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{{About|the capital of France}}{{pp-pc1}}{{Good article}}{{short description|Capital of France}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}{{EngvarB|date=July 2018}}

Seine with the Eiffel Tower, Notre-Dame de Paris, the Louvre and its Louvre Pyramid>large pyramid, and the Arc de Triomphe|image_flag = Flag of Paris with coat of arms.svg|flag_size = 190|image_shield = Grandes_Armes_de_Paris.svg|shield_size = 95px"Tossed by the waves but never sunk"}}48.8567type:city(2200000)_region:FRdisplay=inline,title}}|pushpin_map = France#Europe#World|pushpin_map_caption = Location within France##Location within Europe|pushpin_relief = 1List of sovereign states>Country|subdivision_name = FranceRegions of France>Region|subdivision_name1 = Île-de-FranceDepartments of France>Department|subdivision_name2 = ParisAdministrative division>SubdivisionsArrondissements of Paris>20 arrondissements|leader_title = MayorAnne Hidalgo (Socialist Party (France)>PS)|unit_pref = Metric|area_total_km2 = 105.4|population_total = 2,140,526DATE=22 JANUARY 2019ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170421215403/HTTP://WWW.INSEE.FR/FR/STATISTIQUES/1893198URL-STATUS=LIVE, |population_metro = 12,532,901WEBSITE=WWW.INSEE.FR ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180724110512/HTTP://WWW.INSEE.FR/FR/STATISTIQUES/2011101?GEO=AU2010-001 URL-STATUS=LIVE, |population_as_of = January 1, 2019 (est)|population_density_km2 = auto|population_demonym = ParisianCentral European Time>CET|utc_offset1 = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST|utc_offset1_DST = +2INSEE code>INSEE/postal code|postal_code = 75001–75020, 75116|website =}} Paris ({{IPA-fr|paʁi|3=Paris1.ogg}}) is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of {{convert|105|km2|abbr=off}} and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion ($808 billion) in 2017.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Regional GDP per capita in EU, Eurostat, 28 February 2018, 6 March 2018,weblink 2 September 2019, live, According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zürich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva.Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, 2018, cited in the London Telegraph, 16 March 2018 {{Webarchive|url= |date=30 March 2019 }} Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018.Singapour, Hong Kong, Paris : le trio des villes les plus chères du monde {{Webarchive|url= |date=27 March 2019 }}, International 20 March 2019.The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe) and Paris-Orly.NEWS,weblink List: The world's 20 busiest airports (2017), USA Today, 2018-05-02, en,weblink 25 June 2018, live, NEWS,weblink ACI reveals the world's busiest passenger and cargo airports, 2018-04-09, Airport World, 2018-05-02,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2018, live, Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily,WEB, Métro2030,weblink RATP (Paris metro operator), 25 September 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2016, dmy-all, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.NEWS,weblink The 51 busiest train stations in the world – all but 6 located in Japan, Japan Today, 6 February 2013, 22 April 2017,weblink 22 April 2017, live, Paris is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors.WEB,weblink 8,1 millions de visiteurs au Louvre en 2017, fr, Louvre, 8 January 2018, 2 February 2018,weblink 12 May 2019, live, The Art Newspaper Review Visitor Figures Survey for 2017 (April, 2018) The Musée d'Orsay, Musée Marmottan Monet, and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe, and the Musée Rodin and Musée Picasso exhibit the works of the two noted Parisians. The historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site, and popular landmarks in the city centre include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité; the Eiffel Tower, constructed for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889; the Grand Palais and Petit Palais, built for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900; the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs-Élysées, and the Basilica of Sacré-Coeur on the hill of Montmartre.Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and China.Key Figures: Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau KeyVers une fréquentation touristique record à Paris en 2017 {{Webarchive|url= |date=17 January 2018 }} on Les Echos It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London.Mastercard Global Destinations Index 2017.The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and the 1960, 1984 and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there.


{{hatnote|See (wikt:Paris#Translations|Wiktionary) for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French.}}The name "Paris" is derived from its early inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe.{{Sfn|Margerison|2011|p=167}} The city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology.Paris is often referred to as the City of Light (La Ville Lumière),{{sfn|Robertson|2010|p=37}} both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more literally because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments. Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit.Fierro, Alfred, Histioire et Dictionaire de Paris (1996), page 838 By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps.{{sfn|Du Camp|1875|p=596}} Since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam(e)'' ({{IPA-fr|panam|pron}}) in French slang.{{sfn|Leclanche|1998|p=55}}Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as Parisiens ({{IPA-fr|paʁizjɛ̃||Parisien2.ogg}}). They are also pejoratively called Parigots ({{IPA-fr|paʁiɡo||Parigot.ogg}}).The word was most likely created by Parisians of the lower popular class who spoke *argot*, then *parigot* was used in a provocative manner outside the Parisian region and throughout France to mean Parisians in general.{{sfn|Dottin|1920|p=535}}



The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC.{{sfn|Arbois de Jubainville|Dottin|1889|p=132}}{{sfn|Cunliffe|2004|p=201}} One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became an important trading centre.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=25}} The Parisii traded with many river towns (some as far away as the Iberian Peninsula) and minted their own coins for that purpose.{{sfn|Schmidt|2009|pp=65–70}}(File:ParisiiCoins.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|Gold coins minted by the Parisii (1st century BC))The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank.{{sfn|Schmidt|2009|pp=88–104}} The Roman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully, Lutetia Parisiorum, "Lutetia of the Parisii"). It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.{{sfn|Schmidt|2009|pp=154–67}}By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would later become Paris in French.{{Sfn|Meunier|2014|p=12}} Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum (Latin "Hill of Martyrs"), later "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city; the place where he fell and was buried became an important religious shrine, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, and many French kings are buried there.{{sfn|Schmidt|2009|pp=210–11}}Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86), for which the then Count of Paris (comte de Paris), Odo of France, was elected king of West Francia.{{sfn|Jones|1994|p=48}} From the Capetian dynasty that began with the 987 election of Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks (duc des Francs), as king of a unified Francia, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.{{sfn|Schmidt|2009|pp=210–11}}

Middle Ages to Louis XIV

{{See also|Paris in the Middle Ages|Paris in the 16th century|Paris in the 17th century}}File:Palais de la Cite.jpg|alt=The Palais de la Cité and Sainte-Chapelle, viewed from the Left Bank, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410)|thumb|Left|The Palais de la Cité and Sainte-Chapelle, viewed from the Left Bank, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de BerryTrès Riches Heures du duc de BerryBy the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=27}} The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la Cité. In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its eastern extremity.After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century,{{sfn|Bussmann|1985|p=22}} Paris' cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank. In 1137, a new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville).{{sfn|de Vitriaco|Hinnebusch|1972|p=262}} The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris' river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years), Paris' first municipal government.In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|pp=36–40}} In 1190, he transformed Paris' former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris and would draw students from all of Europe.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|pp=28–29}}{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=27}}With 200,000 inhabitants in 1328, Paris, then already the capital of France, was the most populous city of Europe. By comparison, London in 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants.WEB,weblink Paris history facts, 2018, Paris Digest, 2018-09-06,weblink 6 September 2018, live, File:Paris Hotel de Sens dsc04028.jpg|alt=|thumb|The Hôtel de SensHôtel de SensDuring the Hundred Years' War, Paris was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the French capital in 1420;Du Fresne de Beaucourt, G., Histoire de Charles VII, Tome I: Le Dauphin (1403–1422), Librairie de la Société bibliographiqque, 35 Rue de Grenelle, Paris, 1881, pp. 32 & 48 in spite of a 1429 effort by Joan of Arc to liberate the city,{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pages=52–53}} it would remain under English occupation until 1436.In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic League, the organisers of 24 August 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in which thousands of French Protestants were killed.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 23 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2015, live, {{sfn|Bayrou|1994|pp=121–30}} The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the crown of France. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris' first uncovered, sidewalk-lined bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre extension connecting it to the Tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges. In spite of Henry IV's efforts to improve city circulation, the narrowness of Paris' streets was a contributing factor in his assassination near Les Halles marketplace in 1610.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=577}}During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was renamed the Palais-Royal.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=582}}Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française, the Academy of Painting, and the French Academy of Sciences. To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today.{{Sfn|Combeau|2003|pp=42–43}} Other marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pp=590–91}}

18th and 19th centuries

{{See also|Paris in the 18th century|Paris during the Second Empire|Haussmann's renovation of Paris}}Paris grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780.BOOK,weblink Durant, Will, Durant, Ariel, The Story of Civilization XI The Age of Napoleon, 1975, Simon and Schuster, 3, 11 February 2016, 978-0-671-21988-8,weblink 29 December 2016, live, A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile,{{Sfn|Combeau|2003|pp=45–47}} while the working-class neighbourhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|pp=129–33}}Paris was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing and fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=120}}File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg|alt=|thumb|The storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, by Jean-Pierre HouëlJean-Pierre HouëlIn the summer of 1789, Paris became the centre stage of the French Revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. The first independent Paris Commune, or city council, met in the Hôtel de Ville and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly.{{sfn|Paine|1998|p=453}}File:Paris Opera full frontal architecture, May 2009 sky.JPG|thumb|upright=1.35|The Paris Opera was the centrepiece of Napoleon III's new Paris. The architect, Charles GarnierCharles GarnierLouis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined (executed) in the Reign of Terror, along with more than 16,000 others throughout France.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=674}} The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised, and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=144}} A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 (coup d'état du 18 brumaire), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=147}}File:Pantheon seen from Luxembourg Gardens (7144498077).jpg|thumb|right|The Jardin du Luxembourg, and the PanthéonPanthéonThe population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=148}} Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l'Ourcq, Père Lachaise Cemetery and the city's first metal bridge, the Pont des Arts.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=148}}File:Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris (site Richelieu) - Salle Ovale 2.jpg|left|thumb|upright=1.35|Richelieu reading room, National Library of France ]]During the Restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris were returned to their pre-Revolution names, but the July Revolution of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the July Column on Place de la Bastille), brought a constitutional monarch, Louis Philippe I, to power. The first railway line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=148}}Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris in 1848. His successor, Napoleon III, and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes.{{sfn|De Moncan|2012|pp=7–35}} In 1860, Napoleon III also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris to its current limits.{{sfn|De Moncan|2012|pp=7–35}}(File:Charles Marville, Place de l'Opéra, 1878.jpg|thumb|upright|In the 1860s, Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, giving it the name "The City of Light.")During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Paris was besieged by the Prussian army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May 1871.{{sfn|Rougerie|2014|p=118}}File:Louis-Emile Durandelle, The Eiffel Tower - State of the Construction, 1888.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Eiffel TowerEiffel TowerLate in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais and the first Paris Métro line.{{sfn|Fraser|Spalding|2011|p=117}} Paris became the laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) and Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine), and of Impressionism in art (Courbet, Manet, Monet, Renoir).{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pp=490–91}}

20th and 21st centuries

{{See also|Paris in the Belle Époque|Paris during the First World War|Paris between the Wars (1919–1939)|Paris in World War II|History of Paris (1946–2000)}}By 1901, the population of Paris had grown to 2,715,000.{{sfn|Combeau|2003|p=61}} At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world including: Pablo Picasso, Modigliani, and Henri Matisse made Paris their home. It was the birthplace of Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art,{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=497}}BOOK,weblinkweblink dead, Bohemian Paris: Picasso, Modigliani, Matisse, and the Birth of Modern Art, Dan, Franck, 1 December 2007, 18 November 2015, Open Road + Grove/Atlantic, Google Books, 9780802197405, and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=491}}During the First World War, Paris sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the First Battle of the Marne. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=750}} In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Sidney BechetWilliam A. Shack, Harlem in Montmartre, A Paris Jazz Story between the Great Wars, University of California Press, 2001. {{ISBN|978-0-520-22537-4}}, Allen GinsbergWEB, Wills, David S, Important Destinations for the Beat Generation,weblink, Beatdom Literary Journal, 19 January 2019, January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2019, live, and the surrealist Salvador Dalí.WEB, Meisler, Stanley, The Surreal World of Salvador Dalí,weblink, Smithsonian Magazine, 12 July 2014, April 2005,weblink" title="">weblink 18 May 2014, live, In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai and Léopold Sédar Senghor.Goebel, Anti-Imperial Metropolis {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 September 2015 }}.File:The Liberation of Paris, 25 - 26 August 1944 HU66477.jpg|thumb|General leftOn 14 June 1940, the German army marched into Paris, which had been declared an "open city".{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=217}} On 16–17 July 1942, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver), from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. None of the children came back.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=637}}{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=218}} On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States Army. General Charles de Gaulle led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing speech from the Hôtel de Ville.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pp=242–43}}In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris became one front of the Algerian War for independence; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria (who, at that time, were French citizens). On 17 October 1961, an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. The anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS), for their part, carried out a series of bombings in Paris throughout 1961 and 1962.NEWS,weblink France remembers Algerian massacre 50 years on, Kim Willsher, The Guardian, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2014, live, 17 October 2011, {{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=658}}In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May 1968 events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=226}} In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elected mayor of Paris since 1793.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=260}} The Tour Maine-Montparnasse, the tallest building in the city at 57 storeys and {{convert|210|m|ft|0|abbr=off}} high, was built between 1969 and 1973. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|p=222}} The population of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburbs.{{sfn|Combeau|2003|pp=107–08}} A suburban railway network, the RER (Réseau Express Régional), was built to complement the Métro, and the Périphérique expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973.{{sfn|Bell|de-Shalit|2011|p=247}}Most of the postwar's Presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris; President Georges Pompidou started the Centre Georges Pompidou (1977), Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began the Musée d'Orsay (1986); President François Mitterrand, in power for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille (1985–1989), the new site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996), the Arche de la Défense (1985–1989), and the Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989); Jacques Chirac (2006), the Musée du quai Branly.{{sfn|Sarmant|2012|pp=226–30}}In the early 21st century, the population of Paris began to increase slowly again, as more young people moved into the city. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë became the first Socialist Mayor of Paris. In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib', a system which rents bicycles for the use of local residents and visitors. Bertrand Delanoë also transformed a section of the highway along the Left Bank of the Seine into an urban promenade and park, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine, which he inaugurated in June 2013.JOURNAL,weblink Les berges de Seine rendues aux Parisiens, Le Moniteur, 19 June 2013, 2 December 2014, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2014, dead, dmy-all, In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the Grand Paris project, to integrate Paris more closely with the towns in the region around it. After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris, with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016.NEWS, Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a 'Greater Paris',weblink 29 April 2009, The Independent, 12 June 2009, London, John, Lichfield,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2009, live, In 2011, the City of Paris and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express, totalling {{convert|205|km|mi|abbr=off}} of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion.MAGAZINE,weblink €26.5bn Grand Paris metro expansion programme confirmed, 12 March 2013, 24 April 2013, Railway Gazette International,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2013, live, The system is scheduled to be completed by 2030.WEB,weblink Le Metro du Grand Paris, Site of Grand Paris Express, French, 27 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2011, live,

Terrorist attacks

{{See|1995 France bombings|Charlie Hebdo shooting|November 2015 Paris attacks|Louvre machete attack|March 2017 ÃŽle-de-France attacks|April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack}}File:Place de la République, 18h50, une foule silencieuse.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.6|Anti-terrorism demonstration on the Place de la République after the Charlie Hebdo shooting, 11 January 2015]]Between July and October 1995, a series of bombings carried out by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria caused 8 deaths and more than 200 injuries.NEWS,weblink French Court Sentences 2 for Role in 1995 Bombings That Killed 8, Alan, Riding, The New York Times, 1 November 2002, 1 January 2019, live,weblink 18 October 2018, On 7 January 2015, two French Muslim extremists attacked the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo and killed thirteen people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,WEB,weblink 2015 Charlie Hebdo Attacks Fast Facts, Library, C.N.N., CNN, 20 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2017, live, and on 9 January, a third terrorist, who claimed he was part of ISIL, killed four hostages during an attack at a Jewish grocery store at Porte de Vincennes.WEB,weblink Le Monde, 15 January 2015, 15 January 2015, Attentats terroristes : les questions que vous nous avez le plus posées, French,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2015, live, On 11 January an estimated 1.5 million people marched in Paris in a show of solidarity against terrorism and in support of freedom of speech.WEB,weblink Les politiques s'affichent à la marche républicaine, Le Figaro, 11 January 2015, 11 January 2015, French,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2015, live, On 13 November of the same year, a series of coordinated bomb and gunfire terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis, claimed by ISIL,NEWS, Islamic State claims Paris attacks that killed 127,weblink Reuters, 14 November 2015, 14 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2015, live, killed 130 people and injured more than 350.Le Figaro on-line, Le Monde on-line, AP, Reuters, 22 November 2015 0700 Paris timeOn 3 February 2017, a two-backpack-carrying, machete-wielding attacker shouting "Allahu Akbar" attacked soldiers guarding the Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags; the assailant was shot, and no explosives were found.NEWS,weblink Terror attacks timeline: From Paris and Brussels terror to most recent attacks in Europe, Foster, Alice, 19 June 2017,, 20 June 2017, en,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2017, live, On 18 March of the same year, in a Vitry-sur-Seine bar, a man held patrons hostage, then fled to later hold a gun to the head of an Orly Airport French soldier, shouting "I am here to die in the name of Allah", and was shot dead by the soldier's comrades.NEWS,weblink Paris Orly airport attacker was 'radicalised Muslim', 18 March 2017, The Independent, 20 June 2017, en-GB,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2017, live, On 20 April, a man shot dead French police officer on the Champs-Élysées, and was later shot dead himself.NEWS,weblink Paris shooting: Marine Le Pen calls for all French terror suspects to be expelled after Champs Elysees attack, The Telegraph, 20 June 2017, en-GB,weblink" title="">weblink 5 July 2017, live, On 19 June, a man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, but the car only burst into flames.WEB,weblink Car rams police van on Champs-Elysees, armed suspect dead, CNN, Melissa Bell, Saskya Vandoorne and Joe Sterling, CNN, 20 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2017, live,


(File:Paris by Sentinel-2.jpg|left|thumb|Satellite image of Paris by Sentinel-2)(File:Jms paris elevation hydrography.png|thumb|Parisian hills and hydrology)Paris is located in northern central France, in a north-bending arc of the river Seine whose crest includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. The river's mouth on the English Channel (La Manche) is about {{convert|233|mi|abbr=on}} downstream from the city. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Paris, 4 July 2013, Encyclopædia Britannica Online,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2013, live, Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is {{convert|35|m|abbr=on}} above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at {{convert|130|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.{{sfn|Blackmore|McConnachie|2004|p=153}}Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris covers an oval measuring about {{convert|87|km2|abbr=on}} in area, enclosed by the {{convert|35|km|adj=on|abbr=on}} ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=69}} The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of {{convert|78|km2|abbr=on}}, the city limits were expanded marginally to {{convert|86.9|km2|abbr=on}} in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to about {{convert|105|km2|abbr=on}}.WEB, Mairie de Paris,weblink Key figures for Paris,, 15 November 2007, 5 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2009, The metropolitan area of the city is {{convert|2300|km2|abbr=on}}.Measured from the 'point zero' in front of its Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris by road is {{convert|450|km}} southeast of London, {{convert|287|km}} south of Calais, {{convert|305|km}} southwest of Brussels, {{convert|774|km}} north of Marseille, {{convert|385|km}} northeast of Nantes, and {{convert|135|km}} southeast of Rouen.Google Maps {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 January 2019 }}, Retrieved 6 July 2013


(File:Paris raining autumn cityscape (8252181936).jpg|thumb|left|Autumn in Paris)Paris has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb, although a bit more extreme, is still a typical climate of the category) which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2013, Climate,, 29 June 2013, dead, dmy-all, Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures between {{convert|15|and|25|°C|°F}}, and a fair amount of sunshine.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=309}} Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above {{convert|32|C}}. Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur, such as the heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded {{convert|30|°C}} for weeks, reached {{convert|40|°C}} on some days and seldom cooled down at night.{{sfn|Goldstein|2005|p=8}} Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons.WEB,weblink Climate in Paris, Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, ParisInfo, 29 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2014, In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cool, nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around {{convert|3|°C}}.WEB, Courtney Traub, 31 January 2018,weblink Visiting Paris in the Winter: A Complete Guide, tripsavvy, 27 February 2018,weblink 11 October 2017, live, Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature will dip below {{convert|-5|°C}} for only a few days a year. Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation.WEB, Kelby Carr, 30 November 2017,weblink Weather in France – Climate and Temperatures of French Cities, tripsavvy, 27 February 2018,weblink 28 February 2018, live, Paris has an average annual precipitation of {{convert|641|mm|in|1|abbr=on}}, and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. The highest recorded temperature is {{convert|42.6|°C}} on 25 July 2019,WEB, 42.6 °C à Paris : record absolu de chaleur battu !,weblink, Météo France, 25 July 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2019, live, and the lowest is {{convert|-23.9|°C}} on 10 December 1879.WEB,weblink Géographie de la capitale – Le climat, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques,, 24 May 2006, French, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2006, {{Paris weatherbox}}


City government

{{See also|Arrondissements of Paris|List of mayors of Paris}}File:Paris plan jms.png|thumb|A map of the arrondissements of Parisarrondissements of ParisFor almost all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris was governed directly by representatives of the king, emperor, or president of France. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=334}} The first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac, elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city's first mayor since 1793. The current mayor is Anne Hidalgo, a socialist, elected 5 April 2014.WEB,weblink Anne Hidalgo is new Mayor of Paris, City of Paris, 29 November 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2014, The mayor of Paris is elected indirectly by Paris voters; the voters of each arrondissement elect the Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris), composed of 163 members. Each arrondissement has a number of members depending upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) to 36 members for the most populated (the 15th). The elected council members select the mayor. Sometimes the candidate who receives the most votes citywide is not selected if the other candidate has won the support of the majority of council members. Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected by only a minority of city voters, but a majority of council members.{{citation needed|date=August 2019}}File:Facade of Hôtel de Ville de Paris - 2012.jpg|thumb|left|The Hôtel de Ville, or city hall, has been at the same site since 1357.]]Once elected, the council plays a largely passive role in the city government, primarily because it meets only once a month. The current council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre-right, plus a few members from smaller parties.WEB,weblink List of members of the Council of Paris, City of Paris, 29 November 2014, Each of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor.{{sfn|Shales|2007|p=16}} The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=334}}The budget of the city for 2018 is 9.5 billion Euros, with an expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros. 7.9 billion Euros are designated for city administration, and 1.7 billion Euros for investment. The number of city employees increased from 40,000 in 2001 to 55,000 in 2018. The largest part of the investment budget is earmarked for public housing (262 million Euros) and for real estate (142 million Euros).Le Parisien, 3 April 2018

Métropole du Grand Paris

(File:Greater Paris Metropolis.png|thumb|A map of the Greater Paris Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris) and its 131 communes)The Métropole du Grand Paris, or simply Grand Paris, formally came into existence on 1 January 2016. It is an administrative structure for co-operation between the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs. It includes the City of Paris, plus the communes of the three departments of the inner suburbs (Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil in Val d'Oise and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, which were added to include the major airports of Paris. The Metropole covers {{convert|814|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} and has a population of 6.945 million persons.WEB,weblink Décret n° 2015-1212 du 30 septembre 2015 constatant le périmètre fixant le siège et désignant le comptable public de la métropole du Grand Paris, 27 February 2018, Legifrance, fr, Decree n° 2015-1212 of September 30, 2015 noting the perimeter fixing the seat and designating the public accountant of the metropolis of Greater Paris,weblink 28 February 2018, live, WEB, Nathalie Moutarde,weblink Le Moniteur, 17 July 2015, La métropole du Grand Paris verra le jour le 1er janvier 2016, The metropolis of Greater Paris will be born 1 January 2016, fr, 3 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live, The new structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment. The first president of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier, a Republican and the mayor of the town of Rueil-Malmaison, was elected on 22 January 2016. Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million people and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP of France, it has a very small budget: just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City of Paris.WEB,weblink Manon Rescan, 22 January 2016, From Greater Paris to Greater Paris Metropolis,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 10 October 2017, Du Grand Paris à la Métropole du Grand Paris, 30 January 2016, Le Monde, fr, dmy-all,

Regional government

The Region of Île de France, including Paris and its surrounding communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarters in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. On 15 December 2015, a list of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and right-wing parties, led by Valérie Pécresse, narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalition of Socialists and ecologists. The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front.WEB,weblink Régionales 2015 : les chiffres clés du scrutin, fr, Results of 2015 Regional Elections, Regional Council of Île-de-France, 15 December 2015, 16 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2015, live,

National government

File:Elysée Palace, Paris 2005.jpg|thumb|left|The Élysée Palace, residence of the French President ]]As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France's national government. For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of the French Republic resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement,WEB,weblink Le Palais de L'Élysée et son histoire, fr, The Elysée Palace and its history,, 16 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 19 May 2017, live, while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement.WEB,weblink Embassy of France, Washington, Matignon Hotel, 1 December 2007, 19 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2017, live, {{sfn|Knapp|Wright|2006|pp=93–94}} Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon.{{sfn|Borrus|2012|p=288}}The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the Left Bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-highest public official in France (the President of the Republic being the sole superior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annexe to the Palais du Luxembourg.WEB,weblink A la découverte du Petit Luxembourg, fr, Discovering Petit Luxembourg,, 3 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2013, live, File:Conseil d'Etat Paris WA.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|The Palais-Royal, residence of the Conseil d'État ]]{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="float:right;clear:right;width:340px;"National Assembly (France)>National Assembly Representatives!colspan="2"|Constituency!!MemberWEB,weblink Archived copy, 7 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2006, live, !!PartyParis's 1st constituency>Paris' 1st constituency| Sylvain Maillard| La République En Marche!Paris's 2nd constituency>Paris' 2nd constituency| Gilles Le Gendre| La République En Marche!Paris's 3rd constituency>Paris' 3rd constituency| Stanislas Guerini| La République En Marche!Paris's 4th constituency>Paris' 4th constituency| Brigitte KusterThe Republicans (France)>The RepublicansParis's 5th constituency>Paris' 5th constituency| Benjamin Griveaux| La République En Marche!Paris's 6th constituency>Paris' 6th constituency| Pierre Person| La République En Marche!Paris's 7th constituency>Paris' 7th constituency| Pacôme Rupin| La République En Marche!Paris's 8th constituency>Paris' 8th constituency| Laetitia Avia| La République En Marche!Paris's 9th constituency>Paris' 9th constituency| Buon Tan| La République En Marche!Paris's 10th constituency>Paris' 10th constituency| Anne-Christine Lang| La République En Marche!Paris's 11th constituency>Paris' 11th constituency| Marielle de SarnezDemocratic Movement (France)>MoDemParis's 12th constituency>Paris' 12th constituency| Olivia Grégoire| La République En Marche!Paris's 13th constituency>Paris' 13th constituency| Hugues Renson| La République En Marche!Paris's 14th constituency>Paris' 14th constituency| Claude GoasguenThe Republicans (France)>The RepublicansParis's 15th constituency>Paris' 15th constituency| George Pau-LangevinSocialist Party (France)>Socialist PartyParis's 16th constituency>Paris' 16th constituency| Mounir Mahjoubi| La République En Marche!Paris's 17th constituency>Paris' 17th constituency| Danièle Obono| La France InsoumiseParis's 18th constituency>Paris' 18th constituency| Pierre-Yves BournazelThe Republicans (France)>The RepublicansFrance's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité,WEB,weblink fr, Introduction, Cour de Cassation [Court of Cassation], 27 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2013, live, while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement.WEB,weblink fr, Conseil d'Etat, Histoire & Patrimoine, History & Heritage, 27 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2013, The Constitutional Council, an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.WEB,weblink Le siège du Conseil constitutionnel, Conseil Constitutionnel, The seat of the Constitutional Council, fr, 16 September 2011, 26 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2014, dead, dmy-all, Paris and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights.Following the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris";WEB,weblink Mairie de Paris,weblink" title="">weblink Special partners, 25 December 2008, 14 October 2007, the only sister city of Paris is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world.

Police force

(File:Gendarmerie BMW R1100RT.jpg|thumb|Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists in Paris)The security of Paris is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade. Its headquarters is on Place Louis Lépine on the Île de la Cité.WEB,weblink Présentation générale, General Presentation, Police nationale — Ministère de l'intèrieur [National Police — Ministry of the Interior], fr, 22 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2013, live, There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores (no more than two a year are allowed) and verify that during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood. The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events.The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a branch of the French Armed Forces, though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions.WEB,weblink Accueil, fr, Home, Gendarmerie nationale — Ministère de l'intèrieur [National Gendarmerie — Ministry of the Interior], 22 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2010, live, Crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.WEB, France, Travel.State.Gov, U.S. Department of State,weblink 4 April 2017,weblink 4 April 2017, live,


{{wide image|Tour Eiffel 360 Panorama.jpg|1600px|Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower in a full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)|dir=rtl}}

Urbanism and architecture

{{See also|Architecture of Paris|Haussmann's renovation of Paris|Religious buildings in Paris|List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region}}Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map.WEB, Paris Street Evolution,weblink, 4 April 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2016, live, At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed around several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine; of those, two remain today: the Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. A third one is the 1827 artificially created Île aux Cygnes.File:Camille Pissarro - Boulevard Montmartre - Eremitage.jpg|thumb|Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, Hermitage MuseumHermitage MuseumModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Between 1853 and 1870 they rebuilt the city centre, created the wide downtown boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the distinctive cream-grey "Paris stone". They also built the major parks around the city centre.De Moncan, Patrice, Le Paris de Haussmann, Les Éditions de Mecene, Paris, {{ISBN|978-2-907970-98-3}} The high residential population of its city centre also makes it much different from most other western major cities.{{sfn|Braimoh|Vlek|2008|p=12}}File:Rue de Rivoli at night, Paris August 2013.jpg|thumb|left|Rue de RivoliRue de RivoliFile:Paris Place des Vosges 02.jpg|left|thumb|Place des VosgesPlace des VosgesParis' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,WEB,weblink Plan des hauteurs, 1 November 2014, fr,, Mairie de Paris, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2014, dmy-all, particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of {{convert|37|m}} was raised to {{convert|abbr=on|50|m}} in central areas and {{convert|180|m}} in some of Paris' peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect. The {{convert|210|m}} Tour Montparnasse was both Paris's and France's tallest building until 1973,WEB,weblink Plan Local d'Urbanisme – Règlement à la parcelle, Mairie de Paris, 31 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2010, live, but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction.Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium, including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163), the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842), the Palais Garnier serving as an opera house (1875), the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), as well as the exuberant Belle Époque modernism of the Eiffel Tower (1889). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie by various architects (1986), the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel (1987), the Louvre Pyramid by I. M. Pei (1989) and the Opéra Bastille by Carlos Ott (1989). Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac by Jean Nouvel (2006), the contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry (2014)NEWS,weblink Inside Frank Gehry's Spectacular Louis Vuitton Foundation, Business Week, Bloomberg, 28 October 2014, 25 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 15 November 2014, live, and the new Tribunal de grande instance de Paris by Renzo Piano (2018).


The most expensive residential streets in Paris in 2018 by average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), at 22,372 Euros per square meter; Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement; 20,373 euros) and Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) at 18,839 Euros per square meter.Challenges, www., 3 July 2018. The total number of residences in the City of Paris in 2011 was {{formatnum:1356074}}, up from a former high of {{formatnum:1334815}} in 2006. Among these, {{formatnum:1165541}} (85.9 percent) were main residences, {{formatnum:91835}} (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006).WEB,weblink Chiffres Cléfs Logements (2011) – Département de Paris (75), INSEE, 2011, 1 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, live, Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.WEB,weblink Un territoire ancien et de petite taille,, February 2012, 1 November 2014, fr, 11,weblink" title="">weblink 1 November 2014, dead, Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one. Social or public housing represented 19.9 percent of the city's total residences in 2017. Its distribution varies widely throughout the city, from 2.6 percent of the housing in the wealthy 7th arrondissement, to 24 percent in the 20th arrondissement, 26 percent in the 14th arrondissement and 39.9 percent in the 19th arrondissement, on the poorer southwest and northern edges of the city.Le Logement Parisien en Chiffres, Agence Departmentale de l'information sur le lodgment de Paris, October 2017.On the night of February 8–9, 2019, during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons. They counted 3,641 homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. More than half had been homeless for more than a year. 2,885 were living in the streets or parks, 298 in train and metro stations, and 756 in other forms of temporary shelter. This was an increase of 588 persons since 2018.Le Monde, March 18, 2019.

Paris and its suburbs

File:Paris SPOT 1017.jpg|thumb|Paris and its suburbs, as seen from the Spot SatelliteSpot Satellite(File:BNF et l'UPMC vues de la Tour Saint-Jacques, Paris août 2014.jpg|thumb|Paris skyline, 2014)File:West of Paris seen from Tour Montparnasse - 2019-09-18.jpg|thumb|West of Paris seen from Tour MontparnasseTour MontparnasseAside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris' administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to maintain as a unique entity. This problem was 'resolved' when its parent "District de la région parisienne" ('district of the Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three new departments surrounding it. The district of the Paris region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but this abbreviated "Paris region" name is still commonly used today to describe the Île-de-France, and as a vague reference to the entire Paris agglomeration.WEB,weblink Une brève histoire de l'aménagement de Paris et sa région Du District à la Région Île-de-France, 26 November 2014, DRIEA Île-de-France, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2017, live, Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into existence.WEB,weblink Code général des collectivités territoriales – Article L5219-1, 29 November 2015, Legifrance, fr, General Code of Territorial Communities – Article L5219-1,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, Paris' disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris region in 1961:{{sfn|Masson|1984|p=536}} two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban "villes nouvelles" ("new cities"){{sfn|Yarri|2008|p=407}} and the RER commuter train network.{{sfn|Gordon|2006|pp=46–47}} Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population:{{sfn|Castells|1983|p=75}} These districts were socially mixed at first,{{sfn|Tomas|Blanc|Bonilla|IERP|2003|p=237}} but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2016, Les Politiques Nationales du Logement et le Logement dans les Villes Nouvelles,, 25 November 2014, 6, dead, Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities.These areas, quartiers sensibles ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department. Other difficult areas are located in the Seine valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative.WEB,weblink Atlas des Zones urbaines sensibles (Zus), 10 November 2014, SIG du secretariat générale du SIV, Ministère de l'Egalité des Territoires et du Logement, French,weblink" title="">weblink 16 August 2017, dead, The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris.WEB,weblink Une forte hétérogénéité des revenus en Île-de-France, INSEE, 26 November 2014, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2014, live,


{{Collapsible Table Paris Region top countries & territories of birth}}The official estimated population of the City of Paris was 2,206,488 as of 1 January 2019, according to the INSEE, the official French statistical agency. This is a decline of 59,648 from 2015, close to the total population of the 5th arrondissement.Le Monde, 22 January 2019 Despite the drop, Paris remains the most densely-populated city in Europe, with 252 residents per hectare, not counting parks. This drop was attributed partly to a lower birth rate, to the departure of middle-class residents. and partly to the possible loss of housing in the city due to short-term rentals for tourism."Paris perd ses habitants, la faute à la démographie et aux... meublés touristiques pour la Ville." Le Parisien, 28 December 2017WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, Évolution de la population au 1er janvier 2014, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, INSEE, 4 December 2015, dead, dmy-all,
Paris is the fifth largest municipality in the European Union, following London, Berlin, Madrid and Rome. Eurostat, the statistical agency of the EU, places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) and ahead of Berlin (3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls "urban audit core cities".WEB,weblink Statistics on European cities, Eurostat, 28 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2014, live, (File:Paris Historical Population (1801-2008).png|thumb|left|upright=1.15|City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010)The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, and the population reached 2,234,000 by 2009, before declining again slightly in 2017.WEB,weblink Commune : Paris (75056) – Thème : Évolution et structure de la population, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, 3 July 2012, fr, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2012, dmy-all, INSEE, It declined again in 2018.Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the Paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made it the largest urban area in the European Union.WEB,weblink Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Unité urbaine de Paris (00851), INSEE, 25 September 2016, fr, INSEE, {{failed verification|date=February 2018}} City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris ("urban area", but a statistical method comparable to a metropolitan areaWEB,weblink Définition - Urban area {{!, Insee||access-date=2019-05-25|archive-url=|archive-date=25 May 2019|url-status=live}}), that had a 2013 population of 12,405,426,WEB,weblink Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Aire urbaine de Paris (001), INSEE, 25 September 2016, fr, INSEE,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2018, live, a number one-fifth the population of France,WEB,weblink Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – France, INSEE, 25 September 2016, fr, INSEE, and the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone.{{Citation needed|date=May 2019}}According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU.WEB,weblink Population statistics at regional level, Eurostat, 25 March 2015, 3 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2015, dmy-all, {{vn|date=June 2019 |reason=Old data, 2012 does not match with report date (March 2014). Current report could be different.}}


According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census). 26,700 of these in the City of Paris and 210,159 in the Paris Region were people born in Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since they were legally French citizens at birth.A further 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth. This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France and Paris after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens. The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific.WEB,weblink Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance – Département de Paris (75), INSEE, 19 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, Note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world.In the Paris Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific.WEB,weblink Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance – Région d'Île-de-France (11), INSEE, 19 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas and the South Pacific.{{Clarify|reason=It is unclear how this paragraph is different from the previous one.|date=February 2019}}In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 United States citizens living in the City of Paris (Ville de Paris) and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 United States citizens living in the entire Paris Region (Île-de-France).WEB,weblink Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – Région d'Île-de-France (11), INSEE, 20 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, WEB,weblink Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – Département de Paris (75), INSEE, 20 November 2015, fr, INSEE,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live,


{{See also|Religious buildings in Paris}}File:Basilique du Sacré-Cœur de Montmartre 1.jpg|thumb|The Roman Catholic Basilique du Sacré-Cœur ]]File:Saint Gervais church from the rue des Barres, Paris 26 September 2016.jpg|thumb|St-Gervais-et-St-Protais in Le Marais ]]French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation.BOOK,weblink After Integration: Islam, Conviviality and Contentious Politics in Europe, Burchardt, Marian, Michalowski, Ines, 26 November 2014, Springer, 978-3-658-02594-6, en, 30 September 2017,weblink 1 October 2017, live, According to a 2011 survey by the IFOP, a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic, though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics, while 46 percent were non-practicing. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion.WEB, Les Français et la croyance religieuse,weblink Religious belief in France, IFOP, April 2011, fr, 13 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live, According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim country, particularly Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.WEB,weblink que pese l'Islam en France, Le Monde, fr, 13 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 27 November 2015, live, WEB,weblink How does France count its muslim population?, Le Figaro, 30 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 November 2015, live, In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims in the City of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink live, 28 January 2015, Interview with Dalil Boubakeur, Le Soir, fr, 13 November 2015, NEWS, Riou, Mathilde, Le manque de mosquée en Ile-de-France,weblink 17 November 2017, France 3, 29 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 17 November 2017, live, The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States.WEB,weblink World Jewish Population 2014, Berman Jewish Databank, 13 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 4 November 2015, live,

International organisations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has had its headquarters in Paris since November 1958. Paris is also the home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).| Where we are | publisher | accessed on 30 August 2016. Paris hosts the headquarters of the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, European Securities and Markets Authority and, as of 2019, the European Banking Authority.


{{clear2}}{{wide image|Panorama La Défense.jpg|1280px|La Défense, the largest dedicated business district in EuropeWEB,weblink La Défense, Europe's largest business district,, 8 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2013, }}{{clear2}}{| class="toc" style="float:right; font-size:90%; text-align:center; margin:1em;"Top companies with world headquartersin the Paris Region for 2018(ranked by revenues)with Region and World ranks style="background:#ccc;"Parisstyle="background:#ccc;"corporation>WorldAXA>|27Total S.A.|28BNP Paribas44Carrefour>|68Crédit Agricole82Électricité de France>EDF94Engie>|104Peugeot>|108Société Générale121Renault134Source: Fortune Global 500 (2018)File:Eiffel Tower from the Tour Montparnasse 3, Paris May 2014.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|The Eiffel Tower and the La DéfenseLa DéfenseThe economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry.WEB,weblink INSEE, Department of Paris; Complete Dossier, 25 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2016, live, The story is similar in the Paris Region (Île-de-France): 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry.WEB,weblink INSEE, Île-de-France Region – Complete dossier, 25 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2016, live, At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture.WEB,weblink INSEE, EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Région d'Île-de-France (11), 26 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, WEB,weblink INSEE, La nomenclature agrégée – NA, 2008, 26 November 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2015, live, The Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about 30 percent of the salaried employees in Paris and 10 percent of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.WEB,weblink En Île-de-France, 39 poles d'emploi structurent l'economie régionale, INSEE, 7 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, live, The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2018 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris and La Défense.The Paris Region is France's leading region for economic activity, with a GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) and €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita. In 2011, its GDP ranked second among the regions of Europe and its per-capita GDP was the 4th highest in Europe.WEB,weblink Insee, L'Île-de-France, une des régions les plus riches d'Europe, 11 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, live, MAGAZINE,weblink The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025, Foreign Policy, 2 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 28 August 2012, live, While the Paris region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France in 2011,WEB,weblink Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, 5 May 2013, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2013, live, the Paris region's GDP accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP.WEB,weblink Produits Intérieurs Bruts Régionaux (PIBR) en valeur en millions d'euros, INSEE, XLS, 2 August 2015, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, live, The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.).WEB,weblink L'Industrie en Île-de-France, Principaux Indicateurs Régionaux, INSEE, 24 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2015, live, The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine department and suburban La Défense business district places Paris' economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. While the Paris economy is dominated by services, and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries.In the 2017 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a survey made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, based on September 2016 data, retrieved July 2017.In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong.WEB, Classement.Singapour, Hong Kong, Paris : le trio des villes les plus chères du monde,weblink, Courrier International, 20 March 2019, 23 March 2019,weblink 27 March 2019, live, .Station F is a business incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris. Noted as the world's largest startup facility.NEWS, Medeiros, João, Station F, the world's largest startup campus opens in Paris,weblink 21 August 2017, Wired, 29 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2017, live,


(File:Paris emploi 2015 jms.png|thumb|Employment by economic sector in the Paris area (petite couronne), with population and unemployment figures (2015))According to 2015 INSEE figures, 68,3 percent of employees in the City of Paris work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.5 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.1 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture.The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Île-de-France – A la Page Nº288 – INSEE 2007, November 2007, 24 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2014, live, Paris' financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district. Paris' department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade. Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Nineteen percent of Paris employees work for the State in either in administration or education. The majority of Paris' healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600, and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios.Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris region lost 48 percent during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000. Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plant.The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology, and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food processing and beverages. The Paris region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers. In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2015, Emplois au lieu de travail – Département de Paris (75), INSEE, dead, dmy-all, its metropolitan area employed 246,639,WEB,weblink Département de Paris (75056) – Dossier complet, 2017-01-01,, INSEE, fr, {{TODAY, }} in an activity centred largely around the Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2015, EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Département de la Seine-Saint-Denis (93), INSEE, 17 November 2014, fr, dead, dmy-all, and Hauts-de-Seine (37,303)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2015, EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Département des Hauts-de-Seine (92), INSEE, 17 November 2014, fr, dead, dmy-all, departments and the new business-park centres appearing there.


Paris' 2015 at-census unemployment rate was 12.2%, and in the first trimester of 2018, its ILO-critera unemployment rate was 7.1 percent. The provisional unemployment rate in the whole Paris Region was higher: 8.0 percent, and considerably higher in some suburbs, notably the Department of Seine-Saint-Denis to the east (11.8 percent) and the Val-d'Oise to the north (8.2 percent).INSEE – Unemployment by region and department, first trimester of 2018 (Provisional figures) (retrieved July 31, 2018)


(File:Jms pc median income 2010.png|thumb|Median income in Paris and its nearest departments)The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris was €36,085 for 2011.WEB, fr,weblink Département de Paris (75), INSEE, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2014, It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissementWEB, INSEE, Arrondissement municipal de Paris 19e Arrondissement (75119), fr, 11 August 2013,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2013, live, to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement.WEB, INSEE, Arrondissement municipal de Paris 7e Arrondissement (75107), fr, 11 August 2013,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2014, live, The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris and €22,200 for Île-de-France.Taxable income by "consumption unit" as defined by INSEE, see WEB, INSEE, Revenu fiscal annuel en 2011, fr, 11 August 2013,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, dead, dmy-all, Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area.WEB, Structure et distribution des revenus, inégalité des niveaux de vie en 2013,weblink, 4 April 2017,weblink 20 June 2017, live, Unemployment was estimated at 8.2 percent in the City of Paris and 8.8 percent in the Île-de-France region in the first trimester of 2015. It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, where many recent immigrants live.WEB, INSEE, Unemployment by Departement, fr, 2 August 2015,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, dead, dmy-all, While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 6 April 2014, Neighborhoods of Paris with more than 40 percent living below poverty line, Metronews, fr, 28 November 2013, {{cbignore|bot=medic}}


File:Visiter le Louvre en été ! (4787187477).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Tourists from around the world make the LouvreLouvreGreater Paris, comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 23.6 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel arrivals. These included 12 million foreign visitors and 11.5 million French visitors. Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States (2 million), Great Britain (1.1 million), Germany (802.6 thousand) and China (774.4 thousand).Tourism in Paris- Key Figures 2018, Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau ( 2018, measured by the MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline destination in the world, with 19.10 million visitors, behind Bangkok (22.78 million) but ahead of London (19.09 million).WEB, Rosen, Eric, The World's Most-Visited City Is Bangkok,weblink Forbes, September 4, 2019, September 21, 2019,weblink 14 September 2019, live, According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4% of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport, and leisure.

Monuments and attractions

{{See also|List of most visited museums}}File:Paris - Passage Jouffroy - PA00088996 - 2015 - 003.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Passage JouffroyPassage JouffroyThe city's top tourist attraction was the Notre Dame Cathedral, which welcomed an estimated 12,000,000 visitors in 2017. Second was the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur on Montmartre, with an estimated 11 million visitors. This was followed by the Louvre Museum (8.02 million visitors); the Eiffel Tower (6.2 million); Centre Pompidou (3.3 million visitors); Musée d'Orsay (3.2 million); The City of Science and Industry (2.4 million visitors); The Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal (2 million visitors); The Museum of Natural History (1.7 million visitors); and the Arc de Triomphe (1.3 million visitors).Key Figures 2017: Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau

The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. The Panthéon and the Catacombs of Paris are also located on the Left Bank of the Seine. The banks of the Seine from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991.WEB,weblink Paris banks of the Seine, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2014, live, File:Champs-Elysées, vue de la Concorde à l'Etoile.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Axe historique, pictured here from Concorde to Grande Arche of La DéfenseLa DéfenseFile:Coupole de l'Hotel des Invalides à Paris.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Hôtel national des Invalides ]]Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche of La Défense.Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens.WEB,weblink Saint-Denis Basilica, royal necropolis of France, Seine-Saint-Denis Tourisme, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2014, live, The Paris region hosts three other UNESCO Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles in the west,WEB,weblink Palace and Park of Versailles, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2014, live, the Palace of Fontainebleau in the south,WEB,weblink Palace and Parks of Fontainebleau, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2014, live, and the medieval fairs site of Provins in the east.WEB,weblink Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2014, live, In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, {{convert|32|km|mi|abbr=off}} east of the centre of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017.TEA-AECOM Theme Index 2017: Amusement Parks Worldwide


In 2017 Greater Paris had 2,020 hotels, including 85 five-star hotels, with a total of 119,000 rooms.Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, Tourism in Paris-Key Figures 2018 Paris has long been famous for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice, opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=938}} The arrival of the railways and the Paris Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre (now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pp=937–38}}In addition to hotels, in 2017 Greater Paris had 84,000 homes registered with Airbnb, which received 2.3 million visitors. Under French law, renters of these units must pay the Paris tourism tax. The company paid the city government 7.3 million euros in 2016.Fortune Magazine, 5 July 2017.


Painting and sculpture

File:Mignard-autoportrait.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.1|Pierre Mignard, Self-portrait, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, {{convert|235|x|188|cm|0|abbr=on}}, The LouvreThe LouvreFor centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art".{{sfn|Montclos|2003}} Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's top art school until 1793.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}}File:Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|Auguste Renoir, Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876, oil on canvas, {{convert|131|x|175|cm|0|abbr=on}}, Musée d'OrsayMusée d'OrsayParis was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements all evolved in Paris.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves.{{sfn|Perry|1995|p=19}} Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 and 1907.Dictionnaire historique de Paris, p. 68. Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production.The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty – Liberty Enlightening the World), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars.


The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825. In 1839, after the death of Niépce, Louis Daguerre patented the Daguerrotype, which became the most common form of photography until the 1860s. {{sfn|Michelin|2011}} The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard.Department of Photographs, Photography and Surrealism, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 February 2015 }}, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2000.{{sfn|Hazan|2011|p=362}} Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, as well as others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Henri Cartier-Bresson.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}}


(File:Paris July 2011-27a.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|The Louvre)File:The Musée dOrsay at sunset, Paris July 2013.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|Musée d'OrsayMusée d'OrsayThe Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2017, with 8.1 million visitors.WEB,weblink 8 January 2018, 8,1 millions de visiteurs au Louvre en 2017, fr, 8.1 million visitors to the Louvre in 2017, Musée du Louvre, 20 February 2018,weblink 12 May 2019, live, Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People, as well as many other notable works. The second-most visited museum in the city, with 3.3 million visitors, was the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, which houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. The third most visited Paris museum, in a building constructed for the Universal Exhibition of 1900 as the Orsay railway station, was the Musée d'Orsay, which had 3.2 million visitors in 2017. The Orsay displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. The Musée de l'Orangerie, near both the Louvre and the Orsay, also exhibits Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, including most of Claude Monet's large Water Lilies murals. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Picasso Museum the Rodin Museum, and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix.File:Musée du quai Branly.jpg|thumb|left|Musée du quai Branly ]]Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette. It attracted 2.4 million visitors in 2017.Paris Tourism Key Figures 2017; Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau The National Museum of Natural History located near the Jardin des plantes attracted 1.76 million visitors in 2016. It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l'Armée at Les Invalides, near the tomb of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the Ministry of Culture, the City of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Palais de Tokyo, the House of Victor Hugo, the House of Balzac and the Catacombs of Paris.WEB,weblink Municipal museums, Maire de Paris, 23 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2014, live, There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne. It received 1.4 million visitors in 2017.TEA=AECOM Museum Index, 2017.


File:Opéra Bastille.JPG|thumb|left|The Opéra BastilleOpéra BastilleThe largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=178}} In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville).{{Sfn|Schumacher|1996|p=60}} Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place in 1913.File:Comédie Française colonnes.jpg|thumb|The Comédie FrançaiseComédie FrançaiseTheatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. The oldest and most famous Paris theatre is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Run by the Government of France, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre.{{Sfn|Fierro|1996|page=1173}} of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, next to the Luxembourg Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse.BOOK, Who's Where,weblink 2 July 2013, 1961, 304,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2013, live, The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida, Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland and the Grateful Dead.The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier and Tino Rossi. Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city.{{Sfn|Fierro|1996|pages=1005–06}}


File:Victor Hugo by Étienne Carjat 1876.jpg|thumb|upright|Victor HugoVictor HugoThe first book printed in France, Epistolae ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, several coming from the provinces, as well as the foundation of the Académie française.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=488}} In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris revolved around the cafés and salons; it was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux and Pierre Beaumarchais.During the 19th century, Paris was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris.WEB,weblink Notre Dame Renovations, 4 July 2013, Adoremus Organization,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2013, live, Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris in the early 1830s.WEB,weblink Les Miserables, Preface, 1862, 4 July 2013, Gutenberg Organization,weblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2013, live, One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library.BOOK, Le Petit Robert 2: Dictionnaire Universel Des Noms Propres, 1680, Dictionnaires Le Robert, Paris, 1988, {{vn|date=June 2019 |reason=Added cite for 1988 edition, page may be incorrect.}}File:Jean-Paul Sartre FP.JPG|thumb|left|Jean-Paul SartreJean-Paul SartreIn the 20th century, the Paris literary community was dominated by figures such as Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano (who lives in Paris), based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s.WEB,weblink Official site of the Nobel Prize, 24 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2014, live, Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=840}} It is also a city of small bookstores. There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price."The French Still Flock to Bookstores", New York Times, 20 June 2012


File:Olympia facade.jpg|thumb|upright|Olympia, a famous music hall]]In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded in 1795.{{sfn|Damschroeder|Williams|1990|p=157}} By 1870, Paris had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music.Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod (Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes (Lakmé) and Jules Massenet (Thaïs), among others.{{sfn|Michelin|2011}} Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon.Georges Bizet: Carmen, Susan McClary, p. 120BOOK,weblink The Essential Canon of Classical Music, David, Dubal, 346, 2003, Macmillan, 978-1-4668-0726-6, 12 October 2016,weblink 12 October 2016, live, Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie (Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel (Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy), and Igor Stravinsky (Russia), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris.File:Charles Aznavour Cannes.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Charles AznavourCharles AznavourBal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.{{sfn|Dregni|2004|p=19}} Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafés and bars of the city. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,{{sfn|Dregni|2008|p=32}} and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés.{{sfn|Mroue|2006|p=260}}Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city.{{Sfn|Dregni|2008|p=32}} Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s and 1940s.WEB,weblink Best Gypsy jazz bars in Paris, The Guardian, 3 March 2010, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 March 2014, live, Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.{{Sfn|Bezbakh|2004|page=872}}Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night. Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord.{{sfn|Mroue|2006|p=260}} Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Festival and the rock festival Rock en Seine.WEB, Rock en Seine '13,weblink, 23 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, live, The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967.WEB, Andante, 2004, Orchestre de Paris,,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2007, 3 July 2013, dead, dmy-all, On 19 December 2015, Paris and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf—a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars.{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=mn0000150629|tab=biography|label=Édith Piaf biography|first=Steve|last=Huey|accessdate=22 December 2015}} Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, as well as Charles Trenet.Paris has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s.NEWS,weblink Hip-Hop à la Française, New York Times, 15 October 2013, 28 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2015, live, The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities.BOOK, Between New York and Paris: Hip Hop and the Transnational Politics of Race, Culture, and Citizenship, Meghelli, Samir, Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2012, 54–108,


{{See also|List of films set in Paris}}(File:Le Grand Rex Paris.jpg|thumb|upright|Le Grand Rex tower)The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895.{{sfn|Lester|2006|p=278}} Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris' largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seats.WEB, The Grand Rex ... and its Etoiles,weblink RFI, 5 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2015, live, Big multiplex cinemas have been built since the 1990s. UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest.WEB, Le Cinéma à Paris,weblink, 5 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, live, Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated.WEB,weblink 2 Tamil Films in 1st SAFF in Paris, The Times of India, 27 December 2012, 2 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2013, dead, On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.MAGAZINE, N/A, Cahiers du cinéma n°hors-série, Paris, April 2000, 32, (cf. also BOOK, fr,weblink Histoire des communications, 2011, 10,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2012, )

{{anchor|Cuisine}} Restaurants and cuisine

{{See also|French cuisine}}(File:Brasserie Vagenende 1.jpg|thumb|left|Dining room of the Vagenende)Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal dates from the same period.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|pp=1136–38}} The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Epoque, including Maxim's on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=1137}}Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants.{{sfn|Dominé|2014}} The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2018, of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris.Le Monde, 2 February 2015WEB,weblink Michelin Guide, Michelin Guide, 23 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2014, live, File:Lesdeuxmagots.jpg|thumb|Les Deux MagotsLes Deux MagotsIn addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. The café arrived in Paris in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this period. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=1137}} A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian, and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=715}} A brasserie originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day.{{sfn|Fierro|1996|p=773}}


File:Magdalena Frackowiak.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Magdalena Frackowiak at Paris Fashion WeekParis Fashion WeekParis is an international capital of high fashion since the 19th century, particularly in the domain of haute couture, clothing hand-made to order for private clients.WEB, Carr-Allinson, Rowena, 11 Ways to Look like a Local in Paris,weblink, Inside-Out Media, 16 September 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2016, live, It is home of some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, and of many well-known fashion designers, including Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Christophe Josse, and Christian Lacroix. Paris Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre and other city locations, is among the top four events of the international fashion calendar, along with the fashion weeks in Milan, London and New York.BOOK, Bradford, Julie, Fashion Journalism, Routledge, 2014, 129,weblink 978-1-136-47536-8, 25 October 2015,weblink 1 January 2016, live, BOOK, Susan, Dillon, The Fundamentals of Fashion Management, A&C Black, 2011, 115,weblink 978-2-940411-58-0, 25 October 2015,weblink 1 January 2016, live, Paris is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oréal, and three of the five top global makers of luxury fashion accessories: Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier.WEB,weblink, Global ranking of manufacturers of luxury goods, 16 January 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2015, live, Most of the major fashion designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Élysées and the Seine.

Holidays and festivals

File:French Republican Guard Bastille Day 2007 n1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Republican Guards parading on Bastille DayBastille DayBastille Day, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower.{{sfn|BlackmoreMcConnachie|2004|p=204}}Some other yearly festivals are Paris-Plages, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees;{{sfn|BlackmoreMcConnachie|2004|p=204}} Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d'automne, and Fête des jardins. The Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages.


File:Sorbonne-saint-jacques.jpg|thumb|The former main building of the University of Paris is now used by classes from Paris-Sorbonne UniversityParis-Sorbonne UniversityParis is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France,WEB,weblink Indicateurs départementaux et régionaux sur les diplômes et la formation en 2009, INSEE, 29 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2013, live, while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France. Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.WEB,weblink La Préfecture de la Région d'Île-de-France, L'enseignement, 9 October 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2007, fr, The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.{{sfn|Combeau|2013|pages=213–14}}File:DSC 7111-lycee-louis-le-gra.jpg|thumb|left|The Lycée Louis-le-GrandLycée Louis-le-GrandThe Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded City of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement.WEB,weblink Contact and Maps, 18 June 2013, French, École Normale Supérieure, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2013, dmy-all, There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, École des Mines, AgroParisTech, Télécom Paris, Arts et Métiers, and École des Ponts et Chaussées. There are also many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris' 7th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine, is located in Paris' 16th. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine.WEB,weblink French, Accès,, 16 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2013, live, Paris is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes.


File:Salle de lecture Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve n01.jpg|thumb|right|Sainte-Geneviève LibrarySainte-Geneviève LibraryThe Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library.WEB,weblink How to find us, Bibliothèque nationale de France, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2005, dmy-all, There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library, in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research service. The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division.NEWS, Woodward, Richard B., At These Parisian Landmarks, Shhh Is the Word,weblink 4 July 2013, The New York Times, 5 March 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2014, live, Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers.There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques.WEB, Paris-Sorbonne libraries,weblink Paris-Sorbonne University, 4 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2013, live, Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.WEB, French Libraries and Archives,weblink University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries, 5 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2013, live,


File:Finale Coupe de France 2010-2011 (Lille LOSC vs Paris SG PSG).jpg|thumb|right|Stade de FranceStade de FranceParis' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union clubs Stade Français and Racing 92, the last of which is based just outside the city proper. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=300–01}} It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français rugby team.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=300–01}} In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris.(File:Tour de france 2010 - Champs Elysées n10.jpg|thumb|left|2010 Tour de France, Champs Élysées)Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games.The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup (at the Stade Olympique de Colombes), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final (both at the Stade de France). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions.NEWS,weblink 21 April 2013, 16 June 2006, Arsenal aim to upset the odds, BBC Sport, London,weblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2017, live, Paris has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016, both at the Parc des Princes in the city proper and also at Stade de France, with the latter hosting the opening match and final.The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France, always finishes in Paris. Since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées.WEB,weblink 2013 route, Le Tour, 21 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,WEB, Roland-Garros,weblink Roland Garros, 21 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2013, live, is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1999 were also played at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy.The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin."Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris)" {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 July 2017 }}. Equipement-Paris. Retrieved 4 April 2017 Another top-level professional team, Nanterre 92, plays in Nanterre.



{{See also|List of railway stations in Paris}}File:Gare du Nord night Paris FRA 002.JPG|thumb|right|The Gare du NordGare du NordParis is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. Île-de-France Mobilités (IDFM), formerly the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF) and before that the Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP), oversees the transit network in the region.WEB,weblink Le web des voyageurs franciliens, Syndicat des Transports d'Île-de-France (STIF), 10 April 2006, French, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2006, dmy-all, The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines.WEB,weblink Optile en bref, Optile, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live,


{{See also|List of railway stations in Paris}}A central hub of the national rail network, Paris' six major railway stations (Gare du Nord, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare) and a minor one (Gare de Bercy) are connected to three networks: the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien).

Métro, RER and tramway

File:Metro Paris 2008 08.jpg|thumb|right|The Paris MétroParis MétroSince the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris' Métro (subway) network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers dailyWEB,weblink Métro2030, notre nouveau métro de Paris, RATP, 27 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and {{convert|220|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} of rails. Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and {{convert|587|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of rails connect Paris to more distant parts of the urban area.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=278–83}}Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs,{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=278–83}} with notably the Grand Paris Express project.In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte d'Asnières, Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles, Line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, Line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis to Épinay-sur-Seine and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the RATP Group,WEB,weblink RATP's tram network in Île-de-France, RATP, 27 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, dmy-all, and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=278–83}} Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development.WEB,weblink tramway, STIF, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live,


File:CDG P1020431.JPG|thumb|left|In 2017 Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport was the second-busiest airport in Europe and the tenth-busiest airport in the world.WEB,weblink Passenger Traffic for past 12 months, Airports Council International, 20 July 2015, 27 November 2015, Airports Council International,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2018, live, ]]{|class="infobox" style="float:right;"! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" |Busiest destinations from Parisairports (CDG, ORY, BVA) in 2014! style="text-align:center;" |Domestic destinations ||style="text-align:center;" |Passengers style="background:#eee;"Midi-Pyrénées}} Toulouse–Blagnac Airport>3,158,331 style="background:#fff;"Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur}} Nice Côte d'Azur Airport >2,865,602 style="background:#eee;"Aquitaine}} Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport>1,539,478 style="background:#fff;"Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur}} Marseille Provence Airport >1,502,196 style="background:#eee;"22x20pxPointe-à-Pitre International Airport>Pointe-à-Pitre style="text-align:center;" |1,191,437 style="background:#fff;"22x20pxRoland Garros Airport>Saint-Denis (Réunion) style="text-align:center;" |1,108,964 style="background:#eee;"22x20pxMartinique Aimé Césaire International Airport>Fort-de-France style="text-align:center;" |1,055,770 style="background:#fff;"{{collapsed infobox section begin|Other domestic destinations}}Languedoc-Roussillon}} Montpellier–Méditerranée Airport >807,482 style="background:#eee;"Aquitaine}} Biarritz Pays Basque Airport >684,578 style="background:#fff;"Rhône-Alpes}} Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport >613,395{{collapsed infobox section end}}! style="text-align:center;" |International destinations ||style="text-align:center;" |Passengers style="background:#eee;"ITA}} Italystyle="text-align:center;" |7,881,497 style="background:#fff;"ESP}} Spainstyle="text-align:center;" |7,193,481 style="background:#eee;"USA}} United Statesstyle="text-align:center;" |6,495,677 style="background:#fff;"GER}} Germany style="text-align:center;" |4,685,313 style="background:#eee;"UK}} United Kingdom style="text-align:center;" |4,177,519 style="background:#fff;"MAR}} Morocco style="text-align:center;" |3,148,479 style="background:#eee;"POR}} Portugalstyle="text-align:center;" |3,018,446 style="background:#fff;"ALG}} Algeria style="text-align:center;" |2,351,402 style="background:#eee;"PRC}} China style="text-align:center;" |2,141,527 style="background:#fff;"{{collapsed infobox section begin|Other international destinations}}SUI}} Switzerland style="text-align:center;" |1,727,169{{collapsed infobox section end}}Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly and Beauvais-Tillé. Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014.WEB,weblink Bulletin statistique, trafic aérien commercial – année 2014, 15, Direction générale de l'Aviation civile, 28 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 29 March 2017, live, There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows.Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the 1950s to the 1980s.WEB,weblink Histoire d'Aéroports de Paris de 1945 à 1981, Aéroports de Paris, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live, Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993.WEB,weblink Trafic aéroportuaire 1986–2013, 15–17, Direction générale de l'Aviation civile, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2017, live, For the year 2017 it was the 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|pp=278–83}} Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located {{convert|69|km|abbr=off}} north of Paris' city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair.Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014.WEB, Air passenger transport between the main airports of France and their main partner airports (routes data),weblink Eurostat, 29 November 2015, Eurostat,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live, After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris and Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014.Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.WEB, International intra-EU air passenger transport by main airports in each reporting country and EU partner country,weblink Eurostat, 29 November 2015, Eurostat,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live, WEB, International extra-EU air passenger transport by main airports in each reporting country and partner world regions and countries,weblink Eurostat, 29 November 2015, Eurostat,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live,


(File:ParisRingRoads A104.svg|thumb|left|Ring roads of Paris)The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique,{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=69}} which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris has an extensive road network with over {{convert|2000|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of highways and motorways.


The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.{{sfn|Jefferson|2009|p=114}}


File:Station Velib DSC 3497.JPG|thumb|right|Vélib' at Place de la BastillePlace de la BastilleThere are {{convert|440|km|abbr=on}} of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Some {{convert|29|km|abbr=on}} of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles.{{sfn|Hart|2004|p=355}} Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,{{sfn|Rand|2010|p=165}} which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips.


Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. {{As of|2012}}, around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh).WEB,weblink La production électrique en IdF, La DRIEE – Prefet de la région d'Île-de-France, 11 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2015, live, A quarter of the city's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen-sur-Seine, burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from the United States per year.WEB,weblink Paris to be heated with US wood pellets, Global Wood Markets Info, 11 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2016, live, 11 March 2016,

Water and sanitation

File:Ile de la Cite from Pont de la Tournelle.jpg|thumb|right|A view of the Seine, the ÃŽle de la Cité and a Bateau MoucheBateau MoucheParis in its early history had only the rivers Seine and Bièvre for water. From 1809, the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital.WEB,weblink Historique des égouts, 18 June 2013, French,,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2014, dead, From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation.{{sfn|Burchell|1971|p=93}} From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water-supply network. Today Paris has more than {{convert|2400|km|0|abbr=on}} of underground passagewaysWEB,weblink Les égouts parisiens, Mairie de Paris, 15 May 2006, French, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2006, dedicated to the evacuation of Paris' liquid wastes.In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.WEB,weblink Merde! Foul Paris goes to the dogs, The Guardian, 21 October 2001, 29 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2013, live, The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces.NEWS,weblink Merde most foul, The Guardian, UK, 12 April 2002, 29 July 2010, Jon, Henley,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2013, live, The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France with 38 Î¼g/m³.Air pollution in Paris {{Webarchive|url= |date=24 September 2012 }} according to L'internaute

Parks and gardens

File:Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, 22 April 2007.jpg|thumb|left|The lawns of the Parc des Buttes-ChaumontParc des Buttes-ChaumontFile:Saint-Cloud - Passerelle de l'Avre 008.JPG|thumb|left|The Passerelle de l'Avre, crossing the Seine and establishing a link between the Bois de Boulogne and Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-SeineHauts-de-SeineParis today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees.{{Sfn|Jarrassé|2007|p=6}} Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672){{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=125}} and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate.{{sfn|Lawrence|Gondrand|2010|p=208}} The Jardin des plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants.WEB, Le Jardin de Plantes,weblink 22 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, live, Between 1853 and 1870, Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters.{{Sfn|Jarrassé|2007|pp=122–61}} Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), Parc de Bercy (1997) and Parc Clichy-Batignolles (2007).{{Sfn|Jarrassé|2007|pp=242–56}} One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013), built on a former highway on the left bank of the Seine between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks.
Weekly Parkruns take place in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris WEB,weblink Parkrun du Bois de Boulogne, 4 September 2019,weblink 4 August 2019, live, WEB,weblink Parkrun de Montsouris, 4 September 2019,weblink 4 August 2019, live,


File:Catacombes De Paris.jpg|thumb|right|The Paris Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people.]]During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents' Cemetery, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.{{sfn|Whaley|2012|p=101}}{{sfn|Broadwell|2007|p=92}} The process of moving bones from the Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814;{{sfn|Andia|Brialy|2001|p=221}} part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs.After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.{{sfn|Ayers|2004|p=271}} Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux.WEB, Les 20 cimetières Parisiens,weblink, 4 April 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2017, live, Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries.


(File:Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, February 7, 2013.jpg|thumb|right|The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city)Health care and emergency medical service in the City of Paris and its suburbs are provided by the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, support personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals. It is the largest hospital system in Europe. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual patient visits.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2014, Rapport Annuel 2008, Rapport Activite, 21 April 2013, French, dead, dmy-all, One of the most notable hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city,WEB,weblink Hotel Dieu, London Science Museum, 21 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2013, live, although the current building is the product of a reconstruction of 1877. Other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (one of the largest in Europe), Hôpital Cochin, Hôpital Bichat, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Bicêtre Hospital, Beaujon Hospital, the Curie Institute, Lariboisière Hospital, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hôpital de la Charité and the American Hospital of Paris.


(File:AFP.jpg|thumb|left|Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris)Paris and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchaîné, La Croix, Pariscope, Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen), Les Échos, Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Réseaux & Télécoms, Reuters France, and L'Officiel des Spectacles.WEB,weblink French and Francophone Publications,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, live, France's two most prestigious newspapers, Le Monde and Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the Parisian publishing industry.WEB,weblink Paris' Top Newspapers,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2013, live, Agence France-Presse is France's oldest, and one of the world's oldest, continually operating news agencies. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835.WEB,weblink Agence France-Presse, Agence France-Presse website, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2013, live, France 24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris.WEB,weblink France 24,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2014, live, Another news agency is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurrences.WEB,weblink France Diplomatie,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2013, live, The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5, M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Arte, D8, W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chaîne parlementaire, France 4, BFM TV, and Gulli are other stations located in and around the capital.WEB,weblink French and Francophone TV Stations,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2013, live, Radio France, France's public radio broadcaster, and its various channels, is headquartered in Paris' 16th arrondissement. Radio France Internationale, another public broadcaster is also based in the city.WEB,weblink France's Radio Stations,, 3 July 2013, Paris also holds the headquarters of the La Poste, France's national postal carrier.WEB,weblink La Poste,, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2013, dead, dmy-all,

International relations

Twin towns and partner cities

File:Castro Pretorio - Colonna di Parigi alle Terme di Diocleziano 1010023.JPG|thumb|upright|Column dedicated to Paris near the Baths of Diocletian in RomeRome(File:Park de la Sorbonne.JPG|thumb|upright|Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the square Paul Painlevé in Paris){{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities of Paris}}Since 9 April 1956, Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2016, Friendship and cooperation agreements, Mairie de Paris,, 10 September 2016, dead, dmy-all, WEB, Twinning Rome – Paris, fr,weblink 30 January 1956, 28 February 2018,weblink 13 November 2018, live, WEB, Roma – Relazioni Internazionali Bilaterali,weblink it, Commune Roma, 10 September 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2016, live,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Rome, Italy, 1956

Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris. {{fr icon}} Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. {{it icon}} "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."WEB,weblink Hey, is San Francisco Really a "Sister City" of Paris, France? No – Was It Before? No, Not At All – Here's Why, San Francisco Citizen, 27 February 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 28 February 2018, live,

Other relationships

Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with:{{div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}

See also






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  • BOOK, Papayanis, Nicholas, Planning Paris Before Haussmann,weblink 2004, JHU Press, 978-0-8018-7930-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Perry, Gillian, Women Artists and the Parisian Avant-garde: Modernism and 'feminine Art' Art, 1900 to the Late 1920s,weblink 1995, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-4165-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Perry, Marvin, Chase, Myrna, Jacob, James R., Jacob, Margaret C., Von Laue, Theodore H., Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society: from 1600: Ideas, Politics, and Society: From the 1600s,weblink 2011, Cengage Learning, 10th, 978-1-111-83171-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Phillips, Betty Lou, 2005,weblink The French Connection, 978-1-58685-529-1, Gibbs Smith, harv,
  • BOOK, Rand, Tom, Kick the Fossil Fuel Habit: 10 Clean Technologies to Save Our World,weblink 2010, Greenleaf Book Group, 978-0-9812952-0-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Robb, Graham, Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris,weblink 2010, Pan Macmillan, 978-0-330-52254-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Robertson, Jamie Cox, A Literary Paris: Hemingway, Colette, Sedaris, and Others on the Uncommon Lure of the City of Light,weblink 2010, Krause Publications, 978-1-4405-0740-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Rodgers, Eamonn J., Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture,weblink 1999, CRC Press, 978-0-415-13187-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Rougerie, Jacques, La Commune de 1871, fr, 2014, Presses universitaires de France, Paris, 978-2-13-062078-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Rousseau, George Sebastian, Yourcenar,weblink 2004, Haus Bublishing, 978-1-904341-28-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Ruth, Blackmore, James, McConnachie, Rough Guide Paris Directions,weblink 2004, Rough Guides, 978-1-84353-317-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Ryersson, Scot D., Yaccarino, Michael Orlando, Infinite variety: the life and legend of the Marchesa Casati,weblink 2004, University of Minnesota Press, 978-0-8166-4520-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Sarmant, Thierry, Histoire de Paris: politique, urbanisme, civilisation, fr,weblink 2012, Editions Gisserot, 978-2-7558-0330-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Schmidt, Joël, Lutèce: Paris, des origines à Clovis, fr,weblink 2009, Perrin, 978-2-262-03015-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Schumacher, Claude, Naturalism and Symbolism in European Theatre 1850–1918,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-23014-8, harv,
  • Shack, William A. Harlem in Montmartre, A Paris Jazz Story between the Great Wars, University of California Press, 2001. {{ISBN|978-0-520-22537-4}},
  • BOOK, Shales, Melissa, Paris,weblink 2007, New Holland Publishers, 978-1-84537-661-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Simmer, James, Innovation Networks and Learning Regions?,weblink 1997, Routledge, 978-0-11-702360-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Steele, Valerie, Paris Fashion: A Cultural History,weblink 1998, Berg, 978-1-85973-973-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Sutherland, Cara, The Statue of Liberty,weblink 2003, Barnes & Noble Publishing, 978-0-7607-3890-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Tallett, Frank, Atkin, Nicholas, Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789,weblink 1991, Continuum, 978-1-85285-057-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Tellier, Luc-Normand, Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective,weblink 2009, PUQ, 978-2-7605-2209-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Tomas, François, Blanc, Jean-Noël, Bonilla, Mario, IERP, Les grands ensembles: une histoire qui continue,weblink 2003, Université de Saint-Étienne, 978-2-86272-260-3, 237, harv,
  • BOOK, Jacobus, de Vitriaco, John Frederick, Hinnebusch, The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry,weblink 1972, Saint-Paul, GGKEY:R8CJPKJJK4D, harv,
  • BOOK, Weingardt, Richard, Circles in the Sky: The Life and Times of George Ferris,weblink 2009, ASCE Publications, 978-0-7844-1010-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Whaley, Joachim, Mirrors of Mortality (Routledge Revivals): Social Studies in the History of Death,weblink 2012, Routledge, 978-1-136-81060-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Woolley, Reginald Maxwell, Coronation Rites,weblink 1915, Cambridge University Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Yarri, Monique,weblink Rethinking the French City: Architecture, Dwelling, and Display After 1968, Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam, New York, 2008, 978-90-420-2500-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Zarka, Yves Charles, Taussig, Sylvie, Fleury, Cynthia, L'Islam en France, fr,weblink 2004, Presses universitaires de France, 978-2-13-053723-6, Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Vincent Cronin, Paris on the Eve, 1900–1914, Harper Collins, New York, 1989, 978-0-312-04876-1,weblink Vincent Cronin,
  • BOOK, Vincent Cronin, Paris: City of Light, 1919–1939, Harper Collins, New York, 1994, 978-0-00-215191-7,
  • BOOK, Jean Favier, Paris, Fayard, 1997, 978-2-213-59874-1, fr,
  • BOOK, Jacques Hillairet, Connaissance du Vieux Paris, Rivages, 2005, 978-2-86930-648-6, fr,
  • BOOK, Colin Jones, Paris: The Biography of a City, Penguin Books, Penguin Viking, New York, 2004, 978-0-670-03393-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Bernard Marchand, Paris, histoire d'une ville : XIXe-XXe siècle, Le Seuil, Paris, 1993, 978-2-02-012864-3, fr,
  • BOOK, Rosemary Wakeman, The Heroic City: Paris, 1945–1958, University of Chicago Press, 2009, 978-0-226-87023-6,

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Paris}}
  • {{Official website}} {{fr}}
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