SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Shanghai

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Shanghai
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2018}}







factoids
| official_name = 0.1em}}}}Direct-administered municipalities of China>Municipality| image_skyline = Shanghai montage.pngLujiazui skyline with the Huangpu River, Yu Garden, China pavilion at Expo 2010>China Pavilion at Expo 2010, Nanjing Road, and The Bund.| image_seal = | image_map = Shanghai in China (+all claims hatched).svg| map_caption = Location of Shanghai Municipality in China| coor_pinpoint = People's Square314312129type:adm1st_region:CN-31|display=it}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = People's Republic of China| established_title = SettledPUBLISHER=SHANGHAI QINGPU MUSEUM, 15 July 2017, | established_title1 = Establishment of - Qinglong Town| established_date1 = 746| established_title2 =  - Shanghai CountyLAST=COXPUBLISHER=DEMOGRAPHIAISBN=PAGE=22, SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:上海镇、上海县、上海县城考录 LANGUAGE=ZH, | established_title3 =  - Municipality| established_date3 = 7 July 1927County-level division>County-level - Township-levelList of administrative divisions of Shanghai>16 districts210 towns and subdistrictsDirect-administered municipalities of China>MunicipalityParty chief of the Communist Party of China>Party SecretaryLi Qiang (politician, born 1959)>Li Qiang| leader_title1 = Mayor| leader_name1 = Ying Yong| total_type = MunicipalityPUBLISHER = MINISTRY OF COMMERCE – PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA WORK = BASIC FACTS ACCESSDATE=19 JULY 2011, | area_total_km2 = 6341| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = 697| area_urban_km2 = | area_urban_sq_mi = 1,550| population_urban = 24,115,000| population_urban_footnotes =  (2018) name=“weblink| population_density_urban_km2 = 6,000| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 4| population_total = 26,317,104| population_as_of = 2019| population_footnotes = WEB,weblink The operation of the national economy in Shanghai in 2017, zh:2017年上海市国民经济运行情况, Shanghai Bureau of Statistics, zh-hans, 19 January 2018, 19 January 2018, | population_density_km2 = auto| population_metro = 34 million| population_metro_footnotes =  (2010)List of cities in China by urban population>1st in ChinaShanghainese people>ShanghainesePostal code of China>Postal code| postal_code = 200000–202100Telephone numbers in China>21CN-SH)weblink}} {{zh icon}}zh|Shànghăi PÇ”}})"The original name of the Huangpu River."| leader_title2 = Congress Chairman| leader_name2 = Yin Yicui| leader_title3 = Municipal CPPCC ChairmanDong Yunhu{{cn>date=December 2018}}China Standard Time>CST| utc_offset = +8| blank_name = Nominal GDP| blank_info = 2018| blank1_name =  - TotalCNY>Â¥3.27 trillion(USD494 billion)(List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP>11th)| blank2_name =  - Per capitaCNY>Â¥135,212 USD20,425 (List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita>2nd) $39,600 PPP| blank3_name =  - Growth| blank3_info = {{increase}} 6.6%Human Development Index>HDI (2017)YEAR = 2013 UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA >LANGUAGE = ZH List of administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China by Human Development Index>4th) – very highLicence plates of the People's Republic of China>Licence plate prefixess= >labels=no}} (hù)| blank1_name_sec2 = City flowerMagnolia denudata>Yulan magnolia| blank2_name_sec2 = LanguagesWu Chinese>Wu (Shanghainese language), Mandarin Chinese>Mandarin}}







factoids

|w = Shang4-hai3
|bpmf = ㄕㄤˋ   ã„ã„žË‡
|mi = {{IPAc-cmn|sh|ang|4|.|h|ai|3}}
|gr = Shanqhae
|l = "Upon-the-Sea"
|wuu = {{Audio|zh-wuu-2-上海.ogg|Zaan22 he44|help=no}}
|lmz = ZÃ¥nhae
|j = Soeng6hoi2
|ci = {{IPAc-yue|s|oeng|6|.|h|oi|2}}
|y = Seuhnghói
|poj = Siōng-hái
|buc = Siông-hāi
|h = Sông-hói
|showflag=pwuu
}}Shanghai ({{zh|c=上海}}, {{IPA-wuu|zɑ̃.hɛ|Shanghainese pronunciation:|zh-wuu-2-上海.ogg}}, Mandarin pronunciation: {{IPAc-cmn|AUD|Shanghai pron.ogg|sh|ang|4|.|h|ai|3}}) is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, and the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million {{as of|2017|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink Cities: largest (without surrounding suburban areas), Geohive, 13 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161205222859weblink">weblink 5 December 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Shanghai Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014, zh:2014年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报, Shanghai Bureau of Statistics, zh-hans, 28 February 2015, 1 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150309200433weblink">weblink 9 March 2015, dmy-all, It is a global financial centreWEB,weblink The Competitive Position of London as a Global Financial Centre, 25 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131110224826weblink">weblink 10 November 2013, yes, dmy-all, and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.WEB,weblink Top 50 World Container Ports, Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.WEB
,weblink
, Geographic Location
, Basic Facts
, Shanghai Municipal People's Government
, 14 September 2011
, As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s.WEB
, Shanghai: Global financial center? Aspirations and reality, and implications for Hong Kong
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624000600weblink">weblink
, yes
, 24 June 2011
, Scott Tong
, Hong Kong Journal
, October 2009
, 17 October 2011
,
During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization.WEB,weblink Historic Transformation, Shanghai.gov.cn, 27 May 1949, 11 December 2011,
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China;NEWS
, Shanghai: China's capitalist showpiece
,weblink
, BBC News
, 21 May 2008
, 7 August 2008
, Katie
, Hunt
, WEB
, Of Shanghai... and Suzhou
,weblink
, The Hindu Business Line
, 27 January 2003
, 20 March 2008
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050819054503weblink">weblink
, 19 August 2005,
{{anchor|Etymology|Name}} renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.

Names

The two Chinese characters in the city's name are {{zh|c= |labels=no}} ({{transl|zh|shàng}}/zan, "upon") and {{zh|c= |labels=no}} ({{transl|zh|hÇŽi}}/hae,"sea"), together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to exactly how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was literally on the sea.{{clarify|It was not floating, so what on earth is this supposed to actually mean?|date=June 2017}}Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, pp. 8–9.Shanghai is officially abbreviated {{zh|s= |labels=no}} ({{transl|zh|Hù}}/Wu) in Chinese,Traditional Chinese: ; Shanghainese: Vu2. a contraction of {{zh|s= |labels=no}} ({{transl|zh|Hù Dú}}/Vu Doh, lit "Harpoon Ditch"),Traditional Chinese: . a 4th- or {{nowrap|5th-century}} Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean.WEB,weblink zh:"申","沪"的由来, Shanghai People's Government, zh-hans, This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today.Another alternative name for Shanghai is ShÄ“n ({{zh|c= |labels=no}}) or ShÄ“nchéng ({{zh|c= |labels=no}}, "Shen City"), from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F.C. and Shen Bao.Huating ({{zh|s= |labels=no}}) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city.The city also has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East".NEWS, Moraski, Brittney, 20 July 2011, 29 July 2011,weblink Shanghai brings a touch of home, Daily Press, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928204603weblink">weblink 28 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Shanghai: Pearl of the Orient, Meetingsfocus.com, 7 April 2013, 4 July 2013,

History

{{See also|Shanghai International Settlement|Shanghai French Concession|Greater Shanghai Plan}}

Ancient history

During the Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC), the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.WEB, Ancient History,weblink cultural-china.com, 26 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130616022620weblink">weblink 16 June 2013, During the Warring States period (475 BC), Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area then cre a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city.

Imperial history

File:%E6%96%B9%E5%A1%942.JPG|Songjiang Square Pagoda, built in the 11th centuryFile:Old City of Shanghai will walls and seafront.jpg|The walled Old City of Shanghai in the 17th centuryFile:Dismantlement of Old City walls.jpg|The dismantlement of Old City walls, 1911File:人民路旁的大境閣.jpg|The remains of the old city walls of ShanghaiFile:Zhenrusi Dadian.JPG|The Mahavira Hall at Zhenru TempleFile:ISS-30 Nighttime view of Shanghai.jpgDuring the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town () in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746 (fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. The famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.WEB,weblink zh:上海青浦青龙镇遗址, Ruins of Qinglong Town in Qingpu, Shanghai, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 24 March 2017, By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai,NEWS,weblink zh:青龙镇考古:上海首个贸易港,为何人称"小杭州", Thepaper.cn, 10 December 2016, which was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9. From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District.Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9, pp.11–12, p.34.Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured {{convert|10|m|0|abbr=off}} high and {{convert|5|km|0|abbr=off}} in circumference.Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.10. During the Wanli reign (1573–1620), Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602. This honour was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. It probably reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: In 1684, the Kangxi Emperor reversed the Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels – a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732 the Yongzheng Emperor moved the customs office for Jiangsu province (}}; see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, by 1735 Shanghai had become the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta, 2004, pp.10–11.

Rise and golden age

File:Shanghai 1935 S1 AMS-WO.jpg|left|thumb|Shanghai in the 1930s, with the Shanghai International Settlement and Shanghai French ConcessionShanghai French ConcessionFile:WaibaiduBridgeOld1.jpg|The Bund in 1920sFile:Shanghai tram, British section, 1920s, John Rossman's collection.jpg|Nanking Road (modern-day East Nanjing Road) in the 1930sFile:1937 Shanghai, China VP8.webm|Shanghai filmed in 1937File:Shanghai Park Hotel 2007.jpg|Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decadesFile:Former Shanghai Library.jpg|Former Shanghai LibraryFile:The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, built in 1923 and The Customs House built in 1927.jpg|The HSBC Building built in 1923 and the Customs House built in 1927International attention to Shanghai grew in the 19th century due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports, Shanghai included, for international trade.WEB,weblink The Opium war (or how Hong Kong began), South China Morning Post, The Treaty of the Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia signed in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France (under the 1844 Treaty of Whampoa), and the United States all carved out concessions outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.The Chinese-held old city of Shanghai fell to the rebels of the Small Swords Society in 1853 but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855.Scarne, John. Twelve years in China. Edinburgh: Constable, 1860: 187–209. In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860–1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city.Williams, S. Wells. The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Literature, Social Life, Arts, and History of the Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants, Vol. 1, p. 107. Scribner (New York), 1904. In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.Citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai to live and work during the ensuing decades; those who stayed for long periods – some for generations – called themselves "Shanghailanders".Shanghai: Paradise for adventurers. CBC – TV. Legendary Sin Cities. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090401164357weblink |date=1 April 2009 }} In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians and Russian Jews fled the newly established Soviet Union and took up residence in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners."All About Shanghai. Chapter 4 – Population {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100520024207weblink |date=20 May 2010 }}". Tales of Old Shanghai. In the 1930s, some 30,000 Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in the city."Shanghai Sanctuary". Time. 31 July 2008.The First Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other foreign powers. Shanghai was then the most important financial center in the Far East. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China".Gordon Cumming, C. F. (Constance Frederica), "The inventor of the numeral-type for China by the use of which illiterate Chinese both blind and sighted can very quickly be taught to read and write fluently", London : Downey, 1899, archive.orgUnder the Republic of China, Shanghai's political status was raised to that of a municipality on 14 July 1927. Although the territory of the foreign concessions was excluded from their control, this new Chinese municipality still covered an area of {{convert|828.8|km2|1|abbr=out}}, including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government's first task was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The "Greater Shanghai Plan" included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed when the plan was interrupted by the Japanese invasion.Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.34.

Wartime era

File:Shanghai1937city zhabei fire.jpg|thumb|left|Zhabei DistrictZhabei DistrictOn 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai and the Chinese resisted, fighting to a standstill; a ceasefire was brokered in May. The Battle of Shanghai in 1937 resulted in the occupation of the Chinese administered parts of Shanghai outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. People who stayed in the occupied city of Shanghai saw no end to their suffering. They experienced death, hunger, destruction, and oppression on daily basis.Nicole Huang, "Introduction," in Eileen Chang, Written on Water, translated by Andrew F. Jones (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005),XI The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945, during which time many war crimes were committed.149 comfort women houses discovered in Shanghai {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081201080455weblink |date=1 December 2008 }}, Xinhua,16 June 2005.On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai. Under the new People's Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over the next decade (the others being Beijing and Tianjin).Changhai est tombé sans combat {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110928152915weblink |date=28 September 2011 }}, Le Monde, 27 May 1949. Shanghai underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the Communist victory.

Modern history

File:Tarde en Shanghai — at The Bund 外滩. (15730639211).jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|LujiazuiLujiazuiOn 17 January 1958, Jiading, Baoshan, and Shanghai County in Jiangsu Province became part of Shanghai Municipality, which expanded to 86,300 hectares. The following December, the land area of Shanghai was further expanded to 591,000 hectares when more surrounding suburban areas in Jiangsu were added: Chongming, Jinshan, Qingpu, Fengxian, Chuansha and Nanhui.Problems and Planning in Third World Cities (Routledge Revivals), edited by Michael Pacione In 1960 the urban districts were reduced to 10.Metropolitan Planning and Management in the Developing World: Shanghai and Guangzhou, ChinaDuring the 1950s and 1960s, Shanghai became the center for radical leftism since it was the industrial centre of China with most skilled industrial workers. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city.Shanghai: transformation and modernization under China's open policy. By Yue-man Yeung, Sung Yun-wing, page 66, Chinese University Press, 1996 Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative social stability. During most of the history of the PRC, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government, with Shanghai in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to the central government than Shanghai had received in investment in the prior 33 years combined.The Party: The Secret World of China Communist rulers This came at the cost of severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people and Shanghai's infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it economic liberalizations begun in 1978. Shanghai was finally permitted to initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development still seen today and the birth of Lujiazui in Pudong.

Geography

File:Yangtze River Delta.gif|thumb|left|upright|This map of Shanghai (center and east), Jiangsu (north), and Zhejiang (south) shows the developed areas and some developing areas around Shanghai, Nanjing (dark blue), and Hangzhou in green. The regions in light blue are some of the developed areas in the Yangtze River Delta. Provincial boundaries are in purple, sub-provincial boundaries in gray.]]File:Sprawling Shanghai 2016-07-20.jpg|thumb|This natural-color satellite image shows the urban area of Shanghai in 2016, along with its major islands of (from northwest to southeast) Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the Jiuduansha shoals off Pudong. Yangtze's natural sediment discharging can be seen.]]Shanghai lies on China's east coast roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou. The Old City and modern downtown Shanghai are now located in the center of an expanding peninsula between the Yangtze River Delta to the north and Hangzhou Bay to the south, formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and by modern land reclamation projects. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai administers both the eastern area of this peninsula and many of its surrounding islands. It is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by Zhejiang, and on the east by the East China Sea. Its northernmost point is on Chongming Island, now the second-largest island in mainland China after its expansion during the 20th century."Chongming Island" in the Encyclopedia of Shanghai, p. 52. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130302131933weblink |date=2 March 2013 }} Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers (Shanghai), 2010. Hosted by the Municipality of Shanghai. The municipality does not, however, include an exclave of Jiangsu on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan Port, which are part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County. This deep-water port was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but also the silting of the Yangtze, which narrows to less than {{convert|20|m|sp=us}} as far out as {{convert|45|mi|sp=us|sigfig=1}} from Hengsha.Wijnolst, N. & al. Malacca-Max (2): Container Shipping Network Economy, p. 115. DUP Satellite, 2000. {{ISBN|9040721246}}.Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze that was created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The central financial district Lujiazui has grown up on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). The destruction of local wetlands occasioned by the creation of Pudong International Airport along the peninsula's eastern shore has been somewhat offset by the protection and expansion of the nearby shoals of Jiuduansha as a nature preserve."Fourth Island Wetland Emerging", pp. 1–2. Shanghai Daily. 8 December 2009. Hosted at China.org.Shanghai's location on an alluvial plain means that the vast majority of its {{convert|6340.5|km2|abbr=on}} land area is flat, with an average elevation of {{convert|4|m|abbr=on}}.WEB
,weblink
, Topographic Features
, Basic Facts
, Shanghai Municipal People's Government
, 19 July 2011
, Its sandy soil has required its skyscrapers to be built with deep concrete piles to stop them from sinking into the soft ground of the central area. The few hills such as She Shan lie to the southwest and the highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island in Hangzhou Bay ({{convert|103|m|abbr=on|disp=or}}). The city has many rivers, canals, streams and lakes and is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage area.WEB
,weblink
, Water Resources
, Basic Facts
, Shanghai Municipal People's Government
, 19 July 2011
,

Climate

Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, with northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding {{convert|35|°C}} annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage.NEWS
, 1.6m flee Shanghai typhoon
,weblink
, The Daily Telegraph, UK, 19 September 2007
, 20 March 2008
, Richard
, Spencer, The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages {{convert|4.8|°C|1}} in January and {{convert|28.6|°C|1}} in July, for an annual mean of {{convert|17.1|°C|1}}. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from {{convert|−10.1|°C|0}} on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of {{convert|−12.1|°C|0}} was set on 19 January 1893) to {{convert|39.9|°C|0}} on 6 and 8 August 2013. A highest record of {{convert|40.9|°C|0}} was registered in Xujiahui, a downtown station on 21 July 2017.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 18 February 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130318113757weblink">weblink 18 March 2013, WEB
,weblink
, zh:今最高气温40.8℃ 明日再"奔"40℃
, 7 August 2013
, WEB
,weblink
, Temperature matches all-time record high
, Jiang Yabin
, Global Times
, 6 August 2013
, 6 August 2013, WEB
,weblink
, zh:长三角争先高温纪录 网友呼唤萧敬腾你在哪_新浪上海
, Sina Shanghai
, zh-hans
, 27 July 2013
, 27 July 2013, WEB,weblink Extreme Temperatures Around the World, 1 December 2010
, {{Shanghai weatherbox}}{{clear}}

Cityscape

{{Wide image|Pudong Shanghai November 2017 panorama.jpg|800px|}}{{Wide image|Shanghai - Skyline Sunset 0036.jpg|1300px|Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund}}{{Wide image|View from World Financial Center, Shanghai Panorama.jpg|1300px|Panoramic view of the Bund}}

Politics

(File:Shanghai Government Building.jpg|thumb|Shanghai municipal government building.)Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People's Republic of China, the politics of Shanghai is structured in a parallel party-government system,WEB, Martin, Michael, Understanding China's Political System,weblink Congressional Research Service, 13 September 2011, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Li Qiang), outranks the Mayor (currently Ying Yong). The party's standing committee acts as the top policy formulation body, and is typically composed of 11 members.Political power in Shanghai is widely seen as a stepping stone to higher positions in the national government. Since Jiang Zemin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, all former Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China, including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary),NEWS, Profile: Jiang Zemin,weblink BBC News, 13 September 2011, 19 September 2004, Zhu Rongji (Premier),NEWS, The Former Premier Who Ended China's 'Splendid Isolation',weblink The New York Times, 19 March 2003, 13 September 2011, Joseph, Kahn, Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the National People's Congress),WEB, Biography of Wu Bangguo,weblink China Vitae, Huang Ju (Vice Premier),NEWS, Huang Ju, Powerful Chinese Official, Dies at 68,weblink The New York Times, 2 June 2007, 13 September 2011, Jim, Yardley, Xi Jinping (current General Secretary), Yu Zhengsheng, and Han Zheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretary of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker.NEWS, In Graft Inquiry, Chinese See a Shake-Up Coming,weblink The New York Times, 4 October 2006, 13 September 2011, Joseph, Kahn, The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption.NEWS, Former Shanghai Party chief gets 18-year term for bribery,weblink Xinhua, 11 April 2008, 13 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091206061210weblink">weblink 6 December 2009, dmy-all, Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration form a powerful faction in the national government, the so-called Shanghai Clique, which was often thought to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions.NEWS, Factions Help Drive Modern China History,weblink The New York Times, 25 February 2010, 13 September 2011, Ted, Plafker, Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was a compromise candidate between the two groups with supporters in both camps.

Administrative divisions

(File:Openstreetmap central Shanghai.svg|thumb|Map of central Shanghai)Shanghai is administratively equal to a province and is divided into 16 county-level districts. Even though every district has its own urban core, the real city center is between Bund to the east, Nanjing Rd to the north, Old City Temple and Huaihai Road to the south. Prominent central business areas include Lujiazui on the east bank of the Huangpu River, and The Bund and Hongqiao areas in the west bank of the Huangpu River. The city hall and major administration units are located in Huangpu District, which also serve as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi and the classy Huaihai Road (previously Avenue Joffre) in Huangpu District and Xujiahui (formerly Romanized as Zikawei or Siccawei, reflecting the Shanghainese pronunciation) in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas of Yangpu District and Putuo District.Seven of the districts govern Puxi ({{abbr|lit.|Literally}} "The West Bank"), the older part of urban Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai Proper () or the core city (), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.Pudong ({{abbr|lit.|Literally}} "The East Bank"), the newer part of urban and suburban Shanghai on the east bank of the Huangpu River, is governed by Pudong New Area (Chuansha County until 1992, merged with Nanhui District in 2009 and with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals).Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until 1988), Minhang (original Minhang District & Shanghai County until 1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001).The islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most (but not all{{refn|The absorption of the separate island of Yonglongsha by Chongming in the 1970s has produced a narrow pene-enclave of Jiangsu along about {{convert|20|km|sp=us}} of the northern shore of the island, separately administered as Nantong's Haiyong and Qilong townships.Office of Shanghai Chronicles. ["DÇŽo, Shā", "Islands and Shoals"]. Shanghai Municipal Government (Shanghai), 2015. Accessed 12 January 2015. {{zh icon}}}}) of Chongming Island form Chongming.The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in 2009. In 2011 Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.{{As of|2015}}, these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2010 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110929144240weblink |date=29 September 2011 }}. Retrieved 18 July 2011 At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 24.18 million.WEB,weblink 中国统计年鉴—2018, www.stats.gov.cn, {|class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center;"! colspan="14" |Administrative divisions of Shanghai{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Shanghai.png|width=600|link=}} {{Image label|x=1260|y=1610|scale=600/2600|text={{small|Huangpu}}}}{{Image label|x=1160|y=1740|scale=600/2600|text=Xuhui}}{{Image label|x=1020|y=1650|scale=600/2600|text={{small|Changning}}}}{{Image label|x=1270|y=1470|scale=600/2600|text=1}}{{Image label|x=1110|y=1530|scale=600/2600|text=Putuo}}{{Image label|x=1340|y=1470|scale=600/2600|text=2}}{{Image label|x=1360|y=1420|scale=600/2600|text={{small|Yangpu}}}}{{Image label|x=1210|y=1970|scale=600/2600|text=Minhang}}{{Image label|x=1130|y=1210|scale=600/2600|text=Baoshan}}{{Image label|x=790|y=1280|scale=600/2600|text=Jiading}}{{Image label|x=1700|y=1890|scale=600/2600|text=Pudong}}{{Image label|x=810|y=2580|scale=600/2600|text=Jinshan}}{{Image label|x=730|y=2100|scale=600/2600|text=Songjiang}}{{Image label|x=480|y=1810|scale=600/2600|text=Qingpu}}{{Image label|x=1450|y=2370|scale=600/2600|text=Fengxian}}{{Image label|x=1300|y=610|scale=600/2600|text=Chongming}}{{Image label|x=200|y=560|scale=600/2600|text=1. Jing'an}}{{Image label|x=200|y=640|scale=600/2600|text=2. Hongkou}}{{Image label end}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Division codeWEB,weblink zh:国家统计局统计用区划代码, National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130405092331weblink">weblink 5 April 2013, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Division!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Area in km2{{full citation needed|date=September 2018}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Total population 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Urban areapopulation 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council, 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Population and Social Science Statistics Editing Group of the National Bureau of Statistics], 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Seat!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Postal code!! scope="col" colspan=6 |Subdivisions{{full citation needed|date=September 2018}}!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Subdistricts!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Towns!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Townships!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Residential communities!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Villages style="font-weight: bold"! 310000 !! ShanghaiHuangpu District, Shanghai>Huangpu 200000 100 107 2 4024 1610! 310101 !! Huangpu678,670 Waitan Subdistrict 200000 10 style="background:gray;" 189 style="background:gray;"| ! 310104 !! Xuhui1,085,130 Xujiahui Subdistrict 200000 12 1 style="background:gray;" ! 310105 !! Changning690,571 Jiangsu Road Subdistrict, Shanghai > 184 style="background:gray;"| ! 310106 !! Jing'an1,077,284 Jiangning Road Subdistrict 200000 13 1 style="background:gray;"|1! 310107 !! Putuo1,288,881 Zhenru Town Subdistrict 200000 8 2 style="background:gray;"|7! 310109 !! Hongkou852,476 Jiaxing Road Subdistrict 200000 8 style="background:gray;" 226 style="background:gray;"| ! 310110 !! Yangpu1,313,222 Pingliang Road Subdistrict 200000 11 1 style="background:gray;" ! 310112 !! Minhang2,429,372 Xinzhuang, Shanghai town > 408 136! 310113 !! Baoshan 350 108! 310114 !! Jiading 153 146! 310115 !! Pudong 829 371! 310116 !! Jinshan 88 124! 310117 !! Songjiang 185 86! 310118 !! Qingpu 97 184! 310120 !! Fengxian 8 style="background:gray;"|177! 310151 !! Chongming 16 2 67 270{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center"! colspan="5" |Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English! Chinese! Pinyin! Shanghainese Romanization! Shanghai Municipality! Huangpu District! Xuhui District! Changning District! Jing'an District! Putuo District! Hongkou District! Yangpu District! Minhang District! Baoshan District! Jiading District! Pudong New Area! Jinshan District! Songjiang District! Qingpu District! Fengxian District! Chongming District{{Clear}}

Economy

(File:Pudong_Shanghai_November_2017_HDR_panorama.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.25|Tourism is a major industry; the skyline along the Bund, and Pudong, is illuminated every evening.)File:Pudong district roads traffic skyscrapers, Shanghai.JPG|thumb|Increasing influence over global capital market: Shanghai Stock ExchangeShanghai Stock Exchange(File:Shanghai Jin Mao tower.jpg|alt=The popular skyline, Jin Mao Tower|thumb)File:Shanghainanjingroadpic4.jpg|alt=The Nanjing Pedestrian Street in the evening, looking towards the Radisson New World Hotel. This is a popular commercial center in Shanghai.|thumb|left|upright|The Nanjing Pedestrian Street in the evening. The Radisson New World HotelRadisson New World HotelFile:Yangshan-Port-Balanced.jpg|thumb|Shanghai Port is the world's busiest container portcontainer portShanghai is the commercial and financial center of China, and ranks 5th in the 2018 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (and third most competitive in Asia after Singapore and Hong Kong) published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 19, March 2016, Long Finance, 11 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408123054weblink">weblink 8 April 2016, yes, It also ranks the most expensive city to live in Mainland China, according to the study of Economist Intelligence Unit in 2017.EIU: Chinese cities cost less to live in, Shanghai Daily, Ding Yining, 21 March 2017 It was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the 1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s. This is exemplified by the Pudong District, a former swampland reclaimed to serve as a pilot area for integrated economic reforms. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested. In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world.WEB,weblink The rise of Lujiazui Financial City in Shanghai, CCTV News – CNTV English, 19 January 2011, 17 May 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118232503weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, yes, In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014".WEB,weblink Shanghai top for FDI into Asia-Pacific, The Banker, 1 April 2014, 11 April 2014, In August 2014, Shanghai was named FDi magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".WEB,weblink Chinese Provinces of the Future 2014/15, FDi magazine, 11 August 2014, 17 September 2014, In the last two decades Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world. Since 1992 Shanghai has recorded double-digit growth almost every year except during the global recession of 2008 and 2009.WEB,weblink Growth rate of major national economic indicators over preceding year (1978~2010), Stats-sh.gov.cn, 11 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111042716weblink">weblink 11 January 2012, In 2011, Shanghai's total GDP grew to 1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of 82,560 yuan (US $12,784).WEB,weblink Statistical Communiqué of Shanghai on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development, zh:上海市2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报, Statistical Bureau of Shanghai, zh, 8 March 2018, 22 June 2018, The three largest service industries are financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the total output respectively.WEB,weblink Shanghai Municipality, hktdc.com, 15 December 2010, 17 May 2011, Average annual disposable income of Shanghai residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was 21,871 RMB.WEB,weblink Average income hits 21,871 yuan, Shanghai Daily, Located at the heart of the Yangtze River Delta, Shanghai has the world's busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million TEUs in 2010.NEWS, Shanghai overtakes S'pore as world's busiest port,weblink Straits Times, 8 January 2011, 14 September 2011, Shanghai aims to be an international shipping center in the near future.NEWS,weblink Shanghai aims at int'l financial and shipping center, China Daily, 26 March 2009, 17 May 2011, Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai.WEB,weblink Shipping industry woes, China Daily, 30 November 2009, 17 May 2011, WEB,weblink China's Largest Shipbuilding Industry Based in Shanghai, People's Daily, 10 April 2001, 15 January 2014, Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.WEB,weblink zh:上海汽车工业(集团)总公司|上汽集团, Saicgroup, 18 August 2009, 17 May 2011, yes,weblink 29 May 2011, The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153).WEB, Shanghai's many challenges,weblink TTGmice, 15 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605153720weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, Tourism in general has become a major industry. In 2016, 296 million domestic tourists and 8.54 million overseas tourists visited Shanghai for an approximate increase of 7% from the previous year.WEB,weblink Shanghai: Market Profile, 23 November 2018, Hong Kong Trade Development Council, 1 March 2018, Shanghai is a major tourist destination, As of September 2013, Shanghai is also home to the largest free-trade zone in mainland China, the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone. The zone covers an area of {{convert|29|km2|abbr=on}} and integrates four existing bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.

Demographics

{{Historical populations|type=China| percentages = pagrPUBLISHER=SHANGHAI BUREAU OF STATISTICS, |62044001081650011859700133419001640770023019200|2012WEB,weblink Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2014, Major Social and Economic Indicators in Main Years, Statistics Bureau of Shanghai238043002415150024256800|footnote = Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.}The 2010 census put Shanghai's total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000.WEB
,weblink
, Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census
, National Bureau of Statistics of China
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130727021210weblink">weblink
, 27 July 2013

, WEB,weblink Shanghai 2010 Census Data, Eastday.com, 20.6 million of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural.WEB,weblink zh:上海人口分布呈现城市化发展和郊区化安居态势, Shanghai Statistics Bureau of Statistics, 23 September 2011, yes,weblink 26 September 2011, Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much smaller.JOURNAL, Chan, Kam Wing, Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2007, 48, 4, 383–412,weblink 13 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115173048weblink">weblink 15 January 2013, 10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383, p. 395
Shanghai also has 150,000 officially registered foreigners, including 31,500 Japanese, 21,000 Americans and 20,700 Koreans, but the real number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher. Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city, which means a huge population of citizens come from other cities in China.WEB, Shanghai Population 2015 – World Population Review,weblink worldpopulationreview.com, 23 November 2015, The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, a population of 34 million.NEWS, CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to, A tale of megacities: China’s largest metropolises,weblink CNBC, 20 September 2016, slide 2, BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, 18 April 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, OECD Urban Policy Reviews, Linked from the OECD hereIn 2017 the Chinese Government implemented population controls for Shanghai. Latest statistics show that from this policy, Shanghai population declined by 10,000.WEB,weblink China's radical plan to limit the populations of Beijing and Shanghai, Helen, Roxburgh, 19 March 2018, the Guardian, At the end of 2017, there are around 24,183,300 people who are permanently staying in Shanghai.WEB,weblink 2018 - 统计年鉴 - 上海统计, www.stats-sh.gov.cn, 2019-01-22,

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = leftSCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 CHINESE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES >DATE=3 MARCH 2014 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140809051625/HTTP://IWR.CASS.CN/ZJWH/201403/W020140303370398758556.PDF# DEAD-URL=YES, . p. 013Chinese folk religion>traditional faiths|value1 = 86.9|color1 = #F5F5F5Buddhism in China>Buddhism|value2 = 10.4|color2 = #FDD835Christians in China>Protestantism|value3 = 1.9|color3 = #A1887FRoman Catholic Diocese of Shanghai>Catholicism|value4 = 0.7|color4 = #FFF176|label5 = Others|value5 = 0.1|color5 = Lightgrey}}Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey only around 13% of the population of Shanghai belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches, Taoism and folk religious sects.There are folk religious temples such as a Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God), at the heart of the old city, and a temple dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu. The White Cloud Temple of Shanghai is an important Taoist centre in the city. The Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius.Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in Shanghai, and the Jing'an Temple, were first founded in the Three Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been built throughout the city.Islam came into Shanghai 700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295 in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers' college was also set up. The Shanghai Muslim Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu.Shanghai has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China (2003).According to Johnstone, Patrick; Schirrmacher, Thomas (2003). Gebet für die Welt. Hänssler. {{ISBN|978-0-8133-4275-7}}. Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui is one of the largest, while She Shan Basilica is an active pilgrimage site.Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II thousands of Jews emigrated to Shanghai in an effort to flee Hitler's regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a designated area called Shanghai Ghetto and formed a vibrant community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130410195934weblink">weblink yes, 10 April 2013, Jewish Refugees Museum : Ohel Moishe Synagogue Shanghai, Visions of Travel, which is a preserved remnant of this portion of Shanghai's complex religious past.WEB,weblink Shanghai-jews.com, Shanghai-jews.com, 17 May 2011,

Education

{{See also|List of universities and colleges in Shanghai}}(File:Songjiang ecupl.jpg|thumb|University City District in Songjiang)Shanghai ranked first in the 2009 and 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide study of academic performance of 15-year-old students conducted by the OECD. Shanghai students, including migrant children, scored highest in every aspect (math, reading and science) in the world. The study concludes that public-funded schools in Shanghai have the highest educational quality in the world.NEWS, Dillon, Sam,weblink In PISA Test, Top Scores From Shanghai Stun Experts, The New York Times, 7 December 2010, 17 May 2011, NEWS,weblink How China is winning the school race, BBC, 11 October 2011, Critics of PISA results counter that, in Shanghai and other Chinese cities, most children of migrant workers can only attend city schools up to the ninth grade, and must return to their parents' hometowns for high school due to hukou restrictions, thus skewing the composition of the city's high school students in favor of wealthier local families.Helen Gao (23 January 2014), "Shanghai Test Scores and the Mystery of the Missing Children", The New York Times. For Schleicher's response to these criticisms see his post, "Are the Chinese Cheating in PISA Or Are We Cheating Ourselves?" on the OECD's website blog, Education Today, 10 December 2013.File:Xuhui Liberary Scene 01.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghai is the first city in the country to implement 9-year mandatory education. The 2010 census shows that out of Shanghai's total population, 22.0% had a college education, double the level from 2000, while 21.0% had high school, 36.5% middle school, and 1.35% primary school education. 2.74% of residents age 15 and older were illiterate.WEB,weblink Shanghai sixth national census in 2010 Communiqué on Major Data, zh:上海市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报, Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau, 3 May 2011, 16 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111126121536weblink">weblink 26 November 2011, dmy-all, Shanghai has more than 930 kindergartens, 1,200 primary and 850 middle schools. Over 760,000 middle schools students and 871,000 primary school students are taught by 76,000 and 64,000 teaching staff respectively.WEB,weblink General Aspects of Shanghai Education, Seaie.org, 17 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110317081339weblink">weblink 17 March 2011, Shanghai is a major center of higher education in China with over 30 universities and colleges. A number of China's most prestigious universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University (these universities are selected as "985 universities" by the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In 2012 NYU Shanghai was established in Pudong by New York University in partnership with East China Normal University as the first Sino-US joint venture university. In 2013 the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. This new research university is aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international level.Rouhi, Maureen (19 January 2015). "ShanghaiTech Aims To Raise The Bar For Higher Education In China". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved on 19 November 2015 The cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong is also located in Shanghai, as well as the China Europe International Business School.Children with foreign passports are permitted to attend any public school in Shanghai. Prior to 2007 they were permitted to attend 150 select public schools. In 2006 about 2,000 non-Chinese nationals under 18 years of age attended Shanghai public schools."Neighborhood Schools Open to Foreign Kids " (Archive). Shanghai Daily at China.org.cn. 9 December 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2015. Students with Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK) above 3 or 4 may attend public schools using Mandarin Chinese as the medium of instruction, while students below HSK 3–4 may attend international divisions of public schools or private international schools.Lau, Jessie. "Shanghai international schools are priced beyond the reach of many expats" (print title: "International schools out of reach for many"). South China Morning Post. Sunday 13 September 2015. Retrieved on 14 September 2015.Shanghai has the largest number of international schools of any city in China. In November 2015 Christopher Cottrell of the Global Times wrote that Shanghai "prides itself on its international schools".Cottrell, Christopher. "Elitist international schools biased against local hires ." Global Times. 8 November 2015. Retrieved on 10 November 2015.

Transport

Public transport

File:Maglev Train - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|The Maglev with a top speed of {{convert|431|km/h|0|abbr=on}} exiting the Shanghai Pudong International AirportShanghai Pudong International AirportFile:Yan'an Elevated Road Huashan Road Jingan Park.jpeg|thumb|left|Yan'an Elevated RoadYan'an Elevated RoadShanghai has an extensive public transport system, largely based on metros, buses and taxis. It is also home to the world's busiest port, the shanghai port.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}} Payment for all these public transportation tools can be made by using the Shanghai Public Transportation Card.Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. {{As of|2017}}, there are 16 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan Railway), 395 stations and {{convert|673|km|0|abbr=on}} of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world.NEWS,weblink Expo Offers Shanghai a New Turn in the Spotlight, David Barboza, 29 April 2010, 29 April 2010, The New York Times, On 31 December 2016, it set a record of daily ridership of 11.7 million.WEB,weblink zh:上海地铁客流再次刷新记录 详细线路运营调整一览, sh.sina.com.cn, 7 February 2017, The fare depends on the length of travel distance starting from 3 RMB.In 2010, Shanghai reintroduced trams, this time as a modern rubber tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. A separate conventional tram system is being constructed in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under study in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District.Shanghai also has the world's most extensive network of urban bus routes, with nearly one thousand bus lines, operated by numerous transportation companies.NEWS,weblink Personal Cars and China (2003), {{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The system includes the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system. Bus fare normally costs 2 RMB.Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai. The base fare is currently Â¥14(sedan)/Â¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a Â¥1 fuel surcharge; Â¥18 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first {{convert|3|km|0|abbr=on}}. Additional km cost Â¥2.4 each (Â¥3.2 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am).WEB,weblink Shanghai's taxi fares up 2 yuan from today, Shanghai Daily, 11 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120107093659weblink">weblink 7 January 2012,

Roads

{{See also|Expressways of Shanghai}}(File:Line 71 BRT Eastern Terminus (44838068574).jpg|thumb|Shanghai Bus Route 71 in the Bund)Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai, including G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (overlapping G42 Shanghai–Chengdu), G15 Shenyang–Haikou, G40 Shanghai–Xi'an, G50 Shanghai–Chongqing, G60 Shanghai–Kunming (overlapping G92 Shanghai–Ningbo), and G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway. In addition, there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2, S20, etc.). Shanghai has one bridge-tunnel crossing spanning the mouth of the Yangtze to the north of the city.In the city center, there are several elevated expressways to lessen traffic pressure on surface streets, but the growth of car use has made demand far outstrip capacity, with heavy congestion being commonplace. There are bicycle lanes separate from car traffic on many surface streets, but bicycles and motorcycles are banned from many main roads including the elevated expressways. Recently, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike, Bluegogo and Ofo.NEWS,weblink Ofo, Mobike, BlueGogo: China’s Messy Bikeshare Market, What's on Weibo, 13 August 2017, en-US, Private car ownership in Shanghai has been rapidly increasing in recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction. Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal regulation in 2016, only those who are Shanghai registered residents or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3 years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.WEB,weblink Shanghai number plates worth more than a car, Europe.chinadaily.com.cn, 17 May 2011,

Railway

File:上海南火車站-大堂.JPG|thumb|left|The lobby of Shanghai South Railway StationShanghai South Railway StationShanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. Two main railways terminate in Shanghai: Jinghu railway from Beijing, and Huhang railway from Hangzhou. Hongqiao Station also serves as the main Shanghai terminus of three high-speed rail lines: Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway and Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway.File:Pudong International Airport at night.jpg|thumb|Shanghai Pudong International AirportShanghai Pudong International Airport

Air

Shanghai is one of the leading air transport gateways in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport.WEB,weblink Transportation, Shanghai Focus, 5 May 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101230072918weblink">weblink 30 December 2010, Pudong Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2010 the two airports served 71.7 million passengers (Pudong 40.4 million, Hongqiao 31.3 million), and handled 3.7 million tons of cargo (Pudong 3.22 million tons, Hongqiao 480 thousand tons).WEB,weblink Shanghai Pudong, English.pudong.gov.cn, 17 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707041320weblink">weblink 7 July 2011, {{Clear}}

Architecture

{{See also|Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Shanghai)|List of tallest buildings in Shanghai}}File:A statue respresenting fortune, prosperity and longevity (36305081851).jpg|thumb|XintiandiXintiandiShanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the art deco Sassoon House. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession.Shanghai has one of the world's largest number of Art Deco buildings as a result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. Some of his most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel and the Grand Theater. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco style are Parker & Palmer, who designed the Peace Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions, and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capital Theatre. The Bund's first revitalization started in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren, and was completed in the mid-1990s.File:Tower pudong shanghai jinmao tower and swfc.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Shanghai World Financial Center (left) and Jin Mao TowerJin Mao TowerFile:Site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China.jpg|thumb|Site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, a typical shikumen building in the former French Concession.]]File:Bridge at Nanxi Street over Puhuitang River, Qibao.jpg|thumb|Qibao TownQibao TownIn recent years, a great deal of architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings have sprung up throughout Shanghai. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Shanghai Museum, Shanghai Grand Theatre in the People's Square precinct, and the Shanghai Oriental Art Center. Despite rampant redevelopment, the old city still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yuyuan Garden, an elaborate traditional garden in the Jiangnan style.One uniquely Shanghainese cultural element is the shikumen (石库门) residence, typically two- or three-story townhouses with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as a longtang (弄堂), pronounced longdang in Shanghainese. The entrance to each alley is usually surmounted by a stylistic stone arch. The whole resembles terrace houses or townhouses commonly seen in Anglo-American countries, but distinguished by the tall, heavy brick wall in front of each house. The name "shikumen" means "stone storage door", referring to the strong gateway to each house.The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Lower Yangtze (Jiangnan) Chinese architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings had a courtyard, and the shikumen was no exception. Yet, in compromise with its urban nature, it was much smaller and provided an "interior haven" to the commotion in the streets, allowing for raindrops to fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms.File:上海展览中心·上海静安.jpg|thumb|left|Shanghai Exhibition Centre, an example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai]]Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 until the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai include what is today the Shanghai Exhibition Centre.The Pudong district of Shanghai is home to a number of skyscrapers, many of which rank among the tallest in the world. Among the most prominent examples are the Jin Mao Tower and the taller Shanghai World Financial Center, which at {{convert|492|m}} tall is the third tallest skyscraper in mainland China and ranks tenth in the world. The Shanghai Tower, completed in 2015, is the tallest building in China, as well as the second tallest in the world.WEB,weblink Shanghai Tower: Asia's new tallest skyscraper presents a future vision of 'vertical cities', Alfred Joyner, International Business Times UK, With a height of {{convert|632|m}}, the building has 128 floors and a total floor area of {{convert|380,000|m2}} above ground.Knight Frank China Knight Frank China Research, Shanghai Office Quarterly Report, Q1 2010 The distinctive Oriental Pearl Tower, at {{convert|468|m}}, is located nearby, as is One Lujiazui, standing at {{convert|269|m}}.WEB, Emporis GmbH,weblink One Lujiazui, Shanghai, Emporis.com, 22 July 2009,

Environment

Parks and resorts

File:Marching Forward (216297289).jpeg|thumb|People's Square ]]The extensive public park system in Shanghai offers the citizens some reprieve from the urban jungle. By the year 2012, the city had 157 parks, with 138 of them free of charge.WEB,weblink zh:上海公园大面积免费开放7å¹´ 各种问题逐渐暴露_新浪上海城事_新浪上海, Sina, 2 July 2012, 5 December 2016, Some of the parks, aside from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture. The former racetrack turned central park, People's Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession of Shanghai, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes. Zhongshan Park in northwestern central Shanghai is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens, a large children's play area, and as the location of an important transfer station on the city's metro system. Shanghai Botanical Garden is located {{convert|12|km|0|abbr=on}} southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. One of the newest parks is in the Xujiahui area – Xujiahui Park, built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has a man-made lake with a sky bridge running across the park, and offers a pleasant respite for Xujiahui shoppers. Other well-known Shanghai parks include: People's Square Park, Gongqing Forest Park, Fuxing Park, Zhongshan Park, Lu Xun Park, Century Park, and Jing'an Park.File:Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland.jpg|thumb|left|Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai DisneylandShanghai DisneylandThe Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009,WEB,weblink The Walt Disney Company Reaches Another Major Milestone on Shanghai Theme Park Project, Walt Disney Company, 3 November 2009, and opened in 2016.NEWS, Disneyland Shanghai to open 2016,weblink 16 December 2011, The Independent, 8 April 2011, The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, David, Barboza, Brooks, Barnes, Disney to Open Park in Shanghai, 7 April 2011,

Environmental protection

Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 10-year, US$1 billion cleanup of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city-center, was expected to be finished in 2008,WEB, Suzhou Creek clean-up on track,weblink People's Daily Online, 7 December 2006liquefied petroleum gas>LPG buses and taxis. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces in the recent decades.WEB, Environmental Protection in China's Wealthiest City,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071030165307weblink">weblink 30 October 2007, The American Embassy in China, July 2001, 11 May 2008,

Air pollution and government reaction

File:Shanghai haze in Huangpu Distract 20131206.jpg|thumb|Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China smog2013 Eastern China smogAir pollution in Shanghai is not as severe as in many other Chinese cities, but still substantial by world standards.WEB,weblink Shanghai Warns Children to Stay Indoors on Haze, PM2.5 Surge, 25 December 2013, Bloomberg News, 25 December 2013, During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard.WEB,weblink Flights delayed as air pollution hits record in Shanghai, Reuters Editorial, 6 December 2013, Reuters, WEB,weblink zh:中国出现入冬以来最大范围雾霾 局地严重污染, Smog levels in China reach record levels since the end of 2013; surrounding areas severely polluted, China news agency, Liu Chenyao, zh-hans, On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre. Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter.WEB,weblink zh:上海今日PM2.5均值超600 高楼在雾霾中若隐若现, People's Daily, WEB,weblink zh:新闻晨报:释疑——重度污染为何不发霾红色预警, 上视新闻频道-上海早晨栏目, As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted. Most of inbound flights were cancelled, and more than 50 flights were diverted at Pudong International Airport.WEB,weblink Shanghai grinds to a halt as smog nears top of air pollution scale, South China Morning Post, 7 December 2013, 24 March 2014, On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai municipality announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.WEB,weblink zh:上海将采取三大措施治理空气污染, Three main measures will be taken against Shanghai's air pollution, www.cnstock.com, zh-hans, 24 January 2014, 18 December 2018, The measures involved delivery of the 2013 air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency situation. On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a 10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help companies to meet new environmental standards.Qiu, Jane. Fight against smog ramps up (Nature, 18 February 2014).

Culture

{{See also|Wuyue culture}}Shanghai is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}}In the past years Shanghai has been widely recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture.Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity – Sahr Johnny's Shanghai Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by weblink. Futuristic buildings such as the Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated Yan'an Elevated Road are a few examples that have helped to boost Shanghai's cyberpunk image.

Language

The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This makes it a different language from the official language nationwide, which is Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Most Shanghai residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two adjacent provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang who moved to Shanghai in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those regions speak different Wu Chinese dialects. From the 1990s, many migrants outside of the Wu-speaking region have come to Shanghai for work and education. They often cannot speak or learn the local language and therefore use Mandarin as a lingua franca.Modern Shanghainese is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: Suzhounese, Ningbonese and dialects of Shanghai's traditional areas (now lying within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong districts). The prestige dialect of Wu Chinese is spoken within the city of Shanghai prior to its modern expansion. Known as "the local tongue" (), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people have migrated to Shanghai since the 20th century, and includes a significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the 1990s. On the other hand, however, Shanghainese started to decline and fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years though, there have been movements within the city to protect and promote the local language from ever fading out.NEWS, Is Shanghai's local dialect, and culture, in crisis?, Zat Liu,weblink CNN GO, 20 August 2010, 5 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903072555weblink">weblink 3 September 2011, NEWS, Stopping the local dialect becoming derelict, Jia Feishang,weblink Shanghai Daily, 13 May 2011, 11 February 2017,

Museums

File:Shanghai Museum exterior 1.jpg|thumb|The Shanghai Museum, located on the People's Square ]]Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city.WEB,weblink 3 New Museums to Look Out for in 2018, This is in part due to the city's most recently released city development plans, with aims in making the city "an excellent global city".WEB,weblink Shanghai releases blueprint for becoming global cosmopolis by 2035, hermesauto, 5 January 2018, As such, Shanghai has several museumsWEB, Museums in Shanghai,weblink www.shanghaitourmap.com, 19 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101133821weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, yes, dmy-all, of regional and national importance.WEB,weblink Museums in Shanghai - SmartShanghai, www.smartshanghai.com, The Shanghai Museum has one of the best collections of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum in Asia. Power Station of Art is built in a converted power station, similar to London's Tate Modern. The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are major natural history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe Synagogue (Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post Office Building (Shanghai Postal Museum). The Rockbund Art Museum is also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. Shanghai is also home to one of China's largest aquariums, the Shanghai Ocean Aquarium. MoCA, Museum of Contemporary Art of Shanghai, is a private museum centrally located in People's Park on West Nanjing Road, and is committed to promote contemporary art and design.

Cinema

Shanghai was the birthplace of Chinese cinemaWEB,weblink Shanghai Film Museum, SEEC Media, Group, timeoutshanghai.com, yes,weblink 2 June 2016, and theater. China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather ({{zh|labels=no |t=孤兒救祖記 |p=Gū'ér jiù zǔjì}}, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai's film industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. Many aspects of Shanghainese popular culture ("Shanghainese Pops") were transferred to Hong Kong by the numerous Shanghainese emigrants and refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for Love, which was directed by Wong Kar-wai (a native Shanghainese himself), depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong KongNEWS,weblink Setting His Tale Of Love Found In a City Long Lost, 28 January 2001, The New York Times, and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan.

Arts

File:Renxiong wan04s.jpg|thumb|upright| (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren XiongRen XiongThe "Shanghai School" was an important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty and the 20th century. Under the masters from this school, traditional Chinese art developed into the modern style of "Chinese painting".{{citation needed|date=October 2011}} The Shanghai School challenged and broke the elitist tradition of Chinese art,WEB,weblink Chinese Art Galleries, China Online Museum, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The best known figures from this school include Qi Baishi, Ren Xiong, Ren Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu Baoshi, Xie Zhiliu, He Tianjian, and Wang Zhen. In literature, the term was used in the 1930s by some May Fourth Movement intellectuals{{spaced ndash}}notably Zhou Zuoren and Shen Congwen{{spaced ndash}}as a derogatory label for the literature produced in Shanghai at the time. They argued that Shanghai School literature was merely commercial and therefore did not advance social progress. This became known as the Jingpai versus Haipai (Beijing v. Shanghai School) debate.WEB,weblink Reference about Shanghai Literature for Jingpai vs HaiPai, cultural-china.com, yes,weblink 31 October 2013, The "Songjiang School" () was a small painting school during the Ming Dynasty. It is commonly considered as a further development of the Wu or Wumen School in the then-cultural center of the region, Suzhou. The Huating School () was another important art school during the middle to late Ming Dynasty. Its main achievements were in traditional Chinese painting, calligraphy, and poetry. It was especially famous for its Renwen painting (). Dong Qichang was one of the masters from this school.

Fashion

File:Qipao1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Two women wear Shanghai-styled qipaoqipaoOther Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam (Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade. Like Shanghai's architecture, local fashion designers strive to create a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if controversial results.In recent times Shanghai has established its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and April. The April session is a part of Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai Fashion Center.WEB, (dead link),weblink 18 November 2011, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}} Supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce, Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event of national significance hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of Asia.The event features international designers but the primary purpose is to showcase Chinese designers.NEWS,weblink Photos of Shanghai Fashion Week – Scene Asia – Scene Asia – WSJ, The Wall Street Journal, 21 October 2010, 11 December 2011, The international presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion designers.WEB, Leisa Barnett,weblink Aminaka Wilmont to show in Shanghai (Vogue.com UK), Vogue.co.uk, 27 October 2008, 11 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101018173530weblink">weblink 18 October 2010,

Media

In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle".BOOK, Walravens, Hartmut, Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers presented by the Newspapers at IFLA General Conferences,weblink 2003, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-096279-6, 95, German Influence on the Press in China, Newspapers include:{{Div col|colwidth=18em}} {{Div col end}}Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:{{Div col|colwidth=18em}} {{Div col end}}Broadcasters:

Sports

File:Shanghai F1 Circui 01.jpg|thumb|F1 Chinese Grand PrixChinese Grand PrixFile:Tsonga Potro 2008 Tennis Masters.jpg|thumb|Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Stadium]]Shanghai is home to several football teams, including two in the Chinese Super League – Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai SIPG. Another professional team, Shanghai Shenxin, is currently in China League One. China's top tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. Shanghai also has an ice hockey team, China Dragon, and a baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, which plays in the China Baseball League.File:YaoMingoffense.jpg|thumb|left|Yao MingYao MingShanghai is the hometown of many outstanding and well-known Chinese professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, the table-tennis player Wang Liqin and the former world women's single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player Wang Yihan.Beginning in 2004, Shanghai started hosting the Chinese Grand Prix, one round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged at the Shanghai International Circuit. In 2010, Shanghai also became the host city of Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM), which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. In 2012, Shanghai started to host 6 Hours of Shanghai as one round from the inaugural season of the FIA World Endurance Championship.Shanghai also holds the Shanghai Masters tennis tournament which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and the BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC Champions golf tournaments.WEB,weblink European Tour, CGA unveil BMW Masters, 25 April 2012, China Daily, 26 April 2012, The Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto Chinese national side.On 21 September 2017, Shanghai will be one of two cities to host a National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game that will feature the Los Angeles Kings vs. the Vancouver Canucks as an effort to garner fan interest in China before the start of the 2017–18 season.

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in China}}The city is the home of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation.Shanghai is twinned with:WEB,weblink Shanghai Foreign Affairs, Shfao.gov.cn, 17 May 2011, {hide}columns-list|colwidth=23em|
  • {{flagdeco|JPN{edih} Yokohama, Japan{{spaced ndash}}since 1973
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Osaka, Japan{{spaced ndash}}1974
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Milan, Italy{{spaced ndash}}1979
  • {{flagdeco|NLD}} Rotterdam, Netherlands{{spaced ndash}}1979
  • {{flagdeco|US}} San Francisco, United States{{spaced ndash}}1979
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Osaka Prefecture, Japan{{spaced ndash}}1980
  • {{flagdeco|CRO}} Zagreb, Croatia{{spaced ndash}}1980
  • {{flagdeco|PRK}} Hamhung, North Korea{{spaced ndash}}1982
  • {{flagdeco|PHL}} Manila, Philippines{{spaced ndash}}1983
  • {{flagdeco|BEL}} Antwerp, Belgium{{spaced ndash}}1984
  • {{flagdeco|PAK}} Karachi, Pakistan{{spaced ndash}}1984
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Chicago, United States{{spaced ndash}}1985
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Montreal, Canada{{spaced ndash}}1985
  • {{flagdeco|GRC}} Piraeus, Greece{{spaced ndash}}1985
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland{{spaced ndash}}1985
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan{{spaced ndash}}1986
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Hamburg, Germany{{spaced ndash}}1986
  • {{flagdeco|MAR}} Casablanca, Morocco{{spaced ndash}}1986
  • {{flagdeco|SWE}} Gothenburg, Sweden{{spaced ndash}}1986
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Marseille, France{{spaced ndash}}1987
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} São Paulo, Brazil{{spaced ndash}}1988
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Saint Petersburg, Russia{{spaced ndash}}1988
  • {{flagdeco|TUR}} Istanbul, Turkey{{spaced ndash}}1989
  • {{flagdeco|VNM}} Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam{{spaced ndash}}1990
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Alexandria, Egypt{{spaced ndash}}1992
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Busan, South Korea{{spaced ndash}}1993
  • {{flagdeco|VUT}} Port Vila, Vanuatu{{spaced ndash}}1994
  • {{flagdeco|NZL}} Dunedin, New Zealand{{spaced ndash}}1994
  • {{flagdeco|ISR}} Haifa, Israel{{spaced ndash}}1994
  • {{flagdeco|UZB}} Tashkent, Uzbekistan{{spaced ndash}}1994
  • {{flagdeco|PRT}} Porto, Portugal{{spaced ndash}}1995
  • {{flagdeco|CZE}} Prague, Czech RepublicWEB,weblink Partnerská mÄ›sta HMP, 5 August 2013, 18 July 2013, Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"], Czech, Prague – Twin Cities HMP,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130625205859weblink">weblink 25 June 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|YEM}} Aden, Yemen{{spaced ndash}}1995
  • {{flagdeco|NAM}} Windhoek, Namibia{{spaced ndash}}1995
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} City of London, United Kingdom{{spaced ndash}}1996
  • {{flagdeco|CUB}} Santiago de Cuba, Cuba{{spaced ndash}}1996
  • {{flagdeco|ARG}} Rosario, Argentina{{spaced ndash}}1997WEB,weblink Town Twinning Agreements, Municipalidad de Rosario – Buenos Aires 711, 14 October 2014,
  • {{flagdeco|FIN}} Espoo, Finland{{spaced ndash}}1998
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Jalisco State, Mexico{{spaced ndash}}1998
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} Liverpool, United Kingdom{{spaced ndash}}1999
  • {{flagdeco|MOZ}} Maputo, Mozambique{{spaced ndash}}1999
  • {{flagdeco|UAE}} Dubai, United Arab Emirates{{spaced ndash}}2000
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Chiang Mai, Thailand{{spaced ndash}}2000
  • {{flagdeco|ZAF}} KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa{{spaced ndash}}2001
  • {{flagdeco|ECU}} Guayaquil, Ecuador{{spaced ndash}}2001
  • {{flagdeco|CHL}} Valparaíso, Chile{{spaced ndash}}2001
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Barcelona, Spain{{spaced ndash}}2001
  • {{flagdeco|NOR}} Oslo, Norway{{spaced ndash}}2001
  • {{flagdeco|ROM}} ConstanÈ›a, Romania{{spaced ndash}}2002
  • {{flagdeco|DZA}} Algiers, Algeria{{spaced ndash}}2003
  • {{flagdeco|LKA}} Colombo, Sri Lanka{{spaced ndash}}2003
  • {{flagdeco|DNK}} Aarhus County, Denmark{{spaced ndash}}2003
  • {{flagdeco|SVK}} Bratislava Region, Slovakia{{spaced ndash}}2003
  • {{flagdeco|NZL}} Hauraki District, New Zealand{{spaced ndash}}2003
  • {{flagdeco|AUT}} Salzburg, Austria{{spaced ndash}}2004
  • {{flagdeco|CYP}} Nicosia, Cyprus{{spaced ndash}}2004
  • {{flagdeco|IRL}} Cork, Ireland{{spaced ndash}}2005WEB,weblink Cork – International Relations, 28 August 2013, Mulcahy, Noreen, Cork City Council,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518004019weblink">weblink 18 May 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Winston-Salem, United States{{spaced ndash}}2006
  • {{flagdeco|US}} New York City, United States{{spaced ndash}}2007
  • {{flagdeco|SUI}} Basel, Switzerland{{spaced ndash}}2007
  • {{flagdeco|SWE}} BorÃ¥s, Sweden{{spaced ndash}}2007
  • {{flagdeco|BIH}} Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina{{spaced ndash}}2008
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} London, United Kingdom{{spaced ndash}}2009
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Manaus, Brazil{{spaced ndash}}2009
  • {{flagdeco|KHM}} Phnom Penh, Cambodia{{spaced ndash}}2009
  • {{flagdeco|FIN}} Kuopio, Finland{{spaced ndash}}2012
  • {{flagdeco|HUN}} Budapest, Hungary{{spaced ndash}}2013WEB,weblink Sanghaj is Budapest testvérvárosa lett, Origo.hu, 29 August 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|BUL}} Sofia, Bulgaria{{spaced ndash}}2014WEB,weblink Shanghai, Sofia sign intent agreement to become sister cities, 27 January 2015,
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} Mumbai, India{{spaced ndash}}2014
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Seoul, South Korea{{spaced ndash}}2014
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Bangkok, Thailand{{spaced ndash}}2014
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Houston, United States{{spaced ndash}}2015
  • {{flagdeco|SRB}} Belgrade, Serbia – 2018NEWS, Potpisan sporazum o bratimljenju Beorgada i Å angaja,weblink 21 May 2018, b92.net, Tanjug, 21 May 2018, Serbian,
}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Danielson, Eric N., Discover Shanghai, Singapore, Marshall Cavendish, 2010,
  • BOOK, Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, Singapore, Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions, 2004, 978-981-232-597-6,
  • BOOK, Elvin, Mark, Market Towns and Waterways: The County of Shang-hai from 1480 to 1910, The City in Late Imperial China, G. William, Skinner, Stanford, Cal., Stanford University Press, 1977, 978-0-8047-0892-0, 2883862, 441–474,weblinkweblink
  • BOOK, Erh, Deke, Johnston, Tess, Shanghai Art Deco, Hong Kong, Old China Hand Press, 2007,
  • Haarmann, Anke. Shanghai (Urban Public) Space (Berlin: Jovis, 2009). 192 pp. online review
  • BOOK, Horesh, Niv, Shanghai's Bund and Beyond, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2009,
  • BOOK, Johnson, Linda Cooke, Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1995,
  • BOOK, Johnson, Linda Cooke, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China, Albany, State University of New York (SUNY), 1993, 978-0-7914-1424-8,
  • BOOK, Scheen, Lena, Shanghai Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation, Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2015, 978-90-8964-587-6,
  • Yan Jin. "Shanghai Studies: An evolving academic field" History Compass (October 2018) e12496 Historiography of recent scholarship. online

External links

{{Sister project links|wikt = Shanghai|commons = 上海|species = no|n = Category:Shanghai|q = Shanghai|voy = Shanghai|d = Q8686}} {{-}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles related to Shanghai|list ={{Shanghai |state = expanded }}{{Geographic location |Center = Shanghai|North = Nantong, Jiangsu|Northeast = East China Sea|East = East China Sea|Southeast = East China Sea|South = Hangzhou Bay|Southwest = Jiaxing, Zhejiang|West = Suzhou, Jiangsu|Northwest = Suzhou or Nantong}}{{Yangtze River Delta}}{{Regions and cities of China}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Metropolitan cities of the People's Republic of China}}{{Most populous cities in the People's Republic of China}}{{Major cities along the Yangtze River}}{{World's most populated metropolitan areas}}{{World's most populated urban areas}}}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Shanghai" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 1:34pm EDT - Wed, Mar 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT