Anglican Communion

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Anglican Communion
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{{About|churches in full communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury|the Christian tradition originating in the Church of England|Anglicanism}}{{Redirect|The Anglican Church||Anglican Church (disambiguation)}}{{short description|International association of churches}}{{Use British English|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2015}}

| footnotes = }}{{AnglicanCommunion}}The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million membersThe Anglican Communion official website - "Provincial Registry"{{sfn|Worsley|2015}} within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion.WEB,weblink St Francis of Assisi Episcopal Church History, 20 July 2012, 11 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 15 August 2012, dead, The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury (currently Justin Welby) in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares ("first among equals"), but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England.The Anglican Communion was founded at the Lambeth Conference in 1867 in London, England, under the leadership of Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. The churches of the Anglican Communion consider themselves to be part of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church, and to be both catholic and reformed. Although aligned with the Church of England, the communion has a multitude of beliefs, liturgies, and practices, including evangelical, liberal and Anglo-Catholic. Each retains their own legislative process and episcopal polity under the leadership of local primates. For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without guiding figure such as Luther, Knox, Calvin, Zwingli or Wesley,{{sfn|Avis|1998|pp=417–419}} or for yet others a combination of the two.Most of its 85 million members live in the Anglosphere of former British territories. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant members. Due to their historical link to England (Ecclesia Anglicana means "English Church"), some of the member churches are known as "Anglican", such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Others, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches have official names which do not include "Anglican". (Additionally, there are now breakaway churches called "Anglican" which are not of the Communion.)

Ecclesiology, polity and ethos

{{Unreferenced section|date=June 2010}}The Anglican Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but it only serves in a supporting and organisational role. The communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology, polity and ethos and also by participation in international consultative bodies.Three elements have been important in holding the communion together: first, the shared ecclesial structure of the component churches, manifested in an episcopal polity maintained through the apostolic succession of bishops and synodical government; second, the principle of belief expressed in worship, investing importance in approved prayer books and their rubrics; and third, the historical documents and the writings of early Anglican divines that have influenced the ethos of the communion.Originally, the Church of England was self-contained and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure and its status as an established church of the state. As such Anglicanism was, from the outset, a movement with an explicitly episcopal polity, a characteristic which has been vital in maintaining the unity of the communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism.Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, called the Book of Common Prayer. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine (such as the Westminster Confession of the Presbyterian churches). Instead, Anglicans have typically appealed to the Book of Common Prayer (1662) and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and practise. This had the effect of inculcating the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi (Latin loosely translated as "the law of praying [is] the law of believing") as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession.Protracted conflict through the 17th century with radical Protestants on the one hand and Catholics who recognised the primacy of the Pope on the other, resulted in an association of churches that were both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation. These parameters were most clearly articulated in the various rubrics of the successive prayer books, as well as the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion (1563). These articles have historically shaped and continue to direct the ethos of the communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians such as Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes and John Cosin.With the expansion of the British Empire, and hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity. The first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communion's bishops, first convened in 1867 by Charles Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury. From the beginning, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action."Davidson, R. T. (Ed.). (1889). The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 1878, and 1888: With the Official Reports and Resolutions Together with the Sermons Preached at the Conferences. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

Chicago Lambeth Quadrilateral

One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican identity. It establishes four principles with these words:
That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion:
(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. (b) The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. (c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's Words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him. (d) The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church.The Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church, Seabury Press, 1979, p. 877

Instruments of communion

{{More citations needed section|date=June 2010}}As mentioned above, the Anglican Communion has no international juridical organisation. The Archbishop of Canterbury's role is strictly symbolic and unifying and the communion's three international bodies are consultative and collaborative, their resolutions having no legal effect on the autonomous provinces of the communion. Taken together, however, the four do function as "instruments of communion", since all churches of the communion participate in them. In order of antiquity, they are:File:Canterburycathedralthrone.jpg|thumb|The Chair of St Augustine (the episcopal throne in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent), seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury in his role as head of the Anglican Communion{{NoteTag|The Chair of St Augustine is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury in his role as head of the Anglican Communion. Archbishops of Canterbury are enthroned twice: firstly as diocesan ordinary (and Metropolitan and Primate of the Church of England) in the archbishop's throne, by the Archdeacon of CanterburyArchdeacon of Canterbury
  1. The Archbishop of Canterbury functions as the spiritual head of the communion.WEB, Anglican Communion,weblink, 4 October 2015, The archbishop is the focus of unity, since no church claims membership in the Communion without being in communion with him. The present archbishop is Justin Welby.
  2. The Lambeth ConferenceWEB, Anglican international bodies,weblink, 4 October 2015, (first held in 1867) is the oldest international consultation. It is a forum for bishops of the communion to reinforce unity and collegiality through manifesting the episcopate, to discuss matters of mutual concern, and to pass resolutions intended to act as guideposts. It is held roughly every 10 years and invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  3. The Anglican Consultative Council (first met in 1971) was created by a 1968 Lambeth Conference resolution, and meets usually at three-yearly intervals. The council consists of representative bishops, other clergy and laity chosen by the 38 provinces. The body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president.
  4. The Primates' Meeting (first met in 1979) is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop Donald Coggan as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation".{{Citation needed|date=July 2018}}
Since there is no binding authority in the Anglican Communion, these international bodies are a vehicle for consultation and persuasion. In recent times, persuasion has tipped over into debates over conformity in certain areas of doctrine, discipline, worship and ethics. The most notable example has been the objection of many provinces of the communion (particularly in Africa and Asia) to the changing acceptance of LGBTQ+ individuals in the North American churches (e.g., by blessing same-sex unions and ordaining and consecrating same-sex relationships) and to the process by which changes were undertaken. (See Anglican realignment)Those who objected condemned these actions as unscriptural, unilateral, and without the agreement of the communion prior to these steps being taken. In response, the American Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada answered that the actions had been undertaken after lengthy scriptural and theological reflection, legally in accordance with their own canons and constitutions and after extensive consultation with the provinces of the communion.The Primates' Meeting voted to request the two churches to withdraw their delegates from the 2005 meeting of the Anglican Consultative Council. Canada and the United States decided to attend the meeting but without exercising their right to vote. They have not been expelled or suspended, since there is no mechanism in this voluntary association to suspend or expel an independent province of the communion. Since membership is based on a province's communion with Canterbury, expulsion would require the Archbishop of Canterbury's refusal to be in communion with the affected jurisdictions. In line with the suggestion of the Windsor Report, Rowan Williams (the then Archbishop of Canterbury) established a working group to examine the feasibility of an Anglican covenant which would articulate the conditions for communion in some fashion.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-07-14,weblink Archbishop of Canterbury: address to General Synod on the Anglican Communion, ACNS, 7 July 2006,



File:AnglicanCommunionProvinces.png|thumb|left|upright=3.65|A world map showing the provinces of the Anglican Communion:{| border="0" width="100%"|{{legend|#128FE2|Autonomous churches}}{{legend|#FFF30A|Episcopal Church of the United States}}{{legend|#23A63B|Church in the Province of the West Indies}}{{legend|#1BC66A|Anglican Church in Central America}}{{legend|#A8E518|Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of America}}{{legend|#E5001C|Anglican Church of Southern Africa}}{{legend|#FD9BBD|Church of the Province of Central Africa}}{{legend|#FB00FF|Church of the Province of West Africa}}{{legend|#903093|Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East}}{{legend|#BCAFE1|Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean}}{{legend|#FC691F|Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia}}{{legend|#FEBF10|Church of the Province of Melanesia}}{{legend|#89D1E5|#A30017|Extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury}}{{legend|#FB006D|Church of the Province of South East Asia}}{{legend|#D9D9D9|No organised Anglican presence}}Note that the Church of Ireland serves both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and the Anglican Church of Korea serves South Korea and, theoretically, North Korea. Indian Anglicanism is divided into a Church of North India and a Church of South India. The Diocese in Europe (formally the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe), in the Province of Canterbury, is also present in Portugal and Spain. The Episcopal Church, USA affiliated Convocation of Episcopal Churches in Europe has affiliates in France, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and Kazakhstan.{{clear}}The Anglican communion consists of forty autonomous provinces each with its own primate and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa, or Southeast Asia).{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width: 100%;"! Provinces! Territorial Jurisdiction! data-sort-type="number"| Membership (in thousands of people) valign="top" Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia Aotearoa New Zealand, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga|469 valign="top" Anglican Church of Australia Australia|3,100 valign="top" Church of Bangladesh BangladeshWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil Brazil|120 valign="top" Province of the Anglican Church of Burundi BurundiWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Church of Canada Canada|1,600 valign="top" Church of the Province of Central Africa Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, ZimbabweWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Church in Central America Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama|35 valign="top" Anglican Church of Chile Chile|NA valign="top" Province of the Anglican Church of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of CongoWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Church of England England, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Europe|26,000 valign="top" Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Hong Kong, Macau|29 valign="top" Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles|505 valign="top" Church of Ireland Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland|410 valign="top" Nippon Sei Ko Kai JapanWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Algeria, Bahrain, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, YemenWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Church of Kenya Kenya|5,000 valign="top" Anglican Church of Korea South Korea, North Korea|65 valign="top" Anglican Church of Melanesia New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, VanuatuWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Church of Mexico Mexico|100 valign="top" Church of the Province of Myanmar MyanmarWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Church of Nigeria Nigeria|18,000 valign="top" Church of North India Bhutan, India|1,500 valign="top" Church of Pakistan PakistanWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea|167 valign="top" Episcopal Church in the Philippines PhilippinesWEBSITE=ARCHIVED.OIKOUMENE.ORG, 2016-06-14, valign="top" Province of the Anglican Church of Rwanda RwandaWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Scottish Episcopal Church Scotland|31 valign="top" Anglican Church of South America Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, UruguayWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Church of the Province of South East Asia Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam|98 valign="top" Church of South India India, Sri Lanka|3,800 valign="top" Province of the Episcopal Church of South Sudan South Sudan|3,500 valign="top" Anglican Church of Southern Africa Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa, Swaziland|3,000 - 4,000 valign="top" Province of the Episcopal Church of Sudan Sudan|1,100 valign="top" Anglican Church of Tanzania Tanzania|2,000 valign="top" Church of the Province of Uganda Uganda|8,000 valign="top" The Episcopal Church British Virgin Islands, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Europe, Guam, Haiti, Honduras, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, United States, United States Virgin Islands, Venezuela|1,836 valign="top" Church in Wales Wales| 84 valign="top" Church of the Province of West Africa Cameroon, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra LeoneWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14, valign="top" Church in the Province of the West Indies Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Eustatius, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos IslandsWEBSITE=WWW.OIKOUMENE.ORGACCESS-DATE=2016-06-14,

Extraprovincial churches

In addition to the forty provinces, there are five extraprovincial churches under the metropolitical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"! style="width: 50%;" | Extra-Provincial Church! style="width: 50%;" | Territorial Jurisdiction valign="top" Anglican Church of Bermuda Bermuda valign="top" Church of Ceylon Sri Lanka valign="top" Parish of the Falkland Islands Falkland Islands valign="top" Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Church Portugal valign="top" Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church Spain

Former provinces

{{Expand list|date=January 2019}}{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"! Province! Territorial Jurisdiction! Year Established! Year Dissolved valign="top" Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui China 1912 1949 valign="top" Church of Hawaii Hawaii 1862 1902 valign="top"Church of India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka 1930 1970 valign="top"Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} Confederate States of America 1861 1865 valign="top" United Church of England and Ireland England, Wales, Ireland 1800 1871

Churches in full communion

In addition to other member churches, the churches of the Anglican Communion are in full communion with the Old Catholic churches of the Union of Utrecht and the Scandinavian Lutheran churches of the Porvoo Communion in Europe, the India-based Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian and Malabar Independent Syrian churches and the Philippine Independent Church, also known as the Aglipayan Church.


{{more citations needed section|date=November 2014}}The Anglican Communion traces much of its growth to the older mission organisations of the Church of England such as the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (founded 1698), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (founded 1701) and the Church Missionary Society (founded 1799).WEB,weblink A brief history of CMS, 1999, Church Mission Society, 2 December 2012, Much of what we call the Anglican Communion today traces its origins to CMS work., {{NoteTag|Efforts to grow and develop the church in lands outside the British Isles began with the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1698) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701) but received a significant boost from the Church Mission Society (1799).{{sfn|Melton|2005|p=28}} }}{{NoteTag|The Church Missionary Society, originally called the Society for Missions to Africa and the East, was founded in 1799... Though later in date than the S.P.C.K. and the S.P.G. it became the first effective organ of the C. of E. for missions to the heathen... Its theology has been consistently Evangelical.{{sfn|Cross|1957|p=305}} }} The Church of England (which until the 20th century included the Church in Wales) initially separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 in the reign of King Henry VIII, reunited in 1555 under Queen Mary I and then separated again in 1570 under Queen Elizabeth I (the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated Elizabeth I in 1570 in response to the Act of Supremacy 1559).The Church of England has always thought of itself not as a new foundation but rather as a reformed continuation of the ancient "English Church" (Ecclesia Anglicana) and a reassertion of that church's rights. As such it was a distinctly national phenomenon. The Church of Scotland was formed as a separate church from the Roman Catholic Church as a result of the Scottish Reformation in 1560 and the later formation of the Scottish Episcopal Church began in 1582 in the reign of James VI of Scotland over disagreements about the role of bishops.The oldest-surviving Anglican church building outside the British Isles (Britain and Ireland) is St Peter's Church in St. George's, Bermuda, established in 1612 (though the actual building had to be rebuilt several times over the following century). This is also the oldest surviving non-Roman Catholic church in the New World. It remained part of the Church of England until 1978 when the Anglican Church of Bermuda separated. The Church of England was the established church not only in England, but in its trans-Oceanic colonies.Thus the only member churches of the present Anglican Communion existing by the mid-18th century were the Church of England, its closely linked sister church the Church of Ireland (which also separated from Roman Catholicism under Henry VIII) and the Scottish Episcopal Church which for parts of the 17th and 18th centuries was partially underground (it was suspected of Jacobite sympathies).

Global spread of Anglicanism

The enormous expansion in the 18th and 19th centuries of the British Empire brought Anglicanism along with it. At first all these colonial churches were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. After the American Revolution, the parishes in the newly independent country found it necessary to break formally from a church whose supreme governor was (and remains) the British monarch. Thus they formed their own dioceses and national church, the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in a mostly amicable separation.At about the same time, in the colonies which remained linked to the crown, the Church of England began to appoint colonial bishops. In 1787 a bishop of Nova Scotia was appointed with a jurisdiction over all of British North America; in time several more colleagues were appointed to other cities in present-day Canada. In 1814 a bishop of Calcutta was made; in 1824 the first bishop was sent to the West Indies and in 1836 to Australia. By 1840 there were still only ten colonial bishops for the Church of England; but even this small beginning greatly facilitated the growth of Anglicanism around the world. In 1841 a "Colonial Bishoprics Council" was set up and soon many more dioceses were created.In time, it became natural to group these into provinces and a metropolitan was appointed for each province. Although it had at first been somewhat established in many colonies, in 1861 it was ruled that, except where specifically established, the Church of England had just the same legal position as any other church. Thus a colonial bishop and colonial diocese was by nature quite a different thing from their counterparts back home. In time bishops came to be appointed locally rather than from England and eventually national synods began to pass ecclesiastical legislation independent of England.A crucial step in the development of the modern communion was the idea of the Lambeth Conferences (discussed above). These conferences demonstrated that the bishops of disparate churches could manifest the unity of the church in their episcopal collegiality despite the absence of universal legal ties. Some bishops were initially reluctant to attend, fearing that the meeting would declare itself a council with power to legislate for the church; but it agreed to pass only advisory resolutions. These Lambeth Conferences have been held roughly every 10 years since 1878 (the second such conference) and remain the most visible coming-together of the whole Communion.The Lambeth Conference of 1998 included what has been seen by Philip Jenkins and others as a "watershed in global Christianity". The 1998 Lambeth Conference considered the issue of the theology of same-sex attraction in relation to human sexuality. At this 1998 conference for the first time in centuries the Christians of developing regions, especially, Africa, Asia, and Latin America, prevailed over the bishops of more prosperous countries (many from the US, Canada, and the UK) who supported a redefinition of Anglican doctrine. Seen in this light 1998 is a date that marked the shift from a West-dominated Christianity to one wherein the growing churches of the two-thirds world are predominant,{{sfnm |1a1=Jenkins |1y=2002 |1pp=202–203 |2a1=Miller |2y=2014 |2p=68}} but the gay bishop controversy in subsequent years led to the reassertion of Western dominance, this time of the liberal variety.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}}

Ecumenical relations

{{details|topic=the ongoing dialogue between Anglicanism and the wider Church|Anglican Communion and ecumenism}}

Historic episcopate

The churches of the Anglican Communion have traditionally held that ordination in the historic episcopate is a core element in the validity of clerical ordinations.{{sfn|Whipple|Gilbert|Nichols|Wright|1896|p=}} The Roman Catholic Church, however, does not recognise Anglican orders (see Apostolicae curae).{{sfn|O'Riordan|1907}} Some Eastern Orthodox churches have issued statements to the effect that Anglican orders could be accepted, yet have still reordained former Anglican clergy; other Eastern Orthodox churches have rejected Anglican orders altogether. Orthodox bishop Kallistos Ware explains this apparent discrepancy as follows:}}


{{See also|Homosexuality and Anglicanism|Anglican realignment}}One effect of the communion's dispersed authority has been that conflict and controversy can arise over the effect divergent practices and doctrines in one part of the Communion have on others.{{sfn|McKinnon|Trzebiatowska|Brittain|2011|pp=355-37}} Disputes that had been confined to the Church of England could be dealt with legislatively in that realm, but as the Communion spread out into new nations and disparate cultures, such controversies multiplied and intensified. These controversies have generally been of two types: liturgical and social.{{sfn|Chapman|2006|p=}}


The first such controversy of note concerned that of the growing influence of the Catholic Revival manifested in the tractarian and so-called ritualism controversies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.{{sfn|Pickering|2008|p=}} This controversy produced the Free Church of England and, in the United States and Canada, the Reformed Episcopal Church.

Social changes

Later, rapid social change and the dissipation of British cultural hegemony over its former colonies contributed to disputes over the role of women, the parameters of marriage and divorce, and the practices of contraception and abortion.{{Citation needed|date=June 2010}} In the late 1970s, the Continuing Anglican movement produced a number of new church bodies in opposition to women's ordination, prayer book changes, and the new understandings concerning marriage.

Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy

More recently, disagreements over homosexuality have strained the unity of the communion as well as its relationships with other Christian denominations, leading to another round of withdrawals from the Anglican Communion.{{sfn|Brittain|McKinnon|2011}} Some churches were founded outside the Anglican Communion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, largely in opposition to the ordination of openly homosexual bishops and other clergy and are usually referred to as belonging to the Anglican realignment movement, or else as "orthodox" Anglicans.{{sfn|Brittain|McKinnon|2011}} These disagreements were especially noted when the Episcopal Church (US) consecrated an openly gay bishop in a same-sex relationship, Gene Robinson, in 2003, which led some Episcopalians to defect and found the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA); then, the debate re-ignited when the Church of England agreed to allow clergy to enter into same-sex civil partnerships in 2005.NEWS,weblink BBC NEWS {{!, UK {{!}} England {{!}} Beds/Bucks/Herts {{!}} Gay cleric's 'wedding' to partner||access-date=2017-06-21|date=August 2006}} The Church of Nigeria opposed the Episcopal Church's decision as well as the Church of England's approval for civil partnerships.WEB,weblink Revd Akinola's Response to Church of England Civil Partnerships Stance {{!, Christian News on Christian Today||language=en|access-date=2017-06-21}}"The more liberal provinces that are open to changing Church doctrine on marriage in order to allow for same-sex unions include Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, South India, South Africa, the US and Wales".NEWS, Church split over homosexuality would be a failure - Welby,weblink BBC, April 11, 2016, BBC News, 2016-01-11, The Church of England does not allow same-gender marriages or blessing rites, but does permit special prayer services for same-sex couples following a civil marriage or partnership.NEWS,weblink Church offers prayers after same-sex weddings - but bans gay priests from marrying,, 2016-06-14, 2014-02-15, Bingham, John, The Church of England also permits clergy to enter into same-sex civil partnerships.WEB,weblink Church of England General Synod extends pension rights for gay partners, Bates, Stephen, 2010-02-11, The Guardian, 2016-06-16, The Church of Ireland has no official position on civil unions, and one senior cleric has entered into a same-sex civil partnership.NEWS,weblink Minister Rev Tom Gordon civil partnership 'welcomed' - BBC News, en-GB, 2016-06-16, 2011-09-05, The Church of Ireland recognised that it will "treat civil partners the same as spouses."NEWS,weblink Listening process vital to bring gay, lesbian clergy in from margins, The Irish Times, 2017-06-21, en-US, The Anglican Church of Australia does not have an official position on homosexuality.NEWS,weblink BBC NEWS {{!, Special Reports {{!}} Anglican Church around the world||language=en-GB|access-date=2017-06-21|date=2008-07-15}}The conservative Anglican churches, encouraging the realignment movement, are more concentrated in the Global South. For example, the Anglican Church of Kenya, the Church of Nigeria and the Church of Uganda have opposed homosexuality.WEB,weblink Anglican church avoids split over gay rights – but liberals pay price, Sherwood, Harriet, 2016-01-14, The Guardian, 2016-06-16, GAFCON, a fellowship of conservative Anglican churches, has appointed "missionary bishops" in response to the disagreements with the perceived liberalisation in the Anglican churches in North America and Europe.WEB,weblink GAFCON considers a missionary bishop for UK,, 2017-06-21, Debates about social theology and ethics have occurred at the same time as debates on prayer book revision and the acceptable grounds for achieving full communion with non-Anglican churches.{{sfn|Ward|2006|p=}}

See also

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BOOK, Avis, Paul, 1998, What is 'Anglicanism'?, Booty, John E., Sykes, Stephen, Stephen Sykes, Knight, Jonathan, The Study of Anglicanism, rev., London, SPCK, 2004, 417–419, 978-1-4514-1118-8, harv
JOURNAL, Brittain, Christopher Craig, McKinnon, Andrew, 2011, Homosexuality and the Construction of "Anglican Orthodoxy": The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion, Sociology of Religion, 72, 3, 351–373, 1069-4404, 10.1093/socrel/srq088, 2164/3055, harv,weblink
BOOK, Chapman, Mark, 2006, Anglicanism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-157819-9, harv
BOOK, 1957, Cross, F. L., Frank Leslie Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, London, Oxford University Press, harv
BOOK, Jenkins, Philip, Philip Jenkins, 2002, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-803341-7, harv
JOURNAL, McKinnon, Andrew M., Trzebiatowska, Marta, Brittain, Christopher Craig, 2011, Bourdieu, Capital, and Conflict in a Religious Field: The Case of the 'Homosexuality' Conflict in the Anglican Communion, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 26, 3, 355–370, 1353-7903, 10.1080/13537903.2011.616033, 2164/4260, harv,weblink
BOOK, 2005, Anglican Communion/Anglican Consultative Council,weblink Melton, J. Gordon, J. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Encyclopedias of World Religions, New York, Facts on File, 27–29, 978-0-8160-6983-5, 11 October 2017, harv
JOURNAL, Miller, Duane Alexander, 2014, The Bricolage of Global Anglicanism,weblink Anglican and Episcopal History, 83, 1, 67–73, 0896-8039, 43049823, 2 February 2015, harv
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, O'Riordan, Michael, Michael O'Riordan (priest), Apostolicae Curae, 1, 644–645, 1, harv
BOOK, Pickering, W. S. F., 2008, Anglo-Catholicism: A Study in Religious Ambiguity, rev., Cambridge, England, James Clarke & Co., 978-0-227-67988-3, harv
BOOK, Ward, Kevin, 2006, A History of Global Anglicanism, Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-00866-2, harv
BOOK, Whipple, H. B., Henry Benjamin Whipple, Gilbert, M. N., Nichols, Harry P., Wright, John, Faude, John J., Ten Broeck, Wm. P., 1896, Unity and the Lambeth Declaration: Lectures Under the Auspices of the Minnesota Church Club, 1896,weblink Milwaukee, Wisconsin, The Young Churchman, 11 October 2017, harv
ENCYCLOPEDIA, Worsley, Howard, 2015, Anglican Church Christian Education, Kurian, George Thomas, Lamport, Mark A., Encyclopedia of Christian Education, 1, London, Rowman & Littlefield, 50, 978-0-8108-8493-9, harv

Further reading

Buchanan, Colin. Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism (2nd ed. 2015) excerpt BOOK, harv, D'Arcy, Charles Frederick, Jayne, Francis John, Paige Cox, W.L., Anglican Essays: A Collective Review of the Principles and Special Opportunities of the Anglican Communion as Catholic and Reformed : with Extracts from the Pastorals of the Late Bishop Jayne [Francis John Jayne],weblink 1923, Macmillan, BOOK, harv, Erwin, Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William, Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity,weblink Vol. 1, 1999, Eerdmans, 978-90-04-11316-9, 57–59, Hebert, A. G. The Form of the Church. London: Faber and Faber, 1944. Wild, John. What is the Anglican Communion?, in series, The Advent Papers. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, [196-]. Note.: Expresses the "Anglo-Catholic" viewpoint.

External links

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