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{{short description|Capital of Poland}}{{about|the Polish capital}}{{redirect|Warszawa}}{{Redirect|City of Warsaw|the Second World War fighter squadron|No. 316 Polish Fighter Squadron|the airplane that crossed the Atlantic in 1934|Adamowicz brothers}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2018}}

!Colspan=14|Climate data for Warsaw!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Mean daily daylight hours!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas (sunshine data) WEB,weblink Warsaw, Poland - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, 10 February 2019,
name Warsaw| native_name = Warszawa| native_name_lang = pl

List of cities in Poland>City metropolis| official_name = The Capital City of Warsaw
color #ffffff
|photo1a = Warsaw panorama.png
|photo2a = Pałac Na Wyspie w Warszawie, widok na elewację południową.jpg
|photo2b = 2017-05-27 Plac Zamkowy w Warszawie 1.jpg
|photo3a = Warszawa, ul. Nowy Åšwiat 72-74 20170517 002.jpg
|photo3b = Warszawa, Rynek Starego Miasta 42-34 20170518 001.jpg
|photo4a = Warszawa, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 87, 89 20170516 003.jpg
|photo4b = Warszawa, ul. Senatorska 10 20170516 001.jpg
|photo5a = Wilanów Palace.jpg
| spacing = 2
| border = 0
| size = 276
From top, left to right: Panorama>Łazienki ParkRoyal Castle, Warsaw>Royal Castle and Sigismund's ColumnStaszic Palace and Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Warsaw>Copernicus MonumentOld Town Market Place, Warsaw>Main Market SquareRoyal Route, Warsaw>Royal RouteWarsaw Old Town>Wilanów Palace}}| image_flag = Flag of Warsaw.svg75px)| nickname = Paris of the North, Phoenix CitySemper invicta{{spaces>2}}(Latin "Ever invincible")| mapsize = 230px| map_caption = Location within Poland##Location within Europe| pushpin_map = Poland#Europe| pushpin_relief = 152N1region:PL|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = PolandVoivodeships of Poland>VoivodeshipPowiat>CountyMasovian Voivodeship>Masovia| subdivision_name2 = city county| established_title = Founded| established_date = 13th century| established_title1 = City rights| established_date1 = 1323| parts_style = collDzielnica>Districts| parts = 18 boroughs| p1 = BemowoCivic Platform>POList of mayors of Warsaw>Mayor| leader_name = Rafał Trzaskowski| area_total_km2 = 517.24| area_metro_km2 = 6,100.43| elevation_m = 78–116| elevation_ft = 328ACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2019, Statistics Poland, Data for territorial unit 1465000.| population_as_of = 31 December 2018| population_density_km2 = 3421| population_metro = 310084weblink| population_density_metro_km2 = 509.1List of cities and towns in Poland>1st in Poland (9th in EU)| population_demonym = Varsovian| postal_code_type = Postal code| postal_code = 00-001 to 04–999| area_code = +48 22weblink |}} embed = yes
| designation1 = WHS
| designation1_offname = Historic Centre of Warsaw
| designation1_date = 1980 (4th session)
| designation1_number = weblink
| designation1_criteria = ii, vi
| designation1_type = Cultural
| designation1_free1name = UNESCO region
| designation1_free1value = Europe
}}| p2 = Białołęka| p3 = Bielany| p4 = Mokotów| p5 = Ochota| p6 = Praga Północ| p7 = Praga Południe| p8 = Rembertów
ÅšródmieÅ›cie, Warsaw>ÅšródmieÅ›cie| p10 = TargówekUrsus, Warsaw>Ursus| p12 = Ursynów| p13 = Wawer| p14 = WesoÅ‚a| p15 = Wilanów| p16 = WÅ‚ochy| p17 = Wola| p18 = Å»oliborzCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| blank_name = GDweblink| blank_info = 2017| blank1_name =  â€“ TotalNominal GDP>Nominal: €57 billionPPP: $140 billion| blank2_name =  â€“ Per capitaNominal GDP>Nominal:
€33,000PPP: $80,000
}}(File:Hejnal Warszawski.ogg|thumb|Varsovian Trumpet Call)Warsaw ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|w|ɔːr|s|ɔː}} {{Respell|WOR|saw}}; {{IPAc-pl|AUD|Pl-Warszawa.ogg|w|a|r|'|sz|a|w|a}}; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.78 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents,WEB,weblink Population on 1 January by age groups and sex – functional urban areas, Eurostat, 6 February 2017, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover {{convert|517.24|km2|sqmi}}, while the metropolitan area covers {{convert|6100.43|km2|sqmi}}. Warsaw is an alpha global city,WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2018, GaWC, 28 December 2018, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical old town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Once described as the "Paris of the North", Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II.WEB,weblink There Is No Freedom Without Bread!: 1989 and the Civil War That Brought Down Communism, Constantine, Pleshakov, 27 October 2009, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 9 April 2017, Google Books, Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was later awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari.WEB,weblink Warsaw – Phoenix City Rebuilt From the Ashes, 26 December 2014,, Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat. A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to even greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins.Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities.WEB,weblink Warsaw City,, 7 May 2017, In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world.Best cities ranking and report (PDF). A special report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, 2012. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style". It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe.The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry. The Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe.WEB,weblink Warsaw Stock Exchange, Poland, stocks, investing online – Fio bank, 9 April 2017, WEB, Warsaw: The Region’s Key Market,weblink Warsaw Capital Market Summit 2015, 29 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, dead, dmy-all, Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt, London and Paris, Warsaw is also one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union.WEB, James Newman,weblink Europes Top Skyscraper Cities, The Top 500,, 2015, 20 October 2015, The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw University of Technology, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world,WEB,weblink The Grand Theater in Warsaw: one of the largest theatres in Europe and one of the biggest stages in the world –,, 14 November 2017, and the ZachÄ™ta National Gallery of Art. The picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period,WEB,weblink Warsaw, City of Classical Music and Varied Architecture in Poland – Worldly Resort, WorldlyTraveller, 10 May 2016, 9 April 2017, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces, churches and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants,NEWS, Charly Wilder,weblink 36 Hours in Warsaw, Poland, The New York Times, 23 December 2015, 29 December 2015, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.WEB,weblink Warsaw is a green city, Paulina, SkoczeÅ„, 9 April 2017,

Etymology and names

Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa). Other previous spellings of the name may have included Worszewa and Werszewa.Samuel BogumiÅ‚ Linde, Slownik jẹzyka polskiego (1808)Julian Weinberg, Polacy w Rodzinie SÅ‚awian (1878) According to some sources,WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary,, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda (the Narew drainage),JOURNAL,weblink Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda (the Narew drainage), Zbigniew, Babik, 31 December 2015, Linguistica, 55, 1, 29–46,, 10.4312/linguistica.55.1.29-46, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology (p. 30). Originally, Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin WarcisÅ‚aw; see also etymology of WrocÅ‚aw. However the ending -awa is unusual for a big city; the names of Polish cities derived from personal names usually ending in -ów/owo/ew/ewo (e.g. Piotrków, Adamów) while the -av- in the early name of WrocÅ‚aw is part of a personal name. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, Wars, and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See also the VrÅ¡ovci family which had escaped to Poland. The official city name in full is ("The Capital City of Warsaw"). Other names for Warsaw include (Latin, Spanish) and Varsóvia (Portuguese), (French), (Italian), (German, Dutch), /Varshe (Yiddish), (Lithuanian), (Hungarian) and VarÅ¡ava (Czech)A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianin (male), warszawianka (female), warszawiacy, and warszawianie (plural).{{For|the name of Warsaw in various languages|wikt:Warsaw}}


Early history

File:Hogenberg View of Warsaw (detail).jpg|thumb|A paper engraving of 16th-century Warsaw by Hogenberg showing St. John's Archcathedral to the right. The temple was founded in 1390, and is one of the city's ancient and most important landmarks.]]The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century). After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on mostly crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526.

16th to 18th centuries

File:Bellotto New Town Market Square.jpg|thumb|left|Warsaw New Town in 1778. Painted by Bernardo BellottoBernardo BellottoIn 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the General Sejm, permanently from 1569. In 1573 the city gave its name to the Warsaw Confederation, formally establishing religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius, Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland when King Sigismund III Vasa moved his court from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596.In the following years the town expanded towards the suburbs. Several private independent districts were established—the property of aristocrats and the gentry, which they ruled by their own laws. Three times between 1655 and 1658 the city was under siege, and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces.In 1700, the Great Northern War broke out. The city was besieged several times and was obliged to pay heavy tribute. Warsaw turned into an early-capitalist city. The reign of Augustus II and Augustus III was a time of development for Warsaw. The Saxon monarchs brought many renowned German architects, who rebuilt the city in a style similar to Dresden. In 1747 the ZaÅ‚uski Library was established, the first Polish public library and the largest at the time.WEB,weblink The Bygone Warsaw, 14 March 2008, 18 November 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2008, StanisÅ‚aw II Augustus, who remodelled the interior of the Royal Castle, also made Warsaw a centre of culture and the arts. He extended the Royal Baths Park and ordered the construction or refurbishment of numerous palaces, mansions and richly-decorated tenements. This earned Warsaw the nickname Paris of the East.Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the third and final partition of Poland;Crowley, David (2003). Warsaw. London: Reaktion Books. p. 10. it subsequently became the capital of the province of South Prussia.

19th and 20th centuries

File:Filtry Warszawskie przy ul. Koszykowej 81 w Warszawie, Hala Filtrów Powolnych.jpg|thumb|left|Water Filters, designed by William LindleyWilliam LindleyLiberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw. Following the Congress of Vienna of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of Congress Poland, a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with Imperial Russia. The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.Following repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the Russians, the 1830 November uprising broke out. But the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy. On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting against Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by Russian troops. Five people were killed. The Underground Polish National Government resided in Warsaw during the January Uprising in 1863–64.{{multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width = 230
| image1 = Warszawa - Marszałkowska 1912.jpg
| caption1 = Marszałkowska Street as it appeared in 1912
| image2 = Pl warszawa filharmonia old 1918.jpg
| caption2 = Warsaw National Philharmonic in 1918
}}Warsaw flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III. Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting, and gas infrastructure.The Russian Empire Census of 1897 recorded 626,000 people living in Warsaw, making it the third-largest city of the Empire after St. Petersburg and Moscow.WEB,weblink Visualizing the 1897 Census in Pie Charts - Russian History Blog,, 27 September 2018,

Capital of Second Polish Republic: 1918–39

Warsaw was occupied by Germany from 4 August 1915 until November 1918. The Allied Armistice terms required in Article 12 that Germany withdraw from areas controlled by Russia in 1914, which included Warsaw. Germany did so, and underground leader Piłsudski returned to Warsaw on 11 November and set up what became the Second Polish Republic, with Warsaw as the capital. In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920, the huge Battle of Warsaw was fought on the eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the Red Army defeated. Poland stopped the full brunt of the Red Army by itself and defeated the idea of the "export of the revolution".The Średnicowy Bridge was constructed for a railway (1921–1931), connecting both parts of the city. Warszawa Główna railway station (1932–1939) was unfinished and destroyed during WWII.Stefan Starzyński was the Mayor of Warsaw 1934–1939; he was murdered by the Nazis in December 1939.

Second World War

File:Warsaw Old Town 1945.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.25|Sea of rubble â€“ over 85% of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II, including the Old Town and Royal Castle.]]After the German Invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 started the Second World War, Warsaw was defended until 27 September. Central Poland, including Warsaw, came under the rule of the General Government, a German Nazi colonial administration. All higher education institutions were immediately closed and Warsaw's entire Jewish population – several hundred thousand, some 30% of the city{{spaced ndash}}were herded into the Warsaw Ghetto. The city would become the centre of urban resistance to Nazi rule in occupied Europe. When the order came to annihilate the ghetto as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" on 19 April 1943, Jewish fighters launched the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Despite being heavily outgunned and outnumbered, the Ghetto held out for almost a month. When the fighting ended, almost all survivors were massacred, with only a few managing to escape or hide.File:Powstanie Warszawskie film Joachmiczyk.jpg|thumb|The Warsaw uprising took place in 1944. The Polish Home Army attempted to liberate Warsaw from German occupation before the arrival of the Red ArmyRed ArmyBy July 1944, the Red Army was deep into Polish territory and pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw. Knowing that Stalin was hostile to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile in London gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to seize control of Warsaw from the Germans before the Red Army arrived. Thus, on 1 August 1944, as the Red Army was nearing the city, the Warsaw uprising began. The armed struggle, planned to last 48 hours, was partially successful, however it went on for 63 days. Eventually the Home Army fighters and civilians assisting them were forced to capitulate. They were transported to PoW camps in Germany, while the entire civilian population was expelled. Polish civilian deaths are estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000.Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of the capitulation, ordered the entire city to be razed to the ground and the library and museum collections taken to Germany or burned. Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs- und Vernichtungskommando ("Burning and Destruction Detachments"). About 85% of the city had been destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle.On 17 January 1945 â€“ after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army â€“ Soviet troops and Polish troops of the First Polish Army entered the ruins of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation. The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź, as German forces regrouped at a more westward position.

1945–1989: Warsaw during the People's Republic

In 1945, after the bombings, revolts, fighting, and demolition had ended, most of Warsaw lay in ruins.File:A Kultúra és Tudomány Palotája. Fortepan 59944.jpg|thumb|right|A tourist standing beside the iconic Palace of Culture and SciencePalace of Culture and ScienceAfter World War II, the "Bricks for Warsaw" campaign was initiated, and large prefabricated housing projects were erected in Warsaw to address the housing shortage, along with other typical buildings of an Eastern Bloc city, such as the Palace of Culture and Science, a gift from the Soviet Union. The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland and the country's centre of political and economic life. Many of the historic streets, buildings, and churches were restored to their original form. In 1980, Warsaw's historic Old Town was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.John Paul II's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding "Solidarity" movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there. In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land! These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for liberal-democratic reforms.

Recent times: 1989–present

In 1995, the Warsaw Metro opened with a single line. A second line was opened in March 2015.WEB,weblink Warszawa opens second metro line, DVV Media, UK,, With the entry of Poland into the European Union in 2004, Warsaw is currently experiencing the largest economic boom of its history. The opening fixture of UEFA Euro 2012 took place in Warsaw, a game in which Poland drew 1–1 with Greece. Warsaw was the host city for the 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference and for the 2016 NATO Summit.


Location and topography

File:WarsawFromTheISS.jpg|thumb|left|Warsaw, seen from the International Space StationInternational Space StationWarsaw lies in east-central Poland about {{convert|300|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the Carpathian Mountains and about {{convert|260|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the Baltic Sea, {{convert|523|km|mi|abbr=on}} east of Berlin, Germany.WEB,weblink Geography of Warsaw,, 27 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2011, The city straddles the Vistula River. It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is {{convert|100|m|ft|-1}} above sea level. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of {{convert|115.7|m|ft|1}} ("Redutowa" bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side â€“ {{convert|122.1|m|ft|1}} ("Groszówka" estate, district of WesoÅ‚a, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height {{convert|75.6|m|ft|1}} (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city â€“ e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill ({{convert|121|m|ft|1}}) and Szczęśliwice hill ({{convert|138|m|ft|1}} â€“ the highest point of Warsaw in general).File:Plac Grzybowski nocÄ….jpg|thumb|right|View of Grzybowski Square in the central district of Warsaw. The city is located on the mostly flat Masovian PlainMasovian PlainWarsaw is located on two main geomorphologic formations: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula Valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces. The Vistula River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right. The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau ({{convert|10|to|25|m|1|abbr=on}} above Vistula level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. {{convert|6.5|m|1|abbr=on}} above Vistula level). The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw Escarpment. It is {{convert|20|to|25|m|1|abbr=on}} high in the Old Town and Central district and about {{convert|10|m|1|abbr=on}} in the north and south of Warsaw. It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark.The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consists mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the old Vistula â€“ riverbed. They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw has a different pattern of geomorphological forms. There are several levels of the Vistula plain terraces (flooded as well as formerly flooded), and only a small part is a not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest).


Officially, Warsaw experiences an oceanic climate, denoted by Cfb by Köppen's original classification.WEB,weblink City: Introduction and characteristics, Infrastuktura - Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa, WEB,weblink Warsaw, Poland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 2019-03-10, But the city being in the midst of Siberian air mass and far from the coast has clear continental influences (Dfb), defined as such with old data.BOOK,weblink Discrete Optimization in Architecture: Building Envelope, Zawidzki, Machi, 2016-09-15, Springer, 9789811013911, en, JOURNAL, Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna, Błażejczyk, Krzysztof, 2018, Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland), International Journal of Biometeorology, 62, 1, 113–125, 10.1007/s00484-016-1220-1, 0020-7128, 5752755, 27498882, WEB,weblink Warsaw (12375) - WMO Weather Station, December 29, 2018
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAA archive-url=, December 27, 2018,
And, by the Köppen-Geiger climate classification measure, Warsaw is currently defined as having a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with long cold winters and short warm summers, though the urban heat island effect does make Warsaw's winters slightly less severe than in the surrounding rural areas.JOURNAL, Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., McMahon, T. A., Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification,weblink Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 5, 2007, 1633–1644, 1607-7938, 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007, JOURNAL, Błażejczyk, Krzysztof, Baranowski, Jarosław, Jendritzky, Gerd, Błażejczyk, Anna, Bröde, Peter, Fiala, Dusan, Regional features of the bioclimate of Central and Southern Europe against the background of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification,weblink Geographia Polonica, 88, 3, 2015, 439–453, 00167282, 10.7163/GPol.0027, DOI is here However, by classification of the Wincenty Okołowicz, it has a warm-temperate climate in the center of continental Europe with the "fusion" of different features.WEB,weblink Climates classification by Wincenty Okołowicz, Alex, 2015-05-10, Vivid Maps, en-US, 2019-03-10, The city has cold, snowy, cloudy winters and warm, sunny, stormy summers. Spring and autumn can be unpredictable, highly prone to sudden weather changes; however, temperatures are usually mild and with low humidity, especially around May and September.WEB,weblink Average Temperatures in Warsaw, Poland Temperature,, 20 October 2017, The average temperature ranges between {{convert|-1.8|°C|°F|0}} in January and {{convert|19.2|°C|1|abbr=on}} in July. The mean year temperature is {{convert|8.5|°C}}. Temperatures may often reach {{convert|30|°C|0|abbr=on}} in the summer, although the effects of hot weather are usually offset by relatively low dew points and large diurnal temperature differences. Warsaw is Europe's sixth driest major city (third in Eastern Europe), with yearly rainfall averaging {{convert|529|mm|in}}, the wettest month being July.WEB,weblink European Cities With Driest Weather - Current Results,, 2019-03-12,
{{Warsaw weatherbox}}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"


Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction. After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled People's Republic of Poland. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Kronenberg Palace).WEB,weblink Warsaw's lost architecture portrayed in miniature, 11 June 2017, WEB,weblink Pałac Leopolda Kronenberga,, 29 July 2008, pl, Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern Bloc countries.Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.BOOK, David Crowley, Warsaw, 2003, 156, Reaktion Books, 18-61891-79-2,weblink {{wide image|Panorama Warszawy by Night SS.jpg|1300px|align-cap=center|Panorama of Warsaw by night}}


File:Warszawa pałac Jabłonowskich 2009.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Jabłonowski Palace, an example of Renaissance Revival architectureRenaissance Revival architectureWarsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.Gothic architecture is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications. The most significant buildings are St. John's Cathedral (14th century), a typical example of the so-called Masovian Gothic style; St. Mary's Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century);WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 28 May 2007, A town house of the Burbach family, eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line, 23 February 2009, Gunpowder Tower (after 1379); and the Royal Castle Curia Maior (1407–1410). The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in the city are the house of the Baryczko merchant family (1562), a building called "The Negro" (early 17th century), and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of Mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early Baroque, the most important are St. Hyacinth's Church (1603–1639) and Sigismund's Column (1644).File:Hotel Bristol, Warszawa.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Hotel Bristol is a unique example of Warsaw's architectural heritage.]]Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. Some of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace (1677–1683), Wilanów Palace (1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia (1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland caused a rapid rise of architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture; the most notable examples are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828).File:6 Warszawa 149.jpg|thumb|upright|Warsaw University of TechnologyWarsaw University of TechnologyExceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like the previously mentioned Kronenberg Palace and insurance company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier in Paris). Despite that, the Warsaw University of Technology building (1899–1902)WEB,weblink Politechnika Warszawska,, 27 February 2009, pl, is the most interesting of the late 19th-century architecture. Some 19th-century buildings in the Praga district (the Vistula's right bank) have been restored although many have been poorly maintained. Warsaw's municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.WEB,weblink As good as new, The official website of the City of Warsaw,weblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2008, 1 March 2006, dead, Notable examples of post-war architecture include the Palace of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental socialist realism architecture (MDM estate).BOOK, Sampo Ruoppila, Processes of Residential Differentiation in Socialist Cities, 2004, 9–10, European Journal of Spatial Development,weblink 10 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2010, Contemporary architecture in Warsaw is represented by the Metropolitan Office Building at Pilsudski Square by Norman Foster, Warsaw University Library (BUW) by Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski, featuring a garden on its roof and view of the Vistula River, Rondo 1 office building by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Museum of the History of Polish Jews by Rainer Mahlamäki and Golden Terraces, consisting of seven overlapping domes retail and business centre.Together with Frankfurt, London, Paris and Rotterdam, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in Europe. Warsaw is ranked as 79th in the list of cities with the most skyscrapers around the world.WEB,weblink Warsaw – The Skyscraper Center, File:Warszawa PAST 2009.jpg|PAST, oldest Warsaw skyscraperFile:Warszawa Pałac Kultury i Nauki 2009.jpg|Palace of Culture and ScienceFile:Warsaw Spire, Poland 23 June 2016.jpg|Warsaw SpireFile:Rondo_1_Warsaw_2016.jpg|Rondo 1File:Złota 44 (06.2013).jpg|Złota 44File:Hotel Intercontinental Warsaw (by Pudelek).JPG|InterContinental WarsawFile:Cosmopolitan Twarda 2 4 radek kołakowski.jpg|Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4File:Q22 Warszawa 2016.jpg|Q22File:Intraco I - radek kołakowski.jpg|Intraco IFile:Biurowiec Spektrum Tower w Warszawie 2019.jpg|Spektrum TowerFile:Marriott and oxford tower warsaw.JPG|Hotel Marriott and Oxford Tower


File:Warszawa, Rynek Starego Miasta 36-28 20170518 002.jpg|thumb|left|Main Market Square in Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage Site{{stack begin|clear=true}}{|style="float:right;"headercss=width: 285px; background: #B5B5B5; header=Map of Warsaw Old Town centerupright=1.25|{{ordered list
|1=Stone stairs
|2=Museum of Warsaw
|4=Defensive walls
|5=Salwator tenement
|6=Museum of Leather Crafts
|7=St. Anne's tenement
|8=Fukier tenement
|9=Museum of Literature
|10=Museum of Artistic and Precision Crafts
|11=St. Mary's Church
|12=Gothic Bridge
|13=Pelican house
|14=St. John's Cathedral
|15=Jesuit Church
|17=Royal Castle
|18=Copper-Roof Palace
|19=East â€“ West Route tunnel
|20=Dung Hill
|21=Warsaw Mermaid statue
|22=Sigismund's Column
Sigismund's Column}}{{stack end}}Although contemporary Warsaw is a fairly young city compared to other European capitals, it has numerous tourist attractions and architectural monuments dating back centuries. Apart from the Warsaw Old Town quarter, reconstructed after World War II, each borough has something to offer. Among the most notable landmarks of the Old Town are the Royal Castle, Sigismund's Column, Market Square, and the Barbican.Further south is the so-called Royal Route, with many historical churches, Baroque and Classicist palaces, most notably the Presidential Palace, and the University of Warsaw campus. The former royal residence of King John III Sobieski at Wilanów is notable for its Baroque architecture and eloquent palatial garden.Warsaw's oldest public park, the Saxon Garden, is located within 10 minutes' walk from the Old Town. It was opened in 1727. Warsaw's largest park is the Łazienki Park, also called the "Royal Baths Park", established in the 17th century and given its current classical shape in the late 18th century. It is located further south, on the Royal Route, about {{convert|3|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the Warsaw Old Town.Powązki Cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Europe, featuring of sculptures, some of them by the most renowned Polish artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. Since it serves the religious communities of Warsaw such as Catholics, Jews, Orthodox Christians, Muslims or Protestants, it is often called a necropolis. Nearby is the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery, one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe.File:Warszawa, ul. Nowy Świat 49, 51 20170516 001.jpg|thumb|left|New World StreetNew World StreetIn many places in the city the Jewish culture and history resonates down through time. Among them the most notable are the Jewish theater, the Nożyk Synagogue, Janusz Korczak's Orphanage and the picturesque Próżna Street. The tragic pages of Warsaw's history are commemorated in places such as the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes, the Umschlagplatz, fragments of the Ghetto wall on Sienna Street and a mound in memory of the Jewish Combat Organization.There are also many places commemorating the heroic history of Warsaw. Pawiak, an infamous German Gestapo prison now occupied by a Mausoleum of Memory of Martyrdom and the museum, is only the beginning of a walk in the traces of Heroic City. The Warsaw Citadel, an impressive 19th-century fortification built after the defeat of the November uprising, was a place of martyrdom for the Poles. Another important monument, the statue of Little Insurrectionist located at the ramparts of the Old Town, commemorates the children who served as messengers and frontline troops in the Warsaw Uprising, while the impressive Warsaw Uprising Monument by Wincenty Kućma was erected in memory of the largest insurrection of World War II.In Warsaw there are many places connected with the life and work of Frédéric Chopin who was born near the city in Żelazowa Wola. The heart of the Polish composer is sealed inside Warsaw's Holy Cross Church. During the summer time the Chopin Statue in Łazienki Park is a place where pianists give concerts to the park audience.Also many references to Marie Curie, her work and her family can be found in Warsaw; Curie's birthplace at the Warsaw New Town, the working places where she did her first scientific works and the Radium Institute at Wawelska Street for the research and the treatment of which she founded in 1925.{{clear}}File:Warszawa, kościół św. Anny, chór HDR.jpg|St. Anne's ChurchFile:Warszawa, ul. Nowy Świat 72-74 20170517 003.jpg|Staszic Palace and Nicolaus Copernicus monumentFile:Warszawa, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 3 20170516 002.jpg|Holy Cross ChurchFile:Warszawa kościół pokarmelicki.jpg|Carmelite Church has an original 18th-century façadeFile:Pałac Króla Jana III Sobieskiego w Wilanowie 9.JPG|Wilanów Palace, once a royal residenceFile:Belweder (2).JPG|Belweder Palace, official seat of the PresidentFile:Castle Square (9632847640).jpg|Castle Square with the Royal Castle and Sigismund's ColumnFile:2017-05-27 Pałac Krasińskich 2.jpg|Krasiński Palace, a branch of the National LibraryFile:Warszawa, ul. Kanonia 26, 24, 22, 20, 18, 16, 14 20170518 001.jpg|Canon Square (Kanonia) with the narrowest townhouse in EuropeFile:Warszawa, Rynek Nowego Miasta 2 20170516 001.jpg|St. Kazimierz Church at New Town Market SquareFile:Kościół św Aleksandra w Warszawie p7.jpg|Three Crosses Square marks the entry into Old TownFile:Barbakan w Warszawie - 03.jpg|Barbican, a remaining relic of historic fortifications.

Flora and fauna

Green space covers almost a quarter of the area of Warsaw,WEB, Warsaw Tourist Office,weblink Parks & Gardens,, 23 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2010, dead, dmy-all, "Warsaw is a green city. Almost a quarter of its area is {{sic|comprised |hide=y|of}} fields, parks, green squares and lush gardens, making Warsaw a European metropolis that truly offers its visitors a breath of fresh air." including a broad range from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, to avenues of trees and large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.File:Palace on the Water, Łazienki Park, Warsaw.jpg|thumb|left|Łazienki PalaceŁazienki PalaceThere are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8% of its area.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 16 May 2016, Parki i lasy Warszawy,, 25 February 2009, pl, The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden, the KrasiÅ„ski Palace Garden, Łazienki Park (Royal Baths Park), Wilanów Palace Park and Królikarnia Palace Park (See also: Greenery in the city).The Saxon Garden, covering an area of 15.5 ha, was formally a royal garden. There are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues are a place to sit and relax. At the east end of the park, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is situated. In the 19th century the KrasiÅ„ski Palace Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period: maidenhair tree, black walnut, Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut trees. With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a playground for kids, the KrasiÅ„ski Palace Garden is a popular strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Monument of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is also situated here. Łazienki Park covers an area of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in its landscape architecture (pavilions, sculptures, bridges, water cascades, ponds) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of trees and bushes). What makes this park different from other green spaces in Warsaw is the presence of peacocks and pheasants, which can be seen here walking around freely, and royal carp in the pond. Wilanów Palace Park dates back to the second half of the 17th century. It covers an area of 43 ha. Its central French-styled area corresponds to the ancient, Baroque forms of the palace. The eastern section of the park, closest to the Palace, is the two-level garden with a terrace facing the pond. The park around the Królikarnia Palace is situated on the old escarpment of the Vistula. The park has lanes running on a few levels deep into the ravines on both sides of the palace.File:Reservoir Warsaw.jpg|thumb|Saxon GardenSaxon GardenOther green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants, while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world.WEB,weblink Nowa PomaraÅ„czarnia, ePrzewodnik / PereÅ‚ki Warszawy on-line, 24 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 8 February 2006, pl, dead, Besides, within the city borders, there are also: Pole Mokotowskie (a big park in the northern Mokotów, where was the first horse racetrack and then the airport), Park Ujazdowski (close to the Sejm and John Lennon street), Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin, by the southern city border, and Park Skaryszewski by the right Vistula bank, in Praga. The oldest park in Praga, the Praga Park, was established in 1865–1871 and designed by Jan Dobrowolski.NEWS,weblink Park Praski,, 19 April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2010, pl, dead, PowstaÅ‚ w latach 1865–1871, wedÅ‚ug projektu Jana Dobrowolskiego, na prawym brzegu WisÅ‚y. In 1927 a zoological garden (Ogród Zoologiczny) was established on the park grounds,WEB,weblink Park Praski,, 18 February 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2008, pl, dead, and in 1952 a bear run, still open today.The flora of the city may be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Warsaw within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Vistula) as well as arable land, meadows and forests. Bielany Forest, located within the borders of Warsaw, is the remaining part of the Masovian Primeval Forest. Bielany Forest nature reserve is connected with Kampinos Forest.WEB,weblink Nature reserves as a refuge of Grifola frondosa (DICKS.: FR.) GRAY in central Poland,, 24 February 2009, It is home to rich fauna and flora. Within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails. Another big forest area is Kabaty Forest by the southern city border. Warsaw has also two botanic gardens: by Łazienki park (a didactic-research unit of the University of Warsaw) as well as by the Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin (a unit of the Polish Academy of Science).There are 13 natural reserves in Warsaw â€“ among others, Bielany Forest, Kabaty Woods, and Czerniaków Lake. About {{convert|15|km|0|abbr=off}} from Warsaw, the Vistula river's environment changes strikingly and features a perfectly preserved ecosystem, with a habitat of animals that includes the otter, beaver and hundreds of bird species. There are also several lakes in Warsaw â€“ mainly the oxbow lakes, like Czerniaków Lake, the lakes in Łazienki or Wilanów Parks, and Kamionek Lake. There are many small lakes in the parks, but only a few are permanent â€“ the majority are emptied before winter to clean them of plants and sediments.The Warsaw Zoo covers an area of {{convert|40|ha|acre|abbr=off}}.WEB,weblink Warsaw Zoo,, 24 February 2009, There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species. Although officially created in 1928, it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries, often open to the public.BOOK, Zoo and aquarium history: ancient animal collections to zoological gardens, 2000, Vernon N. Kisling, 118–119, CRC Press, 0-8493-2100-X,weblink

Society and demographics

{{Historical populations3000012000063400139700163600383000711988764054100300011789141300900422000803800113600013156001596100165570016724001697500171039817443511777972|footnote=Note: 2010 2014 2018}}{| class="infobox" style="float:right; font-size:85%;"Foreign residents in Mazovian Voivodeship!Nationality || Population (2019)Ukraine}} 42,922UKRAINE > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/UA/, Vietnam}} 10,386VIETNAM > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/VN/, Belarus}} 7,079BELARUS > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/BY/, China}} 6,748CHINA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/CN/, India}} 5,368INDIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/IN/, Russia}} 3,239RUSSIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/RU/, France}} 2,592FRANCE > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/FR/, United Kingdom}} 2,152UNITED KINGDOM > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/UK/, Turkey}} 2,030TURCJA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/TR/, {{collapsed infobox section begin|Other countries/territories}}Germany}} 1,884GERMANY > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/DE/, Italy}} 1,707ITALY > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/IT/, Bulgaria}} 1,484BULGARIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/BG/, Spain}} 1,340SPAIN > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/ES/, Armenia}} 1,117ARMENIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/AM/, Georgia}} 1,110GEORGIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/GE/, Uzbekistan}} 1,080UZBEKISTAN > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/UZ/, Sweden}} 1,037SWEDEN > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/SE/, Nepal}} 1,027NEPAL > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/NP/, Romania}} 896ROMANIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/RO/, United States}} 806UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/US/, Lithuania}} 717LITHUANIA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/LT/, Netherlands}} 707NETHERLANDS > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/NL/, Hungary}} 685HUNGARY > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/HU/, Iraq}} 659IRAQ > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/IQ/, South Korea}} 652SOUTH KOREA > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/KR/, Azerbaijan}} 629AZERBAIJAN > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/AZ/, Bangladesh}} 621BANGLADESH > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/BD/, Czech Republic}} 592CZECH REPUBLIC > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/CZ/, Portugal}} 579PORTUGAL > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/PT/, Egypt}} 530EGYPT > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/EG/, Israel}} 520ISRAEL > URL=HTTPS://MIGRACJE.GOV.PL/STATYSTYKI/ZAKRES/POLSKA/TYP/DOKUMENTY/WIDOK/WYKRESY/ROK/2019/KRAJ/IL/, {{collapsed infobox section end}}Demographically, it was the most diverse city in Poland, with significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants.WEB,weblink Migrations Map: Where are migrants coming from? Where have migrants left?,, 12 February 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2016, dead, dmy-all, In addition to the Polish majority, there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to the Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 638,000, Jews constituted 219,000 (around 34% percent). Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population. In 1933, out of 1,178,914 inhabitants 833,500 were of Polish mother tongue. World War II changed the demographics of the city, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of Warsaw's history. Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanisation.In 1939, c. 1,300,000 people lived in Warsaw, but in 1945 â€“ only 420,000. During the first years after the war, the population growth was c. 6%, so shortly the city started to suffer from the lack of flats and of areas for new houses. The first remedial measure was the Warsaw area enlargement (1951) â€“ but the city authorities were still forced to introduce residency registration limitations: only the spouses and children of the permanent residents as well as some persons of public importance (like renowned specialists) were allowed to get the registration, hence halving the population growth in the following years. It also bolstered a stereotype popular among the dwellers of other cities claiming that average Varsovians thought of themselves as better only because they lived in the capital. While all restrictions on residency registration were scrapped in 1990, a negative image of a typical Warsaw inhabitant in some form persists till this day.

Immigrant population

Much like most capital cities in Europe, Warsaw boasts a foreign-born population that is significantly larger than in other cities, although not coming close to the figures representing the likes of Madrid or Rome. In 2016, it was estimated that 21,000 people living in Warsaw were foreign born, although some suspect the actual number could be as high as 60,000–150,000,WEB,weblink Czy boimy się cudzoziemców w Warszawie?,, or 1.2~3.4% – 8.5% of all Varsovians. Of those, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Byelorussians and Russians were the most prominent groups.WEB,weblink Warszawa lubiana przez cudzoziemców. Ilu ich mieszka w stolicy?,, 22 October 2016,


Throughout its existence, Warsaw had been a multi-cultural city.BOOK, Geert Mak, In Europe: travels through the twentieth century, 2008, 427, Pantheon Books, New York, 0-307-28057-8, Today Warsaw is a monocultural city, which is some people's ideal. But before 1939 it was a typically multicultural society. Those were the city's most productive years. We lost that multicultural character during the war., According to the 1901 census, out of 711,988 inhabitants 56.2% were Catholics, 35.7% Jews, 5% Greek Orthodox Christians and 2.8% Protestants.BOOK, Hermann Julius Meyer, Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 1909, 388, Leipzig and Vienna, 6th, 20, de, Eight years later, in 1909, there were 281,754 Jews (36.9%), 18,189 Protestants (2.4%) and 2,818 Mariavites (0.4%).BOOK, Erich Zechlin, Die Bevölkerungs- und Grundbesitzverteilung im Zartum Polen, The distribution of population and property in tsaristic Poland, 1916, 82–83, Reimer, Berlin, de, This led to construction of hundreds of places of religious worship in all parts of the town. Most of them were destroyed in the aftermath of the Warsaw uprising of 1944. After the war, the new communist authorities of Poland discouraged church construction and only a small number were rebuilt.BOOK, Marian S. Mazgaj, Church and State in Communist Poland: A History, 1944–1989, 2010, 67, McFarland, 0-7864-5904-2, In the survey, conducted in 2010 by a team of sociologists from Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, 66% of the Warsaw residents declared themselves as believers and 6% as non-believers. 32% of the faithful of the Archdiocese of Warsaw attended masses and 34% of the faithful of the Warsaw-Praga diocese. The Eucharist was received by about 15% of the faithful.{{fact|date=May 2018}}

Government and politics

As the capital of Poland, Warsaw is the political centre of the country. All state agencies are located there, including the Polish Parliament, the Presidential Office and the Supreme Court. In the Polish parliament the city and the area are represented by 31 MPs (out of 460). Additionally, Warsaw elects two MEPs (Members of the European Parliament).The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish (literally 'Envoy'). It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm (Marszałek Sejmu).

Municipal government

The municipal government existed in Warsaw until World War II and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council â€“ Miejska Rada Narodowa â€“ governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times â€“ also as the result of the reform which restored powiats, cancelled in 1975. Finally, according to the Warsaw Act, the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one city powiat with a unified municipal government.WEB,weblink Administration,, 31 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2008, dead, File:PaÅ‚ac Komisji RzÄ…dowej Przychodów i Skarbu w Warszawie 2018.jpg|thumb|left|Neoclassical Commission Palace, the house of the city's government]]The basic unit of territorial division in Poland is a commune (gmina).BOOK, Uwe Altrock, Spatial planning and urban development in the new EU member states: from adjustment to reinvention, 2006, 262, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 0-7546-4684-X, A city is also a commune â€“ but with a city charter. Both cities and communes are governed by a mayor â€“ but in the communes the mayor is vogt (wójt in Polish), however in the cities â€“ burmistrz. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e. tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division â€“ counties or powiats. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a gmina cannot register cars, this is a powiat's task (i.e. a registration number depends on what powiat a car had been registered in, not the gmina). In this case we say "city county" or powiat grodzki. Such cities are for example Lublin, Kraków, GdaÅ„sk, and PoznaÅ„. In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of a powiat{{'s}} entitlements â€“ like the already mentioned car registration. For example, the Wola district has its own evidence and the Ursynów district â€“ its own (and the cars from Wola have another type of registration number than those from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków do not have the entitlements of a powiat, so the registration numbers in Kraków are of the same type for all districts.(File:Dutch Embassy in Warsaw 2016.jpg|thumb|Embassy of the Netherlands)Legislative power in Warsaw is vested in a unicameral Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 60 members. Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the city council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government. Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor (the President of Warsaw), who may sign them into law. If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote.Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (Rada dzielnicy). Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (Burmistrz) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw.The mayor of Warsaw is called President. Generally, in Poland, the mayors of bigger cities are called presidents â€“ i.e. cities with over 100,000 people or that had a president before 1990. The first Warsaw President was Jan Andrzej Menich (1695–1696). Between 1975 and 1990 the Warsaw presidents simultaneously led the Warsaw Voivode. Since 1990 the President of Warsaw had been elected by the city council. In the years of 1994–1999 the mayor of the district Centrum automatically was designated as the President of Warsaw: the mayor of Centrum was elected by the district council of Centrum and the council was elected only by the Centrum residents. Since 2002 the President of Warsaw is elected by all of the citizens of Warsaw.The current President of Warsaw is RafaÅ‚ Trzaskowski. The first president elected according these rules was Lech KaczyÅ„ski. When he was elected as the President of Polish Republic (December 2005) he resigned as mayor on the day before taking office.File:Sejm RP.jpg| Poland's bicameral parliament, the Sejm and the SenateFile:Gmach Kancelarii Prezesa Rady Ministrów kwiecieÅ„ 2017.jpg|Chancellery of the Prime MinisterFile:Warszawa PaÅ‚ac Prezydencki 2011.jpg|Presidential Palace, the seat of the Polish presidentFile:Warszawa 9471.jpg|Supreme Court of PolandFile:Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny ul. Boduena 3-5.jpg|Supreme Administrative CourtFile:PaÅ‚ac Ministra Skarbu w Warszawie 2018.jpg|The seat of the administration of the Masovian VoivodeshipFile:PaÅ‚ac Mostowskich w Warszawie 05.JPG|Mostowski Palace, the seat of Warsaw's police headquartersFile:Warszawa, ul. Miodowa 15 20170518 002.jpg|The main gate of the Ministry of HealthFile:Ministry of Agriculture Warsaw2.jpg|Ministry of Agriculture


{|class="wikitable sortable floatright" style="font-size:90%;"!District ||Population ||AreaMokotów >220,682 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Praga Południe >178,665 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Ursynów >145,938 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Wola >137,519 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Bielany >132,683 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Targówek >123,278 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Śródmieście, Warsaw>Śródmieście align=right15.57sqmi|abbr=on}}Bemowo >115,873 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Białołęka >96,588 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Ochota >84,990{{convertkm2abbr=on}}Wawer >69,896 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Praga Północ >69,510 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Ursus, Warsaw>Ursus align=right29.35sqmi|abbr=on}}Żoliborz >48,342 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Włochy >38,075 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Wilanów >23,960 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Rembertów >23,280 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Wesoła >22,811 {{convertkm2abbr=on}}Total >1,708,491HTTP://WWW.STAT.GOV.PL/GUS/5840_13211_PLK_HTML.HTM >TITLE=LUDNOść W GMINACH WEDłUG STANU W DNIU 31.12.2011 R. BILANS OPRACOWANY W OPARCIU O WYNIKI NSP’2011 ACCESSDATE=21 AUGUST 2012 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=17 AUGUST 2012, {{convertkm2abbr=on}}{{Warsaw districts}}{{clear}}Until 1994, there were 7 districts in Warsaw: Śródmieście, Praga Północ, Praga Południe, Żoliborz, Wola, Ochota, and Mokotów. Between 1994 and 2002, there were 11 districts: Centrum, Białołęka, Targówek, Rembertów, Wawer, Wilanów, Ursynów, Włochy, Ursus, Bemowo, and Bielany. In 2002, the town Wesoła was incorporated and the territorial division of Warsaw was established as follows:Warsaw is a county (powiat), and is further divided into 18 districts (dzielnica),WEB,weblink WarsawTour – Official Tourist Portal of Warsaw, Stołeczne Biuro, Turystyki, 6 February 2017, each one with its own administrative body.WEB,weblink Dzielnice,, 11 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2008, pl, dead, Each of the districts is customarily subdivided into several neighbourhoods which have no legal or administrative status. Warsaw has two historic neighbourhoods, called Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto), in the borough of Śródmieście.BOOK, Mark Baker, Kit F. Chung, Frommer's Poland, 2011, 80, John Wiley & Sons, 04-70964-24-3,weblink


In 2011, Warsaw was ranked the world's 46th most expensive city to live in. It was classified as an alpha world city (also known as a "major global city that links economic regions into the world economy") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from Loughborough University, placing it on a par with cities such as Sydney, Istanbul, Amsterdam or Seoul.

Business and commerce

File:Centro Comercial Terrazas de Oro en Varsovia.JPG|thumb|right|ZÅ‚ote TarasyZÅ‚ote TarasyWarsaw, especially its city centre (ÅšródmieÅ›cie), is home not only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also to many domestic and international companies. In 2006, 304,016 companies were registered in the city. Warsaw's ever-growing business community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally. MasterCard Emerging Market Index has noted Warsaw's economic strength and commercial center. Warsaw was ranked as the seventh-greatest emerging market. Foreign investors' financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million €.Warsaw produces 12% of Poland's national income, which in 2008 was 305.1% of the Polish average per capita (or 160% of the European Union average). The Nominal GDP per capita in Warsaw amounted to 140,000 Polish Zloty in 2017 (c. €32,500 or around $80,000 in Purchasing Power Parity|PPP]weblink Warsaw leads East-Central Europe in foreign investment and in 2006, GDP growth met expectations with a level of 6.1%. It also has one of the fastest growing economies, with GDP growth at 6.5 percent in 2007 and 6.1 percent in the first quarter of 2008.At the same time the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland, at around 4% in February 2015.WEB,weblink Statistical Office in Warszawa / Warsaw, ideo -,,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2015, The city itself receives around 8,740,882,000 zÅ‚otys in taxes and direct government grants.

Warsaw Stock Exchange

File:Centrum Giełdowe w Warszawie 07.jpg|thumb|right|The Warsaw Stock ExchangeWarsaw Stock ExchangeWarsaw's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued trading until World War II. It was re-established in April 1991, following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and the reintroduction of a free-market economy. Today, the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) is, according to many indicators, the largest market in the region, with 374 companies listed and total capitalization of 162,584 mln EUR as of 31 August 2009. From 1991 until 2000, the stock exchange was, ironically, located in the building previously used as the headquarters of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR).


During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the Huta Warszawa Steel Works, the FSO car factory and the "Ursus" tractor factory.File:Budynek rektyfikacji Koneser 2018.jpg|thumb|left|Praga Koneser Center within the former Warsaw Vodka Factory ]]As the communist economy deteriorated, these factories lost significance and most went bankrupt after 1989. Today, the Arcelor Warszawa Steel mill (formerly Huta Warszawa) is the only major factory remaining.The FSO Car Factory was established in 1951. A number of vehicles have been assembled there over the decades, including the Warszawa, Syrena, Fiat 125p (under license from Fiat, later renamed FSO 125p when the license expired) and the Polonez. The last two models listed were also sent abroad and assembled in a number of other countries, including Egypt and Colombia. In 1995 the factory was purchased by the South Korean car manufacturer Daewoo, which assembled the Tico, Espero, Nubia, Tacuma, Leganza, Lanos and Matiz there for the European market. In 2005 the factory was sold to AvtoZAZ, a Ukrainian car manufacturer which assembled the Chevrolet Aveo there. The license for the production of the Aveo expired in February 2011 and has not been renewed since. Currently the company is defunct.The "Ursus" factory opened in 1893 and is still in operation. Throughout its history various machinery was assembled there, including motorcycles, military vehicles, trucks and buses; but since World War II it has produced only tractors.The number of state-owned enterprises continues to decrease while the number of companies operating with foreign capital is on the rise, reflecting the continued shift towards a modern market-based economy. The largest foreign investors are Coca-Cola Amatil and Metro AG. Warsaw has the biggest concentration of electronics and high-tech industry in Poland, while the growing consumer market perfectly fosters the development of the food-processing industry.


|headercss=width: 325px; background: #B5B5B5;
|header=Higher education in Warsaw
   Name and year established {edih}Warsaw holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Poland. It is home to four major universities and over 62 smaller schools of higher education. The overall number of students of all grades of education in Warsaw is almost 500,000 (29.2% of the city population; 2002). The number of university students is over 280,000. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.File:Brama Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.jpg|thumb|left|The main gate of the University of WarsawUniversity of WarsawFile:Pasteura 5.jpg|thumb|Faculty of Physics of the University of WarsawUniversity of WarsawThe University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków. Warsaw University of Technology is the second academic school of technology in the country, and one of the largest in East-Central Europe, employing 2,000 professors. Other institutions for higher education include the Medical University of Warsaw, the largest medical school in Poland and one of the most prestigious; the National Defence University, highest military academic institution in Poland; the Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, the oldest and largest music school in Poland and one of the largest in Europe; the Warsaw School of Economics, the oldest and most renowned economic university in the country; the Warsaw University of Life Sciences, the largest agricultural university, founded in 1818; and the University of Social Sciences and Humanities, the first private secular university in the country.File:6 Warszawa 411.jpg|thumb|right|Warsaw University LibraryWarsaw University LibraryWarsaw has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents. The most important library in terms of historic document collections is the National Library of Poland. The library holds 8.2 million volumes in its collection. Formed in 1928, it sees itself as a successor to the ZaÅ‚uski Library, the biggest in Poland and one of the first and biggest libraries in the world.Another important library – the University Library, founded in 1816, is home to over two million items. The building was designed by architects Marek BudzyÅ„ski and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on 15 December 1999. It is surrounded by green. The University Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than {{convert|10000|m²|abbr=on}}, and plants covering {{convert|5111|m²|abbr=on}}. As the university garden it is open to the public every day.

Transport and infrastructure

File:Stadion Narodowy - Wisla.jpg|thumb|left|Night view of the Świętokrzyski Bridge and the National Stadium from the left bank of the Vistula]]File:POL Warszawa S8 05.jpg|thumb|S8 in Warsaw]]Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment, economic growth and EU funding. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new roads, flyovers, bridges, etc.Warsaw lacks a complete ring road system and most traffic goes directly through the city centre, leading to the eleventh highest level of congestion in Europe.WEB,weblink TomTom Traffic Index, TomTom, 2018, 6 August 2018, The Warsaw ring road has been planned to consist of three express roads: S2 (south), S8 (north-west) and S17 (east). Currently S8 and a part of S2 are open, with S2 to be finished by 2020WEB,weblink Map of motorways and express roads in Poland, SISKOM, 1 August 2018, .The A2 motorway opened in June 2012, stretches west from Warsaw and is a direct motorway connection with Łódź, Poznań and ultimately with Berlin.File:Lotnisko Chopina w Warszawie 2018b.jpg|thumb|Warsaw Chopin AirportWarsaw Chopin AirportThe city has two international airports: Warsaw Chopin Airport, located just {{convert|10|km|mi}} from the city centre, and Warsaw-Modlin Airport, located {{convert|35|km|mi}} to the north, opened in July 2012. With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with 15 500 000 passengers served in 2017, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport is by far the biggest airport in Poland and in Central-Eastern Europe.WEB,weblink Frédéric Chopin International Airport,, 24 July 2008, {{Unreliable source?|reason=domain on WP:BLACKLIST|date=June 2016}} and it has also been called "the most important and largest airport in Central Europe".WEB,weblink Pole position: Developing "the most important and largest airport in Central Europe",, 30 December 2015, File:Tram in Warsaw.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Tram car ]]Public transport in Warsaw includes buses, trams (streetcars), Metro, the light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa line, urban railway Szybka Kolej Miejska, regional rail Koleje Mazowieckie (Mazovian Railways),WEB,weblink Public transport,, 22 August 2008, and bicycle sharing systems (Veturilo). The buses, trams, urban railway and Metro are managed by Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (ZTM, the Warsaw Municipal Transport Authority).File:ED250-010.jpg|thumb|Pendolino high-speed trains connect Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, Tri-City and the Upper Silesian metropolitan areaUpper Silesian metropolitan areaThe regional rail and light rail is operated by Polish State Railways (PKP). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators.WEB,weblink From monopoly towards market, World Bank, 22 August 2008, Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about {{convert|2603|km|mi}}, and with some 1,600 vehicles.Currently, the Tramwaje Warszawskie (Warsaw Trams) company runs 863 cars on over {{convert|240|km|mi}} of tracks. Twenty-odd lines run across the city with additional lines opened on special occasions (such as All Saints' Day).The first section of the Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995 initially with a total of 11 stations.WEB,weblink A History of Subway Construction,, 30 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2006, dead, It now has 21 stations running a distance of approximately {{convert|23|km|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Technical and Operating Data of the Existing Subway Section,, 30 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2007, dead, Initially, all of the trains were Russian built. In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom. The second line running east-west will be about {{convert|31|km|0|abbr=on}}. The central section is {{convert|6|km|0|abbr=on}} long with seven stations, opened on 8 March 2015.The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections. There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations.File:C12 Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet - peron, Otwarcie M2, 2015-03-08.jpg|Metro Line 2, Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet stationFile:Autobusy Dworzec Centralny 2016.jpg|BusesFile:27WE-005.jpg| Fast City Rail trains, Chopin Airport stationFile:EN100-01 (2), Prezentacja EN100, 2016-06-03.jpg|Warsaw Suburban trainFile:Veturilo, Warsaw 2014.jpg|Veturilo bicycle station


Like many cities in Central and Eastern Europe, infrastructure in Warsaw suffered considerably during its time as an Eastern Bloc economy – though it is worth mentioning that the initial Three-Year Plan to rebuild Poland (especially Warsaw) was a major success, but what followed was very much the opposite. However, over the past decade Warsaw has seen many improvements due to solid economic growth, an increase in foreign investment as well as funding from the European Union. In particular, the city's metro, roads, sidewalks, health care facilities and sanitation facilities have improved markedly.Today, Warsaw has some of the best medical facilities in Poland and East-Central Europe. The city is home to the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), the highest-reference hospital in all of Poland, as well as an active research and education center.WEB, Ewa Pronicka, coordinators,weblink Perfect for Children,, 27 April 2004, 2 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 October 2008, yes, The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology is one of the largest and most modern oncological institutions in Europe.WEB, Denise Wise, Kristin Wodzinski, American Physical Therapy Association,weblink People to People: Russia and Poland, 2 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2008, dead, The clinical section is located in a 10-floor building with 700 beds, 10 operating theatres, an intensive-care unit, several diagnostic departments as well as an outpatient clinic.The infrastructure has developed a lot over the past years.*{{Wikivoyage-inline}}


Music and theatre

File:Warszawa, ul. Senatorska 21, 25 20170516 001.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|The edifice of the Grand Theatre in Warsaw. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, featuring one of the biggest stages in the world.]]Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera, the Chamber Opera, the National Philharmonic Hall and the National Theatre, as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the Congress Hall in the Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the International Frédéric Chopin Piano Competition, the International Contemporary Music Festival Warsaw Autumn, the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International Stanisław Moniuszko Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.Warsaw is also considered as one of the European hubs of underground electronic music with a very attractive house and techno music scene.WEB,weblink New Europe: Poles dancing, The Guardian, 12 February 2016, Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre (established 1778).File:Chopin Competition 2015 Finals.jpg|thumb|left| 2015 International Chopin Piano CompetitionInternational Chopin Piano CompetitionWarsaw also attracts many young and off-stream directors and performers who add to the city's theatrical culture. Their productions may be viewed mostly in smaller theatres and Houses of Culture (Domy Kultury), mostly outside Śródmieście (Central Warsaw). Warsaw hosts the International Theatrical Meetings.From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny (Theatre Square) was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres. Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls and concerts.The main building housed the Great Theatre from 1833 to 1834, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939{{spaced ndash}}the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller.Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939, and in the inter-war period, the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–26) was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the Upati Institute of Dramatic Arts{{spaced ndash}}the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an acting department and a stage directing department.


(File:Warsaw Multimedia Fountain Park 1.JPG|thumb|right|Warsaw Multimedia Fountain Park)Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula on Midsummer's Night for a festival called Wianki (Polish for Wreaths) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.WEB, StaÅ› Kmieć,weblink Midsummer's Eve,, 2 February 2009, WEB, StaÅ› Kmieć,weblink Wianki 2008,, 2 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2009, pl, dead, The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom. By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today. The city council organize concerts and other events. Each Midsummer's Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, and looking for the fern flower, there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.Warsaw Multimedia Fountain Park is located in an enchanting place, near the Old Town and the Vistula. The ‘Water – Light – Sound’ multimedia shows take place each Friday and Saturday from May till September at 9.30 pm (May and – 9 October pm). On other weekdays, the shows do not include lasers and sound.The Warsaw Film festival, an annual festival that takes place every October.WEB,weblink Warsaw Film Festival,, 16 February 2009, Films are usually screened in their original language with Polish subtitles and participating cinemas include Kinoteka (Palace of Science and Culture), Multikino at Golden Terraces and Kultura. Over 100 films are shown throughout the festival, and awards are given to the best and most popular films.

Museums and art galleries

|headercss=width: 325px; background: #B5B5B5;
|header=Museums in Warsaw
   Name and official website {edih}File:Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw building 0010.jpg|thumb|left|Museum of the History of Polish Jews ]]The levelling of Warsaw during the war has left gaping holes in the city's historic collections. Although a considerable number of treasures were spirited away to safety in 1939, a great number of collections from palaces and museums in the countryside were brought to Warsaw at that time as the capital was considered a safer place than some remote castle in the borderlands. Thus losses were heavy.File:Budynek Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego 2017.jpg|thumb|Warsaw Uprising MuseumWarsaw Uprising MuseumFile:Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie Galeria Sztuki XIX wieku.JPG|thumb|Gallery of the 19th-Century Art at the National Museum ]]As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world's first Museum of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world, the Museum of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw's 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are the National Museum with a collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country including some paintings from Adolf Hitler's private collection, and the Museum of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms.The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) focus on the paintings of the "old masters", as do those of the Royal Castle which displays the LanckoroÅ„ski Collection including two paintings by Rembrandt. The Palace in Natolin, a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski, is another venue with its interiors and park accessible to tourists.File:Ostrogski Palace Chopin Museum June 2010 b.jpg|thumb|left|The 17th-century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum.]]Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll PorczyÅ„ski Collection MuseumOfficial name: Museum of John Paul II Collection displays works from such varied artists as Paris Bordone, Cornelis van Haarlem, José de Ribera, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh along with some copies of masterpieces of European painting.A fine tribute to the fall of Warsaw and history of Poland can be found in the Warsaw Uprising Museum and in the KatyÅ„ Museum which preserves the memory of that crime. The Warsaw Uprising Museum also operates a rare preserved and operating historic stereoscopic theatre, the Warsaw Fotoplastikon. The Museum of Independence preserves patriotic and political objects connected with Poland's struggles for independence. Dating back to 1936 the Warsaw Historical Museum contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of Warsaw from its origins until today.File:Warszawa, pl. MaÅ‚achowskiego 3 20170516 003.jpg|thumb|ZachÄ™taZachÄ™taThe 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle currently houses the Centre for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. The Centre currently realizes about 500 projects a year. The ZachÄ™ta National Gallery of Art, the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid-19th century organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and International Artists and promotes art in many other ways. Since 2011, Warsaw Gallery Weekend is held on the last weekend of September.The city also possesses some oddities such as the Museum of Caricature, the Museum of John Paul II and Primate WyszyÅ„ski, the Legia Warsaw Museum, and a Motorisation Museum in OtrÄ™busy.

Media and film

{{See also|List of films featuring Warsaw}}File:Siedziba Telewizji Polskiej w Warszawie 2017.jpg|thumb|Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street]]Warsaw is the media centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of TVP and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations, such as Polskie Radio (Polish Radio), TVN, Polsat, TV4, TV Puls, Canal+ Poland, Cyfra+ and MTV Poland.Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, the Polish Ordinary Mercury, was printed in Warsaw. The city is also the printing capital of Poland with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza and Dziennik Polska-Europa-Åšwiat, Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers, have their headquarters in Warsaw.Warsaw also has a sizable movie and television industry. The city houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie companies are TOR, Czołówka, Zebra and Kadr which is behind several international movie productions.Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto, located a mere {{convert|80|km|0|abbr=on}} from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film production and international co-production. It is to be the largest high-tech film studio in Europe. The first projects filmed in the new Film City will be two films about the Warsaw uprising. Two backlots will be constructed for these projects â€“ a lot of pre-World War II Warsaw and city ruins.Since World War II, Warsaw has been the most important centre of film production in Poland. It has also been featured in numerous movies, both Polish and foreign, for example: KanaÅ‚ and Korczak by Andrzej Wajda and The Decalogue by Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski, also including Oscar winner The Pianist by Roman PolaÅ„ski.It is also home to the National Film Archive, which, since 1955, has been collecting and preserving Polish film culture.WEB,weblink About the National Film Archive,, National Film Archive, 27 September 2017,


On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, obtained from the mayor of Stuttgart Wolfgang Schuster a challenge award â€“ a commemorative plaque awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.WEB,weblink European Capitals of Sport,, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink 20 July 2011, File:Warsaw National Stadium before Germany - Italy (6).jpg|thumb|left|The Interior of the National Stadium before the UEFA Euro 2012 semi-final match between Germany and Italy on 28 June 2012]]The National Stadium, a 58,500-seat-capacity football (soccer) stadium, replaced Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium.NEWS, Ryan Lucas,weblink UEFA turns attention to Euro 2012, Sports Illustrated, 31 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2011, The national stadium hosted the opening match, 2 group matches, a quarterfinal, and a semi-final of the UEFA Euro 2012 hosted jointly by Poland and Ukraine.WEB,weblink Warsaw,, 31 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 3 August 2008, dead, (File:Moderne wolkenkrabber Warschau 0865.PNG|thumb|The Olympic Center)There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar, used for all kinds of indoor sports (it was a venue for the 2009 EuroBasket2009 EuroBasket, Retrieved 5 June 2016. but it is also used as an indoor skating rink). There is also an open-air skating rink (Stegny) and a horse racetrack (SÅ‚użewiec).The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, {{convert|4|km|0|abbr=on}} south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas.WEB,weblink Wodny Park,, 31 January 2009, From the Warsovian football teams, the most famous is Legia Warsaw â€“ the army club with a nationwide following play at Polish Army Stadium, just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street. Established in 1916, they have won the country's championship 13 times (most recently in 2018) and won the Polish Cup 19 times. In the Champions League season 1995/96 they reached the quarter-finals, where they lost to Panathinaikos Athens.Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win the country's championship two times (in 1946 and 2000) and won the cup twice as well. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town. Polonia was relegated from the country's top flight in 2013 because of their disastrous financial situation. They are now playing in the second league (3rd tier in Poland).Legia Warsaw's basketball team was one of the country's best teams in 50s and 60s. They are now participating in PLK, the highest-tier level of the Polish basketball.

Warsaw Mermaid

File:Warsaw Sirene 1659.PNG|thumb|upright|The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books]]The mermaid (syrenka) is Warsaw's symbol and can be found on statues throughout the city and on the city's coat of arms. This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century. The oldest existing armed seal of Warsaw is from the year 1390, consisting of a round seal bordered with the Latin inscription Sigilium Civitatis Varsoviensis (Seal of the city of Warsaw). City records as far back as 1609 document the use of a crude form of a sea monster with a female upper body and holding a sword in its claws. In 1653 the poet Zygmunt Laukowski asks the question:{{Rquote|center|Warsaw of strong walls; why was the emblem Mermaid with sharp sword, given you by the kings?|Zygmunt LaukowskiWEB,weblink Warsaw Mermaid â€“ Syrena, 10 July 2008, }}File:Syrenka Warszawska.jpg|thumb|upright|left|1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Market Place ]]The Mermaid Statue stands in the very centre of Old Town Square, surrounded by a fountain. Due to vandalism, the original statue had been moved to the grounds of the Museum of Warsaw – the statue in the square is a copy.This is not the only mermaid in Warsaw. Another is located on the bank of the Vistula River near ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyski Bridge and another on Karowa Street.The origin of the legendary figure is not fully known. The best-known legend, by Artur Oppman, is that long ago two of Triton's daughters set out on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen. The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula River and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured the mermaid.Another legend says that a mermaid once swam to Warsaw from the Baltic Sea for the love of the Griffin, the ancient defender of the city, who was killed in a struggle against the Swedish invasions of the 17th century. The mermaid, wishing to avenge his death, took the position of defender of Warsaw, becoming the symbol of the city.Every member of the Queen's Royal Hussars of the UK's light cavalry wears the Maid of Warsaw, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 (Service) Dress. Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom also wear the Maid of Warsaw on the left sleeve of their No. 2 (Service) Dress.

Famous people

{{further information|Category:People from Warsaw}}{{multiple image|perrow = 2|total_width=250| image1 = Marie Curie 1903.jpg| image2 = Benoit Mandelbrot, TED 2010.jpg| image3 = Samuel Goldwyn - Jul 1919 EH.jpg| image4 = Tamara Łempicka ssj 20060914 - cropped.jpg| footer = Famous notables born in Warsaw, clockwise from upper left: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Benoit Mandelbrot, Samuel Goldwyn and Tamara de Lempicka}}One of the most famous people born in Warsaw was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, who achieved international recognition for her research on radioactivity and was the first female recipient of the Nobel Prize. Famous musicians include Władysław Szpilman and Frédéric Chopin. Though Chopin was born in the village of Żelazowa Wola, about {{convert|60|km|0|abbr=on}} from Warsaw, he moved to the city with his family when he was seven months old. Casimir Pulaski, a Polish general and hero of the American Revolutionary War, was born here in 1745.WEB,weblink Kazimierz Pulaski – Polish patriot and United States army officer, Encyclopædia Britannica, Tamara de Lempicka was a famous artist born in Warsaw. She was born Maria Górska in Warsaw to wealthy parents and in 1916 married a Polish lawyer Tadeusz Łempicki. Better than anyone else she represented the art deco style in painting and art.Nathan Alterman, the Israeli poet, was born in Warsaw, as was Moshe Vilenski, the Israeli composer, lyricist, and pianist, who studied music at the Warsaw Conservatory. Russian Jewish poet and essayist Osip Mandelstam, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poetry was born in Warsaw while it was part of the Russian Empire. Other notables include Samuel Goldwyn, the founder of Goldwyn Pictures, mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, physicist Joseph Rotblat and biochemist Casimir Funk. Warsaw was the beloved city of Isaac Bashevis Singer, which he described in many of his novels: "Warsaw has just now been destroyed. No one will ever see the Warsaw I knew. Let me just write about it. Let this Warsaw not disappear forever", he wrote.


International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland}}Warsaw is twinned with:WEB,weblink Miasta partnerskie Warszawy, pl, Partner cities of Warsaw, Warszawa w Unii Europejskiej [Warsaw in the European Union], Biuro Promocji Miasta [City Promotion Office], 4 May 2005, 29 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2010, dead, {{div col |colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Berlin in Germany (since 1991)WEB,weblink Berlin – City Partnerships, 17 September 2013, Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin,weblink" title="">weblink 21 May 2013, dead, WEB,weblink Berlin's international city relations, Berlin Mayor's Office, 1 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 September 2010, Berlin and Warsaw's agreement on friendship and cooperation and a corresponding supporting program was signed in Berlin on 12 August 1991.
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Budapest in Hungary (since 2005)
  • {{flagicon|ARG}} Buenos Aires in Argentina (since 1992)WEB,weblink Listado de ciudades hermanas,, Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, 15 October 2011, 1990. Praga. 1992. Rótterdam. 1990. Varsovia 1992., es,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2012,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Chicago in the United States (since 1960)
  • {{flagicon|UK}} Coventry in the United Kingdom (since 1957)WEB,weblink Coventry's twin towns, 6 August 2013, Griffin, Mary, 2 August 2011, Coventry Telegraph, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2013, WEB,weblink Coventry – Twin towns and cities, 6 August 2013, Coventry City Council.,weblink" title="">weblink 12 April 2013, dead,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Düsseldorf in Germany (since 1989)WEB,weblink Twin Towns,, 29 October 2009,
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Grozny in Russia (since 1997)
  • {{flagicon|JPN}} Hamamatsu in Japan (since 1990)
  • {{flagicon|VIE}} Hanoi in Vietnam (since 2000)
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Harbin in China (since 1993)
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} ÃŽle-de-France in France (since 1990)
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Istanbul in Turkey (since 1991)WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Istanbul, 8 September 2007, NEWS,weblink Radikal, Turkish, 3 November 2003, 49 sister cities in 2003, Ä°stanbul'a 49 kardeÅŸ, Erdem, Selim Efe,
  • {{flagicon|UKR}} Kiev in Ukraine (since 1994)
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Moscow in Russia (since 1993)
  • {{flagicon|KAZ}} Nur-Sultan in Kazakhstan (since 2002)
  • {{flagicon|NOR}} Oslo in Norway (since 2005)WEB,weblink Partners â€“ Oslo kommune,,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2009, dead,
  • {{flagicon|LVA}} Riga in Latvia (since 2002)WEB,weblink Twin cities of Riga, Riga City Council, 27 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2008,
  • {{flagicon|BRA}} Rio de Janeiro in Brazil (since 1997)
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Saint-Étienne in France (since 1995)
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} St. Petersburg in Russia (since 1997)WEB,weblink Saint Petersburg in figures â€“ International and Interregional Ties, Saint Petersburg City Government, 23 March 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2009,
  • {{flagicon|KOR}} Seoul in South Korea (since 1996)WEB,weblink International Cooperation: Sister Cities, 26 January 2008, Seoul Metropolitan Government,,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2007, dead, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 March 2012, Seoul - Sister Cities, 23 August 2013, Seoul Metropolitan Government,
  • {{flagicon|ROC}} Taipei in Taiwan (since 1995)WEB, MISSING, Department of Education, Taipai City Government,weblink Chinese, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2014,
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Tel Aviv in Israel (since 1992)WEB,weblink Tel Aviv sister cities, 14 July 2009, Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, Hebrew,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2009, dead,
  • {{flagicon|NED}} The Hague in Netherlands (since 1991)
  • {{flagicon|CAN}} Toronto in Canada (since 1990)
  • {{flagicon|LTU}} Vilnius in Lithuania (since 1998)
{{div col end}}


  • {{flagicon|ESP}} Madrid, Spain (1981)WEB, Agreements with cities, Madrid City Council, Ayuntamiento de Madrid,weblink
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Paris, France, 1999WEB,weblink Friendship and cooperation agreements, Marie de Paris, Paris, 10 September 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2016,
  • {{flagicon|CZE}} Prague, Czech RepublicWEB,weblink Partnerská mÄ›sta HMP, 5 August 2013, 18 July 2013, Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"], Czech, Prague – Twin Cities HMP,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2013, dead,
  • {{flagicon|GEO}} Tbilisi, GeorgiaWEB,weblink Tbilisi Sister Cities, 5 August 2013, Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi Municipal Portal,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2013, dead,
  • {{flagicon|ARM}} Yerevan, ArmeniaWEB,weblink Official website – Partner cities,, 28 March 2017,

Locations named after Warsaw


{{flagu|United States}}:
{hide}div col|content= {edih}

Warsaw in art and literature

{{Varieties Warsaw}}

See also


{{reflist|refs=BOOK, The Soviet troops, ordered by Stalin to wait until the Germans had destroyed the remnants of Polish resistance, then moved into what was left of Warsaw, flushed out the remaining Germans, and proclaimed themselves liberators of the city., Wesley Adamczyk, When God looked the other way: an odyssey of war, exile, and redemption, 2004, 170, University of Chicago Press, 0-226-00443-0,weblink WEB,weblink Polish Girlhood (1867–1891),, American Institute of Physics, 25 February 2009, WEB,weblink The Radium Institute (1919–1934),, American Institute of Physics, 25 February 2009, WEB,weblink The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising,, 29 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2008, dead, WEB, Neal Ascheron,weblink The Struggles for Poland,, 24 July 2008, BOOK, Mark Baker, Kit F. Chung, Frommer's Poland, 2009, 79, Frommer's, 0-470-15819-0,weblink WEB, Joanna BlewÄ…ska,weblink Warszawa da siÄ™ lubić?, Gazeta Wyborcza, 28 November 2008, 29 September 2010, pl, WEB,weblink Historia zbiorów,, 30 January 2009, pl, BOOK, Adam, Borkiewicz, Powstanie warszawskie 1944: zarys dziaÅ‚aÅ„ natury wojskowej, 1957, PAX, Warsaw, WEB, Ewa Bratosiewicz,weblink Other symbols of Warsaw,, 10 July 2008, WEB, Chris Dziadul,weblink A decade of progress,, 14 February 2009, BOOK, F.A. Brockhaus Verlag Leipzig, Der Grosse Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens, 1935, 25, Brockhaus, 15th, 20, de, WEB,weblink Warsaw Uprising, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 February 2009, Hoping to gain control of Warsaw before the Red Army could "liberate" it, the Home Army followed the Soviet suggestion to revolt.BOOK, Richard Burgin, Issac Bashevis Singer, Issac bashevis Singer Talks... About Everything, 1978, 46, The New York Times Magazine, in: BOOK, David Neal Miller, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Recovering the canon: essays on Isaac Bashevis Singer, 1986, 40, BRILL, 90-04-07681-6,weblink WEB,weblink Historia,, 30 January 2009, pl, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 28 May 2007, Frédéric Chopin Monument, eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line, 23 February 2009, WEB,weblink Big Chance for the Capital, Warsaw â€“ CEE Financial Hub Conference,, 11 June 2008, 28 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2008, WEB,weblink Coat of Arms and Colours of the Capital City of Warsaw,, 14 January 2009, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 19 November 2018, Warsaw City Report â€“ March 2007,, 28 July 2008, BOOK, Andrzej, Czerkawski, Tadeusz, Jurga, Dla ciebie ojczyzno, 1969, 435, Sport i Turystyka,weblink ORDER OF VALOUR "VIRTUTI MILITARI", FIFTH CLASS Capital City of Warsaw 1940 To the inhabitants of the Capital City of Warsaw – in recognition of their heroism and unshakable bravery in the struggle with the Nazi aggressor., WEB,weblink Pope in Warsaw,, 5 February 2009, BOOK, Masa Djordjevic, Politics of Urban Development Planning: Building Urban Governance in Post-Socialist Warsaw?, 2006, 8, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd,weblink 10 October 2010, WEB,weblink Exhibitions,, 30 January 2009, BOOK, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fragmenta faunistica, 1985, 317, Instytut zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk,weblink Polish Academy of Sciences, The Saxon Garden (Ogr. Saski). The oldest public park in Warsaw, founded in 1713.WEB, Maria Witt,weblink The Zaluski Collection in Warsaw, The Strange Life of One of the Greatest European Libraries of the Eighteenth Century, FYI France, 15 September – 15 October 2005, 17 February 2008, WEB,weblink Garden,, 30 January 2009, WEB,weblink The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 29 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2008, dead, NEWS,weblink The most expensive and richest cities in the world, 1 April 2012, UBS, 18 August 2011, WEB,weblink Warsaw,, 15 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2008, dead, WEB,weblink The Maid of Warsaw, The Queen's Own Hussars Museum, 10 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2008, BOOK, Cornelia Golna, City of man's desire: a novel of Constantinople, 2004, 318, Go-Bos Press, 90-804114-4-2,weblink WEB,weblink GieÅ‚da Papierów WartoÅ›ciowych w Warszawie,, 22 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2011, WEB,weblink Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland 2008,, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2009, WEB,weblink History of Warsaw's Coat of Arms,, 10 July 2008, WEB,weblink Heroic City,, 26 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2013, WEB,weblink Warsaw's history,, 24 July 2008, WEB,weblink Church of the Holy Cross, eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line, 23 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2006, dead, WEB,weblink Industry,, 28 July 2008, WEB,weblink The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music,, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 May 2008, WEB,weblink Press release,, 6 October 2008, 14 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2009, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The 5th Festival of Jewish Culture 'Singer's Warsaw',, 4 March 2009, pl, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 November 2010, WEB,weblink Moshe Vilensky,, 31 July 2011, WEB, Michal Jeziorski,weblink Improving Infrastructure,, 7 March 2007, 28 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2009, WEB,weblink Warsaw Judaica,, 26 January 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2007, dead, WEB, WÅ‚odzimierz Kalicki,weblink Sztuka zagrabiona, Polish American Congress of Southern California, 30 January 2009, pl, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 June 2010, WEB,weblink Kayaking on the Vistula,, 30 August 2006, 24 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2006, WEB, MichaÅ‚ KopiÅ„ski,weblink Warszawa da siÄ™ lubić? Nie w Poznaniu,, 28 November 2008, 29 September 2010, pl, WEB, M.M.,weblink Warsaw: A Last Glimpse,, 2 August 2006, 29 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2006, WEB, Joanna Ławrynowicz,weblink Frederick Francois Chopin, the most eminent Polish composer,, 10 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2008, WEB,weblink Historia,, 31 January 2009, pl, WEB,weblink History of Warsaw's Coat of Arms,, 10 July 2008, BOOK, Uta Grosenick, Ilka Becker, Women artists in the 20th and 21st century, 2001, 576, Taschen, 3-8228-5854-4,weblink WEB,weblink Teatr Letni,, 14 February 2008, pl, WEB,weblink Library building,, 30 January 2009, WEB,weblink Ludność w gminach. Stan w dniu 31 marca 2011 r. – wyniki spisu ludnoÅ›ci i mieszkaÅ„ 2011 r., Główny UrzÄ…d Statystyczny, 20 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 November 2011, WEB,weblink Tamara Łempicka,, 22 January 2009, pl, WEB
, Warsaw Mermaid's Statue
, 10 July 2008
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 7 December 2008
, dead
, WEB,weblink Metropolitan Life,, 4 February 2004, 23 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2006, WEB,weblink The city of phoenix â€“ War*saw everything, 22 January 2009, pl,weblink" title="">weblink 27 January 2009, dead, dmy-all, BOOK, James Ramsay Montagu Butler, Norman Henry Gibbs, J. M. A. Gwyer, John Patrick William Ehrman, Michael Eliot Howard, Grand strategy, 1976, James Ramsay Montagu Butler, 369, History of the Second World War; United Kingdom military series 5, H. M. Stationery Office, WEB,weblink Museum history,, 30 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 29 January 2009, dead, WEB,weblink Museum of John Paul II Collection,, 24 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2008, {{fr icon}} Zbigniew Naliwajek. Romain Rolland et la littérature polonaise. Revue de littérature comparée 3/2003 (n°307), p. 325-338.Warsaw Zoo opened 11 March 1928, on Ratuszowa Street. It was not the first zoological garden in Warsaw; King Jan Sobieski III kept a court menagerie in Wilanów. Several private zoos were also established in Warsaw in the 19th century. WEB,weblink New Zoo Revue,, 24 April 2003, 9 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2005, WEB,weblink Marie Curie â€“ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903, Nobel Foundation, 10 July 2008, BOOK, Augustin P. O'Brien, Petersburg and Warsaw: Scenes Witnessed During a Residence in Poland and Russia in 1863–64, 1864, R. Bentley,weblink 28 January 2009, WEB,weblink Warsaw University of Technology (WUT),, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 July 2011, With over 30,000 students served by over 2,000 professors and instructors, WUT is the largest and the highest-ranking engineering university in Poland.WEB, Jerzy J. Parysek,weblink The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989,, 28 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2008, BOOK, Barbara Petrozolin-SkowroÅ„ska, Warsaw Encyclopedia, 1994, 94, Encyklopedia Warszawy, Polish Scientific Publishers PWN, 83-01-08836-2,weblink pl, WEB,weblink Poland film production guide 2008,, 14 February 2009, WEB,weblink Agriculture and industry,, 29 April 2009, WEB,weblink Population in Poland. Size and structure by territorial division as of December 31, 2015, pl, 26 May 2016, WEB,weblink The National Stadium in Warsaw,, 24 July 2008, WEB,weblink Attracting foreign investments,, 24 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2007, WEB,weblink The Poster Museum at Wilanów,, 10 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2011, WEB,weblink Ustawa o ustroju miasta stoÅ‚ecznego Warszawy,, 15 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2007, pl, dead, WEB,weblink RAF Odiham,, 16, 10 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2008, BOOK, MichaÅ‚ Rożek, Doris Ronowicz, Cracow: a treasury of Polish culture and art, 1988, 74, Interpress Publishers, 83-223-2245-3, WEB,weblink Short and long history of the PowiÄ…zki Cemetery, 11 February 2008, Polish, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}BOOK, Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy miast Polski, 1987, ZakÅ‚ad Narodowy im. OssoliÅ„skich, 83-04-02436-5, Kazimierz Rymut, pl, BOOK, Mark Salter, Jonathan Bousfield, Poland, 2002, Rough Guides, 1-85828-849-5,weblink BOOK, Birgit, Schwarz, Geniewahn: Hitler und die Kunst, 2009, 312, Böhlau Verlag Wien, 32-05783-07-7, Mehrere Gemälde aus dem Berghof befinden sich heute im Nationalmuseum in Warschau. Bordones Venus und Amor etwa (Abb. 100) ebenso wie der Madonnen-Tondo Bugiardinis (Abb. 62) oder ein großes Ruinenbild von Pannini, das in der verglasten Veranda gehangen hatte (Abb. 113)., WEB,weblink The SETAC Europe 18th Annual Meeting,, 22 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Warsaw University of Life Sciences,, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 November 2012, Warsaw University of Life Sciences â€“ SGGW (WULS â€“ SGGW) is the oldest agricultural academic school in Poland, its history dates back to 1816.WEB,weblink Warsaw School of Economics â€“ Overview,, 30 January 2009, BOOK, Snyder, Timothy, 2010, Bloodlands, London, The Bodley Head, 280, WEB, John Stanley,weblink Literary Activities and Attitudes in the Stanislavian Age in Poland (1764–1795): A Social System?, Find Articles, March–June 2004, 23 April 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, dead, WEB,weblink Podmioty gospodarki narodowej,, 15 February 2007, 28 July 2008, pl, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2008, WEB,weblink History,, 24 May 2012, WEB,weblink Studia w liczbach: Warszawa bije Kraków,, 10 March 2008, 30 January 2009, pl, WEB
, Historia Warszawy
, 11 February 2008
, Polish
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 13 May 2010
, dead
, WEB,weblink The Theatre's history,, 1998, 21 February 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 18 April 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Teatr Wielki-Polish National Opera, 11 February 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 8 February 2008, dead, WEB,weblink The Pianist,, 14 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2008, dead, BOOK, Dānishgāh-i Tihrān. Faculty of Fine Arts, International Conference on Reconstruction of War-Damaged Areas: 6–16 March 1986 : Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Iran, 1990, 148, University of Tehran Press, BOOK, Marian Marek Drozdowski, Andrzej Zahorski, Historia Warszawy [History of Warsaw], 2004, Warsaw, 83-89632-04-7, pl, WEB,weblink Tourism,, 28 July 2008, WEB,weblink The Mermaid, 11 February 2008, WEB,weblink Historic Centre of Warsaw, UNESCO, 24 July 2008, WEB,weblink Warsaw Uprising of 1944,, 14 July 2008, WEB,weblink Warsaw, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 29 July 2008, WEB, S.D. Chrostowska,weblink Polish Literary Criticism Circa 1772: A Genre Perspective,, 17 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2008, WEB,weblink University of Warsaw,, 30 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2009, BOOK, Piotr S. Wandycz, France and Her Eastern Allies, 1919–1925: French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from the Paris Peace Conference to Locarno,weblink 1962, U of Minnesota Press, 18, 9780816658862, WEB,weblink The Warsaw Mermaid, 11 February 2008, WEB,weblink Warsaw Uprising of 1944,, 14 July 2008, BOOK, Ernst, Wetering, van de, A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings IV: Self-Portraits, 2005, 245, Springer, 14-02032-80-3, WEB,weblink Palace,, 21 February 2008, Adam Zamoyski, Warsaw 1920: Lenin's Failed Conquest of Europe (2008)WEB,weblink Zbiory główne,, 30 January 2009, pl, BOOK, Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews and the politics of nationality, 2004, 16, University of Wisconsin Press, 0-299-19464-7,weblink }}


Further reading

{{See also|Timeline of Warsaw#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Warsaw}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Warsaw}}
  • {{Official siteweblink}} {{en icon}}
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Eastern Philosophy
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M.R.M. Parrott