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Newcastle upon Tyne
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{{Distinguish-otheruses|Newcastle-under-Lyme|Newcastle (disambiguation){{!}}Newcastle}}{{Use British English|date=August 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2018}}







factoids
{{smaller|"Triumphing by brave defence"}}278px)(File:St James Park Newcastle south west corner.jpg130px)(File:Newcastle greys monument.jpg109px)Quayside and River Tyne, with the Gateshead Millennium Bridge and Tyne Bridge, St James' Park stadium, Theatre Royal, Newcastle>Theatre Royal, Georgian architecture around Grey's Monument, the Castle|image_shield = Coat of arms of Newcastle upon Tyne City Council.png|shield_link =|shield_size = 125px|image_map = Newcastle upon Tyne UK locator map.svg|mapsize = 250px|map_caption = Shown within Tyne and Wear|pushpin_map = UK England#United Kingdom#Europe|pushpin_map_caption = Location within EnglandLocation within the United KingdomLocation within Europe|pushpin_relief = 1|pushpin_mapsize =54N36region:GB|display=inline,title}}|subdivision_type = Sovereign state|subdivision_name = United KingdomConstituent Country}}|subdivision_name1 = EnglandRegions of England>RegionNorth East England>North EastCeremonial counties of England>Ceremonial county|subdivision_name3 = Tyne and WearHistoric counties of England>Historic county|subdivision_name4 = Northumberland (until 1400)|seat_type = |seat = Metropolitan borough>Metropolitan district council|executive = Labour party|governing_body = Newcastle City CouncilList of mayors of Newcastle-upon-Tyne>Lord MayorWEBSITE=NEWCASTLE CITY COUNCIL, 4 June 2019, Leader of the Council>Council Leader|leader_name1 = Cllr Nick Forbes|leader_title2 = Administrative HQ|leader_name2 = Newcastle Civic CentreList of MPs elected in the 2015 United Kingdom general election>MPs|leader_name3 = Catherine McKinnell Nick Brown Chi Onwurah|established_title = Founded|established_date = 2nd century|established_title2 = Town charter|established_date2 = Henry II|established_title3 = County Corporate|established_date3 = 1400|established_title4 = City status|established_date4 = 1882|area_magnitude =|unit_pref = |total_type=City|area_footnotes =|area_total_km2 = 114|area_land_km2 = |area_total_sq_mi = 44|population_as_of = {{English statistics year}}|population_footnotes =|population_note =GSS = E08000021}} (List of English districts by populationGSS = E08000021}} district)Conurbation>Conurbation {{nobold|(Tyneside)}}|population_blank1 = 879,996 (ranked 7th)Metropolitan area>Metropolitan Area {{nobold|(Tyneside–Wearside)}}|population_blank2 = 1,650,000 (ranked 6th)|population_demonym = Geordie, Novocastrian|demographics_type1 = GDP|demographics1_title1 = TotalAmerican dollar>US$44.6 billionHTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3 >TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP 2014 ACCESSDATE=18 NOVEMBER 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130605135349/HTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3, 5 June 2013, |demographics1_title2 = Per capita|demographics1_info2 = US$29,978Greenwich Mean Time>GMT ((UTC±00:00|UTC))British Summer Time>BST|utc_offset_DST = +1|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m =|elevation_ft =|postal_code_type = PostcodeNE postcode area>NE|area_code = 0191ISO 3166-2)|blank1_info = GB-NETONS coding system>ONS code|blank2_info = 00CJ (ONS)E08000021 (GSS)British national grid reference system>OS grid referenceNZ249645}}Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics>NUTS 3|blank4_info = UKC22|website = www.newcastle.gov.uk|footnotes =}}Newcastle upon Tyne ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|nj|uː|k|ɑː|s|É™l|_|-}}, {{IPAc-en|local|audio=en-uk-NewcastleUponTyne(ShortA).ogg|nj|uː|ËŒ|k|æ|s|É™l|_|-}}),BOOK, Wells, John C., 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 539, 9781405881180, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, {{convert|8.5|mi|abbr=on}} from the North Sea.WEB,weblink Grid Reference Finder, Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, and forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom.WEB, Pointer, Graham, The UK's major urban areas, statistics.gov.uk,weblink 8 April 2007, Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities GroupWEB, Core Cities, corecities.com, Core Cities,weblink 8 April 2007, and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities.WEB, Eurocities, eurocities.org,weblink 19 August 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928110159weblink">weblink 28 September 2007, WEB, Newcastle-Gateshead, eurocities.eu, eurocities,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130412001617weblink">weblink dead, 12 April 2013, 17 September 2015, Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974. The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle also houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University.The city developed around the Roman settlement Pons AeliusRoman Britain Pons Aelius – 'The Aelian Bridge'GoogleBooks George Patrick Welch, Britannia, the Roman Conquest and Occupation of Britain, Wesleyan University Press, 1963, pp 165, 167, 277 and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year.NEWS,weblink Great North Run, BBC Sport, 1 October 2008, 28 September 2007,

History

Roman

The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius ("Hadrian's bridge"), a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD. This rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2,000. Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields.WEB,weblink Arbeia Roman Fort, 25 March 2018, The extent of Hadrian's Wall was {{convert|73|mi|km}}, spanning the width of Britain; the Wall incorporated the Vallum, a large rearward ditch with parallel mounds,WEB, The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map,weblink C.Michael Hogan (2007) Hadrian's Wall, ed. A. Burnham, The Megalithic Portal, Megalithic.co.uk, 4 August 2010, and was built primarily for defence, to prevent unwanted immigration and the incursion of Pictish tribes from the north, not as a fighting line for a major invasion.Stephen Johnson (2004) Hadrian's Wall, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, 128 pages, {{ISBN|0-7134-8840-9}}File: Newcastle schloss.jpg|thumb|upright|Newcastle Castle Keep is the oldest structure in the city, dating back to at least the 11th century.]]

Anglo-Saxon and Norman

After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, and was known throughout this period as Munucceaster (sometimes modernised as Monkchester).WEB, Mackenzie, Eneas, ''Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, british-history.ac.uk, 1827,weblink 24 November 2008, Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left the settlements along the River Tyne in ruins. After the conflicts with the Danes, and following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux.WEB,weblink The war and bloodshed of our historic Baronial families, 19 May 2013, Morpeth Herald, 25 March 2018,weblink 25 March 2018, dead, Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle. The wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087.WEB, Dodds, Graham, Origins of (the) New Castle upon Tyne, Newcastle University,weblink 18 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402141841weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.

Middle Ages

Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. In 1400 Newcastle was separated from Northumberland and made a county of itself by Henry IV.BOOK, Lewis, Samuel, Newcastle-upon-Tyne', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, separated from Northumberland... made a county of itself, by Henry IV..., british-history.ac.uk, 1848,weblink 13 July 2016, WEB,weblink 'The Corporation: Grants and charters', in Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Mackenzie, Eneas, 1827, british-history.ac.uk, Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827., 1 May 2017
, in 1400, by a charter, granted that Newcastle upon Tyne,... then belonging to the county of Northumberland, should be separated from thence, and be a county of itself, WEB,weblink Newcastle City Council, tyneandweararchives.org.uk, Tyne & Wear Archives & Museum, 29 October 2019, Newcastle was given the title of the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne.WEB,weblink 'The Corporation: Grants and charters', in Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Mackenzie, Eneas, 1827, british-history.ac.uk, Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827., 1 May 2017
, title of the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne, The city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589.Newbottle – Newcastle-upon-Tyne British History Online – Retrieved 18 August 2009 A {{convert|25|ft|m|adj=on}} high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century,WEB, Mackenzie, Eneas, Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, british-history.ac.uk, Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827,weblink 20 April 2015, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland. The Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, and Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century.WEB,weblinkweblink 27 July 2018
accessdate=7 June 2014work=Local Studies Factsheet No. 6page=2,

16th to 19th centuries

File:Newcastle-upon-Tyne from New Chatham engraving by William Miller after T Allom.jpg|thumb|left|An engraving by William Miller of Newcastle in 1832]]From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen. This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase (wikt:coals to Newcastle|taking coals to Newcastle) was first recorded contextually in 1538.BOOK, Morely, Paul, The North: (And Almost Everything In It), Bloomsbury Publishing, 6 June 2013, 542, 9780747578161, The phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.BOOK, Ayto, John, Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms, OUP, 3, 8 July 2010, 68, 978-0199543786, In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however, his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production, allowing him to turn a considerable profit.BOOK, Knapp, Samuel L., Life of Lord Timothy Dexter: Embracing sketches of the eccentric characters that composed his associates, including "Dexter's Pickle for the knowing ones", J.E. Tilton and Company, 1858, Boston,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071202095808weblink">weblink 2 December 2007, dmy-all, BOOK, Nash, Jay Robert, Zanies, The World's Greatest Eccentrics,weblink registration, New Century Publishers, 1982, 0-8329-0123-7, File:Victoria Tunnel (Newcastle) near Ouse Street 2010-02-19.jpg|thumb|right| Victoria Tunnel, built 1842. In 1935 after a government document requested its cities build air-raid shelters, part of the tunnel was converted.WEB, Hudson, Jules, Victoria Tunnel, By 1935, every city in the UK had been given a document by the government, declaring that in the event of war, every city should have air raid protection..., BBC, 22 March 2013,weblink 21 January 2014, ]]In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, and beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families.WEB, Davison, Yvonne, Sandgate and the Keelmen, Newcastle University,weblink 17 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402141346weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, They were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population.EB1911, Plague, 21, 695, Specifically within the year 1636, it is roughly estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the then population of Newcastle died from the epidemic; this may also have been the most devastating loss in any British city in this period.WEB, Bower, Ian, Ebola and Plague in Newcastle in 1636, twmuseums.org.uk, 22 October 2014,weblink 24 November 2014, (File:RiverTyne2.png|thumb|right|Newcastle was once a major industrial centre particularly for coal and shipping)During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King.WEB, History.com Staff, English civil wars, History.com, A+E Networks, 2009,weblink 20 June 2015, In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots then captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege and the city was besieged for many months. It was eventually stormed ("with roaring drummes") and sacked by Cromwell's allies. The grateful King bestowed the motto "Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" ("Triumphing by a brave defence") upon the town. Charles I was imprisoned in Newcastle by the Scots in 1646–7.WEB, Civil War, The Northern Echo, 10 March 2009,weblink 17 April 2015, In the 18th century, Newcastle was the country's fourth largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge,WEB, We take a closer look at the vibrant city of Newcastle, By the 18th century Newcastle was the country's fourth largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge. Newcastle's Literary and Philosophical Society, founded in 1793 and now known as simply the Lit and Phil, predated the London Library by half a century.,weblink 26 July 2010, {{dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} and the Literary and Philosophical Society of 1793, with its erudite debates and large stock of books in several languages, predated the London Library by half a century. Newcastle also became a glass producer with a reputation for brilliant flint glass.WEB,weblink Glass (N) – Encyclopedia of Antiques, Oldandsold.com, 2 December 1994, 4 August 2010, (File:Newcastle City Centre 17.9.1917.jpg|thumb|left|Newcastle city centre, 1917)A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Fenham Barracks in 1806.WEB,weblink The Building of Newcastle Barracks (later known as Fenham Barracks), 29 March 2014, The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured hundreds.WEB,weblink Last surviving building from Great Fire, Quayside Lives, 25 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170630234941weblink">weblink 30 June 2017, dead, The status of city was granted to Newcastle on 3 June 1882. In the 19th century, shipbuilding and heavy engineering were central to the city's prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution.WEB, The History of Newcastle upon Tyne, Shipbuilding and heavy engineering developed fast and Newcastle became the powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in Britain., information-britain.co.uk,weblink 23 January 2014, This revolution resulted in the urbanisation of the city.WEB, A history of urbanisation in Britain, BBC,weblink 23 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140106000437weblink">weblink 6 January 2014, In 1817 the Maling company, at one time the largest pottery company in the world, moved to the city.WEB, Mailing pottery, twmuseums.org.uk,weblink 17 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150411151215weblink">weblink 11 April 2015, The Victorian industrial revolution brought industrial structures that included the {{convert|2+1/2|mi|km|0|adj=on}} Victoria Tunnel, built in 1842, which provided underground wagon ways to the staithes.WEB, Tunnel History, ouseburntrust.org.uk,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120828034802weblink">weblink dead, 28 August 2012, 21 January 2014, On 3 February 1879, Mosley Street in the city, was the first public road in the world to be lit up by the incandescent lightbulb.WEB,weblink Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, home.frognet.net, 16 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510005841weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, WEB,weblink Sir Joseph Swan, The Literary & Philosophical Society of Newcastle, 3 February 2009, rsc.org, 16 October 2010, Newcastle was one of the first cities in the world to be lit up by electric lighting.WEB, Electric lighting, Newcastle University,weblink 3 June 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140606212620weblink">weblink 6 June 2014, Innovations in Newcastle and surrounding areas included the development of safety lamps, Stephenson's Rocket, Lord Armstrong's artillery, Be-Ro flour,WEB, The Birth of Be-Ro, be-ro.co.uk, 1 August 2011,weblink 17 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512032733weblink">weblink 12 May 2015, Joseph Swan's electric light bulbs, and Charles Parsons' invention of the steam turbine, which led to the revolution of marine propulsion and the production of cheap electricity. In 1882, Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese, with St. Nicholas' Church becoming its cathedral.WEB, The Cathedral Church of St Nicholas, newcastle.anglican.org, newcastle.anglican.org,weblink 17 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150621225337weblink">weblink 21 June 2015, dead, dmy-all,

20th and 21st centuries

Newcastle's public transport system was modernised in 1901 when Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams were introduced to the city's streets, though these were replaced gradually by trolley buses from 1935, with the tram service finally coming to an end in 1950.WEB, Tyne & Wear Archives Service 2006, Newcastle City Council: Transport, Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, 2006,weblink 20 September 2015, The city acquired its first art gallery, the Laing Art Gallery in 1904, so named after its founder Alexander Laing, a Scottish wine and spirit merchantWEB, Julie, Milne, More about Laing Art Gallery, Art UK,weblink 20 September 2015, dmy-all, who wanted to give something back to the city in which he had made his fortune. Another art gallery, the Hatton Gallery (now part of Newcastle University), opened in 1925.WEB, Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, About us, hattongallery.org.uk,weblink 20 September 2015, dead,weblink 16 October 2015, With the advent of the motor car, Newcastle's road network was improved in the early part of the 20th century, beginning with the opening of the Redheugh road bridge in 1901WEB, SINE Project, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Redheugh Bridge (1901–1984), Newcastle University, 26 March 2004,weblink 20 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402174825weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, and the Tyne Bridge in 1928.WEB, Nation on Film, The Tyne Bridge, BBC 2, 24 September 2014,weblink 20 September 2015, Efforts to preserve the city's historic past were evident as long ago as 1934, when the Museum of Science and Industry opened,WEB,weblink Happy birthday Discovery Museum: Pictures from Newcastle's home of history past, as did the John G Joicey Museum in the same year.WEB,weblink John G Joicey Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne, National Archives, 25 March 2018, Council housing began to replace inner-city slums in the 1920s, and the process continued into the 1970s, along with substantial private house building and acquisitions.WEB,weblink 9 June 2014, The Chronicle, Stories that shocked Tyneside: The high rise and fall of a leader who got greedy, 25 March 2018, Unemployment hit record heights in Newcastle during the Great Depression of the 1930s.The city's last coal pit closed in 1956,{{Citation | last = Wilkinson | first = Tom | title = Newcastle may see return to coal mining | newspaper = Independent | date = 4 October 2011 | url =weblink | accessdate = 4 July 2017}} though a temporary open cast mine was opened in 2013.{{Citation | last = Evening Chronicle staff | title = Newcastle opencast mine quietly shifting 40,000 tonnes of coal | newspaper = chroniclelive.co.uk | date = 19 January 2013 | url =weblink | accessdate = 4 July 2017}} The temporary open cast mine shifted 40,000 tonnes of coal, using modern techniques to reduce noise, on a part of the City undergoing redevelopment. The slow demise of the shipyards on the banks of the River Tyne happened in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.WEB,weblink The rise and fall of Tyne's shipyards, 3 January 2008, The Journal, 25 March 2018, (File:Newcastle Central from Manors geograph-2389652-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg|thumb|right|View northwards from the Castle Keep, towards Berwick-on-Tweed in 1954)(File:Newcastle castle keep across the River Tyne to Gateshead geograph-2613573-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg|thumb|right|Panorama from Newcastle castle keep across the River Tyne to Gateshead in 1954)During the Second World War, the city and surrounding area were a target for air raids as heavy industry was involved in the production of ships and armaments. The raids caused 141 deaths and 587 injuries.WEB,weblink A Shipbuilding Target – Newcastle And Tyneside in World War Two, A former French consul in Newcastle called Jacques Serre assisted the German war effort by describing important targets in the region to Admiral Raeder who was the head of the German Navy.WEB,weblink WWII betrayal of French Consul in Newcastle, Ray, Marshall, 16 November 2011, nechronicle, The public sector in Newcastle began to expand in the 1960s. The federal structure of the University of Durham was dissolved. That university's colleges in Newcastle, which had been known as King's College, became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (now known as Newcastle University), which was founded in 1963,WEB,weblink History of the University, followed by a Newcastle Polytechnic in 1969; the latter received university status in 1992 and became the Northumbria University.WEB,weblink Northumbria University World University Rankings | THE, Timeshighereducation.com, 20 September 2018, Further efforts to preserve the city's historic past continued in the later 20th century, with the opening of Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum in 1983 and Stephenson Railway Museum in 1986. The Military Vehicle museum closed in 2006.WEB,weblink Newcastle's Military Vehicle Museum for sale, 3 November 2011, nechronicle, New developments at the turn of the 21st century included the Life Science Centre in 2000 and Millennium Bridge in 2001.WEB,weblink A History of Newcastle, Localhistories.org, 4 March 2012, Based at St James' Park since 1886, Newcastle United F.C. became Football League members in 1893.WEB,weblink The Early Years of Newcastle United: 1881 – 1939, Newcastle United F.C., 4 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160708235433weblink">weblink 8 July 2016, They have won four top division titles (the first in 1905 and the most recent in 1927), six FA Cups (the first in 1910 and the most recent in 1955) and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1969.WEB,weblink Newcastle United: Club Records, Newcastle United F.C., 4 March 2012, They broke the world transfer record in 1996 by paying £15 million for Blackburn Rovers and England striker Alan Shearer, one of the most prolific goalscorers of that era.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Archive – Shearer joins Newcastle in 1996, 1 April 2009, In 2017 Newcastle was the venue for the 2017 Freedom City festival. The 2017 Freedom City festival commemorated the 50 years since Dr Martin Luther King's visit to Newcastle, where King received his honorary degree from Newcastle University.NEWS, Whetstone, David, Newcastle's iconic Tyne Bridge is to host the spectacular Freedom on the Tyne finale, Chronicle, Newcastle, chroniclelive.co.uk, 4 October 2017,weblink 11 July 2018, NEWS, Whetstone, David, Statue of Dr Martin Luther King has been unveiled in Newcastle by his great friend, Chronicle, Newcastle, chroniclelive.co.uk, 13 November 2017,weblink 11 July 2018, WEB,weblink Freedom City 2017, freedomCity2017 Staff, freedomcity2017.com, Newcastle University, 11 July 2018, In 2018 Newcastle hosted the Great Exhibition of the North, the largest event in England in 2018. The exhibition began on 22 June with an opening ceremony on the River Tyne, and ended on 9 September with the Great North Run weekend. The exhibition describes the story of the north of England through its innovators, artists, designers and businesses.NEWS, Holland, Daniel, Spectacular Tyne water fountain for Great Exhibition of the North will become a reality, Chronicle, Newcastle, chroniclelive.co.uk, 31 May 2018,weblink 11 July 2018, NEWS, Staff, Great Exhibition of the North, Chronicle, Newcastle, chroniclelive.co.uk,weblink 11 July 2018, In 2019, various travel sites named Newcastle to be the friendliest city in the UKweblink

Geography

Newcastle is situated in the North East of England, in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear and the historical and traditional county of Northumberland. The city is located on the northwestern bank of the River Tyne. It is {{convert|46|mile}} from the Scottish border, south of Southdean.The ground beneath the city is formed from Carboniferous strata of the Middle Pennine Coal Measures Group—a suite of sandstones, mudstones and coal seams which generally dip moderately eastwards. To the west of the city are the Upper Pennine Coal Measures and further west again the sandstones and mudstones of the Stainmore Formation, the local equivalent of the Millstone Grit.Bedrock Geology UK North, 1:625,000 scale geological map published by British Geological Survey(File:Side - Tyne Bridge.jpg|thumb|left|Side, a street in Newcastle near the Tyne Bridge)In large parts, Newcastle still retains a medieval street layout. Narrow alleys or 'chares', most of which can only be traversed by foot, still exist in abundance, particularly around the riverside. Stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant Castle Keep, originally recorded in the 14th century, remain intact in places. Close, Sandhill and Quayside contain modern buildings as well as structures dating from the 15th–18th centuries, including Bessie Surtees House, the Cooperage and Lloyds Quayside Bars, Derwentwater House and House of Tides, a restaurant situated at a Grade I-listed 16th century merchant's house at 28–30 Close.The city has an extensive neoclassical centre referred to as Tyneside ClassicalWEB
, GRAINGER TOWN, Tyneside Classical
, hundreds of fine Georgian and stylish Victorian buildings which have led to its architecture being referred to as "Tyneside Classical".
,weblink
, 26 July 2010
, largely developed in the 1830s by Richard Grainger and John Dobson, and recently extensively restored. Broadcaster and writer Stuart Maconie described Newcastle as England's best-looking cityNEWS
, Maconie
, Stuart
, Stuart Maconie
, Stuart Maconie reveals..why it's great up North..
, Manchester, Leeds and Newcastle remain, bolder brighter and more beautiful than ever. You can't move in Manchester for boutique hotels, Leeds has got a Harvey Nichols and Newcastle is now the best-looking city in England.
, Daily Mirror
, UK
, 8 February 2008
,weblink
, 4 July 2008
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081006204722weblink">weblink
, 6 October 2008
, dead
, dmy-all
, BOOK
, February 2007
, Pies and Prejudice
, Maconie
, Stuart
, Stuart Maconie
, Ebury Press
, 978-0-09-191022-8
, and the German-born British scholar of architecture, Nikolaus Pevsner,WEB
, GRAINGER TOWN... Grey Street, Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner
, Grey Street was described as 'one of the finest streets in England' by Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner (1902–1983) the German-born British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture.
,weblink
, 26 July 2010
, describes Grey Street as one of the finest streets in England. The street curves down from Grey's Monument towards the valley of the River Tyne and was voted England's finest street in 2005 in a survey of BBC Radio 4 listeners.WEB
, Around Tyne. Grey Street
, BBC
, 13 December 2007
,weblink
, Grey Street in Newcastle was voted the best street in Britain by Radio 4 listeners.
, 9 July 2008, WEB
, GOOD CASE STUDY – GREY STREET, NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE
, BBC radio 4
,weblink
, Said by many to be amongst the greatest streets in 'England if not Europe', this gently curving and rising street has been 'sensitively restored and improved in the last decade'.
, 9 July 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080807163347weblink">weblink
, 7 August 2008
, In the Google Street View awards of 2010, Grey Street came 3rd in the British picturesque category.NEWS
, Google Street View awards 2010, The Guardian, 8 March 2010,weblink 8 March 2010, London
, Osborne Road came 4th in the foodie street category. A portion of Grainger Town was demolished in the 1960s to make way for the Eldon Square Shopping Centre, including all but one side of the original Eldon Square itself.
Immediately to the northwest of the city centre is Leazes Park, established in 1873WEB,weblink Current and past exhibitions – University Library – Newcastle University, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160807015118weblink">weblink 7 August 2016, after a petition by 3,000 working men of the city for "ready access to some open ground for the purpose of health and recreation". Just outside one corner of this is St James' Park, the stadium home of Newcastle United FC which dominates the view of the city from all directions.Another green space in Newcastle is the Town Moor, lying immediately north of the city centre. It is larger than London's famous Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath put togetherWEB, Insight: Taking a closer look at the Town Moor, land which covers an area larger than London's Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath, Northumbria University,weblink 17 September 2008, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB
, Newcastle Breaks
, Town Moor, which is larger and wider than Hampstead Heath and Hyde Park
, latebreaks.com
,weblink
, 17 September 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090115035647weblink">weblink
, 15 January 2009
, and the freemen of the city have the right to graze cattle on it. The right extends to the pitch of St. James' Park, Newcastle United Football Club's ground; this is not exercised, although the Freemen do collect rent for the loss of privilege. Honorary freemen include Bob Geldof,WEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – Bob Geldof, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, King Harald V of Norway,WEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – King Harald V of Norway, to mark the 40th anniversary of the official opening of the Civic Centre by his father HM King Olaf V and to recognise and celebrate the close links between Newcastle and Norway over many years, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, Bobby Robson,WEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – Sir Bobby Robson, in recognition of his long and outstanding career across Europe, his role as an ambassador for the North East and Newcastle, and his contribution to the culture and life of the City, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, Alan Shearer,WEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – Alan Shearer, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, the late Nelson MandelaWEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – Nelson Mandela, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, and the Royal Shakespeare Company.WEB, Honorary Freedom – Citations – Royal Shakespeare Company, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091215061946weblink">weblink 15 December 2009, The Hoppings funfair, said to be the largest travelling funfair in Europe, is held here annually in June.BOOK, Lanagan, Paul, The Hoppings Fair on Newcastle Town Moor, . Thought to be the largest travelling fairground in Europe, it takes place in the last full week of June..., Books of the North, 15 May 2010, 128, 978-0-9555059-0-4, File:St James Park Newcastle as seen from south of the River Tyne.jpg|thumb|View of Newcastle City CentreNewcastle City CentreIn the southeastern corner is Exhibition Park, which contains the only remaining pavilion from the North East Coast Exhibition of 1929. From 1970s until 2006 this housed the Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum; which closed in 2006. The pavilion is now being used as a microbrewery and concert venue for Wylam Brewery.WEB, Coreena Ford,weblink Check out workers finishing off Wylam Brewery's transformation of the Palace of Arts, Chronicle Live, 20 April 2016, 26 February 2017,
Ouseburn
The wooded gorge of the Ouseburn in the east of the city is known as Jesmond Dene and forms another recreation area, linked by Armstrong Park and Heaton Park to the Ouseburn Valley, where the river finally reaches the River Tyne.The springtime dawn chorus at 55 degrees latitude has been described as one of the best in the world. The dawn chorus of the Jesmond Dene green space has been professionally recorded and has been used in various workplace and hospital rehabilitation facilities.NEWS, Watson, Chris, Dawn chorus, BBC News, 7 April 2008,weblink 10 April 2015,
Architecture of suburbs
Significant Newcastle housing developments include Ralph Erskine's the Byker Wall designed in the 1960s, and now Grade II* listed. It is on UNESCO's list of outstanding 20th-century buildings.WEB,weblink Byker Wall,
Chinatown
Newcastle's thriving Chinatown lies in the north-west of Grainger Town, centred on Stowell Street. A new Chinese arch, or paifang, providing a landmark entrance, was handed over to the city with a ceremony in 2005.WEB,weblink Chinese New Year 2015 Newcastle: Guide to shops and restaurants in Chinatown, Sarah, Jeffery, 26 January 2015, nechronicle, The UK's first biotechnology village, the Centre for Life is located in the city centre close to the Central railway station. The village is the first step in the City Council's plans to transform Newcastle into a science city.WEB, Newcastle Science City,weblink Newcastle Science City.com, 8 April 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070416133100weblink">weblink 16 April 2007, dead, Newcastle was voted as the Best City in the North in April 2007 by a readers' online poll organised by The Daily Telegraph newspaper—being placed ahead of Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield and Leeds.NEWS, Lynne, Greenwood, And the winner is ... Newcastle, 12 April 2007,weblink 10 December 2007, The Daily Telegraph, London, {{wide image|NewCastle-KeepTower360.jpg|1100px|360° panoramic shot taken from the top of the Keep}}

Quayside and bridges on the Tyne

File:Quayside, Newcastle upon Tyne.jpg|thumb|The Quayside ]]The Tyne Gorge, between Newcastle on the north bank and Gateshead—a separate town and borough—on the south bank, is known for a series of dramatic bridges, including the Tyne Bridge of 1928 which was built by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough, Robert Stephenson's High Level Bridge of 1849, the first road/rail bridge in the world, and the Swing Bridge of 1876.WEB,weblink Newcastle upon Tyne, Encyclopædia Britannica, Large-scale regeneration has replaced former shipping premises with imposing new office developments; an innovative tilting bridge, the Gateshead Millennium Bridge was commissioned by Gateshead Council and has integrated the older Newcastle Quayside more closely with major cultural developments in Gateshead, including the BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art, the venue for the Turner Prize 2011WEB
, Turner Prize to leave London for BALTIC
, The Turner Prize will not be held at a Tate venue for the first time in 25 years in 2011 when it heads to the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art
, M&H online
, 17 September 2010
,weblink
, 17 September 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100919165506weblink">weblink
, 19 September 2010
, dmy-all
, and the Norman Foster-designed The Sage Gateshead music centre. The Newcastle and Gateshead Quaysides are now a thriving, cosmopolitan area with bars, restaurants and public spaces. As a tourist promotion, Newcastle and Gateshead have linked together under the banner "NewcastleGateshead", to spearhead the regeneration of the North-East. The River Tyne had the temporary Bambuco Bridge in 2008 for ten days; it was not made for walking, road or cycling, but was just a sculpture.
{{wide image|Tyne_quayside_2.1.jpg|1100px| Seen here in 2008 on the Quayside are the Tyne Salmon Cubes; a celebration of the River Tyne salmonNEWS, Hunt, Amy, Art mixing with nature in the wild, "The Tyne is England's best salmon-fishing river, and this is something the North East should be really proud of, but it is so much more than a fishery.", Evening Chronicle, 11 December 2007,weblink 1 September 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080707004653weblink">weblink 7 July 2008, }}

Grainger Town

(File:Newcastle England, Grainger Street c. 1906.jpg|thumb|right|Grainger Street, circa 1906)The historic heart of Newcastle is the Grainger Town area. Established on classical streets built by Richard Grainger, a builder and developer, between 1835 and 1842, some of Newcastle upon Tyne's finest buildings and streets lie within this area of the city centre including Grainger Market, Theatre Royal, Grey Street, Grainger Street and Clayton Street.WEB
, History of the Grainger Market
, Richard Grainger, builder and developer, planned and constructed some of Newcastle's finest buildings and streets during 1830s including Grainger Market, Theatre Royal, Grey Street, Grainger and Clayton Street.
, Newcastle.gov.uk
,weblink
, 3 March 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100825132008weblink">weblink
, 25 August 2010
, dmy-all
, These buildings are predominantly four stories high, with vertical dormers, domes, turrets and spikes. Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone'.WEB
, History of the Grainger Market
, Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone.’
, newcastle.gov.uk
,weblink
, 3 March 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100825132008weblink">weblink
, 25 August 2010
, dmy-all
, Of Grainger Town's 450 buildings, 244 are listed, of which 29 are grade I and 49 are grade II*.(File:Grey's Monument Newcastle.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Grey's Monument closeup)Grey's Monument, which commemorates Prime Minister Earl Grey and his Reform Act of 1832, stands above Monument Metro Station and was designed and built by Edward Hodges Baily and Benjamin Green. Hodges, who also built Nelson's Column, designed and built the statue,WEB
, GRAINGER TOWN, Greys Monument, Edward Hodges Baily
, His statue by sculptor Edward Hodges Baily (also responsible for Nelson's Column) tops a column, Grey's Monument, of {{convert, 41, m, ft, off, . It has remained a favourite meeting place since it was unveiled in 1838.
| url =weblink
| accessdate =26 July 2010
| postscript =}} and the monument plinth was designed and built by Benjamin Green.WEB
, Newcastle Upon Tyne: The Architecture...; Greys Monument Centrepiece
, The centrepiece is Grey's Monument, designed in 1838 by Benjamin Green
, 26 July 2010
,weblink
,
The Grainger Market replaced an earlier market originally built in 1808 called the Butcher Market. The Grainger Market itself, was opened in 1835 and was Newcastle's first indoor market. At the time of its opening in 1835 it was said to be one of the largest and most beautiful markets in Europe. The opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by 2000 guests, and the Laing Art Gallery has a painting of this event. With the exception of the timber roof which was destroyed by a fire in 1901 and replaced by latticed-steel arches the Market is largely in its original condition.WEB
, History of the Grainger Market
, Newcastle.gov.uk
,weblink
, 3 March 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100825132008weblink">weblink
, 25 August 2010
, dmy-all
, The Grainger Market architecture, like most in Grainger Town, which are either grade I or II listed, was listed grade I in 1954 by English Heritage.WEB, Grainger Market,weblink britishlistedbuildings.co.uk, 28 August 2013, The development of the city in the 1960s saw the demolition of part of Grainger Town as a prelude to the modernist rebuilding initiatives of T. Dan Smith, the leader of Newcastle City Council. A corruption scandal was uncovered involving Smith and John Poulson, a property developer from Pontefract, West Yorkshire, and both were imprisoned. Echoes of the scandal were revisited in the late 1990s in the BBC TV mini-series, Our Friends in the North.Flannery, Peter. Retrospective – An interview with the creators of the series. Included as a bonus feature on the Our Friends in the North DVD release. (BMG DVD 74321 941149).

Climate

Situated in the rain shadow of the North Pennines, Newcastle is amongst the driest cities in the UK. Temperature extremes recorded at Newcastle Weather Centre include {{convert|32.5|C|F}} on 3 August 1990WEB, TuTiempo,weblink 1990 temperature, {{Dead link|date=December 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} down to {{convert|-14.0|C|F}} on 29 December 1995.WEB, TuTiempo,weblink 1995 temperature, Newcastle can have cool to cold winters, though usually warmer than the rural areas around it, and the winters are often compensated for by warm summers, with very long daylight hours in the summer months, longer than all other major English Cities. Newcastle upon Tyne shares the same latitude as Copenhagen, Denmark and southern Sweden.The nearest weather station to provide sunshine statistics is at Durham, about {{convert|14|mi|km|0}} south of Newcastle City Centre. Durham's inland, less urbanised setting results in night-time temperature data about 1 degree cooler than Newcastle proper throughout the year.{{Weather boxDurham, England>Met Office Durham) Extremes Newcastle|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan record high C= 14.0|Feb record high C= 14.0|Mar record high C= 21.0|Apr record high C= 21.0|May record high C= 25.0|Jun record high C= 26.0|Jul record high C= 29.0|Aug record high C= 32.5|Sep record high C= 21.0|Oct record high C= 20.0|Nov record high C= 18.0|Dec record high C= 15.0|year record high C= |Jan high C = 6.6|Feb high C = 7.2|Mar high C = 9.5|Apr high C = 11.9|May high C = 15.0|Jun high C = 17.6|Jul high C = 20.1|Aug high C = 19.8|Sep high C = 17.2|Oct high C = 13.3|Nov high C = 9.4|Dec high C = 6.7|year high C = 12.9|Jan low C = 0.9|Feb low C = 0.9|Mar low C = 2.3|Apr low C = 3.7|May low C = 6.1|Jun low C = 9.0|Jul low C = 11.1|Aug low C = 11.0|Sep low C = 9.0|Oct low C = 6.3|Nov low C = 3.4|Dec low C = 1.1|year low C = 5.4|Jan record low C= -12.6|Feb record low C= -3.0|Mar record low C= -9.0|Apr record low C= -2.0|May record low C= -1.0|Jun record low C= 1.0|Jul record low C= 6.0|Aug record low C= 3.0|Sep record low C= 0.0|Oct record low C= -5.0|Nov record low C= -11.0|Dec record low C= -14.0|year record low C= -14.0|Jan rain mm = 52.3|Feb rain mm = 41.8|Mar rain mm = 44.6|Apr rain mm = 52.7|May rain mm = 44.2|Jun rain mm = 55.4|Jul rain mm = 54.0|Aug rain mm = 60.8|Sep rain mm = 55.4|Oct rain mm = 60.9|Nov rain mm = 72.0|Dec rain mm = 57.0|unit rain days = 1.0 mm|Jan rain days = 11.4|Feb rain days = 9.3|Mar rain days = 9.7|Apr rain days = 9.5|May rain days = 9.2|Jun rain days = 9.7|Jul rain days = 9.0|Aug rain days = 9.6|Sep rain days = 9.3|Oct rain days = 11.3|Nov rain days = 12.3|Dec rain days = 11.7|Jan sun = 58.6|Feb sun = 80.3|Mar sun = 115.5|Apr sun = 150.3|May sun = 181.7|Jun sun = 164.8|Jul sun = 172.3|Aug sun = 167.3|Sep sun = 134.5|Oct sun = 102.8|Nov sun = 66.4|Dec sun = 51.2|year sun = 1445.4|source 1 = Met OfficeWEB
,weblink
, Durham 1981–2010 averages
, Station, District and regional averages 1981–2010
, Met Office
, 4 November 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121031164509weblink">weblink
, 31 October 2012
, dmy-all
, |date=August 2010}}

Green belt

The city is within the centre of the wider Tyne & Wear Green Belt,WEB, Planning for the Future Core Strategy and Urban Core Plan for Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne 2010–2030 – Adopted March 2015,weblink www.newcastle.gov.uk, with its portion in much of its rural area. It is a part of the local development plan which is in conjunction with Gateshead borough, and was created in the 1960s.Its stated aimsWEB, Core Strategy and Urban Core Plan – Section 3 Strategic Policies – Chapter 12 People and Place,weblink www.newcastle.gov.uk, are to:
  • Prevent the merging of settlements, particularly... Newcastle with Ponteland, or Cramlington; the main built-up area with nearby villages; and villages with each other,
  • Safeguard the countryside from encroachment,
  • Check unrestricted urban sprawl, and
  • Assist in urban regeneration in the city-region by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land.
In the Newcastle city boundaries it surrounds the communities of Brunswick Village, Dinnington, Callerton, Hazlerigg, Throckley, Walbottle, and Woolsington. Landscape features and facilities such as Ryton Island, Tyne Riverside Country Park, the city's golf courses, Newcastle Racecourse, and Newcastle Airport are also within the green belt area.

Economy

{{See also|List of companies based in Newcastle upon Tyne}}Newcastle played a major role during the 19th-century Industrial Revolution, and was a leading centre for coal mining, shipbuilding, engineering, munitions and manufacturing. Heavy industries in Newcastle declined in the second half of the 20th century; with office, service and retail employment now becoming the city's staples. The city was recognised for its commitment to environmental issues, with a programme planned for Newcastle to become "the first Carbon Neutral town"WEB,weblink Case Study: Newcastle, the first carbon-neutral town – UK on the ManagEnergy Website, Managenergy.net, 13 July 2010, 4 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100620071043weblink">weblink 20 June 2010, dead, however those plans have slipped considerably and they now hope to be carbon neutral by 2050.WEB,weblink Big considerations, Newcastle City Council, 24 November 2016, Newcastle is the commercial, educational and, in partnership with nearby Gateshead, the cultural focus for North East England. As part of Tyneside, Newcastle's economy contributes around £13 billion to the UK GVA.WEB,weblink Regional GVA December 2007 (Page 7), 13 April 2009, Office for National Statistics, 2007, The Central Business District is in the centre of the city, bounded by Haymarket, Newcastle station and the Quayside areas.

Retail

File:Northumberland Street - geograph.org.uk - 1134691.jpg|thumb|Looking north along Northumberland StreetNorthumberland StreetIn 2010, Newcastle was positioned ninth in the retail centre expenditure league of the UK.WEB,weblink Retail Footprint 2010 reveals Britain's shopping successes and strugglers, 21 May 2010, CACI, 18 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100618210926weblink">weblink 18 June 2010, There are several major shopping areas in Newcastle City Centre. The largest of these is the Eldon Square Shopping Centre, one of the largest city centre shopping complexes in the UK.WEB
, GRAINGER TOWN... Eldon Square
,weblink
, 26 July 2010
, It incorporates a Debenhams store as well as one of the largest John Lewis stores in the UK. This John Lewis branch was formerly known as Bainbridges. Newcastle store Bainbridge's, opened in 1838, is often cited as the world's first department store.NEWS, Marshall, Ray, Remember When: SUPERSTORE; Remembering Bainbridge's – a world first., Evening Chronicle, thefreelibrary.com, 5 April 2008,weblink's+-+a+world+first.-a0177495747, 15 October 2013, Emerson Bainbridge (1817–1892),Anne Pimlott Baker, 'Bainbridge, Emerson Muschamp (1817–1892)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, January 2010 accessed 29 April 2011 a pioneer and the founder of Bainbridges,WEB, Moreno, Shonquis, An Introduction to Retail Design, dwell.com, November 2010,weblink 15 October 2013, sold goods via department, a new for merchant custom for that time. The Bainbridge's official ledgers reported revenue by department, giving birth to the name department store. Eldon Square is currently undergoing a full redevelopment. A new bus station, replacing the old underground bus station, was officially opened in March 2007.
NEWS, MP opens £11m bus station upgrade
, BBC News, 15 March 2007
,weblink
, 24 November 2007, The wing of the centre, including the undercover Green Market, near Grainger Street was demolished in 2007 so that the area could be redeveloped.NEWS, Last day for city centre market
, BBC News, 26 January 2007,weblink
, 24 November 2007, This was completed in February 2010 with the opening of a Debenhams department store as well as other major stores including Apple, Hollister and Guess.WEB,weblink Newcastle's Eldon Square opens £170m extension, Retail Week,
The main shopping street in the city is Northumberland Street. In a 2004 report, it was ranked as the most expensive shopping street in the UK for rent, outside London.NEWS, Fifth Avenue tops shops rich list, BBC News,weblink 26 October 2004, 19 December 2006, It is home to two major department stores including the first and largest Fenwick department store, which houses some of the most luxurious designer labels, and one of the largest Marks and Spencer stores outside London. Both stores have entrances into Eldon Square Shopping Centre.Other shopping destinations in Newcastle include Grainger Street and the area around Grey's Monument, the relatively modern Eldon Garden and Monument Mall complexes, the Newgate Centre, Central Arcade and the traditional Grainger Market. Outside the city centre, the largest suburban shopping areas are Gosforth and Byker. The largest Tesco store in the United Kingdom is located in Kingston Park on the edge of Newcastle.NEWS, The continued rise of Tesco non-food, BBC News,weblink 16 January 2007, 19 January 2008, Andy, Dangerfield, Close to Newcastle, the largest indoor shopping centre in Europe, the MetroCentre, is located in Gateshead.

Dwelling types

The Tyneside flat was the dominant housing form constructed at the time when the industrial centres on Tyneside were growing most rapidly. They can still be found in areas such as South Heaton in Newcastle but once dominated the streetscape on both sides of the Tyne.WEB, Heaton (HMOs & Tyneside flats),weblink Newcastle residential areas, 10 January 2016, Tyneside flats were built as terraces, one of each pair of doors led to an upstairs flat while the other led into the ground-floor flat, each of two or three rooms. A new development in the Ouseburn valley has recreated them; Architects Cany Ash and Robert Sakula were attracted by the possibilities of high density without building high and getting rid of common areas.NEWS, Williams, Francesca, The rise, fall and rise of the Tyneside flat,weblink BBC News, 10 January 2016, In terms of housing stock, the authority is one of few authorities to see the proportion of detached homes rise in the 2010 Census (to 7.8%), in this instance this was coupled with a similar rise in flats and waterside apartments to 25.6%, and the proportion of converted or shared houses in 2011 renders this dwelling type within the highest of the five colour-coded brackets at 5.9%, and on a par with Oxford and Reading, greater than Manchester and Liverpool and below a handful of historic densely occupied, arguably overinflated markets in the local authorities: Harrogate, Cheltenham, Bath, inner London, Hastings, Brighton and Royal Tunbridge Wells.WEB,weblink 2011 Census Interactive, ons.gov.uk, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160129132219weblink">weblink 29 January 2016,

Demography

Population

(File:NE-Westgate Road 9001.JPG|thumb|West Road Shopping Area in Newcastle's West End has a large multi-ethnic community.)(File:NE-Arthur's Hill Stanhope Street 8965.JPG|thumb|Stanhope Street in Arthur's Hill area is home to the North East's largest Asian community.)(File:Gosforth High Street 2.jpg|thumb|Gosforth High Street in the north of the city.)According to the ONS in 2015 the city of Newcastle had a population of 293,000.WEB,weblink MYE3 population change for local authorities UK 2015.xls, 6 October 2016, ons.gov.uk, gov.uk, 24 May 2017, The metropolitan boroughs of North Tyneside (population circa 202,000), South Tyneside (population circa 149,000) and Gateshead (population circa 201,000) are, along with Newcastle, all part of the Tyneside conurbation (population circa 880,000). The metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, which consists of the four aforementioned boroughs as well as Sunderland (population circa 277,000), had a population of around 1,122,000 and the Tyne and Wear City Region which also includes North Durham, South East Northumberland and the Tyne Valley has a population of 1,650,000.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20080527225250weblink">weblink dead, 27 May 2008, Newcastle City Council, 25 February 2017, Newcastle is also home to a large student population with Newcastle University and Northumbria University Newcastle, based in the City Centre. Areas of suburban Newcastle with major student populations include Jesmond, Gosforth, Fenham, and Heaton.WEB, Walton, Robinson,weblink What's it like to be student in Newcastle?, 9 May 2012, According to the same statistics, the average age of people living in Newcastle is 37.8 (the national average being 38.6). There is a strong presence of Border Reiver surnames, such as Armstrong, Charlton, Elliot, Johnstone, Kerr, Hall, Nixon, Little and Robson. There are also small but significant Chinese, Jewish and Eastern European (Polish, Czech Roma) populations. The International Organization for Migration states there are estimated to be between 500 and 2,000 Bolivians in Newcastle, one of the largest populations in any city in the UK.WEB,weblink July 2007, Mapping Exercise: Bolivia, International Organization for Migration, London, 29 November 2008, CITEREFInternational Organization for Migration2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080709053359weblink">weblink 9 July 2008, WEB,weblink Bolivians in the UK: 1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND SPREAD OF THE BOLIVIAN COMMUNITY, July 2007, unitedkingdom.iom.int, International Organisation for Migration, 21 July 2017, Bolivians who have recently arrived in the UK are concentrated in London, with a small number going to Newcastle. Long-term residents are more widely dispersed across the country. Some live in London and neighbouring areas... number live in Newcastle and Edinburgh (see figure 1).,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170315194317weblink">weblink 15 March 2017, dead, dmy-all, Like most cities, Newcastle has diverse cross sections and classes.Forum UNESCO University and Heritage 10th International Seminar "Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081217142957weblink |date=17 December 2008 }}, Social Housing as Cultural Landscape: A Case Study of Byker, Newcastle upon Tyne pp3, John Pendlebury, Tim Townshend and Rose Gilroy, Newcastle University (April 2005 – revised June 2006). Retrieved 24 November 2008.WEB
, Old Ordnance Survey Maps of Newcastle upon Tyne
, ranging from the bustling, historic city centre and its Quayside (where for a while we had our office), to the great shipbuilding and engineering works on Elswick, from working class Byker to middle class Jesmond and Heaton
,weblink
, 9 February 2009, The city is largely Christian at 56.6%; Muslims form 6.2%,WEB, Ethnicity in the North East (report), Government Office North East,weblink 11 November 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071128100245weblink">weblink 28 November 2007, dead, and over 16% have no religion.
In 2011, 189,381 people lived in the unparished area of Newcastle upon Tyne but 280,177 people lived in the actual city and metropolitan borough. The unparished area excludes Newburn, Gosforth and the wards of Castle, Woolsington and Parklands and is made up of 17 wards from Walkergate in the east to Benwell and Scotswood in the west.WEB,weblink Newcastle upon Tyne – UK Census Data 2011, Services, Good Stuff IT, UK Census Data, 13 March 2016,

Ethnicity

According to 2011 figures,{{NOMIS2011|id=1119884888|title=Newcastle upon Tyne Built-up area|accessdate=8 February 2018}} the city's ethnic make-up is as follows:
  • White British: 81.3%
  • Asian: 9.7%
  • White Other: 3%
  • Black: 2.2%
  • Mixed-race: 1.6%
  • Other: 1.5%
White people are 84.3% of the population (81.3% White British, 3.0% White other), Asian people 9.7% of the population (3.4% Pakistani, 2.0% Bangladeshi, 2.0% Indian, 2.0% Chinese, 0.3% other), 2.2% Black British (1.9% Black African, 0.2% Black Caribbean, 0.1% Black other), Mixed Race at 1.6% (1.0% Asian and White, 0.4% White and Caribbean, 0.2% White and African) and other ethnicities composing of 1.5% of the population.The regional nickname for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. The Latin term Novocastrian, which can equally be applied to residents of any place called Newcastle, is also used for ex-pupils of the city's Royal Grammar School.RGS Alumni – the Old Novocastrians' Association. Retrieved 14 January 2007Year and current total populationWEB,weblink Newcastle upon Tyne District: Total Population, Visionofbritain.org.uk, 4 August 2010, {| class="wikitable"! Year || colspan="2"|Population{{bartable|0.001}}{{bartable|0.001}}246,9050.001}}293,9440.001}}309,8200.001}}326,5760.001}}333,2860.001}}340,1550.001}}323,8440.001}}308,3170.001}}272,9230.001}}277,7230.001}}259,5730.001}}292,2000.001}}

Dialect

The dialect of Newcastle is known as Geordie, and contains a large amount of vocabulary and distinctive words and pronunciations not used in other parts of the United Kingdom. The Geordie dialect has much of its origins in the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon populations who migrated to and conquered much of England after the end of Roman Imperial rule. This language was the forerunner of Modern English; but while the dialects of other English regions have been heavily altered by the influences of other foreign languages—particularly Latin and Norman French—the Geordie dialect retains many elements of the old language. An example of this is the pronunciation of certain words: "dead", "cow", "house" and "strong" are pronounced "deed", "coo", "hoos" and "strang"—which is how they were pronounced in the Anglo-Saxon language. Other Geordie words with Anglo-Saxon origins include: "larn" (from the Anglo-Saxon "laeran", meaning "teach"), "burn" ("stream") and "gan" ("go").WEB, North East dialect origins and the meaning of 'Geordie', northeastengland.talktalk.net,weblink 5 February 2008, "Bairn" and "hyem", meaning "child" and "home", respectively, are examples of Geordie words with origins in Scandinavia;WEB,weblink Geordie dictionary, University Staff, 23 October 2017, libguides.ncl.ac.uk, Newcastle University Library, 31 March 2018, Hyem: Home (of Scandinavian origin), barn and hjem are the corresponding modern Norwegian and Danish words. Some words used in the Geordie dialect are used elsewhere in the Northern United Kingdom. The words "bonny" (meaning "pretty"), "howay" ("come on"), "stot" ("bounce") and "hadaway" ("go away" or "you're kidding"), all appear to be used in Scots; "aye" ("yes") and "nowt" (IPA://naʊt/, rhymes with out, "nothing") are used elsewhere in Northern England. Many words, however, appear to be used exclusively in Newcastle and the surrounding area, such as "canny" (a versatile word meaning "good", "nice" or "very"), "hacky" ("dirty"), "netty" ("toilet"), "hoy" ("throw", from the Dutch gooien, via West Frisian), "hockle" ("spit").WEB, Newcastle English ("Geordie") – Vocabulary, une.edu.au,weblink 5 February 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071025061829weblink">weblink 25 October 2007, dead,

Health

In 2011 the health of people in Newcastle upon Tyne was generally worse than the England average:WEB, Newcastle upon Tyne Health Profile 2011, North East Public Health Observatory,weblink 9 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111003060621weblink">weblink 3 October 2011,
  • Deprivation is higher than average and 16,670 children live in poverty.
  • Life expectancy for both men and women is lower than the England average. Life expectancy is 14.3 years lower for men and 11.1 years lower for women in some of the most deprived areas of Newcastle upon Tyne than in certain least deprived areasSlope Index of Inequality published on 5 January 2011
  • From 2001 to 2011, as with all UK cities all-cause mortality rates have fallen, life expectancy has increased. Early death rates from cancer and from heart disease and stroke have fallen but remain worse than the English average.
  • About 21.9% of Year 6 children are classified as obese. In 2014/5 35.9% of 10 to 11-year-olds were classified as overweight or obese, in comparison to a national average of 33.2%.WEB, Tom Sheldrick,weblink The scale of the North East's childhood obesity problem &124; Tyne Tees – ITV News, Itv.com, 21 March 2016, 26 February 2017, 54.9% of pupils meet the recommendation of at least three hours each week on school sport. Levels of teenage pregnancy are worse than the England average. In 2011 GCSE attainment amongst school children was worse than the England average.WEB,weblink Children and Young People, 2011, newcastle.gov.uk, gov.uk, 26 April 2017,
  • Estimated levels of adult 'healthy eating' and smoking are worse than the England average.WEB, Newcastle upon Tyne Health Profile 2012, North East Public Health Observatory,weblink 29 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529113245weblink">weblink 29 May 2015, Rates of smoking related deathsWEB,weblink 11 North East people die every day due to smoking, Helen Rae, 25 June 2012, thejournal.co.uk, thejournal.co.uk, 26 April 2017, and hospital stays for alcohol-related harm are higher than averageweblink
  • Newcastle remains one of the few major cities in England to supply fluoridated water, this scheme is directed by Northumbria Water plc.NEWS,weblink The extent of water fluoridation in the UK, Reporter, Telegraph, 24 February 2015, 11 February 2018, 0307-1235,
Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has one of the lowest mortality rates in the country and is ranked seventh in the country for confidence in doctors.{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}} Newcastle has two large teaching hospitals: the Royal Victoria Infirmary and the Freeman Hospital, which is also a pioneering centre for transplant surgery.In a report, published in early February 2007 by the Ear Institute at the University College London, and Widex, a Danish hearing aid manufacturer, Newcastle was named as the noisiest city in the whole of the UK, with an average level of 80.4 decibels. The report claimed that these noise levels would have a negative long-term impact on the health of the city's residents.NEWS, Noisy Newcastle tops league table, BBC News,weblink 3 February 2007, 2 February 2007, The report was rightly criticised, however, for attaching too much weight to readings at arbitrarily selected locations, which in Newcastle's case included a motorway underpass without pedestrian access.WEB, Noise study gets an ear-bashing, Evening Chronicle,weblink 21 February 2007, As well as numerous parks, open spaces, and extensive riverside areas, puzzlingly the report also overlooked the 1000 acre Town Moor at the heart of the city. Larger than London's Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath combinedweblink and even larger than New York's Central Park the town moor dates back to the 12th century, with the land tenure and its use being regulated by an Act of Parliament.

Culture

Nightlife

(File:The Gate outside 4.jpg|thumb|The Gate complex is a nightlife destination in the city with a cinema, restaurants and bars)Newcastle was in the top ten of the country's top night spots,NEWS, York 'party capital' of country, BBC News,weblink 30 May 2006, 18 January 2007, and The Rough Guide to Britain placed Newcastle upon Tyne's nightlife as Great Britain's no. 1 tourist attraction.NEWS, Visiting Britain? Avoid 'bland' Buckingham Palace, Daily Mail,weblink 21 July 2014, London, 20 June 2006, In the Tripadvisor Travellers' Choice Destination Awards for European Nightlife destinations, four of the UK's nightspots finished in the top 10; Newcastle was awarded 3rd Place behind London, and Berlin.WEB, Tripadvisor Unveils Travellers' Best Destinations- Party Hard in London and Newcastle, tourists a good time too with Newcastle coming third, followed by Dublin in fourth position and Edinburgh in seventh., London, U.K., Tripadvisor.co.uk, 4 May 2010,weblink Newcastle also came in seventh for the World category,WEB, Tripadvisor Unveils Travellers' Best Destinations – The World Nightspots, New Orleans has been identified as having the best nightlife in the world... London comes in at number five in the world and Newcastle number seven., Tripadvisor, 4 May 2010,weblink 12 August 2010, and is confirmed to have the most events per student population in the UK.WEB, Newcastle has been ranked as the best student city for events in the UK,weblink www.tickx.co.uk, 5 September 2018, There are concentrations of pubs, bars and nightclubs around the Bigg Market and the Quayside area of the city centre. There are many bars on the Bigg Market, and other areas for nightlife are Collingwood Street, popularly referred to as the 'Diamond Strip' due to its concentration of high-end bars, Neville Street, the Newcastle station area and Osborne Road in the Jesmond area of the city. In recent years "The Gate" has opened in the city centre, a new indoor complex consisting of bars, clubs, restaurants and a 12-screen Cineworld multiplex cinema.WEB, The Gate,weblink 19 December 2006, Newcastle's gay scene – 'The Pink Triangle' – is centred on the Times Square area near the Centre for Life and has a range of bars, cafés and clubs.WEB, About, newcastlegay.co.uk right,weblink 3 January 2007, WEB, Gay Village/Pink Triangle, pubsnewcastle.co.uk,weblink 19 December 2006, The city has a wide variety of restaurants such as Italian, Indian, Persian, Japanese, Greek, Mexican, Spanish, American, Polish, Malaysian, French, Mongolian, Moroccan, Thai, Vietnamese and Lebanese. Newcastle is one of 7 cities in the UK that has a Chinatown with many Chinese restaurants on Stowell Street. There has also been a growth in premium restaurants in recent years with top chefs.WEB,weblink Restaurants in Newcastle & North East restaurants, eating out, places to eat in Newcastle & North East restaurant guide UK, Sugarvine.com, 4 August 2010, WEB, Akbars Restaurant Birmingham,weblink Restaurants in Birmingham, Newcastle, Nottingham, Derby – The Gourmet Society UK, Thegourmetsociety.co.uk, 4 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013183108weblink">weblink 13 October 2007, WEB,weblink The people's Newcastle Restaurant Guide, Leaveatip.co.uk, 4 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101125010418weblink">weblink 25 November 2010, dead,

Theatre

(File:Theatre Royal in Newcastle (6710178097).jpg|thumb|Theatre Royal, Grey Street)The city has a proud history of theatre. Stephen Kemble of the well-known Kemble family managed the original Theatre Royal, Newcastle for fifteen years (1791–1806). He brought members of his famous acting family such as Sarah Siddons and John Kemble out of London to Newcastle. Stephen Kemble guided the theatre through many celebrated seasons. The original Theatre Royal in Newcastle was opened on 21 January 1788 and was located on Mosley Street.WEB,weblink Theatres Royal Exhibition at Theatre Royal, newcastlegateshead.com, 6 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306035012weblink">weblink 6 March 2017, dead, dmy-all, It was demolished to make way for Grey Street, where its replacement was built.The city still contains many theatres. The largest, the Theatre Royal on Grey Street, first opened in 1837, designed by John and Benjamin Green.WEB, Newcastle Upon Tyne: The Architecture... Theatre Royal, John and Benjamin Green
, The principal event is the Theatre Royal (1837) by John and Benjamin Green who had designed the Literary and Philosophical Society's building.
,weblink
, 26 July 2010
, It has hosted a season of performances from the Royal Shakespeare Company for over 25 years, as well as touring productions of West End musicals.WEB, History, Theatre Royal,weblink 21 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070706171750weblink">weblink 6 July 2007, dead, The Mill Volvo Tyne Theatre hosts smaller touring productions, whilst other venues feature local talent. Northern Stage, formally known as the Newcastle Playhouse and Gulbenkian Studio, hosts various local, national and international productions in addition to those produced by the Northern Stage company.NEWS, Curtain rises at new city theatre, BBC News,weblink 25 August 2006, 12 August 2007, Other theatres in the city include the Live Theatre, the People's Theatre, Alphabetti Theatre and the Jubilee Theatre. NewcastleGateshead was voted in 2006 as the arts capital of the UK in a survey conducted by the Artsworld TV channel.NEWS, North East voted 'arts capital',weblink BBC News, 29 December 2006, 18 August 2007,

Literature and libraries

(File:Newcastle City Library.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Avison Library, 2013)Newcastle has a strong reputation as a poetry centre. The Morden Tower, run by poet Tom Pickard, is a major venue for poetry readings in the North East, being the place where Basil Bunting gave the first reading of Briggflatts in 1965.WEB,weblink Morden Tower Home Page, Mordentower.org, 4 August 2010, The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne (popularly known as the 'Lit & Phil') is the largest independent library outside London, housing more than 150,000 books. Its music library contains 8,000 CDs and 10,000 LPs.NEWS
, Glover
, Andrew
, Alexander Armstrong in appeal to save Lit and Phil
, The Lit and Phil is the largest independent library outside London, housing more than 150,000 books. Its music library contains 8,000 CDs and 10,000 LPs. The society was founded early in 1793 as a 'conversation club', with an annual subscription of one guinea. The current building was built in 1825.
, The Journal
, ncjMedia, Trinity Mirror
, 8 February 2011
,weblink
, 8 February 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110215165559weblink">weblink
, 15 February 2011
, WEB
, Lit and Phil – Welcome
, The Literary & Philosophical Society (Lit & Phil) is the largest independent library outside London, housing over 150,000 books.
, litandphil.org.uk
, 2011
,weblink
, 8 February 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100502065937weblink">weblink
, 2 May 2010
, The current Lit and Phil premises were built in 1825 and the building was designed by John and Benjamin Green. Operating since 1793 and founded as a 'conversation club,' its lecture theatre was the first public building to be lit by electric light, during a lecture by Joseph Swan on 20 October 1880.The old City library designed by Basil Spence,WEB, Sir Basil Spence – Building Notes, canmore.rcahms.gov.uk,weblink 15 November 2013, was demolished in 2006 and replaced. The new building opened on 21 June 2009 and was named after 18th century composer Charles Avison; the building was opened by Dr Herbert Loebl.WEB, City Library, On Sunday 21 June 2009 the building was formally dedicated by Dr Herbert Loebl, Newcastle.gov.uk, 11 June 2013,weblink 15 November 2013, The "National Museum of Childrens Books" at Seven Stories is a museum dedicated to children's books. Opened in 2005, it is based in the Ouseburn Valley.NEWS, Brown, Jonathon, Delight as 'lost' Enid Blyton book is discovered
, The Independent, UK, 23 February 2011
,weblink
, 23 February 2011, NEWS, Jacqueline Wilson Helps Birthday Celebrations, Ruth, Lawson, The Evening Chronicle, 20 August 2010,weblink

Festivals and fairs

(File:Chinatown Arch Newcastle UK.jpg|thumb|left|The arch to Chinatown, opposite St. James' Park)In January or February, Newcastle's Chinatown is at the centre of a carnival of colour and noise as the city celebrates the Chinese New Year.In early March there is the NewcastleGateshead Comedy Festival. This event makes a return to the region since the last event in 2006. It is hoped it will now continue as an annual event.WEB, About The Festival, newcastlegatesheadcomedyfestival.com,weblink 20 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080308124323weblink">weblink 8 March 2008, The Newcastle Science Festival, now called Newcastle ScienceFest, returns annually in early March.WEB,weblink Newcastle Science Festival – Home, Newcastlesciencefest.com, 4 August 2010, The Newcastle Beer Festival, organised by CAMRA, takes place in April.WEB, Beer Festival, cannybevvy.co.uk,weblink 20 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080213092807weblink">weblink 13 February 2008, Evolution Festival, a music festival that attracted tens of thousands of attendees, took place in May from 2002 until 2013 and was described as "the biggest festival Tyneside has ever staged".NEWS, Evolution Festival postponed for one year,weblink 10 July 2016, BBC News, 12 February 2014, NEWS, Barr, Gordon, Festival hits Dizzee heights,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 7 April 2005, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160914115216weblink">weblink 14 September 2016, The This Is Tomorrow festival now takes place over the spring bank holiday and is in the same location. The biennial AV Festival of international electronic art, featuring exhibitions, concerts, conferences and film screenings, is held in March. The North East Art Expo, a festival of art and design from the regions professional artists, is held in late May.NEWS, Whetstone, David, Expo gives artists and makers a showcase, The Journal, Newcastle, thejournal.co.uk, 3 April 2008,weblink 24 May 2017, WEB,weblink North East Expo – Autumn 2017, northeastexpo.co.uk, northeastexpo, 24 May 2017, EAT! NewcastleGateshead, a festival of food and drink, runs for 2 weeks each year in mid June.WEB, Food Festival, newcastlegateshead.com,weblink 20 January 2008, dead,weblink 17 July 2009, The Hoppings, the largest annual collection of travelling fairs in Europe, comes together on Newcastle Town Moor every June. The event has its origins in the Temperance Movement during the early 1880s, and coincides with the annual race week at High Gosforth Park.WEB, Town Moor Hoppings, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink September 2004, 20 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080227084006weblink">weblink 27 February 2008, dead, Newcastle Community Green Festival, which claims to be the UK's biggest free community environmental festival, also takes place every June, in Leazes Park.WEB, History of the Festival, newcastlegreenfestival.org.uk,weblink 20 January 2008, The Northern Rock Cyclone, a cycling festival, takes place within, or starting from, Newcastle in June.WEB, What is it?, northernrockcyclone.co.uk,weblink 20 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071217184407weblink">weblink 17 December 2007, dead, dmy-all, The Northern Pride Festival and Parade is held in Leazes Park and in the city's Gay Community in mid July. The Ouseburn Festival, a family oriented weekend festival near the city centre, incorporating a "Family Fun Day" and "Carnival Day", is held in late July.WEB, Ouseburn Festival home page, ouseburnfestival.org,weblink 25 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070523090242weblink">weblink 23 May 2007, Newcastle Mela, held on the late August Bank Holiday weekend, is an annual two-day multicultural event that blends drama, music and food from Punjabi, Pakistani, Bengali and Hindu cultures.WEB, What is the Mela ?, newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 25 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071026103201weblink">weblink 26 October 2007, dead, NewcastleGateshead also holds an annual International Arts Fair. The 2009 event will be in the Norman Foster designed Sage Gateshead Music and Arts Centre in September.WEB, NewcastleGateshead Arts Fair home page, ngartfair.com,weblink 25 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20030416181002weblink">weblink 16 April 2003, In October, there is the Design Event festival—an annual festival providing the public with an opportunity to see work by regional, national and international designers.WEB, Introducing Design Event, design-event.co.uk,weblink 22 February 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080212052802weblink">weblink 12 February 2008, dead, The SAMA Festival, an East Asian cultural festival is also held in early October.WEB,weblink NewcastleGateshead 6–12 October 2008, SAMA Festival, 24 July 2008, 4 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090811011606weblink">weblink 11 August 2009,

Music

File:Sting in April 2018.jpg|thumb|upright|Sting, principal songwriter, lead singer and bassist for English rock band The PoliceThe Police{{See also|List of bands and musicians from Newcastle Upon Tyne}}Newcastle's vernacular music was a mixture of Northumbrian folk music and nineteenth-century songs with dialect lyrics, by writers such as George "Geordie" Ridley, whose songs include one which became an unofficial Tyneside national anthem, Blaydon Races.The 1960s saw the internationally successful rock group The Animals, emerge from Newcastle night spots such as Club A-Go-GoWEB, Smith, Roger, Club A'GoGo, The Animals also recorded a live album at the Gogo and even wrote a song about the place., readysteadygone.co.uk,weblink 15 August 2010, on Percy Street. Other well-known acts with connections to the city include Sting,WEB, Christy, Duncan, Stephen Hannock painting commissioned by Sting to be displayed in Newcastle's Laing Art Gallery this autumn...., Sting.com (Official Site), 10 November 2008,weblink 15 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101128152804weblink">weblink 28 November 2010, Bryan Ferry,WEB, Superstar Bryan Ferry talks about his early days in Newcastle and how the North East shaped his life, ne4me.co.uk, 9 November 2009,weblink 15 August 2010, Dire StraitsNEWS, Dire Straits given plaque honour, BBC, 4 December 2009,weblink 15 August 2010, and more recently Maxïmo Park.WEB, Maximo Park Limited Edition Bottles of Brown Ale, ilikemusic.com, 2007,weblink 15 August 2010, There is also a thriving underground music scene that encompasses a variety of styles, including drum and bass, doom metal and post-rock.Lindisfarne are a folk-rock group with a strong Tyneside connection. Their most famous song, "Fog on the Tyne" (1971), was covered by Geordie ex-footballer Paul Gascoigne in 1990. Venom, reckoned by many to be the originators of black metal and extremely influential to the extreme metal scene as a whole, formed in Newcastle in 1979. Folk metal band Skyclad, often regarded as the first folk metal band, also formed in Newcastle after the break-up of Martin Walkyier thrash metal band, Sabbat. Andy Taylor, former lead guitarist of Duran Duran was born here in 1961. Brian Johnson was a member of local rock band Geordie before becoming the lead vocalist of AC/DC.File:Mark Knopfler Zwolle 2013.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.2|Dire Straits frontman Mark Knopfler. His song "Local Hero" is played at St. James Park before the start of every (Newcastle United]] home game.Anthony Bateman (2008). "Sporting Sounds: Relationships Between Sport and Music". p. 186. Routledge)Newcastle is the home of Kitchenware Records (c. 1982),WEB, Welcome To Kitchenware Records, Kitchenware Records was established in 1982 in Newcastle..., Music, Kitchenware Records,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030502062032weblink">weblink dead, 2 May 2003, 15 August 2010, previously home to acclaimed bands such as Prefab Sprout, Martin Stephenson and the Daintees and The Fatima Mansions, the management of The Lighthouse Family and home to recent successes Editors and Sirens.The 1990s boom in progressive house music saw the city's Global Underground record label publish mix CDs by the likes of Sasha, Paul Oakenfold, James Lavelle, and Danny Howells recording mix compilations. The label is still going strong today with offices in London and New York, and new releases from Deep Dish and Adam Freeland.WEB, Global underground is 10, Global Underground has become more than an internationally renowned dance music label. It's become a way of life. This is an impressive legacy – especially for an independent label based in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne in the North of England.,weblink 20 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080515014426weblink">weblink 15 May 2008, Newcastle's leading classical music ensemble is the Royal Northern Sinfonia, which was founded in 1958 and performed regularly at Newcastle City Hall until 2004. Nowadays it is based at The Sage, Gateshead.ICMuS, Newcastle University's music department, has been a driving force for music in the region, producing innovative work, organising concerts and festivals, instigating the first degree programme in folk music in the British Isles, and engaging creatively with communities in the region.

Concert venues

(File:Metroradio Arena, Newcastle.jpg|thumb|Metro Radio Arena)The largest venue used for music concerts is St James Park, home of Newcastle United, which has also previously been used for Rugby League games and the Olympic Games. The second largest music venue in Newcastle is the 11,000-seat Metro Radio Arena, which opened in 1995 and hosts major pop and rock concerts.NEWS, Barr, Gordon, It's ten years of rockin' the Toon,weblink 11 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 15 November 2005, Newcastle City Hall is one of the oldest venues in the region and "attracts big names who are often legends of the past". Both of the city's universities have venues that mainly host indie and alternative bands.NEWS, Newcastle's music scene: where bands thrive,weblink 11 July 2016, The Independent, 14 April 2006, On 14 October 2005 the 2,000 capacity O2 Academy Newcastle opened in the city centre. It had previously been a music venue in the 1960s, hosting concerts by The Beatles and The Who.NEWS, Wonfor, Sam, The O2 Academy in Newcastle prepares to celebrate its 10th birthday in style in October,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 16 August 2015, The new venue was headlined by The Futureheads on the opening night and known as the Carling Academy for a number of years. Since opening the venue has hosted performances by major bands and solo musicians including Adele, Arctic Monkeys, Katy Perry, The Libertines, Blondie and Amy Winehouse.NEWS, Duke, Simon, O2 Academy Newcastle is 10: A look at the big names who've entertained,weblink 11 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 14 October 2015, The Riverside music venue on Melbourne Street, open from 1985 until 1999, notably hosted Nirvana's first European show in 1989.NEWS, Morton, David, Kurt Cobain died on this day in 1994: We recall Nirvana's first ever UK gig at Newcastle Riverside,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 5 April 2016, The venue also welcomed Oasis, David Bowie and The Stone Roses and was named Best Regional Venue by NME in 1993.NEWS, Wonfor, Sam, Bright future ahead for live music,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 27 January 2004, Riverside has also been the subject of a book, Riverside: Newcastle's Legendary Alternative Music Venue.BOOK, Plater, Hazel, Taylor, Carl, Riverside: Newcastle's Legendary Alternative Music Venue, 27 October 2011, Tonto Books, 978-1907183195, In 2016 open-air concerts will take place at Times Square for the first time, including performances from Maxïmo Park, Ocean Colour Scene and Catfish and the Bottlemen.NEWS, Maine, Sammy, Maximo Park set to play huge homecoming show,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 12 April 2016, NEWS, Jeffrey, Sarah, Ocean Colour Scene to celebrate 20th anniversary of Moseley Shoals at Times Square gig,weblink 10 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 17 June 2016, NEWS, Jeffrey, Sarah, Catfish and the Bottlemen to play open air gig in Times Square Newcastle this summer,weblink 10 July 2016, 4 July 2016, The small music venue Think Tank? was a nominee for Best Small Venue in NME in 2015.NEWS, Finalists revealed in NME's search for Britain's Best Small Venue with Jack Daniel's 2015,weblink 10 July 2016, New Musical Express, NME, 2 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161007061717weblink">weblink 7 October 2016, The Cluny in Ouseburn Valley is "one of the most important venues for breaking bands in the region".NEWS, Jeffery, Sarah, Evolution Emerging 2016: A guide to the music festival's ten Newcastle venues,weblink 11 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 16 May 2016, Trillians Rock Bar is well-noted for its rock and metal shows, and The Head of Steam is a 90-capacity basement venue described as "one of Newcastle's staple venues".NEWS, Lawson, Ruth, Newcastle city centre The Head of Steam music venue relaunches,weblink 11 July 2016, Evening Chronicle, 18 October 2013,

Cinema

File:Tyneside Cinema, Feb 2010.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Tyneside Cinema, designed and built by Dixon Scott, great uncle of Ridley and Tony ScottTony ScottApart from the city centre chain-cinema, the Cineworld (formerly Empire) multiplexweblink the city has its own independent cinema, the Tyneside Cinema.WEB,weblink Tyneside Cinema, 18 July 2010, The Tyneside Cinema, on Pilgrim Street, originally opened as the 'Bijou News-Reel Cinema' in 1937, and was designed and built by Dixon Scott, great-uncle of film directors Ridley ScottWEB,weblink Profiles – Sir Ridley Scott, BBC Tyne, 30 May 2008, 18 July 2010, and Tony Scott.The Pilgrim Street building was refurbished between November 2006 and May 2008; during the refurbishment works, the cinema relocated to the Old Town Hall, Gateshead. In May 2008 the Tyneside Cinema reopened in the restored and refurbished original building.WEB
, Cinema Bids Au Revoir
, 11 April 2008
,weblink
, 23 February 2011
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724162459weblink">weblink
, 24 July 2011
, dead
, dmy-all
, The site currently houses three cinemas, including the restored ClassicWEB
, The Classic
, tynesidecinema.co.uk
, the Classic is a magnificently restored auditorium which features balcony seating in its Classic Circle
,weblink
, 23 February 2011
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110305211813weblink">weblink
, 5 March 2011
, dead
, —the United Kingdom's last surviving news cinema still in full-time operation—alongside two new screens, and dedicated education and teaching suites.

Museums and galleries

There are several museums and galleries in Newcastle, including the Centre for LifeWEB
, Life – A Center For World Class Science
, Center For Life
,weblink
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,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110208004616weblink">weblink
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, with its Science Village;WEB
, Welcome to the Centre for Life science village
, Center For Life
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, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720163209weblink">weblink
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, the Discovery MuseumWEB
, Discovery museum
, britainsfinest.co.uk
,weblink
, 23 February 2011, a museum highlighting life on Tyneside, including Tyneside's shipbuilding heritage, and inventions which changed the world; the Great North Museum;WEB
, Great North Museum
, aboutbritain.com
,weblink
, 23 February 2011, in 2009 the Newcastle on Tyne Museum of Antiquities merged with the Great North Museum (Hancock Museum);WEB, Newcastle on Tyne Museum of Antiquities, romanobritain.org, 2009,weblink 27 August 2014, Seven Stories a museum dedicated to children's books, the Side Gallery historical and contemporary photography from around the world and Northern EnglandWEB, Side Gallery, Since opening in 1977, the gallery's been committed to documentary in the tradition of the concerned photographer – our own production/commissions in the North of England and the historical and contemporary work from around the world..., AmberOnline,weblink 15 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012083011weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, dmy-all, and the Newburn Hall Motor Museum.WEB
, The Newburn Hall Motoring Museum
, information-britain.co.uk
,weblink
, 23 February 2011,
The Laing Art Gallery, like other art galleries and museums around the world, has collections digitised on the Google Cultural Institute,NEWS, Whetstone, David, Newcastle's Laing Art Gallery opens online to viewers around the world, The gallery has joined the White House, the Palace of Versaille and other museums and galleries around the world, The Journal, North East England, 16 December 2013,weblink 17 December 2013, WEB, Laing Art Gallery, Art Collections,weblink 17 December 2013, an initiative that makes important cultural material accessible online.

In film

{{See also|Category:Films set in Newcastle upon Tyne}}The earliest known movie featuring some exterior scenes filmed in the city is On the Night of the Fire (1939),WEB,weblink Forget Get Carter, On the Night of the Fire was first so-called film noir based in Newcastle, 16 April 2013, nechronicle, though by and large the action is studio-bound. Later came The Clouded Yellow (1951) and Payroll (1961), both of which feature more extensive scenes filmed in the city. The gangster thriller Get Carter (1971) was shot on location in and around Newcastle and offers an opportunity to see what Newcastle looked like in the early 1970s.NEWS
, Tinseltoon: Get Carter
, Newcastle, BBC
,weblink
, 4 July 2010, The city was also backdrop to another gangster film, the film noir Stormy Monday (1988), directed by Mike Figgis and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Melanie Griffith, Sting and Sean Bean.NEWS, Stormy Monday, Sting,weblink 4 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101216162535weblink">weblink 16 December 2010, dead, dmy-all,
The city has been the setting for films based around football; films such as Purely Belter (2000),NEWS
, Tinseltoon: Purely Belter
, BBC
,weblink 4 July 2010, The One and Only (2002)NEWS
, The one and only
, The Journal
,weblink
, 4 July 2010, and Goal!WEB
, Hollywood on Tyne
, BBC
, 2004
,weblink
, 4 July 2010, have all been focused around Tyneside. The comedy School for Seduction (2004), starring Kelly Brook was also filmed in Newcastle.WEB
, School For Seduction
, BBC
, 2004
,weblink
, 4 July 2010,
The Bollywood film Hum Tum Aur Ghost (2010) was shot on location in Newcastle's city centre and features key scenes in and around Grainger Town.NEWS
, Mahmood
, Shabnam
, Newcastle makes Bollywood impact
, BBC
,weblink
, 4 July 2010Public Sex (film)>Public Sex (2009) was shot in and around Newcastle, and features several scenes under and around the Tyne Bridge.
Crime drama Harrigan (2013) was filmed in the city as well as Gateshead and Teesside.WEB,weblink Harrigan film turns focus on North East crime in the seventies, Barbara, Hodgson, 18 September 2013, journallive, {{See also|Category:Television shows set in Newcastle upon Tyne}}

Sport

(File:St James' Park, view across Newcastle University to Civic Centre and beyond - geograph.org.uk - 2689641.jpg|thumb|Inside St James' Park – home of Newcastle United Football Club – looking towards the city centre)The city has a strong sporting tradition. Football club Newcastle United has been based at St James' Park since the club was established in 1892, although any traces of the original structure are now long gone as the stadium now holds more than 52,000 seated spectators, being England's seventh largest football stadium.WEB, St James' Park, BBC,weblink 17 September 2007, The city also has non-League football clubs, Newcastle Benfield, West Allotment Celtic, Team Northumbria and Heaton Stannington.There is a women's football team, Newcastle United Women's Football Club, founded in 1989. Newcastle United WFC currently has 40 ladies aged between 16–29 years signed or associated with the club, and plays in the FA Women's Premier League (North).WEB, Newcastle United's Women's Football Club: History, nuwfc,weblink 22 October 2012, The Newcastle Falcons are the only rugby union team in north-east England to have played in the Aviva Premiership. They play at Kingston Park Stadium in the northern suburb of Kingston Park. 1996 Pilkington Shield winners Medicals RFC are also based in Newcastle.Newcastle Thunder (formerly Gateshead Thunder) are a professional rugby league club based in the city who now also play at Kingston Park Stadium. They currently play in the Kingstone Press League 1. Since 2015, the Super League Magic Weekend has been played annually in the city at St James' Park.Newcastle has a horse racing course at Gosforth Park.WEB, History of Gosforth Park, newcastle-racecourse.co.uk,weblink 22 October 2012, The city is also home to the Newcastle Eagles basketball team who play their home games at the new Sport Central complex at weblink">Northumbria Universitweblink. The Eagles are the most successful team in the history of the British Basketball League (BBL).WEB, Newcastle Eagles, chroniclelive.co.uk,weblink 27 November 2014, The city's speedway team Newcastle Diamonds are based at Brough Park in Byker, a venue that is also home to greyhound racing. Newcastle also hosts the start of the annual Great North Run, the world's largest half-marathon in which participants race over the Tyne Bridge into Gateshead and then towards the finish line {{convert|13.1|mi|km|}} away on the coast at South Shields.NEWS
, Great North Run
, BBC News
,weblink
, 17 September 2007
,
Another athletic event is the {{convert|5.9|mi|km|adj=on}} Blaydon Race (a road race from Newcastle to Blaydon), which has taken place on 9 June annually since 1981, to commemorate the celebrated Blaydon Races horse racing.
NEWS
, Runners set for traditional race
, BBC News
,weblink
, 9 June 2007
, 17 September 2007
, The 2012 London Olympic committee selected Newcastle as one of the UK host venue cities,WEB
, Olympics 2012 – Newcastle
, newcastlecitywatch.co.uk
,weblink
, 5 August 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120729000805weblink">weblink
, 29 July 2012
, dmy-all
, WEB
, Olympics – Host Council for London 2012
, Newcastle.gov.uk
,weblink
, 5 August 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111201033244weblink">weblink
, 1 December 2011
, dmy-all
, with the stadium St James' Park hosting 9 matches in both the men's and women's football.WEB, St James' Park celebrates one year to go, london2012.com,weblink 5 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120803180312weblink">weblink 3 August 2012, dead, dmy-all, The Newcastle Warriors were a professional ice hockey team that played the 1995–96 season in the British Hockey League. The Newcastle Vipers were also a professional ice hockey team in the British National League from 2002 and then the Elite Ice Hockey League between 2005 and 2011 (when the team folded).Newcastle upon Tyne was one of the 11 host cities for the 2015 Rugby World Cup.WEB,weblink Rugby World Cup, rugbyworldcup.com, St James' Park hosted three matches;
  • South Africa v. Scotland (3 October 2015)
  • New Zealand v. Tonga (9 October 2015)
  • Samoa v. Scotland (10 October 2015)

Government

File:Newcastle civiccentre 06.jpg|thumb|Newcastle Civic Centre and the Northumberland Fusiliers MemorialNorthumberland Fusiliers MemorialNewcastle is governed using the leader and cabinet system, and the executive is Labour, as they have 55 councillors against the Liberal Democrats' 20. No other parties hold seats on the city's council, but there are 3 independent councillors.For the purposes of City Council elections, Newcastle is divided into 26 electoral wards.WEB, Where You Live (Ward Info), newcastle.gov.uk,weblink 25 November 2007, Following the boundary changes in 2016, the wards are as follows:{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}The Members of parliament are Catherine McKinnell, Nick Brown and Chi Onwurah.

Transport

{{See also|Transport in Tyne and Wear}}

Airport

File:Aircraft at Newcastle Airport.jpg|thumb|Planes parked at Newcastle Airport ]]Newcastle Airport is located approximately {{convert|6|mi|km}} from the city centre on the northern outskirts of the city near Ponteland and is the larger of the two main airports serving the North East. It is connected to the city via the Tyne & Wear Metro system and a journey into Newcastle city centre takes approximately 20 minutes. The airport handles over five million passengers per year, and is the tenth largest, and the fastest growing regional airport in the UK,WEB, Easter record at Newcastle Airport, uk-airport-news.info,weblink 26 March 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928105448weblink">weblink 28 September 2007, expecting to reach 10 million passengers by 2016, and 15 million by 2030.WEB, Airport – Metro link marks 15th birthday as passenger numbers take off!, newcastleairport.com,weblink 26 March 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070212192854weblink">weblink 12 February 2007, dead, {{As of|2007}}, over 90 destinations are available worldwide.WEB
, Destinations & Offers
, newcastleairport.com
,weblink
, 8 December 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071107042853weblink">weblink
, 7 November 2007
, dead
, dmy
,

Rail

File:Platforms 2 and 3, Newcastle Central Station - geograph.org.uk - 1707736.jpg|thumb|left|Inside Newcastle station ]]Newcastle railway station, also known as Newcastle Central station, is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line and Cross Country Route. Newcastle station is one of the busiest stations in Britain.NEWS, Lognonne, Ruth, Newcastle Central Station's new look is unveiled, The Journal, thejournal.co.uk, 7 April 2014,weblink 24 June 2014, In 2014, work was completed on the station's historic entrance. Glazing was placed over the historic arches and the Victorian architecture was enhanced; transforming the 19th century public portico. The station is one of only six Grade One listed railway stations in the UK. Opened in 1850 by Queen Victoria, it was the first covered railway station in the world and was much copied across the UK. It has a neoclassical façade, originally designed by the architect John Dobson, and was constructed in collaboration with Robert Stephenson.WEB, Trainshed, Central Station, Newcastle, victorianweb.org,weblink 20 July 2006, 8 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071212011548weblink">weblink 12 December 2007, WEB, The Life of Robert Stephenson – a Timeline, robertstephensontrust.com,weblink 8 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071204082741weblink">weblink 4 December 2007, The station sightlines towards the Castle Keep, whilst showcasing the curvature of the station's arched roof. The first services were operated by the North Eastern Railway company. The city's other mainline station, Manors, is to the east of the city centre.Train operator London North Eastern RailwayNEWS, Passengers see East Coast switch, BBC News,weblink 8 December 2007, 8 December 2007, provides a half-hourly frequency of trains to London King's Cross, with a journey time of about three hours, and north to Scotland with all trains calling at Edinburgh Waverley and a small number of trains extended to Glasgow Central, Aberdeen and Inverness.WEB,weblink Bookmarking East Coast > East Coast, Nationalexpresseastcoast.com, 4 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217142957weblink">weblink 17 December 2008, CrossCountry trains serve destinations in Yorkshire, the Midlands and the South West. TransPennine Express operates services to Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street. Northern provides local and regional services.

Metro

File:Haymarket - completion (platform).JPG|thumb|Haymarket Metro stationHaymarket Metro station(File:Tyne and Wear Metro Map.svg|thumb|Map of the Tyne and Wear Metro)The city is served by the Tyne & Wear Metro, a system of suburban and underground railways covering much of Tyne & Wear. It was opened in five phases between 1980 and 1984, and was Britain's first urban light rail transit system;WEB, History of public transport, nexus.org.uk,weblink 14 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070926225849weblink">weblink 26 September 2007, dead, two extensions were opened in 1991 and 2002.WEB, Tyne and Wear Metro, nexus.org.uk,weblink 14 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929091637weblink">weblink 29 September 2007, dead, It was developed from a combination of existing and newly built tracks and stations, with deep-level tunnels constructed through Newcastle city centre.WEB, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, urbanrail.net,weblink 14 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118230522weblink">weblink 18 January 2008, WEB, Tyne and Wear Metro, thetrams.co.uk,weblink 14 January 2008, A bridge was built across the Tyne, between Newcastle and Gateshead, and opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1981.WEB, SINE Project, Structure Details for Queen Elizabeth II Bridge, Newcastle University,weblink 14 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515144420weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, The network, operated directly by Nexus, carries over 37 million passengers a year,WEB, Getting Around, newcastlegateshead.com,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061123234635weblink">weblink dead, 23 November 2006, 14 January 2008, extending as far as Newcastle Airport, Tynemouth, South Shields and South Hylton in Sunderland.WEB, Metro Map (Large), nexus.org.uk,weblink 14 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080113234918weblink">weblink 13 January 2008, dead, In 2004, the company Marconi designed and constructed the mobile radio system to the underground Metro system.WEB
, Mobile Coverage to Newcastle Metro System
, Marconi undertook the negotiation, feasibility, design and construct of the mobile radio system to the underground parts of the Newcastle Metro.
, paul-walton.co.uk
,weblink
, 28 February 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110824032316weblink">weblink
, 24 August 2011
, dmy-all
, The Metro system was the first in the UK to have mobile phone antennae installed in the tunnels.NEWS
, Mobile sounds of the underground
, it would be the first time complete coverage had been provided to a UK underground system.
, BBC
, 17 February 2004
,weblink
, 28 February 2011,
The Metro consists of two lines. The Green line starts at Newcastle Airport, goes through the city centre and into Sunderland, terminating at South Hylton. The yellow line starts at St James, runs north of the river alongside Byker towards Whitley Bay, before returning to the city, on to Gateshead Interchange and terminates at South Shields.The system is currently undergoing a period of refurbishment and modernisation, entitled '(Tyne and Wear Metro#Current developments|Metro: All Change).' The programme has replaced all ticket machines and introduced ticket gates at the busiest stations – part of the transition to smart ticketing. All Metro trains are being completely refurbished and most stations are undergoing improvement works (or in some cases complete reconstruction, for example North Shields). In addition; tracks, signalling and overhead wires are also being overhauled.WEB, Metro: all change, nexus.org.uk, 2014,weblink 27 November 2014, Longer term plans include the procurement of an entirely new fleet of trains and further extensions to the system. Proposed routes include to Newcastle's west end, to the Cobalt business park in North Tyneside, to the Metrocentre in Gateshead and to additional locations in Gateshead, South Tyneside and Sunderland. Several of the proposed routes would require trams as opposed to the current light rail trains.WEB, Lognonne, Ruth, Government agrees to talks on Tyne and Wear Metro expansion, thejournal.co.uk, 9 May 2014,weblink 27 November 2014,

Road

Major roads in the area include the A1 (Gateshead Newcastle Western Bypass), stretching north to Edinburgh and south to London; the A19 heading south past Sunderland and Middlesbrough to York and Doncaster; the A69 heading west to Carlisle; the A696, which becomes the A68 heads past Newcastle Airport and up through central Northumberland and central Scottish Borders, the A167, the old "Great North Road", heading south to Gateshead, Chester-le-Street, Durham and Darlington; and the A1058 "Coast Road", which runs from Jesmond to the east coast between Tynemouth and Cullercoats. Many of these designations are recent—upon completion of the Western Bypass, and its designation as the new line of the A1, the roads between this and the A1's former alignment through the Tyne Tunnel were renumbered, with many city centre roads changing from a 6-prefixWEB, Newcastle Map Scans, rural-roads.co.uk,weblink 9 December 2007, to their present 1-prefix numbers. In November 2011 the capacity of the Tyne Tunnel was increased when a project to build a second road tunnel and refurbish the first tunnel was completed.WEB,weblink New Tyne Crossing Web-site, 16 January 2012,

Bus

File:Haymarket Bus Station.jpg|thumb|Haymarket bus stationHaymarket bus stationThere are three main bus companies providing services in the city; Arriva North East, Go North East and Stagecoach North East. There are two major bus stations in the city: Haymarket bus station and Eldon Square bus station. Arriva mainly operates from Haymarket bus station providing the majority of services to the north of Newcastle, Northumberland and North Tyneside. Go-Ahead operates from Eldon Square bus station, providing the majority of services south of the river in Gateshead, South Tyneside, Sunderland, and County Durham. Stagecoach is the primary operator in the city proper, with cross-city services mainly between both the West and East ends via the city centre with some services extending out to the MetroCentre, Killingworth, Wallsend and Ponteland. Bus services in Newcastle upon Tyne and the surrounding boroughs part of the Tyne & Wear area are coordinated by Nexus, the Tyne & Wear Passenger Transport Executive.WEB, Nexus – Bus, nexus.org.uk,weblink 13 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071228133453weblink">weblink 28 December 2007, dead, Other major departure points are Pilgrim Street for buses running south of the Tyne via Gateshead, and Blackett Street/Monument for services to the East or West of the city. Many bus services also pass Newcastle railway station, a major interchange for rail and metro services.WEB, Full timetable list, nexus.org.uk,weblink 13 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070826160756weblink">weblink 26 August 2007, dead, QuayLink is a bus service operated to the Quayside from Newcastle and Gateshead. Newcastle coach station, near the railway station, handles long distance bus services operated by National Express.

Cycle

Newcastle is accessible by several mostly traffic-free cycle routes that lead to the edges of the city centre, where cyclists can continue into the city by road, using no car lanes. The traffic-free C2C cycle route runs along the north bank of the River Tyne, enabling cyclists to travel off-road to North Shields and Tynemouth in the east, and westwards towards Hexham.Suburban cycle routes exist, which use converted trackbeds of former industrial wagonways and industrial railways. A network on Tyneside's suburban Victorian waggonways is being developed.WEB, Henderson, Tony, Memories appeal for Tyneside waggonways project, thejournal.co.uk, 20 December 2013,weblink 21 February 2014, A network of signed on-road cycle routes is being established, including some designated on-road cycle lanes that will lead from the city centre to the suburbs of Gosforth, Heaton and Wallsend.Newcastle has a growing culture of bicycle usage. Newcastle is also home to a cycling campaign, called the 'Newcastle Cycling Campaign.' The ideal of the organisation is to model other European cities like Amsterdam and Copenhagen.WEB, Welcome to Newcastle Cycling Campaign, newcycling.org,weblink 4 September 2013, The aims of the organisation, within the constitution are: To raise the profile of cycling, especially utility cycling around the city; to educate decision makers over the benefits of cycling; to promote equality.WEB, Annual Report 2012/13, newcycling.org,weblink 4 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223174430weblink">weblink 23 February 2014, Following guidelines set in the National Cycling strategy, Newcastle first developed its cycling strategy in 1998.WEB, Delivering Cycling Improvements in Newcastle A ten-year strategy 2011–22 – Background, newcycling.org,weblink 21 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223172137weblink">weblink 23 February 2014, {{As of|2012}}, the local council social aims and objectives for cycling include: highlighting the usage of cycling to cut city congestion; educating that cycling promotes healthy living...WEB, Delivering Cycling Improvements in Newcastle A ten-year strategy 2011–22 – Vision, aims and objectives, newcycling.org,weblink 21 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223172137weblink">weblink 23 February 2014, The authority also has infrastructure aims and objectives which include: developing on road cycle networks on quieter streets; making safer routes on busier streets; innovating and implementing contraflows on one way streets; developing the existing off-road cycle route networks and improve signage; joining up routes that are partially or completely isolated; Increase the number of cycle parking facilities; working with employers to integrate cycling into workplace travel plans; link the local networks to national networks.

Water

From Newcastle International Ferry Terminal, at North Shields, Danish DFDS Seaways runs a service to IJmuiden (near Amsterdam).WEB, Ferry to Holland,weblink DFDS Seaways, 14 August 2017, The DFDS ferry service to Gothenburg, Sweden, ceased at the end of October 2006 and their service to Bergen and Stavanger, Norway was terminated late 2008. The company cited high fuel prices and new competition from low-cost air services as the cause. Since summer 2007, Thomson cruise lines have included Newcastle as a departure port on its Norwegian and Fjords cruise.NEWS,weblink DFDS scraps Newcastle-Gothenburg line, The Local, 7 September 2006, 21 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070828100914weblink">weblink 28 August 2007, (File:Millennium Bridge Newcastle.jpg|thumb|Millennium Bridge)

Education

{{See also|List of schools in Newcastle upon Tyne}}Newcastle has 74 primary schools and 20 secondary school around the city as a whole. There are 13 LEA-funded and 7 independent schools in Newcastle.There are a number of successful state schools, including Walker Technology College, Gosforth High School, Heaton Manor School, St Cuthbert's High School, St Mary's Catholic Comprehensive School, Kenton School, George Stephenson High School, Sacred Heart, Excelsior Academy, Walbottle Campus, Discovery School and Benfield School.The largest co-educational independent school is the Royal Grammar School. The largest girls' independent school is Newcastle High School for Girls. Both schools are located on the same street in Jesmond. Newcastle School for Boys is the only independent boys' only school in the city and is situated in Gosforth. Other independent schools include Dame Allan's School and Emmanuel College, Gateshead.Newcastle College is the largest general further education college in the North East and is a Beacon Status college; there are two smaller colleges in the Newcastle area. Newcastle Sixth Form College is also very well established and sends almost 300 students to university annually.

Tertiary

(File:University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.jpg|thumb|left|Newcastle has one of the country's largest universities for research)The city has two universities – Newcastle University and Northumbria University. Newcastle University has its origins in the School of Medicine and Surgery, established in 1834 and became independent from Durham University on 1 August 1963 to form the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle University is usually classed as a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of research-intensive UK universities.WEB,weblink The Russell Group, The Russell Group, 29 March 2008, WEB, History, Newcastle University,weblink 22 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070912093004weblink">weblink 12 September 2007, dead, It won the Sunday Times University of the Year award in 2000.NEWS, Alastair, McCall, King of the Castle, Reprint on Newcastle University's website, Sunday Times,weblink 17 September 2000, 22 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070918021604weblink">weblink 18 September 2007, dead, Northumbria University has its origins in the Newcastle Polytechnic, established in 1969 and became the University of Northumbria at Newcastle in 1992 as part of the UK-wide process in which polytechnics became new universities. Northumbria University was voted 'Best New University' by The Times Good University Guide 2005.

Religious sites

File:Newcastle upon Tyne, England.jpg|thumb|upright|St Nicholas' Cathedral, as seen from the Castle ]]{{See also|Diocese of Newcastle|Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle|North East Jewry}}Newcastle has three cathedrals, the Anglican St Nicholas‘, with its elegant lantern tower of 1474, the Roman Catholic St Mary's designed by Augustus Welby Pugin and the Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Fenham.WEB,weblink Coptic Orthodox Faith Contacts – North East Religious Learning Resources Centre, Resourcescentreonline.co.uk, 4 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120910090721weblink">weblink 10 September 2012, All three cathedrals began their lives as parish churches. St Mary's became a cathedral in 1850 and St Nicholas' in 1882. Another prominent church in the city centre is the Church of St Thomas the Martyr which is the only parish church in the Church of England without a parish and which is not a peculiar.One of the largest evangelical Anglican churches in the UK is Jesmond Parish Church, situated a little to the north of the city centre.Newcastle is home to the only Bahá'í Centre in North East England; the centre has served the local Bahá'í community for over 25 years and is located close to the Civic Centre in Jesmond.Newcastle was a prominent centre of the Plymouth Brethren movement up to the 1950s, and some small congregations still function. Among these are at the Hall, Denmark Street and Gospel Hall, St Lawrence.The Parish Church of St Andrew is traditionally recognised as 'the oldest church in this town'.WEB, St. andrews church, Bourne, indeed, is of opinion that it was built before king David was born; because, according to tradition, it is the oldest church in town, and St. Nicholas', it is admitted, was erected before the time of king Henry I. But as the church of St. Nicholas was burnt down in 1216, this church may be the oldest ecclesiastical building in Newcastle..., british-history.ac.uk (From: 'St Andrew's church', Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne...(1827), pp. 323–341.)
, 1827
,weblink 15 August 2012, The present building was begun in the 12th Century and the last addition to it, apart from the vestries, was the main porch in 1726.WEB, The Parish Church of St Andrew
, standrewsnewcastle.org.uk
,weblink
Hexham Abbey>Priory church at Hexham. The building contains more old stonework than any other church in Newcastle. It is surrounded by the last of the ancient churchyards to retain its original character. Many key names associated with Newcastle's history worshipped and were buried here. The church tower received a battering during the Siege of Newcastle by the Scots who finally breached the Town Wall and forced surrender. Three of the cannonballs remain on site as testament to the siege.

Media

{{See also|List of television shows set in Newcastle upon Tyne}}Local newspapers that are printed in Newcastle include Trinity Mirror's Evening Chronicle and The Journal, the Sunday Sun as well as the Metro freesheet. The Crack is a monthly style and listings magazine similar to London's Time Out. The adult comic Viz originated in Jesmond and includes many references to Newcastle, and The Mag is a fanzine for Newcastle United supporters.(File:Tyne Tees, City Road.jpg|thumb|left|Two converted warehouses provided the base for Tyne Tees on City Road until 2005)ITV Tyne Tees was based at City Road for over 40 years after its launch in January 1959.WEB, Andrew, Bowden, City Road,weblink 1 May 2007, 17 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903142247weblink">weblink 3 September 2011, In 2005 it moved to a new facility on The Watermark business park next to the MetroCentre in Gateshead.WEB, A Fond Farewell, City Road,weblink 19 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080518003939weblink">weblink 18 May 2008, The entrance to studio 5 at the City Road complex gave its name to the 1980s music television programme, The Tube. BBC North East and Cumbria is located to the north of the city on Barrack Road, Spital Tongues, in a building known, as the result of its colouring, as the Pink Palace.WEB,weblink Take a look around, BBC Tyne, 21 September 2006, It is from here that the Corporation broadcasts the Look North television regional news programme and local radio station BBC Newcastle.Independent Local Radio stations include Metro Radio and sister station Metro 2 Radio, which are both based in a building on the Swan House roundabout on the north side of the Tyne Bridge. Capital North East broadcasts across Newcastle from its studios in nearby Wallsend.WEB, Capital FM North East,weblink 11 March 2012, {{dead link|date=April 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} Heart North East and Smooth North East both broadcast from Team Valley in Gateshead.WEB, A smooth star is born in the Northeast, 24 August 2007, GMG Radio,weblink 4 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114012809weblink">weblink 14 January 2009, NE1fm launched on 8 June 2007, the first full-time community radio station in the area.NEWS, Radio station launch, Evening Chronicle,weblink 7 July 2007, 21 September 2007, Newcastle Student Radio is run by students from both of the city's universities, broadcasting from Newcastle University's students' union building during term time.WEB, Student media, Newcastle University,weblink 22 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080330182738weblink">weblink 30 March 2008, Radio TynesideWEB
, Radio Tyneside
, radiotyneside.co.uk
,weblink
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120819083446weblink">weblink
, 19 August 2012
, dmy-all
, has been the voluntary hospital radio service for most hospitals across Newcastle and Gateshead since 1951, broadcasting on HospediaWEB
, Hospedia
, Newcastle NHS Hospedia page
,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120906034800weblink">weblink dead, 6 September 2012
, online, and also on 93.6 FM since July 201weblink also under a community radio licenceweblink city also has a Radio Lollipop station based at the Great North Children's Hospital in the Newcastle Royal Victoria Infirmary.Newcastle is one of the first in the UK to have its city centre covered by wireless internet access. It was developed and installed at the end of 2006 and went active in March 2007.NEWS, Newcastle joins UK 'wireless city' revolution, 24dash.com,weblink 29 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090109024413weblink">weblink 9 January 2009,

Notable people

Charles Avison, the leading British composer of concertos in the 18th century, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1709 and died there in 1770.WEB,weblink Newcastle Collections – Charles Avison, Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, was born in the city in 1923.NEWS,weblink London, The Independent, Paul, Vallely, Obituary: Cardinal Basil Hume, 18 June 1999, Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, was born in the city. Ironmaster, metallurgist, and member of parliament Isaac Lowthian Bell was born in the city in 1816. Other notable people born in or associated with Newcastle include: engineer and industrialist Lord Armstrong, engineer and father of the modern steam railways George Stephenson, his son, also an engineer, Robert Stephenson, engineer and inventor of the steam turbine Sir Charles Parsons, inventor of the incandescent light bulb Sir Joseph Swan, actor and comedian Rowan Atkinson, industrial designer Sir Jonathan Ive, who studied at Newcastle Polytechnic (now Northumbria University), modernist poet Basil Bunting,WEB, Bunting, Basil,weblink Title Page – Basil Bunting: Complete Poems, Bloodaxe Books, 4 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100309231748weblink">weblink 9 March 2010, and Lord Chief Justice Peter Taylor. Portuguese writer Eça de Queiroz was a diplomat in Newcastle from late 1874 until April 1879—his most productive literary period.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, London, Consul yourself, 22 December 2000, 7 April 2010, Former Prime Minister of Thailand Abhisit Vejjajiva,WEB,weblink Thai PM admits British nationality, The Guardian, was born in the city. Composer Agustín Fernández has been based in the city since 1995, teaching at Newcastle University and occasionally collaborating with Royal Northern Sinfonia.Musicians Cheryl, Eric Burdon, Sting, Mark Knopfler, the Lighthouse Family, Jeffrey Dunn, Brian Johnson, Alan Hull, Sakima, and Neil Tennant lived in Newcastle. Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch were both former pupils of Rutherford Grammar School,WEB, Lamb, Liz, I wanted to play clarinet, chroniclelive.co.uk, 5 June 2007,weblink 16 June 2015, actors Charlie Hunnam and James Scott,"Profile of James Scott". About.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013. entertainers Ant & Dec and international footballers Michael Carrick and Alan Shearer were born in Newcastle. Multiple circumnavigator David Scott Cowper, Nobel Prize winning physicist Peter Higgs, who researched the mass of subatomic particles,NEWS, Profile: Peter Higgs, BBC, 8 October 2013,weblink 8 October 2013, and Neville were born in the city. John Dunn, inventor of the keyed Northumbrian smallpipes, lived and worked in the city. Kathryn Tickell OBE, the celebrated Northumbrian piper and composer, has longstanding associations with Newcastle as a resident, frequent performer at Sage Gateshead and teacher at Newcastle University.Marc Smith (palaeographer) (born 1963), French palaeographer, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne.Freddy Shepherd was chairman of Newcastle United F.C. for ten years, and died at home in Jesmond.File:Alan Shearer 2008.jpg|Alan Shearer, former footballer an iconic Newcastle United player and the Premier League's all-time top goalscorer and England Captain.File:Cheryl Cole, Hastings.jpg|Cheryl, pop singer, former member of Girls Aloud and former The X Factor judge, previously known as Cheryl Tweedy (2002-2006), Cheryl Cole (2006-2014), and Cheryl Fernandez-Versini (2014-2015).File:Sting 2009 portrait.jpg|Musician and lead singer of rock band the Police, Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, better known by his stage name Sting, grew up in the Newcastle area.File:Rowan Atkinson 2011 2.jpg|Rowan Atkinson, actor best known for Mr. Bean, studied at Newcastle University.WEB, Rowan Atkinson biography, biography.com,weblink 7 February 2014, File:Jonathan Ive (OTRS).jpg|alt=Sir Jonathan Ive|Sir Jonathan Paul "Jony" Ive, British industrial designer who is the outgoing Chief Design Officer (CDO) of Apple, studied at Newcastle Polytechnic, now Northumbria University.File:Ant and Dec in Cardiff Bay.jpg|British television presenters and producers Anthony McPartlin and Declan Donnelly (Ant and Dec) were both born in Newcastle.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom}}Newcastle upon Tyne is twinned with:{|class="wikitable" valign="top"|
  • {{flagicon|AUS}} Newcastle, AustraliaWEB,weblink Newcastle, Australia, Newcastle City Council, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110109123618weblink">weblink 9 January 2011,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Atlanta, United States (1977)WEB,weblink 2003 Annual Report, Atlanta Sister Cities Commission, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100713040712weblink">weblink 13 July 2010,
  • {{flagicon|NOR}} Bergen (1968)WEB,weblink Bergen, Norway, Newcastle City Council, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081227021254weblink">weblink 27 December 2008, {{Citation | last = NRK | title = Prime Minister cuts Christmas tree for Newcastle | newspaper = The Norway Post | date = 13 November 2013 | url =weblink | accessdate = 8 October 2016}}
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Gelsenkirchen, Germany (1948)WEB,weblink Gelsenkirchen and Newcastle celebrate 60 years as sister cities, German Consulate General Edinburgh, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091002023910weblink">weblink 2 October 2009,
  • {{flagicon|NED}} Groningen, NetherlandsWEB,weblink City Twinning – Newcastle upon Tyne, Gemeente Groningen, 18 July 2010,
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Haifa, IsraelWEB,weblink Haifa, Israel, Newcastle City Council, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110109122501weblink">weblink 9 January 2011,
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Nancy, France (1954)WEB,weblink Nancy, France, Newcastle City Council, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100124065509weblink">weblink 24 January 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130705094933weblink">weblink British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com], 20 July 2013, 5 July 2013, Archant Community Media Ltd,
  • {{flagicon|IDN}} Singkawang, Indonesia {{citation needed|reason=town not shown on Newcastle's own website listing|date=August 2015}}
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Elbasan, Albania

Other friendship agreements

Newcastle also has a "friendship agreement" with Little Rock, United States.PRESS RELEASE, NINE YOUTH FROM LITTLE ROCK DEPART FOR VISIT TO NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, UNITED KINGDOM, 9 July 2007, City of Little Rock,weblink 4 February 2008, And, since 2003, a "special cooperation agreement" with Malmö, Sweden.WEB,weblink Vänorter, Malmö stad, Swedish, 6 November 2013, Furthermore, Newcastle participated in the 1998 summit of worldwide Newcastle (disambiguation)|cities named "New Castle"]weblink which built friendships with:{{flagicon|England}} Newcastle-under-Lyme, England{{flagicon|USA}} New Castle, Indiana, USA{{flagicon|USA}} New Castle, Pennsylvania, USA{{flagicon|USA}} New Castle, Delaware, USA{{flagicon|Germany}} Neuburg an der Donau, Germany{{flagicon|Switzerland}} Neuchâtel, Switzerland{{flagicon|Japan}} Shinshiro, Japan{{flagicon|South Africa}} Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa{{flagicon|France}} Neufchâteau, France

Foreign consulates

The following countries have consular representation in Newcastle: Denmark,WEB
,weblink
, Danish Consulates and Vice-Consulates in the UK – Newcastle Upon Tyne
, storbritannien.um.dk
, storbritannien
, 19 February 2018, Finland, Romania,
Belgium,WEB, Consulate of Belgium in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, belgium.visahq.co.uk,weblink 21 May 2012, France,WEB
, Honorary Consul in Newcastle -Upon-Tyne
, ambafrance-uk.org
,weblink
, 12 May 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130517050139weblink">weblink
, 17 May 2013
, dmy-all
, Germany,WEB
, Regional PAC chairman, Jo Chexal, honoured
, soroptimist-ukpac.org
, 12 May 2009
,weblink
, 21 May 2012
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130413133431weblink">weblink
, 13 April 2013
, dead
, dmy-all
, Iceland,WEB, Iceland Consulate, United Kingdom, iceland.visahq.co.uk,weblink 21 May 2012, Italy,WEB, Honorary Consulate of Italy in Newcastle, embassy-finder,weblink 21 May 2012, Norway,WEB, Bestowing the Order of Merit on the Honorary Norwegian Vice-Consul in Newcastle Upon Tyne, Norway.org.uk, 18 May 2012,weblink 21 May 2012, and Sweden.WEB, Sweden Consulate, United Kingdom, sweden.visahq.co.uk,weblink 21 May 2012,

See also

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

External links

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