parks 1881:41. A powder magazine was built north of the Serpentine in 1805.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}

19th–21st centuries

File:Pissarro Hyde Park.jpg|thumb|left|Hyde Park, 1890, by Camille PissarroCamille PissarroHyde Park hosted a Great Fair in the summer of 1814 to celebrate the Allied sovereigns' visit to England, and exhibited various stalls and shows. The Battle of Trafalgar was re-enacted on the Serpentine, with a band playing the National Anthem while the French fleet sank into the lake. The coronation of King George IV in 1821 was celebrated with a fair in the park, including an air balloon and firework displays.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}One of the most important events to take place in Hyde Park was the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Crystal Palace was constructed on the south side of the park.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}} The public did not want the building to remain after the closure of the exhibition, and its architect, Joseph Paxton, raised funds and purchased it. He had it moved to Sydenham Hill in South London.Purbrick, Louise: The Great Exhibition of 1851: New Interdisciplinary Essays: 2001: Manchester University Press, p. 122 Another significant event was the first Victoria Cross investiture, on 26 June 1857, when 62 men were decorated by Queen Victoria in the presence of Prince Albert and other members of the Royal Family, including their future son-in-law Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, later Emperor Frederick III.Crook, M. J.: The Evolution of the Victoria Cross: 1975: Midas Books, pp. 49–52.The Hyde Park Lido sits on the south bank of the Serpentine. It opened in 1930 to provide improved support for bathing and sunbathing in the park, which had been requested by the naturist group, the Sunlight League. The Lido and accompanying Pavilion was designed by the Commissioner of Works, George Lansbury, and was half funded by a £5,000 (now £{{inflation|UK|5000|1930|fmt=c|r=-3}}) donation from Major Colin Cooper (1892–1938). It still sees regular use in the summer into the 21st century.{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=137}}Hyde Park has been a major venue for several Royal jubilees and celebrations. For the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, a party was organised on 22 June where around 26,000 school children were given a free meal as a gift. The Queen and the Prince of Wales made an unexpected appearance at the event. Victoria remained fond of Hyde Park in the final years of her life and often drove there twice a day.{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=91}} As part of the Queen's Silver Jubilee in 1977, a Jubilee Exhibition was set up in Hyde Park,WEB, Hyde Park History & Architecture, The Royal Parks, 2007,weblink 5 September 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2007, with the Queen and Prince Philip visiting on 30 June.NEWS, Court Circular, The Times, London, England, 1 July 1977, 20, 16 August 2017,weblink subscription, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016, In 2012, a major festival took place in the park as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.WEB,weblink Sainsbury's announces Jubilee Family Festival, Royal Parks, 17 February 2012, 16 April 2017, no,weblink 17 April 2017, On 6 February, the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery fired a 41-gun Royal Salute at Hyde Park Corner.NEWS,weblink Gun salutes mark Queen's Diamond Jubilee, The Daily Telegraphy, 6 February 2012, 16 August 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2017, File:Winter Wonderland 5276970971.jpg|thumb|The Winter Wonderland festival has been a popular Christmas event in Hyde Park since 2007.]]On 20 July 1982, in the Hyde Park and Regents Park bombings, two devices linked to the Provisional Irish Republican Army caused the death of eight members of the Household Cavalry and the Royal Green Jackets and seven horses.WEB,weblink 1982: IRA bombs cause carnage in London, BBC News, 25 January 2014, no,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2014, A memorial was constructed to the left of the Albert Gate to commemorate the soldiers and horses killed in the blast.{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=137-138}}Since 2007, Hyde Park has played host to the annual Winter Wonderland event, which features numerous Christmas-themed markets, along with various rides and attractions, alongside bars and restaurants. It has become one of the largest Christmas events in Europe, having attracted over 14 million visitors as of 2016,WEB,weblink London Hyde park hosting annual family-friendly Winter Wonderland, Press TV, 8 December 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2016, WEB,weblink Hyde Park Winter Wonderland, PWR Events, 8 December 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2016, and has expanded to include the largest ice rink in London, live entertainment and circuses.NEWS, Harriet, Addison, Get your skates on this weekend, The Times, London, England, 26 November 2011, 3 [S1], 16 August 2017,weblink subscription, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016, On 18 September 2010, Hyde Park was the setting for a prayer vigil with Pope Benedict XVI as part of his visit to the United Kingdom, attended by around 80,000 people. A large crowd assembled along the Mall to see the Pope arrive for his address.NEWS,weblink Pope tells Hyde Park crowd that 'they too suffer for their faith', The Guardian, 18 September 2010, 16 April 2017, no,weblink 17 April 2017, NEWS, Richard, Owen, Not bad for a man maligned as a Teutonic hardliner, The Times, London, England, 20 September 2010, 8, 16 August 2017,weblink subscription, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016, An attempt to assassinate the Pope had been foiled after five street cleaners were spotted within a mile of Hyde Park, and arrested along with sixth suspect.NEWS, David, Brown, Ruth, Gledhill, Adam, Fresco, Pope's rallying cry, The Times, London, England, 18 September 2010, 1, 16 August 2017,weblink subscription, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016,

Grand Entrance

File:Entrée Hyde Park.JPG|thumb|left|Decimus BurtonDecimus BurtonDuring the late 18th century, plans were made to replace the old toll gate at Hyde Park Corner with a grander entrance, following the gentrification of the area surrounding it. The first design was put forward by Robert Adam in 1778 as a grand archway, followed by John Soane's 1796 proposal to build a new palace adjacent to the corner in Green Park.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=425}}Following the construction of Buckingham Palace, the improvement plans were revisited. The grand entrance to the park at Hyde Park Corner was designed by Decimus Burton, and was constructed in the 1820s.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=425}} Burton laid out the paths and driveways and designed a series of lodges, the Screen/Gate at Hyde Park Corner (also known as the Grand Entrance or the Apsley Gate) in 1825{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}} and the Wellington Arch, which opened in 1828.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=996}} The Screen and the Arch originally formed a single composition, designed to provide a monumental transition between Hyde Park and Green Park, although the arch was moved in 1883. It originally had a statue of the Duke of Wellington on top; it was moved to Aldershot in 1883 when the arch was re-sited.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=996}}File:Wellington Arch - 01.jpg|thumb|right|Decimus Burton's Wellington ArchWellington ArchAn early description reports:"It consists of a screen of handsome fluted Ionic columns, with three carriage entrance archways, two-foot entrances, a lodge, etc. The extent of the whole frontage is about {{convert|107|ft|m|abbr=on}}. The central entrance has a bold projection: the entablature is supported by four columns; and the volutes of the capitals of the outside column on each side of the gateway are formed in an angular direction, so as to exhibit two complete faces to view. The two side gateways, in their elevations, present two insulated Ionic columns, flanked by antae. All these entrances are finished by a blocking, the sides of the central one being decorated with a beautiful frieze, representing a naval and military triumphal procession. This frieze was designed by Mr. Henning, junior, the son of Mr. Henning who was well known for his models of the Elgin Marbles. The gates were manufactured by Messrs. Bramah. They are of iron, bronzed, and fixed or hung to the piers by rings of gun-metal. The design consists of a beautiful arrangement of the Greek honeysuckle ornament; the parts being well defined, and the raffles of the leaves brought out in a most extraordinary manner."NEWS, Christopher, Davy,weblink New Grand Entrance into Hyde Park, Mechanics' Magazine and Journal of Science, Arts, and Manufactures, 8, 65–68, 18 August 1827, no,weblink 10 June 2016, dmy-all, The Wellington Arch was extensively restored by English Heritage between 1999 and 2001. It is now open to the public, who can see a view of the parks from its platforms above the porticoes.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=996}}


File:7 7 Hyde Park 090712.jpg|thumb|The 7 July Memorial to the victims of the 7 July 2005 London bombings7 July 2005 London bombingsPopular areas within Hyde Park include Speakers' Corner (located in the northeast corner near Marble Arch), close to the former site of the Tyburn gallows,{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=860}} and Rotten Row, which is the northern boundary of the site of the Crystal Palace.


Flowers were first planted in Hyde Park in 1860 by William Andrews Nesfield. The next year, the Italian Water Garden was constructed at Victoria Gate, including fountains and a summer house. Queen Anne's Alcove was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and was moved to the park from its original location in Kensington Gardens.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}During the late 20th century, over 9,000 elm trees in Hyde Park were killed by Dutch elm disease. This included many trees along the great avenues planted by Queen Caroline, which were ultimately replaced by limes and maples.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=425}}{{sfn|Rabbitts|2015|p=113}} The park now holds {{convert|4|acre|ha}} of greenhouses which hold the bedding plants for the Royal Parks. A scheme is available to adopt trees in the park, which helps fund their upkeep and maintenance.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=425}} A botanical curiosity is the weeping beech, which is known as "the upside-down tree".WEB,weblink Trees, Royal Parks, 16 April 2017, no,weblink 12 April 2016, A rose garden, designed by Colvin & Moggridge Landscape Architects, was added in 1994.WEB,weblink Hyde Park,, 11 December 2011, no,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2007,

Statues and sculptures

{{see also|List of public art in Hyde Park, London}}File:Rima, the Hudson memorial.jpg|thumb|left|Jacob EpsteinJacob EpsteinThere are a number of assorted statues and memorials around Hyde Park. The Cavalry Memorial was built in 1924 at Stanhope Gate. It moved to the Serpentine Road when Park Lane was widened to traffic in 1961.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=540}} South of the Serpentine is the Diana, Princess of Wales memorial, an oval stone ring fountain opened on 6 July 2004.NEWS,weblink Timeline: Diana memorial fountain, BBC News, 2 November 2005, 3 September 2012, no,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2005, To the east of the Serpentine, just beyond the dam, is London's Holocaust Memorial.WEB,weblink Garden in London's Hyde Park is Britain's Holocaust Memorial, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 June 1983, 16 July 2013, no,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2014, The 7 July Memorial in the park commemorates the victims of 7 July 2005 London bombings.WEB,weblink 7 July Memorial, The Royal Parks, 23 January 2015, no,weblink 23 January 2015, The Standing Stone is a {{convert|7|tonne|adj=on}} monolith at the centre of the Dell, to the east of Hyde Park. Made of Cornish stone, it was originally part of a drinking fountain, though an urban legend was established, claiming it was brought from Stonehenge by Charles I.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=425}}An assortment of unusual sculptures are scattered around the park, including: Still Water, a massive horse head lapping up water; Jelly Baby Family, a family of giant Jelly Babies standing on top of a large black cube; and Vroom Vroom, which resembles a giant human hand pushing a toy car along the ground.WEB,weblink Search – Lorenzo Quinn, no,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2015, The sculptor Jacob Epstein constructed several works in Hyde Park. His memorial to the author William Henry Hudson, featuring his character Rima caused public outrage when it was unveiled in 1925.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}There has been a fountain at Grosvenor Gate since 1863, designed by Alexander Munro. There is another fountain opposite Mount Street on the park's eastern edge.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=424}}


(File:Speaker's Corner Speaker.jpg|thumb|left|200px|A Protestant Christian protesting at Speakers' Corner in 2010)Hyde Park's Speakers' Corner has acquired an international reputation for demonstrations and other protests{{sfn|German|Rees|2012|p=294}} due to its tolerance of free speech.{{sfn|Cheetham|Winkler|2011|p=371}} In 1855, a protest at the park was organised to demonstrate against Robert Grosvenor's attempt to ban Sunday trading, including a restriction on pub opening times. Karl Marx observed approximately 200,000 protesters attended the demonstration, which involved jeering and taunting at upper-class horse carriages. A further protest occurred a week later, but this time the police attacked the crowd.{{sfn|German|Rees|2012|pp=115–116}}In 1867 the policing of the park was entrusted to the Metropolitan Police, the only royal park so managed, due to the potential for trouble at Speakers' Corner. A Metropolitan Police station ('AH') is situated in the middle of the park. The 1872 Parks Regulation Act created positions of "park keeper" and also provided that "Every police constable belonging to the police force of the district in which any park, garden, or possession to which this Act applies is situate shall have the powers, privileges, and immunities of a park-keeper within such park, garden, or possession."WEB,weblink An Act for the regulation of the Royal Parks and Gardens, 1872, no,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2013, File:'FREE HUGS', Speaker's Corner, Hyde Park, London.jpg|thumb|upright|200px|The Free Hugs CampaignFree Hugs CampaignSpeakers' Corner became increasingly popular in the late 19th century. Visitors brought along placards, stepladders and soap boxes in order to stand out from others, while heckling of speakers was popular. Donald Soper, Baron Soper was a regular visitor throughout the 20th century, until just before his death in 1998. The rise of the Internet, particularly blogs, has diminished the importance of Speakers' Corner as a political platform, and it is increasingly seen as simply a tourist attraction.{{sfn|Weinreb|Hibbert|Keay|Keay|2008|p=860}}As well as Speakers' Corner, several important mass demonstrations have occurred in Hyde Park. On 26 July 1886, the Reform League staged a march from their headquarters towards the park, campaigning for increased suffrage and representation. Though the police had closed the park, the crowd managed to break down the perimeter railings and get inside, leading to the event being dubbed "The Hyde Park Railings Affair". After the protests turned violent, three squadrons of Horse Guards and numerous Foot Guards were sent out from Marble Arch to combat the situation.NEWS,weblink 26 July 1866: The Hyde Park Railings Affair, The Guardian, 12 May 2011, 17 April 2017, no,weblink 18 April 2017, On 21 June 1908, as part of "Women's Sunday", a reported 750,000 people marched from the Embankment to Hyde Park protesting for votes for women. The first protest against the planned 2003 invasion of Iraq took place in Hyde Park on 28 September 2002, with 150,000–350,000 in attendance. A further series of demonstrations happened around the world, culminating in the 15 February 2003, anti-war protests, part of a global demonstration against the Iraq War.WEB,weblink Ten demonstrations that changed the world, Chris, Nineham, CounterFire, 27 May 2015, 16 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2017, Over a million protesters are reported to have attended the Hyde Park event alone.NEWS,weblink Not in our name : Marches and protests against the Iraq War, Dan, Vevers, STV, 6 July 2016, 16 April 2017, no,weblink 17 April 2017,


{{see also|List of concerts in Hyde Park}}The bandstand in Hyde Park was originally built in Kensington Gardens in 1869, moving to its current location in 1886. It became a popular place for concerts in the 1890s, featuring up to three every week. Military and brass bands continued to play into the 20th century.WEB,weblink The bandstand in Hyde Park, Royal Parks, 16 April 2017, no,weblink 12 March 2017, File:Pink floyd live 8 london.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Pink Floyd performing at Live 8Live 8The music management company Blackhill Enterprises held the first rock concert in Hyde Park on 29 June 1968, attended by 15,000 people. On the bill were Pink Floyd, Roy Harper and Jethro Tull, while John Peel later said it was "the nicest concert I’ve ever been to". Subsequently, Hyde Park has featured some of the most significant concerts in rock. The supergroup Blind Faith (featuring Eric Clapton and Steve Winwood) played their debut gig in Hyde Park on 7 June 1969. The Rolling Stones headlined a concert (later released as The Stones in the Park) on 5 July that year, two days after the death of founding member Brian Jones, and is now remembered as one of the most famous gigs of the 1960s. Pink Floyd returned to Hyde Park on 18 July 1970, playing new material from Atom Heart Mother. All of the early gigs from 1968 to 1971 were free events, contrasting sharply with the later commercial endeavours.WEB,weblink The Hyde Park free concerts (1968–1971), Music Heritage, 15 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2017, Queen played a free concert organised by Richard Branson in the park on 18 September 1976, partway through recording the album A Day at the Races. The band drew an audience of 150,000 – 200,000, which remains the largest crowd for a Hyde Park concert. The group were not allowed to play an encore, and police threatened to arrest frontman Freddie Mercury if he attempted to do so.WEB,weblink Queen Play Hyde Park, BBC Music, 15 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 18 September 2016, The British Live 8 concert took place in Hyde Park on 2 July 2005, as a concert organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise awareness of increased debts and poverty in the third world. Acts included U2, Coldplay, Elton John, R.E.M., Madonna, The Who and Paul McCartney, and the most anticipated set was the reformation of the classic 1970s line-up of Pink Floyd (including David Gilmour and Roger Waters) for the first time since 1981.WEB,weblink The story of Pink Floyd's Reunion at Live 8, Nick, DeRiso, Ultimate Classic Rock, 2 July 2015, 16 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2017, The gig was the Floyd's final live performance.BOOK, Echoes : The Complete Story of Pink Floyd, Glenn, Povey, 287, 3C / Mind Head Publishing, 2007, 978-0-9554624-1-2, Acts from each of the four nations in the UK played a gig in the park as part of the opening ceremony for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The headliners were Duran Duran, representing England, alongside the Stereophonics for Wales, Paolo Nutini for Scotland and Snow Patrol for Northern Ireland.NEWS,weblink London 2012: Stereophonics play Hyde Park Olympic gig, BBC News, 1 May 2012, 18 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2017, Since 2011, Radio 2 Live in Hyde Park has taken place each September.WEB,weblink BBC Radio 2 Live in Hyde Park confirms some huge names, Ticketmaster, 9 September 2017, Local residents have become critical of Hyde Park as a concert venue, due to the sound levels, and have campaigned for a maximum sound level of 73 decibels.NEWS,weblink Westminster Council cuts Hyde Park concert numbers, BBC News, 17 February 2012, 10 July 2014, no,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2015, In July 2012, Bruce Springsteen and Paul McCartney found their microphones switched off after Springsteen had played a three-hour set during the Park's Hard Rock Calling festival, and overshot the 10:30 pm curfew time.NEWS,weblink Springsteen and McCartney cut off because of sound curfew, Lisa, Williams, The Independent, 15 July 2012, 10 July 2014, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014,


Hyde Park contains several sporting facilities, including several football pitches and a Tennis centre. There are numerous cycle paths, and horse riding is popular.WEB,weblink Hyde Park : Sports and leisure, Royal Parks, 18 April 2017, no,weblink 19 February 2017, In 1998 British artist Marion Coutts recreated Hyde Park, along with Battersea and Regent's Park, as a set of asymmetrical ping-pong tables for her interactive installation Fresh Air.WEB, Arnaud, Danielle, Fair Play,weblink Danielle Arnaud, 7 December 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2017, For the 2012 Summer Olympics, the park hosted the triathlon, which brothers Alistair Brownlee and Jonathan Brownlee took the Gold and Bronze medalsNEWS, The best of London 2012: Alistair Brownlee on his triathlon gold medal performance,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 14 August 2012, no,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2012, for Team GB, and the 10 km open water swimming events.NEWS,weblink Alistair and Jonny Brownlee dominate London 2012 triathlon, BBC Sport, 7 August 2012, 18 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2017, The park has also hosted the ITU World Triathlon Grand Final.WEB,weblink ITU World Triathlon London 2015, International Triathlon Union, no,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2011,


File:Hyde Park Corner stn southwest entrance.JPG|thumb|220px|Entrance to Hyde Park Corner tube stationHyde Park Corner tube stationThere are five London Underground stations located on or near the edges of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens (which is contiguous with Hyde Park). In clockwise order starting from the south-east, they are:WEB,weblink Tube map, Transport for London, 16 April 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2017, Bayswater tube station, on the Circle and District lines, is also close to Queensway station and the north-west corner of the park. High Street Kensington tube station, on the Circle and District is very close to Kensington Palace located on the Southwest corner of Kensington Gardens. Paddington station, served by Bakerloo, Circle and District, and Hammersmith & City lines, is close to Lancaster Gate station and a short walk away from Hyde Park.Several main roads run around the perimeter of Hyde Park. Park Lane is part of the London Inner Ring Road and the London Congestion Charge zone boundary. The A4, a major road through West London, runs along the southeastern edge of the park, while the A5, a major road to Milton Keynes and the Midlands runs northwest from Marble Arch.BOOK, London A-Z, A-Z Maps / Ordnance Survey, 2004, 164–165, 1-84348-020-4, Transport within the park for people lacking mobility and disabled visitors is provided free of charge by Liberty Drives, located at Triangle Carpark.WEB,weblink Liberty Drives, 26 May 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2016, Cycle Superhighway 3 (CS3) begins at Lancaster Gate, on the northern perimeter of Hyde Park. It is one of several TfL-coordinated cycle routes to cross the Park. CS3 also crosses Hyde Park Corner on its route towards Westminster and the City of London. The route opened in September 2018 and is signposted and cyclists are segregated from other road traffic on wide cycle tracks.WEB,weblink East-West Cycle Superhighway (CS3) – Tower Hill to Lancaster Gate – Route alignment, TfL,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2018, WEB,weblink London Cycling Campaign,, 26 January 2019,




Citations{{Reflist}} Sources
  • BOOK, harv, Interreligious Hermeneutics in Pluralistic Europe: Between Texts and People Volume 40 of Currents of encounter, David, Cheetham, Ulrich, Winkler, Rodopi, 2011, 978-9-401-20037-0, 0923-6201,
  • BOOK, harv, A People's History of London, Lindsey, German, John, Rees, Verso Books, 2012, 978-1-844-67914-0,
  • BOOK, harv, London, Rob, Humphreys, Judith, Bamber, Rough Guides, 2003, 978-1-843-53093-0,
  • BOOK, harv, London: A Social History, Roy, Porter, Penguin UK, 2000, 978-0-140-10593-3,
  • BOOK, Hyde Park: The People's Park, Paul, Rabbitts, Amberley Publishing Limited, 2015, 978-1-445-64301-4, harv,
  • BOOK, harv, The Birds of London, Andrew, Self, A&C Black, 2014, 978-1-408-19404-1,
  • {{london encyclopedia}}

External links

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