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{{about|the capital of Scotland}}{{Use British English|date=February 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}

| subdivision_type = Sovereign state| subdivision_name = United KingdomCountry}}Subdivisions of Scotland>Council areaLieutenancy areas of Scotland>Lieutenancy area| subdivision_name1 = Scotland| subdivision_name2 = City of Edinburgh| subdivision_name3 = Edinburgh| established_title = Founded| established_date = Before 7th century ADBurgh>Burgh Charter| established_date2 = 1125| established_title3 = City status| established_date3 = 1889| government_type = Unitary authority| leader_title = Governing body| leader_name = The City of Edinburgh Council| leader_title1 = Lord Provost of Edinburgh| leader_name1 = Frank Ross| area_total_km2 = 264| area_urban_km2 = | area_metro_km2 = 225| elevation_m = 47PUBLISHER=THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND, INC. JOURNAL= ARCHIVE-DATE=8 OCTOBER 2013, live, | area_code = 0131PUBLISHER=NATIONALRECORDSOFSCOTLAND.GOV.UK ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190323162343/HTTPS://WWW.NRSCOTLAND.GOV.UK/STATISTICS-AND-DATA/STATISTICS/STATISTICS-BY-THEME/POPULATION/POPULATION-ESTIMATES/SETTLEMENTS-AND-LOCALITIES/MID-2016/LIST-OF-TABLES URL-STATUS=LIVE The City of Edinburgh Council>CouncilHTTPS://WWW.NRSCOTLAND.GOV.UK/FILES/STATISTICS/COUNCIL-AREA-DATA-SHEETS/CITY-OF-EDINBURGH-COUNCIL-PROFILE.HTML>TITLE=CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL AREA PROFILEACCESSDATE=26 APRIL 2019ARCHIVE-DATE=26 APRIL 2019, live, | population_as_of = 2016 and 2018| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = 1828PUBLISHER=CITYPOPULATION.DE ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181203055500/HTTPS://WWW.CITYPOPULATION.DE/PHP/UK-AGGLO.PHP URL-STATUS=LIVE, | population_blank1_title = Language(s)Scottish English>English, Scots| population_demonym = EdinburgherWEB,weblink Girl About Globe – A Scottish Gamble for Macau?, 9 May 2018, 18 January 2019,weblink 18 December 2018, live, BOOK, Simpson, Andy, Why Would Anyone Want to Swing a Cat? and 499 other questions., 2013, Constable & Robinson Ltd., 163,weblink 9781849019477, 17 December 2018,weblink 18 December 2018, live, Postcodes in the United Kingdom>Postcode areasEH postcode area>EH1-17, EH28-30| blank_name_sec2 = GDPUSD>$33 billionHTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3 >TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP 2014 ACCESSDATE=18 NOVEMBER 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130605135349/HTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3, 5 June 2013, | blank1_name_sec2 = GDP per capitaUSD>$58,000{{URLweblink}}}}Members of the 4th Scottish Parliament>MSPstitle=Politics of Edinburgh#Scottish Parliament >Ash Denham (SNP) Ruth Davidson (C) >Daniel Johnson (Scottish politician) (L) >Gordon MacDonald (Scottish politician) (SNP) >Ben Macpherson (politician) (SNP) >Alex Cole-Hamilton (LD) |}}List of MPs elected in the 2017 United Kingdom general election>MPstitle=Politics of Edinburgh#Parliament of the United Kingdom >Joanna Cherry (SNP) Tommy Sheppard (SNP) >Ian Murray (British politician) (L) >Deidre Brock (SNP) |Christine Jardine (LD)}}Greenwich Mean Time>GMT| utc_offset = ±0British Summer Time>BST| utc_offset_DST = +1ISO 3166-2)| blank_info = GB-EDHONS coding system>ONS code| blank1_info = S12000036Ordnance Survey National Grid>OS grid referenceNT275735}}Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics>NUTS 3| blank3_info = UKM25| blank4_name = Primary Airport| blank4_info = Edinburgh Airport| footnotes =

}}Edinburgh ({{IPAc-en|audio=edinburgh.ogg|ˈ|ɛ|d|ɪ|n|b|ər|ə}};WEB,weblink Definition of Edinburgh in Oxford dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word, Oxford University Press, 2013, Oxford Dictionaries, 12 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2014, live, WEB,weblink edinburgh - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at,, 22 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2017, live, WEB,weblink the definition of Edinburgh,, 22 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2017, live, {{IPA-gd|ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ|}}; ) is the capital of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921),WEB,weblink Scottish Counties and Parishes: their history and boundaries on maps, National Library of Scotland, 5 May 2019,weblink 7 April 2019, live, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom (after London)WEB,weblink Financial Services, Invest in Edinburgh, 3 October 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2017, live, and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination attracting 1.75 million visits from overseas in 2016.WEB,weblink PDF, Edinburgh by Numbers 2018, 20 April 2019,weblink 20 April 2019, live, Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 488,050 (2016) for the Locality of Edinburgh (Edinburgh pre 1975 regionalisation plus Currie and Balerno),WEB,weblink Mid-2016 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland,, 4 March 2019,weblink 23 March 2019, live, 31 May 2013, 518,500 (2018) for the City of Edinburgh, and 1,339,380 (2014) for the city region.WEB,weblinkstatistics/population-estimates/mid-17/mid-year-pop-est-17-publication.pdf, Mid-Year Population Estimates Scotland, Mid-2017 Population estimates by sex, age and area,, 12 April 2018,, 11 May 2018, dead, WEB,, Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region, 25 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2015, live, Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian.WEB,weblink City Region Deal secured, The City of Edinburgh Council, 3 October 2017,weblink 3 October 2017, live, The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 20th in the QS World University Rankings for 2020. The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site,WEB,weblink Edinburgh-World Heritage Site, 10 February 2013, VisitScotland,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2013, dead, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.


"Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language formerly spoken there. The name's meaning is unknown.BOOK, Gelling, Margaret, Margaret Gelling, Nicolaisen, W. F. H., W. F. H. Nicolaisen, Richards, Melville, 1970, The Names of Towns and Cities in Britain, Batsford, 88–89, 978-0-7134-5235-8, The district of Eidyn centred on the stronghold Din Eidyn, the dun or hillfort of Eidyn. This stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and later by the Scots in the 10th century.BOOK, Driscoll, Stephen, Yeoman, Peter A., 1997, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland monograph series, Excavations within Edinburgh Castle in 1988–91, 12, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 229, 978-0-903-903127, As the language shifted to Old English, and subsequently to modern English and Scots, the Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Similarly, din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann.BOOK, Placenames of the World, Room, Adrian, 2006, McFarland, 978-0-7864-2248-7, 118–119,weblink 12 August 2011,


File:Surgeons Hall - - 1315862.jpg|thumb|Surgeons' Hall - one of the Greek Revival buildings that earned Edinburgh the nickname "Athens of the North"]]The city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie,WEB,weblink Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Auld adj.,, 10 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2018, live, WEB,weblink Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Reek n.1, v.,, 10 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2018, live, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town.Allan Ramsay said, "Auld Reeky. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek that is always impending over it."BOOK, Ramsay, Allan, Allan Ramsay (poet), The poems of Allan Ramsay, Vol. 1, 50, Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for, ever since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art, very strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, and Edinburgh with its chimneys is called 'Auld Reekie' by the country people."BOOK, Carlyle, Thomas, Thomas Carlyle, Historical Sketches...., 304–305,weblink Chapman and Hall, 1898, 19 July 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, live, A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie—you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."BOOK, Scott, Walter, Walter Scott, The Abbot, The Abbot, 1821, Philadelphia, Hickman and Hazzard, Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements. "It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, and gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"BOOK, Chambers, Robert, Robert Chambers (publisher born 1802), Traditions of Edinburgh, 168,weblink W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh and London, 1868, 19 July 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2016, live, Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had flatter, fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away (respectively Leith and Piraeus). Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe. The 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. Also a contributing factor was the later neoclassical architecture, particularly that of William Henry Playfair, and the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said, perhaps playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.BOOK, Stoppard, Tom, Tom Stoppard, Jumpers, Jumpers, Grove Press, 1972, 69, The city has also been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, Edinensis, can often be seen inscribed on educational buildings.BOOK, Grässe, Johann Georg Theodor, Johann Georg Theodor Grässe, Orbis latinus: oder Verzeichnis der wichtigsten lateinischen Orts- und Ländernamen, 2nd, Orbis latinus : or List of the most important latin place and country names, 1909, Richard Carl Schmidt, Berlin, de, Orbis Latinus, 1861, WEB,weblink Pharmaceutical Latin Abbreviations,, 8 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2006, The Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used the city's Latin name, Edina, in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye",The Cambridge Companion to Ben Jonson {{Webarchive|url= |date=17 August 2011 }}. Retrieved 17 April 2007. and Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North".Marmion A Tale of Flodden Field by Walter Scott {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 September 2007 }}. Retrieved 17 April 2007. Robert Louis Stevenson, also a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be".The colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has also been used,WEB,weblink Embro, Embro – the hidden history of Edinburgh in its music,, 8 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2008, live, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy.WEB,weblink Makars Literary Tour | Robert Garioch,, 8 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2009, live,


Early history

(File:Arthurs seat edinburgh.jpg|thumb|right|Edinburgh, showing Arthur's Seat, one of the earliest known sites of human habitation in the area)The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c. 8500 BC.WEB,weblink Earliest evidence found of settlers in Scotland: hazelnuts and stone tools excavated near Edinburgh date to around 8500 BC, 31 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2013, Traces of later Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been found on Castle Rock, Arthur's Seat, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills.BOOK, Coghill, Hamish, Lost Edinburgh, 2008, Birlinn Ltd, 978-1-84158-747-9, 1–2, When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, they found a Brittonic Celtic tribe whose name they recorded as the Votadini.BOOK, Ritchie, J. N. G. and A., Edinburgh and South-East Scotland,weblink 1972, Heinemann, 978-0-435-32971-6, 51, 6 November 2015,weblink 1 January 2016, live, The Votadini transitioned into the Gododdin kingdom in the Early Middle Ages, with Eidyn serving as one of the kingdom's districts. During this period, the Castle Rock site, thought to have been the stronghold of Din Eidyn, emerged as the kingdom's major centre.BOOK, Driscoll, Stephen, Yeoman, Peter A., 1997, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland monograph series, Excavations within Edinburgh Castle in 1988–91, 12, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 227, 978-0-903-903127, The medieval poem Y Gododdin describes a war band from across the Brittonic world who gathered in Eidyn before a fateful raid; this may describe a historical event around AD 600.BOOK, The Beginnings of Welsh Poetry: Studies, Williams, Ifor, Ifor Williams, 1972, University of Wales Press, 978-0-7083-0035-0, 47, BOOK, The British Heroic Age: the Welsh and the Men of the North, Chadwick, Nora K., Nora K. Chadwick, 1968, University of Wales Press, 978-0-7083-0465-5, 107, JOURNAL, Dumville, David, 1994, The eastern terminus of the Antonine Wall: 12th or 13th century evidence, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 124, 293–98, In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria, and around this time control of Lothian passed to the Angles. Their influence continued for the next three centuries until around 950, when, during the reign of Indulf, son of Constantine II, the "burh" (fortress), named in the 10th-century Pictish Chronicle as oppidum Eden,BOOK, Watson, William, The Celtic Place Names of Scotland, 1926, 978-1-906566-35-7, 340, was abandoned to the Scots. It thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction.BOOK, Lynch, Michael, The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-923482-0, 658, The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, though the date of its charter is unknown.BOOK, Daiches, David, David Daiches, Edinburgh,weblink 1978, Hamish Hamilton, 978-0-241-89878-9, 15, 6 November 2015,weblink 1 January 2016, live, The first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, {{circa|1124–1127}}, by King David I granting a toft in to the Priory of Dunfermline.BOOK, Barrow, Geoffrey, The Charters of King David I: The Written Acts of David I King of Scots ..., 63, 978-0851157313, 1999, By the middle of the 14th century, the French chronicler Jean Froissart was describing it as the capital of Scotland (c. 1365), and James III (1451–88) referred to it in the 15th century as "the principal burgh of our kingdom".BOOK, Dickinson, W C, Scotland, From The Earliest Times To 1603, 1961, Thomas Nelson, Edinburgh, 119, Despite the destruction caused by an English assault in 1544, the town slowly recovered,BOOK, Dickinson, W C, Scotland, From The Earliest Times To 1603, 1961, Thomas Nelson, Edinburgh, 236–8, and was at the centre of events in the 16th-century Scottish ReformationBOOK, Donaldson, Gordon, The Scottish Reformation,weblink 1960, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-08675-2, 53, and 17th-century Wars of the Covenant.WEB,weblink Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association,, 10 February 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013,

17th century

(File:Edinburgh in the 17thC (detail) by Wenceslas Hollar (1670).jpg|thumb|left|Edinburgh in the 17th century)In 1603, King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England in a personal union known as the Union of the Crowns, though Scotland remained, in all other respects, a separate kingdom.BOOK, Donaldson, Gordon, Scottish Kings, 1967, Batsford, 213, In 1638, King Charles I's attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.BOOK, Newman, P R, Companion to the English Civil Wars, 1990, Facts on File Ltd, Oxford, 978-0-8160-2237-3, 13, Subsequent Scottish support for Charles Stuart's restoration to the throne of England resulted in Edinburgh's occupation by Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England forces – the New Model Army – in 1650.BOOK, 587,weblink The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639–1660, Stephen C. Manganiello, Scarecrow Press, 2004, 978-0-8108-5100-9, 11 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2013, live, In the 17th century, Edinburgh's boundaries were still defined by the city's defensive town walls. As a result, the city's growing population was accommodated by increasing the height of the houses. Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common,BOOK,weblink Notices of the most remarkable fires in Edinburgh, from 1385 to 1824, 17 February 2013, Chambers, Robert, 11, 1824,weblink 1 January 2016, live, and have been described as forerunners of the modern-day skyscraper.JOURNAL, The Origin of the Skyscraper, CTBUH Journal, 2011, Peet, Gerard,weblink 2019-09-07, BOOK, Wilson, Neil, Edinburgh Encounter, 37,weblink 978-1-74179-306-2, 2008, Most of these old structures were replaced by the predominantly Victorian buildings seen in today's Old Town.

18th century

Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, the Parliaments of England and Scotland passed Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the Kingdom of Great Britain effective from 1 May 1707.BOOK, Scott, Paul, 1707: the Union of Scotland and England, 1979, Chambers, 978-0-550-20265-9, 51–54, As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland merged with the Parliament of England to form the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London. The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city.BOOK,weblink The making of the United Kingdom and Black peoples of the Americas, Kelly, 1998, Heinemann, 77, 23 January 2011, 978-0-435-30959-6, dead,weblink 2 December 2013, By the first half of the 18th century, Edinburgh was described as one of Europe's most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns.BOOK, Defoe, Daniel, Daniel Defoe, A Tour Through The Whole Island of Britain, 1978, Penguin, London, 577, ... I believe, this may be said with truth, that in no city in the world so many people live in so little room as at Edinburgh., BOOK, Topham, E., Letters from Edinburgh 1774–1775, 1971, James Thin,weblink 18 March 2013, Edinburgh, 978-1-236-68255-0, 27, ... I make no manner of doubt but that the High Street in Edinburgh is inhabited by a greater number of persons than any street in Europe.,weblink 1 January 2016, live, Visitors were struck by the fact that the various social classes shared the same urban space, even inhabiting the same tenement buildings; although here a form of social segregation did prevail, whereby shopkeepers and tradesmen tended to occupy the cheaper-to-rent cellars and garrets, while the more well-to-do professional classes occupied the more expensive middle storeys.BOOK, Graham, H. G., The Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century, 1906, Adam and Charles Black, London,weblink 18 March 2013, 85,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2014, live, File:The Parliament Close and Public Characters Fifty Years Since.jpg|thumb|A painting showing Edinburgh characters (based on John Kay's caricatures) behind St Giles' Cathedral in the late 18th century]]During the Jacobite rising of 1745, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by the Jacobite "Highland Army" before its march into England.BOOK, Lenman, Bruce, The Jacobite Cause,weblink 18 March 2013, 1986, Richard Drew Publishing, 978-0-86267-159-4, 104,weblink 1 January 2016, live, After its eventual defeat at Culloden, there followed a period of reprisals and pacification, largely directed at the rebellious clans.BOOK, Ferguson, W, Scotland, 1689 to the Present, 1987, Mercat Press, Edinburgh, 978-0-901824-86-8, 154, --These clans were mainly Episcopalian (70 per cent) and Roman Catholic (30 per cent), p.151, In Edinburgh, the Town Council, keen to emulate London by initiating city improvements and expansion to the north of the castle,BOOK, Keay, K, Keay, J, Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, 1994, HarperCollins, 978-0-00-255082-6, 285, reaffirmed its belief in the Union and loyalty to the Hanoverian monarch George III by its choice of names for the streets of the New Town: for example, Rose Street and Thistle Street; and for the royal family, George Street, Queen Street, Hanover Street, Frederick Street and Princes Street (in honour of George's two sons).WEB,weblink History of Princes Street,, 14 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2012, live, In the second half of the century, the city was at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment,BOOK,weblink William Robertson and the expansion of empire, Cambridge University Press, William Robertson, 1997, 2, 18 February 2011, 9780521570831,weblink 1 January 2016, live, when thinkers like David Hume, Adam Smith, James Hutton and Joseph Black were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens.BOOK,weblink Blackwood's Edinburgh magazine, 11, 1822, 323, 18 January 2011,weblink 1 January 2016, live, In the 18th-century novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett one character describes Edinburgh as a "hotbed of genius".BOOK,weblink The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, Project Gutenberg, 2000, 13 October 2013, Letter from Matthew Bramble on August 8, Edinburgh was also a major centre for the Scottish book trade. The highly successful London bookseller Andrew Millar was apprenticed there to James McEuen.WEB,weblink The manuscripts, Letter from Andrew Millar to Robert Wodrow, 15 July, 1725. Andrew Millar Project. University of Edinburgh,, 3 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2016, live, From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, "Unity of social feeling was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its disappearance was widely and properly lamented."BOOK, Youngson, A J, The Making of Classical Edinburgh, 1988, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-85224-576-7, 256,

19th and 20th centuries

{{Wikisource|Edinburgh (Stevenson)|Edinburgh (1914) by Robert Louis Stevenson}}File:Edinburgh Castle from Grass Market.jpg|thumb|left|Edinburgh Castle from the GrassmarketGrassmarket(File:Edinburgh from the air, 1920.jpg|alt=An aerial photo of Edinburgh with an aeroplane visible|thumb|Edinburgh, c. 1920)Although Edinburgh's traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continued to grow in the 19th century, and were joined by new rubber works and engineering works, there was little industrialisation compared with other cities in Britain. By 1821, Edinburgh had been overtaken by Glasgow as Scotland's largest city.BOOK, Pryde, George Smith, Scotland from 1603 to the present day, 1962, Nelson, 141, Population figures for 1801 – Glasgow 77,385; Edinburgh 82,560; for 1821 – Glasgow 147,043; Edinburgh 138,325, The city centre between Princes Street and George Street became a major commercial and shopping district, a development partly stimulated by the arrival of railways in the 1840s. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates.BOOK, Hogg, A, Scotland: The Rise of Cities 1694–1905, 1973, Evans Brothers Ltd., London, 978-0237286569, Topic 3:Problem Areas, Improvements carried out under Lord Provost William Chambers in the 1860s began the transformation of the area into the predominantly Victorian Old Town seen today.BOOK, McWilliam, C, Scottish Townscape, 1975, Collins, London, 978-0-00-216743-7, 196, More improvements followed in the early 20th century as a result of the work of Patrick Geddes,BOOK, McWilliam, C, Scottish Townscape, 1975, Collins, London, 978-0-00-216743-7, 197, but relative economic stagnation during the two world wars and beyond saw the Old Town deteriorate further before major slum clearance in the 1960s and 1970s began to reverse the process. University building developments which transformed the George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial.BOOK, Coghill, H, Lost Edinburgh, 2008, Birlinn Ltd., Edinburgh, 978-1-84158-747-9, 219–220, (File:Standard Life Building, Lothian Road Edinburgh.jpg|thumb|Standard Life headquarters building on Lothian Road)Since the 1990s a new "financial district", including the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, has grown mainly on demolished railway property to the west of the castle, stretching into Fountainbridge, a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergone radical change since the 1980s with the demise of industrial and brewery premises. This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its place as the United Kingdom's second largest financial and administrative centre after London.WEB,weblink Financial services, Edinburgh City Council,, 7 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2017, live, BOOK, Keay, John, Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, 1994, 1994, 978-0-00-255082-6, 286, Financial services now account for a third of all commercial office space in the city.BOOK, Rae, William, Edinburgh, Scotland's Capital City, 1994, Mainstream, 978-1-85158-605-9, 164, The development of Edinburgh Park, a new business and technology park covering {{convert|38|acres|0|abbr=on}}, {{convert|4|mi|0|abbr=on}} west of the city centre, has also contributed to the District Council's strategy for the city's major economic regeneration.In 1998, the Scotland Act, which came into force the following year, established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive (renamed the Scottish Government since September 2007NEWS,weblink Scottish Executive renames itself, 24 August 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2009, live, ). Both based in Edinburgh, they are responsible for governing Scotland while reserved matters such as defence, taxation and foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London.WEB,weblink Scotland Act 1998, 19 November 1998, 15 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2016, live,



Situated in Scotland's Central Belt, Edinburgh lies on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. The city centre is {{convert|2+1/2|mi|km}} southwest of the shoreline of Leith and {{convert|26|mi|km}} inland, as the crow flies, from the east coast of Scotland and the North Sea at Dunbar.MAP, Geographia Atlas of the World, 1984, Geographia Ltd, London, 0-09-202840-3, 99, While the early burgh grew up near the prominent Castle Rock, the modern city is often said to be built on seven hills, namely Calton Hill, Corstorphine Hill, Craiglockhart Hill, Braid Hill, Blackford Hill, Arthur's Seat and the Castle Rock,WEB,weblink Seven Hills of Edinburgh, 28 February 2013, VisitScotland,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2013, live, giving rise to allusions to the seven hills of Rome.WEB,weblink Voltaire said: Athens of the North,, September 2003, 28 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2013, live, Occupying a narrow gap between the Firth of Forth to the north and the Pentland Hills and their outrunners to the south, the city sprawls over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and later periods of intensive glaciation.BOOK, Edwards, Brian, Jenkins, Paul, Edinburgh: The Making of a Capital City, 2005, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-1868-2, {{rp|64–65}} Igneous activity between 350 and 400 million years ago, coupled with faulting, led to the creation of tough basalt volcanic plugs, which predominate over much of the area.{{rp|64–65}} One such example is the Castle Rock which forced the advancing ice sheet to divide, sheltering the softer rock and forming a {{convert|1|mi|km|adj=mid|-long}} tail of material to the east, thus creating a distinctive crag and tail formation.{{rp|64–65}} Glacial erosion on the north side of the crag gouged a deep valley later filled by the now drained Nor Loch. These features, along with another hollow on the rock's south side, formed an ideal natural strongpoint upon which Edinburgh Castle was built.{{rp|64–65}} Similarly, Arthur's Seat is the remains of a volcano dating from the Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving west to east during the ice age.{{rp|64–65}} Erosive action such as plucking and abrasion exposed the rocky crags to the west before leaving a tail of deposited glacial material swept to the east.BOOK, Stuart Piggott, Stuart, Piggott, Scotland before History, Edinburgh University Press, 1982, 978-0-85224-470-8, This process formed the distinctive Salisbury Crags, a series of teschenite cliffs between Arthur's Seat and the location of the early burgh.WEB,weblink Sill, 29 March 2013,,weblink" title="">weblink 1 September 2014, live, The residential areas of Marchmont and Bruntsfield are built along a series of drumlin ridges south of the city centre, which were deposited as the glacier receded.{{rp|64–65}}Other prominent landforms such as Calton Hill and Corstorphine Hill are also products of glacial erosion.{{rp|64–65}} The Braid Hills and Blackford Hill are a series of small summits to the city's south-west that command expansive views looking northwards over the urban area to the Firth of Forth.{{rp|64–65}}(File:View of Edinburgh from Blackford Hill 2.jpg|thumb|upright=3.2|centre|View of Edinburgh from Blackford Hill)Edinburgh is drained by the river named the Water of Leith, which rises at the Colzium Springs in the Pentland Hills and runs for {{Convert|29|km|mi}} through the south and west of the city, emptying into the Firth of Forth at Leith.WEB,weblink Overview of the Water of Leith, 19 April 2009, Gazetteer for Scotland, Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2010, live, The nearest the river gets to the city centre is at Dean Village on the north-western edge of the New Town, where a deep gorge is spanned by Thomas Telford's Dean Bridge, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry. The Water of Leith Walkway is a mixed-use trail that follows the course of the river for {{convert|19.6|km|mi|1}} from Balerno to Leith.WEB,weblink The Water of Leith Walkway, 19 April 2009, Water of Leith Conservation Trust,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2009, live, (File:Edinburgh Edinburgh Castle Panorama 01.jpg|thumb|upright=5.45|centre|Panorama of Edinburgh from Edinburgh Castle, with the New Town in the centre and Calton Hill to the right)Excepting the shoreline of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh is encircled by a green belt, designated in 1957, which stretches from Dalmeny in the west to Prestongrange in the east.WEB,weblink Review of Green Belt policy in Scotland – Edinburgh and Midlothian, 11 August 2004, 10 April 2009, Scottish Government,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2011, live, With an average width of {{convert|3.2|km|mi|0}} the principal objectives of the green belt were to contain the outward expansion of the city and to prevent the agglomeration of urban areas. Expansion affecting the green belt is strictly controlled but developments such as Edinburgh Airport and the Royal Highland Showground at Ingliston lie within the zone. Similarly, suburbs such as Juniper Green and Balerno are situated on green belt land. One feature of the Edinburgh green belt is the inclusion of parcels of land within the city which are designated green belt, even though they do not connect with the peripheral ring. Examples of these independent wedges of green belt include Holyrood Park and Corstorphine Hill.(File:Edinburgh Old Town Skyline.jpg|thumb|upright=4.55|centre|Edinburgh Old Town Skyline Panorama)


Edinburgh includes former towns and villages that retain much of their original character as settlements in existence before they were absorbed into the expanding city of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.WEB,weblink Edinburgh Areas,, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, live, Many areas, such as Dalry contain residences that are multi-occupancy buildings known as tenements, although the more southern and western parts of the city have traditionally been more affluent with a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas.WEB,weblink Edinburgh area guide,, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2013, live, (File:Edinburgh map.png|thumb|Map showing the areas of central Edinburgh)The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided in two by the broad green swathe of Princes Street Gardens. To the south, the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle, built high on Castle Rock, and the long sweep of the Old Town descending towards Holyrood Palace. To the north lie Princes Street and the New Town.The West End includes the financial district, with insurance and banking offices as well as the Edinburgh International Conference Centre.Edinburgh's Old and New Towns were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995 in recognition of the unique character of the Old Town with its medieval street layout and the planned Georgian New Town, including the adjoining Dean Village and Calton Hill areas. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city, a higher proportion relative to area than any other city in the United Kingdom.The Royal Mile runs downhill and terminates at Holyrood Palace. Minor streets (called closes or wynds) lie on either side of the main spine forming a herringbone pattern.WEB,weblink Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, UNESCO, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 January 2013, live, The street has several fine public buildings such as St Giles' Cathedral, the City Chambers and the Law Courts. Other places of historical interest nearby are Greyfriars Kirkyard and the Grassmarket. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities.The castle is perched on top of a rocky crag (the remnant of an extinct volcano) and the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it. Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of this landform, the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 16th century onwards with ten and eleven storeys being typical and one even reaching fourteen or fifteen storeys.BOOK, Chambers, Robert, Robert Chambers (publisher born 1802), Notices of the most remarkable fires in Edinburgh: from 1385 to 1824 ...,weblink 9 January 2012, 1824, Numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of incomers, particularly Irish immigrants, during the Industrial Revolution.The New Town was an 18th-century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded city which had been confined to the ridge sloping down from the castle. In 1766 a competition to design a "New Town" was won by James Craig, a 27-year-old architect.JOURNAL, Cruft, Kitty, James Craig 1739–1795: Correction of his Date of Birth, Book of the Old Edinburgh Club, New Series Vol. 5, 103–5, The plan was a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted in well with Enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be George Street, running along the natural ridge to the north of what became known as the "Old Town". To either side of it are two other main streets: Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has become Edinburgh's main shopping street and now has few of its Georgian buildings in their original state. The three main streets are connected by a series of streets running perpendicular to them. The east and west ends of George Street are terminated by St Andrew Square and Charlotte Square respectively. The latter, designed by Robert Adam, influenced the architectural style of the New Town into the early 19th century.WEB,weblink Scottish Architects Homecoming, Historic Scotland, 18 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 November 2011, Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square.WEB,weblink Bute House,, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 January 2013, live, The hollow between the Old and New Towns was formerly the Nor Loch, which was created for the town's defence but came to be used by the inhabitants for dumping their sewage. It was drained by the 1820s as part of the city's northward expansion. Craig's original plan included an ornamental canal on the site of the loch, but this idea was abandoned.WEB,weblink From monks on strike to dove's dung,, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, live, Soil excavated while laying the foundations of buildings in the New Town was dumped on the site of the loch to create the slope connecting the Old and New Towns known as The Mound.In the middle of the 19th century the National Gallery of Scotland and Royal Scottish Academy Building were built on The Mound, and tunnels for the railway line between Haymarket and Waverley stations were driven through it.The Southside is a popular residential part of the city, which includes the districts of St Leonards, Marchmont, Morningside, Newington, Sciennes, the Grange and Blackford. The Southside is broadly analogous to the area covered formerly by the Burgh Muir, and grew in popularity as a residential area after the opening of the South Bridge in the 1780s. The Southside is particularly popular with families (many state and private schools are here), young professionals and students (the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont and the Meadows), and Napier University (with major campuses around Merchiston and Morningside). The area is also well provided with hotel and "bed and breakfast" accommodation for visiting festival-goers. These districts often feature in works of fiction. For example, Church Hill in Morningside, was the home of Muriel Spark's Miss Jean Brodie,WEB,weblink The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie,, 9 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2013, live, and Ian Rankin's Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and works in St Leonards.WEB,weblink Inspector Rebus Novels,, 9 February 2013, dead,weblink 3 March 2013, (File:The Shore, Leith.JPG|thumb|The Shore, Leith)Leith was historically the port of Edinburgh, an arrangement of unknown date that was confirmed by the royal charter Robert the Bruce granted to the city in 1329.BOOK, Edinburgh Corporation, Edinburgh 1329–1929, Sexcentenary of Bruce Charter, 1929, Oliver And Boyd, Edinburgh, xxvii, The port developed a separate identity from Edinburgh, which to some extent it still retains, and it was a matter of great resentment when the two burghs merged in 1920 into the City of Edinburgh.WEB,weblink The Story of Leith XXXIII. How Leith was Governed, 23 March 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2007, live, Even today the parliamentary seat is known as "Edinburgh North and Leith". The loss of traditional industries and commerce (the last shipyard closed in 1983) resulted in economic decline.WEB,weblink Untitled, Economic and Social Data Service, 14 October 2013, --note incorrect date given for Henry Robb shipyard closure,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2013, live, The Edinburgh Waterfront development has transformed old dockland areas from Leith to Granton into residential areas with shopping and leisure facilities and helped rejuvenate the area. With the redevelopment, Edinburgh has gained the business of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands.The coastal suburb of Portobello is characterised by Georgian villas, Victorian tenements, a popular beach and promenade and cafés, bars, restaurants and independent shops. There are rowing and sailing clubs and a restored Victorian swimming pool, including Turkish baths.The urban area of Edinburgh is almost entirely within the City of Edinburgh Council boundary, merging with Musselburgh in East Lothian. Towns within easy reach of the city boundary include Haddington, Tranent, Prestonpans, Dalkeith, Bonnyrigg, Loanhead, Penicuik, Broxburn, Livingston and Dunfermline. Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh & South East Scotland City region with a population in 2014 of 1,339,380.


Like most of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate, maritime climate which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude.WEB,weblink Regional Climate – Eastern Scotland, 19 April 2009, Met Office,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2013, live, Winter daytime temperatures rarely fall below freezing and are milder than places such as Moscow and Labrador which lie at similar latitudes. Summer temperatures are normally moderate, rarely exceeding {{convert|22|C}}. The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was {{convert|31.6|C}} on 25 July 2019 at Gogarbank, beating the previous record of {{convert|31|C}} on 4 August 1975 at Edinburgh Airport.WEB,weblink It's the hottest day ever – Edinburgh roasts as Capital breaks all-time temperature record, 26 July 2019,weblink 25 July 2019, live, The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was {{convert|-14.6|C}} during December 2010 at Gogarbank.WEB,weblink
, December 2010 minimum
, 31 October 2011
, dead,weblink" title="">weblink
, 12 January 2012
, 8 December 2010
, In an average year, the temperature will drop to a minimum of {{convert|−7.3|°C}}.WEB,weblink Climatology details,, 12 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2017, live,
The city's proximity to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as "the windy city", with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south-west, which is often associated with warm, unstable air from the North Atlantic Current that can give rise to rainfall – although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but considerably colder, and may be accompanied by haar, a persistent coastal fog. Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as European windstorms, can affect the city between October and May.There is also a weather station in Gogarbank on the city's outskirts.WEB,weblink Edinburgh Gogarbank Climate Averages 1981–2010, Met Office, 11 August 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 9 September 2015, live, This slightly inland station has a slightly wider temperature span between seasons, is cloudier and somewhat wetter, but differences are minor.Temperature and rainfall records have been kept at the Royal Observatory since 1764. In that time, the warmest month on record was July 1779, with an average temperature of {{convert|18.4|°C}}, whereas the coldest was January 1814, with a mean temperature of {{convert|-3.1|°C}}. The warmest years on record are 1779 and 1846, both with mean temperatures of {{convert|9.8|°C}}. The coldest year on record is 1879, with a mean temperature of {{convert|6.6|°C}}.WEB,weblink Temperaturmonatsmittel EDINBURGH/ROYAL OBS 1764- 1960, 3 July 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2019, live, The wettest month on record was August 1948, with {{convert|238.8|mm|in}}. The driest was February 1934, with {{convert|2.3|mm|in}}. The wettest year on record was 1916, with {{convert|992.9|mm|in}}. The driest year on record was 1826, with {{convert|388.0|mm|in}} of rainfall.WEB,weblink Niederschlagsmonatssummen EDINB.OBS./BLACKFORD 1785- 1987, 3 July 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2019, live, {{Edinburgh weatherbox}}



The most recent official population estimates are 512,150 (2016) for the Edinburgh settlement (includes Musselburgh)WEB,weblinkstatistics/settlements-localities/set-loc-16/set-loc-2016-publication-updated.pdf, Archived copy, 17 December 2018, 17 December 2018, live, and 518,500 (2018) for the local authority area.Edinburgh has a high proportion of young adults, with 19.5% of the population in their 20s (exceeded only by Aberdeen) and 15.2% in their 30s which is the highest in Scotland. The proportion of Edinburgh's population born in the UK fell from 92% to 84% between 2001 and 2011, while the proportion of White Scottish-born fell from 78% to 70%. Of those Edinburgh residents born in the UK, 335,000 or 83% were born in Scotland, with 58,000 or 14% being born in England.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 29 December 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2014, {|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right"!rowspan="2"|Ethnic GroupWEB,weblink Census 2011 – The Results for Edinburgh – The City of Edinburgh Council, The City of Edinburgh, Council,, 18 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2018, live, !colspan="2"|2001!colspan="2"|2011!Number!%!Number!% White: Scottish people >| 70.2% White: White British >| 11.7% White: Irish Briton >| 1.8% White: White Other (United Kingdom Census) >| 7.9% '''White people: Total >430,369 >95.9% >437,167 >| 91.7%''' British Asian: >| 5.5% Black British: >| 0.9% Black British: >|

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