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Astana
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{{short description|Capital of Kazakhstan}}{{use dmy dates|date=June 2013}}







factoids
| image_flag = New flag of Astana.svg| flag_link = Flag of Astana| image_shield = New coat of arms of Astana.svg| shield_link = Coat of arms of Astana| pushpin_map = Kazakhstan#Asia| pushpin_label_position = bottom| mapsize = 230px| map_caption = Location of Astana in Kazakhstan
51N26region:KZ|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = CountryKazakhstan}}| established_title = EstablishedPospelovpp=24–25}}Geographical renaming>RenamedPospelovpp=24–25}}| established_title3 = RenamedPospelovpp=24–25}}Mayor–council government>Mayor–Council| governing_body = City Council of AstanaMayor of Astana>Mayor| leader_name = Bakhyt Sultanov| area_total_km2 = 810.2| elevation_m = 347| population_total = 1,029,556| population_as_of = 1 December 2017| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = auto| population_metro = 1,200,000| population_metro_footnotes = | postal_code_type = Postal codeACCESSDATE=10 MARCH 2015, Postal Codes Database, ACCESSDATE=9 MARCH 2015, CountryCallingCodes.com, | website = {{Official URL}}| established_title4 = RenamedPospelovpp=24–25}}| established_title5 = RenamedURL=HTTP://ASTANA.GOV.KZ/EN/MODULES/MATERIAL/42 ACCESSDATE=6 OCTOBER 2014 ARCHIVE-DATE=7 OCTOBER 2014 DF=DMY-ALL, | established_title6 = RenamedPUBLISHER=KAZINFORM, 20 March 2019, Almaty Time>ALMT| utc_offset = +6| blank_name = ISO 3166-2ACCESSDATE=10 MARCH 2015, GeoNames.org, | blank1_name = License plateVehicle registration plates of Kazakhstan>01, Z}}Astana,{{efn|{{IPAc-en|ə|ˈ|s|t|ɑː|n|ə}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|æ|ˈ|-|,_|ɑː|ˈ|s|t|ɑː|n|ɑː}}, {{IPAc-en|UK|æ|ˈ|s|t|æ|n|ə}};AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Astana, 9 April 2019, WEB,weblink Astana, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 9 April 2019, "Astana" (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Astana, 9 April 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Astana, 9 April 2019, ; .}} renamed in 2019 to Nur-Sultan,{{efn|; .}} is the capital city of Kazakhstan. It is located on the banks of the Ishim River in the northern portion of Kazakhstan, within the Akmola Region, though administered separately from the region as a city with special status. The 2017 official estimate reported a population of 1,029,556 within the city limits, making it the second-largest city in Kazakhstan, behind Almaty. Astana became the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997, and since then has developed economically into one of the most modernized cities in Central Asia.NEWS, Astana, a city of modern structures,weblink Jakarta Times, NEWS, Astana, Kazakhstan: the space station in the steppes,weblink The Guardian, On 23 March 2019, following a unanimous vote in Kazakhstan's parliament, the city was renamed Nur-Sultan, after former president Nursultan Nazarbayev.WEB,weblink Новый президент Казахстана подписал указ о переименовании Астаны в Нур-Султан, meduza.io, Russian, 2019-03-23, WEB,weblink It's Official: Kazakh Capital Now Called Nur-Sultan, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, en, 2019-03-23, WEB,weblink О переименовании города Астаны – столицы Республики Казахстан в город Нур-Султан – столицу Республики Казахстан — Официальный сайт Президента Республики Казахстан, Akorda.kz, 2019-03-23, Modern Astana is a planned city, much like other other planned capitals.WEB, The Guardian, Astana, Kazakhstan: the space station in the steppes,weblink 8 August 2010, 20 February 2015, After Astana became the capital of Kazakhstan, the city cardinally changed its shape. The master plan of Astana was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. As the seat of the Government of Kazakhstan, Astana is the site of the Parliament House, the Supreme Court, the Ak Orda Presidential Palace and numerous government departments and agencies. It is home to many futuristic buildings, hotels and skyscrapers.WEB, The New York Times, Steven Lee Myers, Kazakhstan’s Futuristic Capital, Complete With Pyramid,weblink 13 October 2006, 6 October 2014, WEB, The Guardian, Astana, the futuristic frontier of architecture,weblink 8 August 2010, 6 October 2014, WEB, CNN, Astana: The world's weirdest capital city, Daisy Carrington,weblink 13 July 2012, 6 October 2014, Astana also has extensive healthcare, sports and education systems.

Etymology

Founded in 1830 as a settlement of Akmoly or Akmolinsky prikaz (), it served as a defensive fortification for the Siberian Cossacks. In 1832 the settlement was granted a town status and renamed Akmolinsk (). On 20 March 1961 the city was renamed Tselinograd () to mark the city's evolution as a cultural and administrative center of the Virgin Lands Campaign.BOOK, The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 1994, Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 20,weblink en, In 1992 it was renamed Akmola, the modified original name meaning "white grave".BOOK, Kazakhstan, 7 September 2018, Bradt Travel Guides; Third edition, 978-1784770921, 71, Paul Brummell, dmy-all, On 10 December 1997 Akmola replaced Almaty as the capital of Kazakhstan. On 6 May 1998 it was renamed Astana, which means "capital city" in Kazakh. On 20 March 2019, the capital again was renamed from Astana to its current name Nur-Sultan in honor of the long-serving Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev.WEB, Kazakh capital name changes to 'Nur-Sultan' in honor of former president,weblink MEHR News Agency, 23 March 2019, WEB, Nursultan, not Astana — Kazakhstan renames capital to honor Nazarbayev,weblink Deutsche Welle, 23 March 2019,

History

(File:Akmolinsk Fortress Map.jpg|thumb|left|Akmolinsk Fortress map)

Russian Imperial era (1830–1918)

The settlement of Akmoly, also known as Akmolinsky prikaz,{{sfn|Pospelov|1993|pp=24–25}} was established on the Ishim River in 1830 as the seat of an okrug by a unit of the Siberian Cossacks headed by Fyodor Shubin.WEB, ru:"От центра окружного приказа до столицы Казахстана" (краткий исторический обзор истории столицы), From the center of district order to the capital of Kazakhstan (short historical overview of the history of the capital),weblink Archive and Documentation Department of Astana, ru, 23 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150123193140weblink">weblink 23 January 2015, The name was possibly given after a local landmark—Akmola literally means "a white grave" in Kazakh—although this theory is not universally accepted.{{sfn|Pospelov|1993|pp=24–25}} In 1832, the settlement was granted town status and named Akmolinsk.{{sfn|Pospelov|1993|pp=24–25}} The fairly advantageous position of the town was clear as early as 1863 in an abstract from the Geographic and Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire. It describes how picket roads and lines connected this geographic center to Kargaly in the East, Aktau fort in the South and through Atbasar to Kokchetav in the West. In 1838, at the height of the great national and liberation movement headed by Kenesary Khan, Akmolinsk fortress was burned.WEB, e-history.kz, Revolt of 1837—1847 under the leadership of khan Kenesary,weblink 13 January 2015, After the repression of the liberation movement, the fortress was rebuilt. On 16 July 1863, Akmolinsk was officially declared an uyezd town.WEB, e-history.kz, History of Astana,weblink 13 January 2015, During the rapid development of the Russian capitalist market, the huge Saryarka areas were actively exploited by the colonial administration. To draft regulation governing the Kazakh Steppe the Government of the Russian Empire formed Steppe Commission in 1865.WEB, e-history.kz, The social and economic relations in Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century,weblink 13 January 2015, On 21 October 1868, Tsar Alexander II signed a draft Regulation on governing Turgay, Ural, Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk Oblasts. In 1869, Akmolinsk external district and department were cancelled, and Akmolinsk became the center of the newly established Akmolinsk Oblast.{{fact|date=March 2019}} In 1879, Major General Dubelt proposed to build a railway between Tyumen and Akmolinsk to the Ministry of Communications of Russia. {{fact|date=March 2019}} In the course of the first 30 years of its existence, the population of Akmola numbered a trifle more than 2,000 people. However, over the next 30 years the city's population increased by three times according to volosts and settlements of the Akmolinsk Oblast. In 1893, Akmolinsk was an uyezd with a 6,428 strong population, 3 churches, 5 schools and colleges and 3 factories.{{fact|date=March 2019}}

Soviet era (1918–1991)

During World War II, Akmolinsk served as a route for the transport of engineering tools and equipment from evacuated plants in the Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, and Russian SFSR located in the oblasts of the Kazakh SSR. Local industries were appointed to respond to war needs, assisting the country to provide the battle and home fronts with all materials needed. In the post-war years, Akmolinsk became a beacon of economic revival in the west of the Soviet Union ruined by the war. Additionally, many Russian-Germans were resettled here after being deported under Joseph Stalin's rule.WEB, S. Kurmanova, Deportation of Volga Germans to Kazakhstan: Causes and Consequences,weblink 13 January 2015, e-history.kz, PDF, In 1954, Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts became a territory of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev, in order to turn the region into a second grain producer for the Soviet Union.)BOOK, Kazakhstan, 7 September 2018, Bradt Travel Guides; Third edition, 978-1784770921, 71, Paul Brummell, dmy-all, WEB, Ian MacWilliam, In Virgin Lands, a Dream Ends,weblink 20 April 1994, 13 January 2015, The Moscow Times, In December 1960, Central Committee made a resolution to create the Tselinniy Krai, which comprised five regions of the Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=293}} Akmolinsk Oblast was ceased to exist as a separate administrative entity.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=293}} Its districts were directly subordinated to the new krai administration, and Akmolinsk became the krai capital, as well as the administrative seat of the new Virgin Lands economic region.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=293}} On 14 March 1961, Khrushchev proposed to rename the city to name corresponding to its role in the Virgin Lands Campaign.{{sfn|Khrushchev|2010|p=739}} On 20 March 1961, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR renamed Akmolinsk to Tselinograd.{{sfn|Khrushchev|2010|p=739}} On 24 April 1961, the region was reconstituted as Tselinograd Oblast.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=293}} In the 1960s, Tselinograd was completely transformed. In 1963, work on the first three new high-rise housing districts began.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=295}} In addition, the city received a number of new monumental public buildings, including the Virgin Lands Palace, a Palace of Youth, a House of Soviets, a new airport, and several sports venues.{{sfn|Kozlov|Gilburd|2013|p=296}} In 1971, the Tselinniy Krai was abolished and Tselinograd became the center of the oblast.{{fact|date=March 2019}}

Contemporary era (1991–present)

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the consequent independence of Kazakhstan, the city's original form was restored in the modified form Akmola.{{sfn|Pospelov|1993|pp=24–25}} On 6 July 1994, the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan adopted the decree "On the transfer of the capital of Kazakhstan".WEB, e-history.kz, Astana – the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan,weblink 23 February 2015, After the capital of Kazakhstan was moved to Akmola on 10 December 1997, the city was consequently renamed Astana in 1998.NEWS,weblink Timeline: Kazakhstan, BBC News, 31 January 2012, 24 November 2013, On 10 June 1998, Astana was presented as the capital internationally.WEB,weblink Astana – the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Official site of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 10 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317063010weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, On 16 July 1999, Astana was awarded the medal and title of the City of Peace by UNESCO. On 19 March 2019, the Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev resigned, and on 23 March the city was renamed Nur-Sultan.NEWS, Politics this week,weblink 24 March 2019, The Economist, 23 March 2019, 7, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan’s strongman president of 30 years, resigned abruptly. He retains considerable influence; his daughter is the new chairman of the Senate and the constitution gives him lifetime immunity from prosecution. The capital, Astana, is to be renamed Nursultan after him.,

Geography

{{refimprove section|date=March 2019}}(File:Astana (Kazakhstan), satellite image 2017-07-24.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Satellite image of Astana and vicinities)

Topography

Astana is located in central Kazakhstan on the Ishim River in a very flat, semi-arid steppe region which covers most of the country's territory. It is at 51° 10' north latitude and 71° 26' east longitude. The city encompasses {{convert|722.0|sqkm|1}}. The elevation of Astana is {{convert|347|m}} above sea level. Astana is in a spacious steppe landscape, in the transitional area between the north of Kazakhstan and the extremely thinly settled national center, because of the Ishim River. The older boroughs lie north of the river, whilst the new boroughs are located south of the Ishim.

Time

The time offset from the UTC used by Astana is 6 hours after UTC, or (UTC+06:00|UTC+6:00). This is also used by most of Kazakhstan and Almaty.

Climate

Astana is the second-coldest national capital in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, a position formerly held by Canada's capital, Ottawa, until Astana, attained capital city status in 1997.WEB, The Mongolist, Brian White, Ulaanbaatar is the Coldest Capital,weblink 9 January 2013, 19 February 2015, WEB, Canada.com, Still the third-coldest capital, despite balmy temperatures,weblink 4 January 2007, 19 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150606224805weblink">weblink 6 June 2015, dmy, Astana has an extreme continental climate with warm summers (featuring occasional brief rain showers) and long, very cold, dry winters. Summer temperatures occasionally reach {{convert|+35|C}} while {{convert|-30|to|-35|C}} is not unusual between mid-December and early March. Typically, the city's river is frozen over between the second week of November and the beginning of April. Astana has a well-deserved reputation among Kazakhs for its frequent high winds, the effects of which are felt particularly strongly on the fast-developing but relatively exposed Left Bank area of the city.Overall, Astana has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb),(commons:File:Asia Koppen Map.png|Updated Central, South, Southeast, and Eastern Asian and Siberian Map of the Köppen climate classification system.) The average annual temperature in Astana is {{convert|+3.5|C}}. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of {{convert|-14.2|C}} and record lowest is in January 1893's cold wave reaching temperatures down to {{convert|-51.6|C}}.WEB,weblink Weather and Climate-The Climate of Astana, 8 February 2015, Russian, Weather and Climate, July is the hottest month with an average temperature of {{convert|+20.7|C}}.{{Weather box|location=Astana|metric first = y|single line = y|collapsed = y|Jan record high C = 3.4|Feb record high C = 4.8|Mar record high C = 22.1|Apr record high C = 29.7|May record high C = 35.7|Jun record high C = 40.1|Jul record high C = 41.6|Aug record high C = 38.7|Sep record high C = 36.2|Oct record high C = 26.7|Nov record high C = 18.5|Dec record high C = 4.5|year record high C = 41.6|Jan high C = -9.9|Feb high C = -9.2|Mar high C = -2.5|Apr high C = 10.9|May high C = 20.2|Jun high C = 25.8|Jul high C = 26.8|Aug high C = 25.2|Sep high C = 18.8|Oct high C = 10.0|Nov high C = -1.4|Dec high C = -8.0|year high C = 8.9|Jan mean C = -14.2|Feb mean C = -14.1|Mar mean C = -7.1|Apr mean C = 5.2|May mean C = 13.9|Jun mean C = 19.5|Jul mean C = 20.8|Aug mean C = 18.8|Sep mean C = 12.3|Oct mean C = 4.6|Nov mean C = -5.4|Dec mean C = -12.1|year mean C = 3.5|Jan low C = -18.3|Feb low C = -18.5|Mar low C = -11.5|Apr low C = 0.2|May low C = 7.9|Jun low C = 13.2|Jul low C = 15.0|Aug low C = 12.8|Sep low C = 6.6|Oct low C = 0.2|Nov low C = -8.9|Dec low C = -16.1|year low C = -1.5|Jan record low C = -51.6|Feb record low C = -48.9|Mar record low C = -38.0|Apr record low C = -27.7|May record low C = -10.8|Jun record low C = -1.5|Jul record low C = 2.3|Aug record low C = -2.2|Sep record low C = -8.2|Oct record low C = -25.3|Nov record low C = -39.2|Dec record low C = -43.5|year record low C = -51.6|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 16|Feb precipitation mm = 15|Mar precipitation mm = 18|Apr precipitation mm = 21|May precipitation mm = 35|Jun precipitation mm = 37|Jul precipitation mm = 50|Aug precipitation mm = 29|Sep precipitation mm = 22|Oct precipitation mm = 27|Nov precipitation mm = 28|Dec precipitation mm = 22|year precipitation mm = 320|Jan humidity = 78|Feb humidity = 77|Mar humidity = 79|Apr humidity = 64|May humidity = 54|Jun humidity = 53|Jul humidity = 59|Aug humidity = 57|Sep humidity = 59|Oct humidity = 68|Nov humidity = 80|Dec humidity = 79|year humidity = 67|Jan rain days = 2|Feb rain days = 2|Mar rain days = 5|Apr rain days = 9|May rain days = 15|Jun rain days = 13|Jul rain days = 15|Aug rain days = 13|Sep rain days = 12|Oct rain days = 10|Nov rain days = 7|Dec rain days = 3|year rain days = 106|Jan snow days = 25|Feb snow days = 23|Mar snow days = 19|Apr snow days = 6|May snow days = 1|Jun snow days = 0.1|Jul snow days = 0|Aug snow days = 0|Sep snow days = 1|Oct snow days = 7|Nov snow days = 18|Dec snow days = 24|year snow days = 124|Jan sun = 103|Feb sun = 147|Mar sun = 192|Apr sun = 238|May sun = 301|Jun sun = 336|Jul sun = 336|Aug sun = 294|Sep sun = 230|Oct sun = 136|Nov sun = 100|Dec sun = 94|year sun = 2507|source 1 = Pogoda.ru.net
NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)FTP://FTP.ATDD.NOAA.GOV/PUB/GCOS/WMO-NORMALS/TABLES/REG_II/KS/35188.TXT PUBLISHER= NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA), 8 February 2015, |date = August 2010}}

Demographics

{{Historical populations|1989|281252|1999|326900|2002|493100|2010|649139|2016|872655}}

Population

As of September 2017, the population of Astana was 1,029,556;WEB,weblink Об изменении численности населения Республики Казахстан с начала 2017 года до 1 декабря 2017 года (Citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan ... to 1 December 2017), 4 January 2018, Russian, over double the 2002 population of 493,000.WEB,weblink Население Астаны, www.demoscope.ru, 2017-12-31, The ethnic makeup of the city's population as of September 4, 2014 was:{{Cn|date=January 2018}} Many argue that a drive to attract ethnic Kazakhs northward was the key factor in shifting the capital, which was officially put down to lack of space for expansion in the former capital, Almaty, and its location in an earthquake zone. Astana would also be 'closer to the industrial center of Kazakhstan' than Almaty.Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Kazachstan. §5. Geschiedenis". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.According to the 1999 Census, 40.5% of the population was Russian, 5.7% Ukrainian, 3.0% German, 2.6% Tatar, 1.8% Belarusian and 0.8% Polish. But at 41.8%, Kazakhs outnumbered Russians and formed the largest ethnic group, while Ingush and Korean each accounted for 0.6%. Others, mostly Uzbeks, accounted for 3.8%.{{Citation needed|date=October 2017|reason=}}In 1989, Astana had a population of 281,000. The ethnic mix was about 30% Kazakh and 70% Russian, Ukrainian and German.WEB,weblink Astana, Angelfire.com, 21 October 2012, By 2007, Astana's population had more than doubled since becoming the capital, to over 600,000, and it topped 1 million in 2017. Migrant workers—legal and illegal—have been attracted from across Kazakhstan and neighboring states such as Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, and Astana is a magnet for young professionals seeking to build a career. This has changed the city's demographics, bringing more ethnic Kazakhs to a city that formerly had a Slavic majority. Astana's ethnic Kazakh population has risen to some 60%, up from 17% in 1989.WEB,weblink Kazakhstan's Capital Holds a Lavish Anniversary Celebration, EurasiaNet.org, 8 July 2007, 24 November 2013, According to preliminary figures, Astana had 700,000 inhabitants in late 2007.{{Citation needed|date=October 2017|reason=}}

Religion

File:Нұр Астана Мешіті - panoramio.jpg|thumb|The Nur-Astana MosqueNur-Astana MosqueIslam is the predominant religion of the city. Other religions practiced in Astana are Christianity (primarily Russian Orthodox, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism), Judaism, and Buddhism.WEB,weblink Religion in Astana - Astana, www.astana-hotels.net, 2017-12-31, The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation was specially constructed in 2006 to host the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. It contains accommodations for different religions: Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism and other faiths. The pyramid-shaped building would express the spirit of Kazakhstan, where cultures, traditions and representatives of various nationalities coexist in peace, harmony and accord.{{fact|date=March 2019}}

Metropolitan area

The metropolitan area centered upon Astana includes the Arshaly, Shortandy, Tselinograd and (partially) Akkol District districts of Akmola Region. The area contains 1.2 million people.WEB, Жулмухаметова, Жадра, Чиновники работают над тем, чтобы уместить в Астане два миллиона человек,weblink Russian, 31 October 2017,

Economy

File:KazMunayGaz in Astana Kazakhstan.jpg|thumb|left|KazMunayGasKazMunayGasFile:The central office of the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan.jpg|thumb|Emerald TowersEmerald TowersAstana's economy is based on trade, industrial production, transport, communication and construction. The city's industrial production is mainly focused on producing building materials, foodstuff and mechanical engineering.The Astana International Financial Center (AIFC) opened in July 2018 to become a hub for financial services in Central Asia.WEB, Kazakhstan: Staff Concluding Statement of the 2018 Article IV Mission,weblink IMF, Astana is the headquarters of state-owned corporations such as Samruk-Kazyna, Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, KazMunayGas, KazTransOil, Kazatomprom, KEGOC, Kazpost and Kazakhtelecom.The shift of the capital has given it a powerful boost to Astana's economic development. The city's high economic growth rate has attracted numerous investors. In the 16 years since Astana became the capital, the volume of investments has increased by almost 30 times, the gross regional product has increased by 90 times,WEB,weblink Astana celebrates 16th anniversary as Kazakhstan's capital, Tengrinews.kz, 9 July 2014, 19 February 2015, and industrial output has increased by 11 times. The city's Gross Regional Product makes up about 8.5 percent of the republic's Gross domestic product.WEB,weblink Poverty in Kazakhstan: Causes and Cures, 19 February 2015, PDF, UNDP Kazakhstan, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303183619weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy, The Astana – New City special economic zone was established in 2001 to help develop industry and increase the attractiveness of the city to investors.WEB, Five projects to be launched in Astana industrial park this year,weblink The Times of Central Asia, 5 February 2015, 20 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150219233616weblink">weblink 19 February 2015, dmy, The SEZ plans to commission five projects worth 20 billion KZT (around $108 million) in the Industrial Park #1 in 2015. The projects include construction of a plant for production of diesel engines, a fast food complex, temporary storage warehouses and a business center, a furniture factory, and production of military and civil engineering machinery. The new Astana International Financial Centre is due to launch on 1 January 2018.Astana's administration is promoting the development of small and medium-sized businesses through the cooperation of the Sovereign Welfare Fund Samruk-Kazyna and National Economic Chamber. Support is provided by a special program of crediting.WEB, Over 170 thousand of people involved in small and medium enterprise in Astana,weblink Akimat of Astana, 14 March 2014, 26 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150216030904weblink">weblink 16 February 2015, As a result, the number of small and medium-sized businesses increased by 13.7% to over 96,000 compared to the previous year as of July 1, 2015.WEB, Number of small and medium-sized business entities grew by 13.7% in Astana,weblink inform.kz, In addition, the number of people employed in small and medium-sized business increased by 17.8% to over 234,000 people as of April 1, 2015.Astana was included in the list of top 21 intelligent communities of the world, according to the report released by the Intelligent Community Forum in October 2016. The rating list includes the cities, regions and communities which use digital instruments for construction of local economy and society.WEB, The Smart21 Communities of the Year,weblink www.intelligentcommunity.org,

Diplomacy platform

Astana has become a platform for high-profile diplomatic talks and summits on critical global issues. Astana has hosted multiple rounds of talks between the Assad regime and Syrian opposition.NEWS, Kazakhstan's New Capital Is Growing Up Quick,weblink Forbes, The 12th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is to be held there in 2020. Beginning in 2003, Astana has hosted the Congress on World and Traditional Religions, which is a diverse gathering of religious leaders to discuss religious harmony and ending terrorism and extremism. WEB, Vth Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions,weblink UNESCO,

Cityscape

{{refimprove section|date=March 2019}}{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Astana}}(File:Downtown Astana With The National Concert Hall (6246435844).jpg|thumb|left|The National Concert hall)Astana is subdivided into three districts. Almaty District was created on 6 May 1998 by presidential decree. The district's territory encompasses an area of {{convert|21,054|ha|acre sqmi|abbr=off}} with a population of 375,938 people. The district has five villages. Yesil District, which is also called left bank of the city, was created on 5 August 2008 by presidential decree. The district's territory encompasses an area of {{convert|31,179|ha|acre sqmi|abbr=on}} with a population of 119,929 people. Saryarka District was created on 6 May 1998 by presidential decree. The district's territory encompasses an area of {{convert|19,202|ha|acre sqmi|abbr=on}} with a population of 339,286 people.In April 1998, the Government of Kazakhstan asked architects and urban planners of international renown to participate in a design competition for the new capital. On 6 October 1998, Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa was awarded the First Prize.{{sfn|Whyte|2000|p=216}} Kurokawa's proposal aimed to preserve and redevelop the existing city, and create a new city at the south and the east sides of the Ishim River, enabling the Symbiosis of the History and the Future.{{sfn|Whyte|2000|p=216}}North of the railway line, which crosses Astana in an east-west direction, are industrial and poorer residential areas. Between the railway line and the Ishim river is the city center, where at present intense building activity is occurring. To the west and east are more elevated residential areas with parks and the new area of government administration to the south of the Ishim River. Here many large building projects are under way; for example, the construction of a diplomatic quarter, and a variety of different government buildings. By 2030, these quarters are to be completed. Astana's current chief planner, Vladimir Laptev, wants to build a Berlin in a Eurasian style. He has stated that a purely administrative capital such as Canberra is not one of his goals.{{wide image|Central Downtown Astana pamorama.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of the governmental headquarters}}

Sport

File:Astana Arena (inside interior).JPG|thumb|Astana ArenaAstana ArenaFile:Barys Arena.jpg|thumb|Barys ArenaBarys ArenaThe city has a variety of sporting teams. The major association football team is the FC Astana of the Kazakhstan Premier League. Founded in 2009, Astana won four league titles, three Kazakhstan Cups and two Kazakhstan Super Cups.WEB, ru:Достижения, Achievements,weblink Astana F.C., ru, 21 August 2014, Their home ground is the Astana Arena, which is also serves as a home for the Kazakhstan national football team and the FC Bayterek. The FC Bayterek is a member of the Kazakhstan First Division. They were founded in 2012, to develop youth football.WEB, Total.kz, ru:ФК "Байтерек" – новый клуб из столицы, FC Bayterek – the new club from the capital, ru,weblink 30 March 2012, 21 August 2014, The FC Astana-1964 is based in the Kazhymukan Munaitpasov Stadium and plays in the Astana Municipal Football League. The club's most successful years were 2000s, when they won 3 league titles.Astana is home to several professional ice hockey teams. The Barys Astana, a founding member of the Kontinental Hockey League in 2008 and based in the Barys Arena.WEB,weblink Barys Astana, Kontinental Hockey League, 7 October 2014, The Nomad Astana and HC Astana play in the Kazakhstan Hockey Championship. The Snezhnye Barsy of the Junior Hockey League is a junior team of the Barys Astana.WEB,weblink Snezhnye Barsy, Junior Hockey League, 7 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141014062317weblink">weblink 14 October 2014, Astana annually hosts the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan's Cup ice hockey tournament.WEB,weblink Eurasianet.org, Ice Comes Early for Astana Hockey Fans, Paul Bartlett, 8 August 2010, 7 October 2014, The Astana Pro Team, founded in 2007, participates in the UCI World Tour.WEB,weblink UCI WorldTeams, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), 5 March 2015, The team is one of the most successful cycling teams of recent years, winning several grand tours. The BC Astana of the VTB United League and the Kazakhstan Basketball League is the only professional basketball team in Astana.WEB,weblink History, BC Astana, 7 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009205358weblink">weblink 9 October 2014, It is the most successful basketball team in Kazakhstan with three Kazakhstan Basketball League titles and four Kazakhstan Basketball Cups. Its home arena is the Saryarka Velodrome, which is mainly used for track cycling events. The Saryarka Velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Cup stage in 2011.WEB,weblink Preview: 2011 UCI Track World Cup Round 1, 27 October 2011, BritishCycling.org.uk, 7 October 2014, The Astana Presidential Sports Club was founded in 2012, to combine the main sports teams in Astana.WEB, The Astana Times, Astana Presidential Sports Club Launched, Ilyas Omarov,weblink 4 July 2013, 21 August 2014, yes,weblink 24 April 2015, The organization is supported by Sovereign Wealth Fund Samruk-Kazyna.WEB, insidethegames.biz, Astana Presidential Sports Club outlines vision to boost Kazakhstan's image, Paul Osborne,weblink 9 April 2014, 21 August 2014, The 2011 Asian Winter Games were partly held in the capital. The Alau Ice Palace, hosted the 2015 World Sprint Speed Skating Championships.WEB, The Astana Times, Alau Ice Palace Hosts World Sprint Skating Championship, Kazakh Skaters Fail to Reach Podium, Dmitry Lee,weblink 3 March 2015, 5 March 2015, The President's Cup tennis tournament is annually held at the Daulet National Tennis Centre.WEB,weblink International President's Cup tennis tournament kicked off in Astana, Nazymgul Kumyspaeva, KazPravda.kz, 7 October 2014, .

Education

{{See also|List of educational institutions in Astana}}(File:Palace of Arts Shabyt.jpg|thumb|left|Kazakh National University of Arts)Astana has many universities and junior colleges. {{As of|2014|alt=as of the 2013/2014}} academic year, Astana had a total enrollment of 53,561 students in its 14 higher educational institutions, a 10% increase from the prior year.WEB, The number of university students in Astana increased by more than 10%,weblink Akimat of Astana, 3 March 2014, 8 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141014030733weblink">weblink 14 October 2014, yes, dmy-all, The L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University is the biggest university in Astana with 16,558 students and 1,678 academic staff.WEB, Info-Tses, ru: В новом учебном году в ЕНУ им. Л.Н. Гумилева будут обучаться 16 558 человек, 16 558 students will study in the new academic year at the L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, ru,weblink 31 August 2014, 1 December 2015, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151208044633weblink">weblink 8 December 2015, yes, dmy-all, It was founded as the result of merging the Akmola Civil Engineering Institute and Akmola Pedagogical Institute on 23 May 1996.WEB, ru:История и ЕНУ сегодня, History and ENU today,weblink L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, ru, 7 October 2014, The oldest university in Astana is the S.Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University founded in 1957.WEB, History of the university,weblink S.Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, 7 October 2014, Nazarbayev University is an autonomous research university founded in 2010 in partnership with some of the world's top universities.WEB, History & Strategy,weblink Nazarbayev University, 7 October 2014, The Kazakh University of Economics, Finance and International Trade is an economic institution in Astana.WEB,weblink Kazakh University of Economics, Finance and International Trade (KazUEFIT), EURASHE.eu, 11 June 2015, The Kazakh Humanities and Law Institute is a law university founded by initiative of Ministry of Justice in 1994.WEB, History of KAZGUU,weblink Kazakh Humanities and Law Institute, 7 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141011191652weblink">weblink 11 October 2014, dmy, The Astana Medical University was the only medical school in Astana until the opening of the School of Medecine at Nazarbayev University in 2014.WEB, About the University,weblink Astana Medical University, 7 March 2015, The Kazakh National University of Arts is the premier music school and has provided Astana with highly qualified professional specialists in the field of Arts.WEB, About us,weblink Kazakh National University of Arts, 8 October 2014, Astana schools enrolls about 103,000 students across 83 schools, including 71 state schools and 12 private schools.WEB, 5 new schools open doors in Astana today,weblink Kazinform, 1 September 2014, 7 October 2014, WEB, 13,000 to start school this year in Astana,weblink Kazinform, 4 August 2014, 7 October 2014, The Miras International School, established 1999, was the first private high school established in Astana.WEB, General information about school,weblink Miras International School, 8 October 2014, The Haileybury Astana school was established in 2011, as a branch of the Haileybury and Imperial Service College, an independent school in The United Kingdom. The Astana Kazakh-Turkish High Schools are run by the International KATEV foundation. In Astana, there are Kazakh-Turkish High Boarding Schools for gifted boys and girls, separately and the weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180427071756weblink">Nurorda International School.WEB, About Us,weblink 15 February 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180427071756weblink">weblink 27 April 2018, yes, dmy-all, Astana hosts two Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS), including School of Physics and Mathematics and International Baccalaureate world school.WEB, Intellectual schools,weblink Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, 7 October 2014, The QSI International School of Astana is an international school that provides an American curriculum to its students. The school is a branch of the Quality Schools International that started in the Middle East.WEB,weblink QSI International School of Astana, 28 November 2014, Quality Schools International (QSI),

Transportation

File:Велосипедная парковка "Astana Bike".jpg|thumb|AstanaBike bicycle-sharing systembicycle-sharing system

Public transport

File:Talgo 200 Tulpar train, Astana rail terminal. Kazakhstan, 2009.JPG|thumb|Tulpar Talgo express train to AlmatyAlmatyPublic transport in Astana consists of buses and share taxis. Over 720,000 people use public transport daily.WEB, The Astana Times, 36 Buses Added to Astana’s Most Popular Routes, Ainur Kuramyssova,weblink 17 December 2014, 23 February 2015, There are over 40 bus lines served by more than 1000 vehicles, with over 3000 people working in the public transport sector.WEB, world66.com, Astana Public Transportation,weblink 23 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150223175643weblink">weblink 23 February 2015, yes, dmy-all, Just like buses, share taxis have their own predefined routes and work on a shared basis. There are nine share taxi routes in total. In 2011, Akimat of Astana established a company to implement a series of changes and programmes in the metropolis known as the "New transport system of Astana".WEB, International Association of Public Transport, Astana: an advancing city in the modern age, Yusup Khassiev,weblink 17 October 2012, 23 February 2015, As the part of these programmes, Bus rapid transit (BRT) lines are expected to start operating in Astanain 2016.WEB,weblink 350 French buses working on natural gas are to be delivered in Astana in 2014, Akimat of Astana, 27 December 2013, 24 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150224122318weblink">weblink 24 February 2015, yes, dmy-all, Astana Light Metro is a proposed light rail system.WEB, The Times of Central Asia, Astana rejects Light Rail Transport system in favor of rapid bus network,weblink 29 November 2013, 16 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402154829weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy, Astana also has air taxi serviceWEB, The Astana Times, Astana-based Company Launches Kazakhstan’s First Air Taxi Service, Dmitry Lee,weblink 20 January 2015, 17 February 2015, and the modern Astana Bike bicycle-sharing system.

Air

Astana International Airport {{airport codes|TSE|UACC}}, located {{convert|17|km}} south-east of the city center, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic.WEB,weblink ru:Международный аэропорт Астаны, Astana International Airport, Aeroport.kz, ru, 22 February 2015, It is the second-busiest airport in Kazakhstan, with 2,960,181 passengers passing through it in 2014.WEB,weblink Passenger traffic, Astana International Airport, 16 February 2015, The airport hosts 13 airlines operating regular passenger flights inside the country and internationally.WEB,weblink General information, Astana International Airport, 16 February 2015, Air Astana maintains its second-largest hub at the airport.WEB,weblink No People's IPO for Air Astana in near future: Samruk Kazyna, Tengrinews.kz, 31 July 2014, 17 February 2015, An expected 50% increase in passenger traffic by 2017 has spurred construction of a new terminal with an area of about {{Convert|40000|m2|}}.WEB,weblink Passenger traffic in Astana airport to increase to 5 million passengers a year by 2017, Akimat of Astana, 26 February 2013, 16 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150216002223weblink">weblink 16 February 2015, WEB,weblink New Passenger Terminal will be created after the Capitals Airport Reconstruction, Akimat of Astana, 6 November 2014, 16 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150215220311weblink">weblink 15 February 2015, yes, dmy-all,

Railway and roads

Astana is located in the center of the country, serving as a well-positioned transport node for rail and automotive networks.WEB,weblink "Astana" station, Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, 16 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150215231758weblink">weblink 15 February 2015, yes, dmy-all, Astana railway station is the city's main railway station and serves approximately 7,000 people each day. A new railway station, Nurly Zhol was built during the Expo 2017 event with a customer capacity of 12,000. Tulpar Talgo is a daily express train to Almaty.WEB,weblink Kazakh-Spanish trains to become more comfortable, Tengrinews.kz, 28 January 2015, 5 March 2015, Short-term plans include construction of a new railway station in the industrial district; in the vicinity of CHPP-3 a new terminal will be erected for freight cars.WEB,weblink Astana will construct new railroad station for EXPO-2017, Tengrinews.kz, 17 January 2013, 5 March 2015, M-36 Chelyabinsk-Almaty and A-343 Astana-Petropavlovsk highways are routed through the city. The strategic geographical positioning of Astana allows the city to serve as a transport and reload center for cargoes formed at adjacent stations in the area.{{fact|date=March 2019}}

Expo 2017

On 1 July 2010, at the 153rd General Assembly of Bureau International des Expositions held in Paris, representatives from then Astana presented the city's bid to host the Specialised Expo 2017.WEB, Future energy – solutions for tackling mankind’s greatest challenge,weblink BIE, WEB, Expo2017: Future Energy and Impact on our Lives,weblink Astana Economic Forum, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140723115354weblink">weblink 23 July 2014, dmy-all, WEB, Vision,weblink expo2017astana.com, yes,weblink 5 May 2016, dmy-all, Kazakhs concept for this exhibition relates to the impact of energy and social on the modern world. The theme of the Nurstultan Expo was "Future Energy".WEB, APCO Worldwide to Drive Energy Innovation Future as Chief Organizing Partner for USA Pavilion at Expo 2017,weblink Expo 2017 opened to much fanfare on June 10, with heads of state from 17 different nations in attendance. The two-millionth visitor was registered on August 7. It is the first world's fair to be held in Central Asia and its central pavilion, Nur Alem, is the largest spherical building in the world.More than 4 million people visited Expo 2017 in Astana, two times more than was expected. Recently it was announced that Expo pavilion will be opened again on 11 November. Entry will be free for all the visitors. The only places that will require additional fees for entry are "Nur Alem" and center of art.

Sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Kazakhstan}}Astana maintains official partnerships with 18 cities. Astana's twin towns and sister cities are:{hide}columns-list|colwidth=20em|
  • 1994 {{flagicon|TUR{edih} Ä°zmir, TurkeyWEB,weblink Astana city, 3 May 2016, OrexCa,
  • 1996 {{flagicon|POL}} GdaÅ„sk, PolandWEB,weblink Partner Cities, GdaÅ„sk Official Website, 9 October 2014,
  • 1996 {{flagicon|RUS}} St. Petersburg, RussiaWEB,weblink Saint Petersburg to welcome Days of Astana Culture, Kazinform, 9 October 2014,
  • 1996 {{flagicon|GEO}} Tbilisi, GeorgiaWEB,weblink Tbilisi Sister Cities, 5 August 2013, Tbilisi Municipal Portal,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130724120155weblink">weblink 24 July 2013, yes, dmy,
  • 1998 {{flagicon|LAT}} Riga, LatviaWEB,weblink Riga’s Twin Cities, Municipal Portal of Riga, 9 October 2014,
  • 2001 {{flagicon|TUR}} Ankara, TurkeyWEB,weblink Sister Cities of Ankara, Greater Municipality of Ankara, 9 October 2014,
  • 2002 {{flagicon|POL}} Warsaw, PolandWEB,weblink Miasta partnerskie Warszawy, Twin cities of Warsaw, 9 October 2014, pl, City of Warsaw,
  • 2004 {{flagicon|THA}} Bangkok, ThailandWEB, Agreement on establishment of bilateral relations between the Akimat of Astana City of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the City of Bangkok of Kingdom Thailand, 11 June 2004, 9 October 2014,weblink PDF, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration,
  • 2004 {{flagicon|RUS}} Kazan, Tatarstan, RussiaWEB,weblink Rafik Valiev, ru:10 лет исполнится побратимству городов Астаны и Казани, Astana and Kazan celebrates 10-years anniversary of sister cities status, ru, VechAstana.kz, 18 September 2014, 9 October 2014, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150501060407weblink">weblink 1 May 2015, yes, dmy-all,
  • 2004 {{flagicon|PHI}} Manila, PhilippinesWEB,weblink About Manila: Sister Cities, City of Manila, 2 September 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160611173109weblink">weblink 11 June 2016, yes, dmy-all,
  • 2004 {{flagicon|KOR}} Seoul, South KoreaWEB,weblink International Cooperation: Sister Cities, 26 January 2008, Seoul Metropolitan Government,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071210175055weblink">weblink 10 December 2007, yes, dmy,
  • 2005 {{flagicon|JOR}} Amman, JordanWEB,weblink Twin City Agreement, Greater Amman Municipality, 9 October 2014, {{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • 2006 {{flagicon|PRC}} Beijing, ChinaWEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Government, 23 June 2009,
  • 2009 {{flagicon|VNM}} Hanoi, VietnamWEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20150309233241weblink">weblink yes, 9 March 2015, Ilia Lobster, Astana-Hanoi: horizons of cooperation, KazPravda.kz, 9 September 2009, 9 October 2014,
  • 2010 {{flagicon|RUS}} Ufa, Bashkortostan, RussiaWEB,weblink Ufa and Astana Signed Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation, 17 October 2010, Ufa City Municipality,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141016020621weblink">weblink 16 October 2014, yes, dmy-all,
  • 2011 {{flagicon|KGZ}} Bishkek, KyrgyzstanWEB,weblink ru:Бишкек и Астана â€” города-побратимы, Bishkek and Astana â€” Sister Cities, 12 September 2011, 9 October 2014, ru, Official website of City Hall of Bishkek,
  • 2013 {{flagicon|FIN}} Oulu, FinlandWEB,weblink Astana and Finnish Oulu become twin-cities, Tengrinews.kz, 19 April 2013, 9 October 2014,
  • 2014 {{flagicon|FRA}} Nice, FranceWEB,weblink Astana and Nice established twin relations, Akimat of Astana, 5 July 2014, 9 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015024605weblink">weblink 15 October 2014, yes, dmy-all,
  • 2014 {{flagicon|CRO}} Zagreb, CroatiaWEB,weblink Declaration of intent signed by Akim of Astana and Mayor of Croatias capital, 4 July 2014, 9 October 2014, Akimat of Astana,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015024125weblink">weblink 15 October 2014, yes, dmy-all,
}}

Smart City initiative

The Smart Astana project is an initiative developed by the then Astana city administration that incorporates technology-driven solutions in various sectors, like hospitals, schools, the ticket booking system and street lighting.WEB, Astana moving closer to becoming smart city,weblink astanatimes.com, These projects run on an interconnected application, The Smart Astana.

See also

Footnotes

{{Notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Pospelov, Evgeni,weblink ru:Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь, City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary, Русские словари, 1993, harv,
  • BOOK, Kozlov, Denis, Gilburd, Eleonory,weblink The Thaw: Soviet Society and Culture during the 1950s and 1960s, University of Toronto Press, 2013, 9781442644601, harv,
  • BOOK, Khrushchev, Sergei, Sergei Khrushchev,weblink ru:Никита Хрущев. Реформатор, Nikita Khrushchev. Reformer, Время, 2010, 9785969105331, harv, Никита Хрущев. Реформатор,
  • NEWS,weblink The Eccentric Autocrat Who Spent Billions Inventing A City, Mallone, Laura, 23 September 2016, Wired,
  • BOOK, Whyte, Andy,weblink Kisho Kurokawa, Architect and Associates: Selected and Current Works, Images Publishing, 2000, 9781864700190, harv,
  • BOOK, Vale, Lawrence,weblink Architecture, Power and National Identity, Routledge, 2014, 9781134729210, harv,

External links

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