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Southeast Europe
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{{short description|Geographic region in Europe}}(File:Balkan topo en.jpg|upright=1.2|thumb|Geographic features of southeast Europe)Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ({{abbr|SEE|abbreviation}}) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo,{{efn|name=Kosovo}} Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.These boundaries can vary greatly and are widely disputed, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations and point of view of the observer.

Definition

File:Balkan Peninsula.svg|thumb|upright=0.75|The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube–Sava–KupaKupaThe first known use of the term "Southeast Europe" was by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn (1811–1869) as a broader term than the traditional "Balkans".Hösch, Nehring, Sundhaussen (Hrsg.), Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, S. 663, {{ISBN|3-8252-8270-8}}

Balkans model

This concept is based on the boundaries of the Balkan Peninsula. The countries that have been described as being entirely within the region are: Albania, Kosovo,{{efn|name=Kosovo}} Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and North Macedonia.Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78

Geographical Southeast Europe

Countries that are geographically, at least partially, described to be within the region are as follows:{{sfn|Jelavich|1983a|p=1-3}}{{colbegin}}
  • Albania
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • CroatiaBOOK,weblink Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire, 165, Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation, Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James, Routledge, 2007, 978-1-134-30132-4, Andrew Geddes, Charles Lees, Andrew Taylor : "The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance", 2013, RoutledgeKlaus Liebscher, Josef Christl, Peter Mooslechner, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald : "European Economic Integration and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects", 2005, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
  • Greece
  • Kosovo{{efn|name=Kosovo}}
  • Montenegro
  • North Macedonia
  • Romania
  • Serbia
  • Slovenia
  • Turkey – only East Thrace is included.{{sfn|Jelavich|1983a|p=1-3}}
{{colend}}

Notable views

  • The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (SPSEE) included Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as member partners.
  • The South-East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The EU-co-funded South East Europe Transnational Cooperation ProgrammeWEB,weblink South-East Europe, www.southeast-europe.net, includes the whole territory of Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy and Ukraine as part of the "programme area".{{citation|title=South East Europe (SEE): Operational Programme|chapter=Programme summary|date=28 November 2013|publisher=South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme|p=6}}
  • Studies of the World Bank treat Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as the eight South Eastern European countries (SEE8).BOOK, Harry G. Broadman, Building Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe: Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development,weblink 2004, World Bank Publications, 978-0-8213-5776-7, xviii,
  • A 2006 publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) listed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro as 'south-eastern European countries'.BOOK, World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe, Council of Europe Development Bank, Health and Economic Development in South-eastern Europe,weblink 2006, World Health Organization, 978-92-890-2295-8, 5–,
  • The World Bank does not include the EU countries in its reports, and lists only Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia (SEE6).WEB, South East Europe Regular Economic Report, World Bank,weblink
  • CIA's The World Factbook lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Turkey (only European part),See WEB, Albania, CIA,weblink , WEB, Bosnia and Herzegovina, CIA,weblink , WEB, Bulgaria, CIA,weblink , WEB, Croatia, CIA,weblink , WEB, Kosovo, CIA,weblink , WEB, Macedonia, CIA,weblink , WEB, Montenegro, CIA,weblink , WEB, Romania, CIA,weblink , WEB, Serbia, CIA,weblink , WEB, Turkey, CIA,weblink but not Greece and Moldova,See WEB, Greece, CIA,weblink , WEB, Moldova, CIA,weblink as geographically part of Southeastern Europe.
  • UNHCR's Regional Office in South Eastern EuropeWEB,weblink Regional Office in South Eastern Europe - Global Focus, reporting.unhcr.org, currently lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Montenegro as part of 'South Eastern Europe'.

See also

Notes

{{Notelist|notes={{efn|name=Kosovo|{{Kosovo-note}}}}}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • Paul L. Horecky (ed.), Southeastern Europe: A guide to basic publications, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969.
  • BOOK, harv, Jelavich, Barbara, Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, 1, 1983a, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521274586,
  • BOOK, harv, Jelavich, Barbara, Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, 2, 1983b, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521274593,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Ekavi Athanassaopolou, Organized Crime in Southeast Europe,weblink 18 October 2013, Routledge, 978-1-317-99945-4, 6–,

External links

  • {{Commons category-inline}}
{{Balkan countries}}{{Regions of the world}}{{Authority control}}

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