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Bloomsbury
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{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2015}} {{Use British English|date=August 2015}}{{Other uses|Bloomsbury (disambiguation)}}







factoids
|region= London|population= 10,892
ACCESSDATE=20 OCTOBER 2016WORK=NEIGHBOURHOOD STATISTICS, |official_name= Bloomsbury51.5262display=inline,title}}|os_grid_reference= TQ305825|post_town= LONDON|postcode_area= WC|postcode_district= WC1, NW1|london_borough= Camden|dial_code= 020Holborn and St Pancras (UK Parliament constituency)>Holborn and St Pancras}}Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London,Atkins, Peter J. "How the West End was won: the struggle to remove street barriers in Victorian London." Journal of Historical Geography 19.3 (1993): 265.How the West End was won: the struggle to remove street barriers in Victorian London. Atkins, P J. Journal of Historical Geography; London Vol. 19, Iss. 3, (Jul 1, 1993): 265. famed as a fashionable residential area and as the home of numerous prestigious cultural, intellectual, and educational institutions.Senate House - 10 Reasons Why Bloomsbury is the Coolest Place It is bounded by Fitzrovia to the west, Covent Garden to the south, Regent's Park and St. Pancras to the north, and Clerkenwell to the east. Bloomsbury is home of the British Museum, the largest museum in the United Kingdom, and numerous educational institutions, including the University College London, the University of London, the New College of the Humanities, the University of Law, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, and many others. Bloomsbury is an intellectual and literary hub for London, as home of world-known Bloomsbury Publishing, publishers of the Harry Potter series, and namesake of the Bloomsbury Set, a group of famous British intellectuals, including author Virginia Woolf and economist John Maynard Keynes, among others.Bloomsbury began to be developed in the 1600's under the Earls of Southampton,The London Encyclopaedia, Edited by Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert. Macmillan London Ltd 1983 but it was primarily in the 19th century, under the Duke of Bedford, which the district was planned and built as an affluent Regency era residential area by famed developer James Burton.Burton's St. Leonards, J. Manwaring Baines F.S.A., Hastings Museum , 1956. The district is known for its numerous garden squares, including Bloomsbury Square, Russell Square, and Tavistock Square, among others.Guide to London Squares {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071012053330weblink |date=12 October 2007 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2007.

History

File:Christ the King, Gordon Square, London WC1 - geograph.org.uk - 1592452.jpg|thumb|left|The Church of Christ the King, BloomsburyChurch of Christ the King, BloomsburyFile:German Historical Institute London 5 Dec 2016.jpg|thumb|left|The historic seat of the Royal Historical SocietyRoyal Historical SocietyThe earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, which states that the area had vineyards and "wood for 100 pigs". But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.Camden Council Local History {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927011614weblink |date=27 September 2007 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2007. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called "Lomesbury" which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square is now,'Bloomsbury', Old and New London: Volume 4 (1878), pp. 480–89 Date accessed: 8 March 2007 though this etymology is now discredited.At the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square. The Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Gray's Inn Road and Theobald's Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece.

Culture

Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s,BOOK, Paul, Fargis, The New York Public Library Desk Reference – 3rd Edition, 1998, Macmillan General Reference, 262, 0-02-862169-7, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848.The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums,WEB, Preview: The Bloomsbury Festival,weblink Londonist, Londonist, 8 October 2013, 16 October 2012, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012. As of 2013, the Duchess of Bedford is a festival patron and Cathy Mager is the Festival Director.WEB, History,weblink Bloomsbury Festival, Bloomsbury Festival, 8 October 2013, October 2013, WEB, The Team,weblink Bloomsbury Festival, Bloomsbury Festival, 8 October 2013, October 2013,

Educational institutions

File:Wilkins Building 2, UCL, London - Diliff (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Main Building of University College LondonUniversity College LondonBloomsbury is home to Senate House and the main library of the University of London, Birkbeck College, Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Oriental and African Studies, and the Royal Veterinary College and University College London (with the Slade School of Fine Art), a branch of the University of Law, London Contemporary Dance School, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, and Goodenough College. Other colleges include the University of London's School of Advanced Study, the Architectural Association School of Architecture in Bedford Square, and the London campuses of several American colleges including Arcadia University, the University of California, University of Delaware, Florida State University, Syracuse University, New York University, and the Hult International Business School.Also different kinds of tutoring institutions like Bloomsbury International for English Language, Bloomsbury Law Tutors for law education, Skygate Tutors and Topmark Tutors Centre contributing to grow the private tutoring sector in Bloomsbury.

Museums

File:British Museum Great Court, London, UK - Diliff (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|The Queen Elizabeth II Great CourtQueen Elizabeth II Great CourtThe British Museum, which first opened to the public in 1759 in Montagu House, is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former British Library Reading Room, which was filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster. It houses displays, a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant. Since 1998, the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, in Euston Road.Also in Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum, close to Brunswick Square, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram for unwanted children in Georgian London. The hospital, now demolished except for the Georgian colonnade, is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram's Fields. It is also home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb's Conduit Street is a pleasant thoroughfare with shops, cafes and restaurants.The Dickens Museum is in Doughty Street. The Petrie Museum and the Grant Museum of Zoology are at University College London in Gower Street.

Churches

File:London St Pancras New Church portico.jpg|thumb|right|upright|200px|St Pancras New ChurchSt Pancras New ChurchBloomsbury contains several notable churches:

Geography

Bloomsbury has no official boundaries, but can be roughly defined as the square of territory bounded by Tottenham Court Road to the west, Euston Road to the north, Gray's Inn Road to the east, and either High Holborn or the thoroughfare formed by New Oxford Street, Bloomsbury Way and Theobalds Road to the south. Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and King's Cross in the north-east and with Clerkenwell in the south-east.The area is bisected north to south by the main road Southampton Row/Woburn Place, which has several large tourist hotels and links Tavistock Square and Russell Square – the central points of Bloomsbury. The road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south.{{Geographic Location|title = Neighbouring Districts|Northwest = Regent's Park
Somers Town, London>Somers TownSt Pancras, London>St Pancras|West = Fitzrovia|Centre = Bloomsbury|East = Clerkenwell|Southwest = Soho|South = Covent Garden|Southeast = Holborn}}East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre,Brunswick Centre – Restoration {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071008065533weblink |date=8 October 2007 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2007. and Coram's Fields children's recreation area. The area to the north of Coram's Fields consists mainly of blocks of flats, built as both private and social housing, which is often considered part of St PancrasView London. Retrieved 8 March 2007. or King's CrossCorams Fields {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081120225502weblink |date=20 November 2008 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2007. rather than north-eastern Bloomsbury. The area to the south is generally less residential, containing several hospitals, including Great Ormond Street, and gradually becomes more commercial in character as it approaches Holborn at Theobald's Road.File:Russell Square with restaurant.JPG|thumb|right|Russell SquareRussell SquareFile:2013-02 gandhi tavistock square.JPG|thumb|right|Tavistock SquareTavistock SquareThe area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments, museums, and formal squares. Here are the British Museum and the central departments and colleges of the University of London, including Birkbeck College, University College London, the School of Oriental and African Studies, and the University of London's School of Advanced Study. The main north-south road in west Bloomsbury is Gower Street which is a one-way street running south from Euston Road towards Shaftesbury Avenue in Covent Garden, becoming Bloomsbury Street when it passes to the west of the British Museum.For street name etymologies see Street names of Bloomsbury.

Parks and squares

Bloomsbury contains some of London's finest parks and buildings, and is particularly known for its formal squares. These include:

Governance

Bloomsbury is in the parliamentary constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which elects three councillors to Camden Borough Council.The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St George's, Bloomsbury,Sir Walter Besant and Geraldine Edith Mitton, WEB,weblink Holborn and Bloomsbury: The Fascination of London, Adam & Charles Black, London, 1903, 2010-07-26, which were absorbed into the St Giles District as part of the Metropolis Management Act 1855.WEB,weblink London History - London, 1800-1913 - Central Criminal Court, www.oldbaileyonline.org, 2010-07-26, It is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden.

Economy

File:BMA War Memorial.JPG|thumb|left|250px|British Medical AssociationBritish Medical AssociationIn February 2010, businesses were balloted on an expansion of the InHolborn Business Improvement District (BID) to include the southern part of Bloomsbury. Only businesses with a rateable value in excess of £60,000 could vote as only these would pay the BID levy. This expansion of the BID into Bloomsbury was supported by Camden Council.WEB,weblink Council supports proposed expansion of Business Improvement District inholborn accessed 13 March 2010, Camden.gov.uk, 2009-11-09, 2010-07-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110611215556weblink">weblink 11 June 2011, yes, dmy-all, The proposal was passed and part of Bloomsbury was brought within the InHolborn BID.Bloomsbury, Holborn and St Giles business improvement district renewal ballot – announcement of result accessed 13 March 2010 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100306135251weblink |date=6 March 2010 }}Controversy was raised during this BID renewal when InHolborn proposed collecting Bloomsbury, St Giles and Holborn under the name of "Midtown", since it was seen as "too American".WEB,weblink Bloomsbury regroups for a bright new future accessed 13 March 2010, Thisislondon.co.uk, 2010-07-06, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100125144225weblink">weblink 25 January 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Holborn Midtown accessed 13 March 2010, Janeslondon.com, 2010-01-22, 2010-07-06, WEB, Hill, Dave,weblink Bid to re-brand Holborn, Bloomsbury and St Giles accessed 113 March 2010, Guardian, 2010-01-25, 2010-07-06, Businesses were informed about the BID proposals, but there was little consultation with residents or voluntary organisations. InHolborn produced a comprehensive business plan aimed at large businesses.WEB,weblink IH_BID2010_document_061109:IH_BID2010_document, PDF, 2010-07-06, {{Dead link|date=November 2010|bot=H3llBot}} Bloomsbury is now part of InMidtown BID with its 2010 to 2015 business plan and a stated aim to make the area "a quality environment In which to work and live, a vibrant area to visit, and a profitable place in which to do business".WEB, Our Purpose,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130113021505weblink">weblink yes, 2013-01-13, Midtown BID, 2012-12-20,

Hospitals

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine (formerly the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital) are both located on Great Ormond Street, off Queen Square, which itself is home to the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (formerly the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases). Bloomsbury is also the location of University College Hospital, which re-opened in 2005 in new buildings on Euston Road, built under the government's private finance initiative (PFI). The Eastman Dental Hospital is located on Gray's Inn Road close to the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital administered by the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust.

Transport

File:St Pancras Renaissance London Hotel 2011-06-19.jpg|thumb|right|250px|St. Pancras International railway station.]]The area surrounding Bloomsbury has several London Underground stations, although only three of these (Russell Square, King's Cross St. Pancras and Euston Square) have entrances in Bloomsbury itself. The other stations, located on the fringes of Bloomsbury, are Euston, Goodge Street, Warren Street, Tottenham Court Road, Holborn, and Chancery Lane.The mainline rail stations Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all just north of Bloomsbury. Since , Eurostar services have relocated to St Pancras, promising shorter journey times to Paris and Brussels and better connections to the rest of the UK.Bloomsbury is also the site of the disused British Museum Underground station.It is well served by buses, with over 12 different routes running south down Gower Street and both north and south through Russell Square.TfL Central London Bus Routes {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110930085007weblink |date=30 September 2011 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2007. Route 7 goes along Great Russell Street, past the British Museum, and on to Russell Square.One of the 13 surviving taxi drivers' shelters in London, where drivers can stop for a meal and a drink, is in Russell Square.Cabmen's Shelters. Retrieved 24 August 2010.

Notable residents

File:Lord_Keynes.jpg|thumb|right|upright|John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard KeynesFile:George_Charles_Beresford_-_Virginia_Woolf_in_1902_-_Restoration.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Virginia WoolfVirginia WoolfFile:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-71043-0003,_Wladimir_Iljitsch_Lenin.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Vladimir Lenin, founder of the Soviet UnionSoviet Union
  • Ada Ballin (1863–1906), magazine editor and writer on fashionAda Ballin, ODNB, Retrieved 6 October 2016
  • J. M. Barrie (1860–1937), playwright and novelist, lived in Guilford Street and 8 Grenville Street when he first moved to London;Mackail, Denis: The Story of J.M.B. Peter Davies, 1941 this is where Barrie situated the Darlings' house in Peter Pan.J.M. Barrie: Peter Pan, or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up. Act I. Hodder & Stoughton, 1928
  • Vanessa Bell (1879–1961), painter, sister of Virginia Woolf, lived at 46 Gordon Square.
  • William Copeland Borlase M.P. (1848–1899), died bankrupt and disowned by his family at 34 Bedford Court Mansions.
  • Vera Brittain (1893–1970) and Winifred Holtby (1898–1935) lived at 58 Doughty Street.
  • Randolph Caldecott (1846–1886), illustrator, lived at 46 Great Russell Street.
  • William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire (1698–1755), sold the Old Devonshire House at 48 Boswell Street.
  • Charles Darwin (1809–1882), lived at 12 Upper Gower Street in 1839.Charles Darwin. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
  • George Dance (1741–1825), architect, lived at 91 Gower Street.
  • Charles Dickens (1812–1870), novelist, lived at 14 Great Russell Street, Tavistock Square and 48 Doughty Street.
  • George du Maurier (1834–1896), artist and writer, lived at 91 (formerly 46) Great Russell Street.
  • Benton Fletcher (1866–1944), housed his keyboard collection at the Old Devonshire House, 48 Boswell Street, in the 1930s and 40s.
  • Ricky Gervais (born 1961), comedian, lived until recently in Southampton Row, Store Street and owned one of the penthouses in Bloomsbury Mansions in Russell Square, WC1.
  • Mary Anne Everett Green (1818–1895), Calenderer of State Papers, author of Lives of the Princesses of England, mother of Evelyn Everett-Green, a prolific 19th-century novelist.
  • Philip Hardwick (1792–1870) and Philip Charles Hardwick (1822–1892), father and son, architects, lived at 60 Russell Square for over ten years.
  • Travers Humphreys (1867–1956), barrister and judge, was born in Doughty Street.
  • John Maynard Keynes, (1883–1946), economist, lived for 30 years in Gordon Square.
  • Vladimir Lenin, 1870–1924, founder of the USSR, lived here in 1908.London Remembers - Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
  • Emanuel Litvinoff (1915–2011), author, poet, playwright and human rights campaigner, lived for 46 years in Mecklenburgh Square.
  • Edmund Lodge (1756–1839), officer of arms and writer on heraldry, died at his Bloomsbury Square house on 16 January 1839.ODNB: Lucy Peltz, "Lodge, Edmund (1756–1839)" Retrieved 11 March 2014
  • Bob Marley (1945–1981), musician, lived in 34 Ridgmount Gardens for six months in 1972.
  • Charlotte Mew (1869–1928), poet, was born at 30 Doughty Street and lived there until the family moved nearby to 9 Gordon Street, in 1890.WEB,weblink Charlotte Mew, 2017-04-01, Poetry Foundation, en-us, 2017-04-02, WEB,weblink In-Conference: Diana Collecott -- HOW2, www.asu.edu, 2017-04-02,
  • Jacquie O'Sullivan (born 1960), musician and former member of Bananarama.
  • Dorothy Richardson (1873–1957), novelist, lived at 7 Endesleigh Street and 1905–6 Woburn Walk. Her experiences are recorded in her autobiographical novel, in thirteen volumes, Pilgrimage.Windows on Modernism: Selected Letters of Dorothy Richardson, ed Gloria G, Fromm. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press 1995, p. xxx; The Dorothy Richardson Society web site weblink.
  • Sir Francis Ronalds (1788–1873), inventor of the electric telegraph, lived at 40 Queen Square in 1820–1822.BOOK, Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph, Ronalds, B.F., Imperial College Press, 2016, 978-1-78326-917-4, London,
  • Dorothy L. Sayers (1893–1957), novelist lived at 24 Great James Street from 1921–1929. Her main female character Harriet Vane also lived in Bloomsbury.
  • Alexei Sayle (born 1952), English stand-up comedian, actor and author.NEWS, Alexei Sayle: Bloomsbury by bike - video,weblink 8 October 2013, The Guardian, 8 October 2013, Alexei Sayle, Video upload,
  • John Shaw Senior (1776–1832) and John Shaw Junior (1803–1870), father and son, architects, lived in Gower Street.
  • Catherine Tate (born 1968), actress and comedian, was brought up in the Brunswick Centre, close to Russell Square.
  • Wee Georgie Wood (1895–1979), actor and comedian, lived and died at Gordon Mansions on Torrington Place.BOOK, Bushell, Peter, London's Secret History, Constable, 1983, 179,
  • Virginia Woolf (1882–1941), author, essayist, and diarist, resided at 46 Gordon Square.
  • Thomas Henry Wyatt (1807–1880), architect, lived at 77 Great Russell Street.
  • John Wyndham (1903–1969), lived at the Penn Club in Tavistock Square (1924–38) and then (except for 1943–46 army service) at the Club's present address, 21–22 Bedford Place, off Russell Square, until his marriage in 1963 to Grace Isabel Wilson, who had lived in the next room at the Club.
  • William Butler Yeats (1865–1939), poet, dramatist and prose writer, lived at Woburn Walk.

See also

  • == References ==
{{Reflist}}

External links

  • {{Wikivoyage-inline|London/Bloomsbury}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140514174430weblink">Bloomsbury area guide
  • WEB, UCL Bloomsbury Project,weblink University College London,
{{Bloomsbury}}{{Navboxes|list1={{LB Camden}}{{History of the formation of Camden}}{{Areas of London}}{{University of London}}{{University College London|university}}}}


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