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Sarajevo
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{{other uses|Sarajevo (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}







factoids
(File:Sarajevo_Gazi_Husrev_Beg.JPG82px)(File:Sarajevo ortodox church.JPG175px)(File:The Bridge, site of the beginning of world war I.jpg124px)Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque, Sarajevo Cathedral, Serbian Orthodox Cathedral in Sarajevo>Orthodox Cathedral, Vijećnica, Latin Bridge, and Sebilj.| image_flag = Flag of Sarajevo.svg| image_seal = Coat of arms of Sarajevo.svg| seal_size = 75px"In Europe's Jerusalem", Catholic World News. The city's principal mosques are the Gazi Husrev-Bey's Mosque, or Begova Džamija (1530), and the Mosque of Ali Pasha (1560–61). Retrieved on 5 August 2006. "Jerusalem of the Balkans",HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=AXXBPFEK3_0C&Q=SARAJEVO#V=SNIPPET&Q=SARAJEVO&F=FALSEFIRST1=ESTHERAUTHORLINK1=ESTHER BENBASSALAST2=ATTIASLOCATION=LONDONPAGE=27PUBLISHER=VISIT SARAJEVO URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=23 AUGUST 2011, | motto = frame=yesframe-width=325zoom=10frame-long=18.410stroke-width=1id=Q11194|title=Sarajevo}}| map_caption = Interactive map outlining Sarajevo| pushpin_map_caption = Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina##Location within Europe| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map = Bosnia and Herzegovina#Europe43N25region:BA|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = {{BIH}}Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina>FederationFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina>Bosnia and HerzegovinaCantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina>CantonSarajevo Canton>SarajevoMunicipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina>Municipalities:{{bulleted listCentar, Sarajevo>CentarNovi Grad, Sarajevo>Novi GradNovo Sarajevo>Stari Grad}}Sarajevo#Municipalities and city government>4| established_title = Founded| established_date = 1461Party of Democratic Action>SDA| leader_title = Mayor| leader_name = Abdulah Skaka| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 141.5| area_urban_km2 = 489| area_metro_km2 = 3350| elevation_m = 550| population_as_of = Census 2013.| population_footnotes = Census 2013th official data.| population_total = 275,524| population_density_km2 = auto| population_urban = 405,930|population_density_urban_km2 = auto| population_metro = 555,210| population_density_metro_km2 = auto| population_blank2_title = Demonym| population_blank2 = Sarajevan (English)Sarajlija (Bosnian)| population_note = | postal_code_type = Postal code| postal_code = BIH-71 000| area_code = +387 33weblink}}| footnotes = Central European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2}}Sarajevo ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|ær|ə|ˈ|j|eɪ|v|oʊ}} {{respell|SARR|ə|YAY|voh}}; {{Cyrl|Сарајево|bs}}, {{IPA-sh|sǎrajeʋo|pron|bs-Sarajevo.ogg}}; see (Names of European cities in different languages: Q–T#S|names in other languages)) is the capitalWEB,weblinkweblink dead, 2015-09-06, Wayback Machine, 2015-09-06, 2018-08-14, and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits.NEWS,weblink Census Results Highlight Impact of Bosnian War, Balkan Transitional Justice, Balkan Investigative Reporting Network, Rodolfo, Toe, 1 July 2016, 14 October 2017, The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities, is home to 555,210 inhabitants.{{efn|Sarajevo metropolitan area includes Sarajevo Canton with 413,593 inhabitants, East Sarajevo with 61,516 inhabitants as well as the municipalities of Breza (14,564), Kiseljak (21,919), Kreševo (5,638) and Visoko (41,352).}weblink Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans.Sarajevo is the political, financial, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion and the arts.WEB,weblink Sarajevo: The economic, administrative, cultural and educational center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mediterranea News, 12 May 2011, 5 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120424230137weblink">weblink 24 April 2012, WEB, daenet d.o.o.,weblink Sarajevo Official Web Site : Economy, Sarajevo.ba, 5 April 2012, Due to its long, rich and prosperous history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans". It is one of only a few major European cities to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood.BOOK, Bosnia: A Short History [Paperback], Malcolm, Noel, 1996, NYU Press, London, 978-0-8147-5561-7, 107, 364, A regional center in education, the city is home to the Balkans’ first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic madrasa, today part of the University of Sarajevo.WEB, Agency, Anadolu, Saraybosna'da 476 yıldır yaşayan medrese! (Sarajevo Celebrates 476 Years of its Medresa!),weblink Haber7, 11 November 2013, WEB, Things to do in Sarajevo,weblink Gezip Gördüm, 11 November 2013, 2018-08-28, Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century.Valerijan, Žujo; Imamović, Mustafa; Ćurovac, Muhamed. Sarajevo. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco.BOOK, Lonely Planet: Best Cities in the World, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74104-731-8,weblink In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which also ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Later, after World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, then the constituent republic's capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, for 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia.NEWS,weblink The New Siege of Sarajevo, Connelly, Charlie, 8 October 2005, The Times, UK, 10 May 2010, Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Kelley, Steve. "Rising Sarajevo finds hope again", The Seattle Times. Retrieved on 19 August 2006. The travel guide series Lonely Planet has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world,Lonely Planet (March 2006). The Cities Book: A Journey Through The Best Cities In The World, Lonely Planet Publications, {{ISBN|1-74104-731-5}}. and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010.WEB,weblink Lonely Planet's Top 10 Cities 2010 | Lonely Planet's Top 10 Cities 2010, News.com.au, 19 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101010052209weblink">weblink 10 October 2010, In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the 2014 European Capital of Culture and in 2019, it hosted the European Youth Olympic Festival.WEB,weblink Nomination of Sarajevo for European Capital of Culture 2014, BH-News.com, 15 September 2011, WEB,weblink Sarajevo: With Sarajevo as Europe's Capital of Culture 2014 we could send an... – 12/05/2011 – EPP Group, Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) in the European Parliament, 15 September 2011,

Etymology

The earliest known name for the large central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna.The name Sarajevo derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion" (from the Persian }} sarāy, "house, palace"). The letter "j" in the Bosnian language is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet".BOOK,weblink Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary, 2, Ronelle Alexander, Univ of Wisconsin Press, Aug 15, 2006, 9780299211936, The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455,BOOK,weblink Serbo-Croatian, Bosanski pašaluk: postanak i upravna podjela, Hazim Šabanović, Naučno društvo NR Bosne i Hercegovine, 1959, UDC 94(497.6)"14/17", 28–37, 11 September 2012, meaning "the plains around the palace" or simply "palace plains".WEB,weblink Google Translate, 25 September 2014, However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more likely to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "(wikt:Appendix:Suffixes -evo, -ova and -ovo|evo)" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some.Škaljić, Abdulah. Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1989, šesto izdanje The first mention of name Sarajevo was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg.{{Sfn|Longoria|2007|p=272}} The official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna (Palace of Bosnia), and it is still known by that name in modern Turkish.Sarajevo has had many nicknames. The earliest is Šeher, which is the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance (şehir) which in turn comes from }} shahr (city). As Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem".Some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government office or house.{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}File:Sarajevo City Center from Trebevic.JPG|Stari GradFile:Busy Ferhadija street, Sarajevo.JPG|Ferhadija StreetFile:Sarajevo Miljacka.JPG|Miljacka riverFile:Natalya-letunova-477713-unsplash (1).jpg|View towards Novi Grad

Environment

(File:Sarajevo topographic map.svg|thumb|left|Sarajevo topographic map)File:Sarajevo SPOT 1050.jpg|thumb|right|Sarajevo seen from SPOT Satellite ]]

Geography

Sarajevo is near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper. It is situated {{convert|518|m|ft|sp=us}} above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps.WEB,weblink About Sarajevo – Official Sarajevo statistics, 6 September 2015, sarajevo.ba, The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era. The city is surrounded by heavily forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica at {{convert|2088|m|ft|sp=us}}, then Bjelašnica mountain at {{convert|2067|m|ft|sp=us}}, Jahorina at {{convert|1913|m|ft|sp=us}}, Trebević at {{convert|1627|m|ft|sp=us}}, with {{convert|1502|m|ft|sp=us}} Igman being the shortest. The last four are also known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo (see also 1984 Winter Olympics). The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences seemingly perched on the hillsides.The Miljacka river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where eventually meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source (Vrelo Miljacke) {{convert|2|km|mi|abbr=off}} south of the town of PaleWEB,weblink Vrelo Miljacke – sramota za turizam RS i BiH, 23 December 2013, draganmocevic.com, at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo center. The Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne near Ilidža (west Sarajevo), is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams such as Koševski Potok also run through the city and its vicinity.

Cityscape

{{Panorama|image=File:Panorama de Sarajevo 2.jpg|fullwidth=14570|fullheight=2000Panorama>panoramic view of Sarajevo valley from "Yellow Bastion" (Žuta tabija) lookout, spring 2012.|alt=|height=210}}Sarajevo is close to the center of the triangular shape of Bosnia and Herzegovina in southeastern Europe. Sarajevo city proper consists of four municipalities (or "in Bosnian and Croatian: općina, in Serbian: opština"): Centar (Center), Novi Grad (New City), Novo Sarajevo (New Sarajevo), and Stari Grad (Old City), while Metropolitan area of Sarajevo (Greater Sarajevo area) includes these and the neighbouring municipalities of Ilidža, Hadžići, Vogošća and Ilijaš.The Metropolitan area was reduced in the 1990s after the war and the Dayton-imposed administrative division of the country, with several municipalities partitioned along the border of the newly recognised Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republica Srpska (RS), creating several new municipalities which together form the city of Istočno Sarajevo in the Republica Srpska: Istočna Ilidza, Istočno Novo Sarajevo, Istočni Stari Grad, Lukavica, Pale (RS-section), and Trnovo (RS-section), along with the municipality of Sokolac (which was not traditionally part of the Sarajevo area and was not partitioned)The city has an urban area of {{convert|1041.5|km2|1|abbr=out}}. Veliki Park (Great park) is the largest green area in the center of Sarajevo. It's nestled between Titova, Koševo, Džidžikovac, Tina Ujevića and Trampina Streets and in the lower part there is a monument dedicated to the Children of Sarajevo.

Climate

File:Bridge on Vrelo Bosne.jpg|thumb|left|Vrelo BosneVrelo BosneSarajevo has either a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), or an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), depending on if either the 0°C or the -3°C isotherms are used. Sarajevo's climate exhibits four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation, typical of both Cfb and Dfb climates. The proximity of the Adriatic Sea moderates Sarajevo's climate somewhat, although the mountains to the south of the city greatly reduce this maritime influence.JOURNAL, Lacan, Igor, McBride, Joe R., 2009, War and trees: The destruction and replanting of the urban and peri-urban forest of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8, 3, 133–148 [134], 10.1016/j.ufug.2009.04.001, The average yearly temperature is {{convert|10|°C|0|abbr=on}}, with January ({{convert|-0.5|°C|1|abbr=on}} on average) being the coldest month of the year and July ({{convert|19.7|°C|1|abbr=on}} on average) the warmest.The highest recorded temperature was {{convert|40.7|°C|0|abbr=on}} on 19 August 1946, and on 23 August 2008 (41.0) while the lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|-26.2|°C|1|abbr=on}} on 25 January 1942. On average, Sarajevo has 7 days where the temperature exceeds {{convert|32|°C|1|abbr=on}} and 4 days where the temperature drops below {{convert|-15|C|F}} per year.WEB,weblink Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Weatherbase, 17 April 2013, The city typically experiences mildly cloudy skies, with an average yearly cloud cover of 45%.The cloudiest month is December (75% average cloud cover) while the clearest is August (37%). Moderate precipitation occurs fairly consistently throughout the year, with an average 75 days of rainfall. Suitable climatic conditions have allowed winter sports to flourish in the region, as exemplified by the Winter Olympics in 1984 that were celebrated in Sarajevo. Average winds are {{convert|28|-|48|km/h|0|abbr=on}} and the city has 1,769 hours of sunshine.{{Weather box|location = Sarajevo|collapsed = |metric first = Y|single line = Y| Jan record high C = 18.2| Feb record high C = 21.4| Mar record high C = 26.6| Apr record high C = 30.2| May record high C = 33.2| Jun record high C = 35.9| Jul record high C = 38.2| Aug record high C = 40.0| Sep record high C = 37.7| Oct record high C = 32.2| Nov record high C = 24.7| Dec record high C = 18.0|year record high C = 40.0| Jan high C = 3.7| Feb high C = 6.0| Mar high C = 10.9| Apr high C = 15.6| May high C = 21.4| Jun high C = 24.5| Jul high C = 27.0| Aug high C = 27.2| Sep high C = 22.0| Oct high C = 17.0| Nov high C = 9.7| Dec high C = 4.2|year high C = 15.8| Jan mean C = -0.5| Feb mean C = 1.4| Mar mean C = 5.7| Apr mean C = 10.0| May mean C = 14.8| Jun mean C = 17.7| Jul mean C = 19.7| Aug mean C = 19.7| Sep mean C = 15.3| Oct mean C = 11.0| Nov mean C = 5.4| Dec mean C = 0.9|year mean C = 10.1| Jan low C = -3.3| Feb low C = -2.5| Mar low C = 1.1| Apr low C = 4.8| May low C = 9.0| Jun low C = 11.9| Jul low C = 13.7| Aug low C = 13.7| Sep low C = 10.0| Oct low C = 6.4| Nov low C = 1.9| Dec low C = -1.8|year low C = 5.4| Jan record low C = -26.8| Feb record low C = -23.4| Mar record low C = -26.4| Apr record low C = -13.2| May record low C = -9.0| Jun record low C = -3.2| Jul record low C = -2.7| Aug record low C = -1.0| Sep record low C = -4.0| Oct record low C = -10.9| Nov record low C = -19.3| Dec record low C = -22.4|year record low C = -26.8| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 68| Feb precipitation mm = 64| Mar precipitation mm = 70| Apr precipitation mm = 77| May precipitation mm = 72| Jun precipitation mm = 90| Jul precipitation mm = 72| Aug precipitation mm = 66| Sep precipitation mm = 91| Oct precipitation mm = 86| Nov precipitation mm = 85| Dec precipitation mm = 86|year precipitation mm = 928| Jan humidity = 79| Feb humidity = 74| Mar humidity = 68| Apr humidity = 67| May humidity = 68| Jun humidity = 70| Jul humidity = 69| Aug humidity = 69| Sep humidity = 75| Oct humidity = 77| Nov humidity = 76| Dec humidity = 81|year humidity = 73| Jan rain days = 8| Feb rain days = 10| Mar rain days = 13| Apr rain days = 17| May rain days = 17| Jun rain days = 16| Jul rain days = 14| Aug rain days = 13| Sep rain days = 15| Oct rain days = 13| Nov rain days = 12| Dec rain days = 11|year rain days = 159| Jan snow days = 10| Feb snow days = 12| Mar snow days = 9| Apr snow days = 2| May snow days = 0.2| Jun snow days = 0| Jul snow days = 0| Aug snow days = 0| Sep snow days = 0| Oct snow days = 2| Nov snow days = 6| Dec snow days = 12|year snow days = 53| Jan sun = 57.1| Feb sun = 83.8| Mar sun = 125.6| Apr sun = 152.3| May sun = 191.7| Jun sun = 207.1| Jul sun = 256.3| Aug sun = 238.2| Sep sun = 186.6| Oct sun = 148.8| Nov sun = 81.2| Dec sun = 40.7|year sun = 1769.4|source 1 = Pogoda.ru.netWEB,weblink Weather and Climate: The Climate of Sarajevo, Weather and Climate (Погода и климат), August 25, 2016, Russian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516141700weblink">weblink May 16, 2012, dead, |source 2 = NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)WEB,weblink Sarajevo Climate Normals 1961–1990, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, August 25, 2016, |date=August 2016}}

Air quality

Air pollution is a major issue in Sarajevo.WEB,weblink Air Pollution is Choking Bosnia, Experts Warn :: Balkan Insight, www.balkaninsight.com, 2017-04-04, NEWS,weblink Bosnia: Sarajevo schools close down because pollution, Mail Online, 2017-04-04, NEWS,weblink Sarajevo introduces transport restrictions to ease pollution, 2016-12-26, Fox News, 2017-04-04, en-US, According to the 2016 World Health Organization's Ambient Air Pollution Database,WEB,weblink WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database (update 2016), World Health Organization, en-GB, 2017-04-04, the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2010 was estimated to be 30 μg/m3 based on PM10 measurement, which is 3 times higher than recommended by WHO Air Quality GuidelinesWEB,weblink Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health, World Health Organization, en-GB, 2017-04-04, for annual average PM2.5. There are no recent direct long-term PM2.5 measurements available in Sarajevo and only estimates can be made from PM10, which is the less health-relevant than PM2.5.WEB,weblink Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2009), Group, US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park Nc, Environmental Media Assessment, Sacks, Jason, cfpub.epa.gov, en, 2017-04-04, Real-time air quality data in the form of PM10, ozone, NO2, CO and SO2 by the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute.WEB,weblink Federalni hidrometeorološki zavod, www.fhmzbih.gov.ba, 2017-04-04,

History

{{See also|History of Bosnia and Herzegovina}}
1461–1878
{{flagicon image|Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg}} Austro-Hungarian Empire 1878–1918{{flagicon image|Flag of the State of Slovenes%2C Croats and Serbs.svg}} State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918{{flagicon image|Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg}} Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1918–1929{{flagicon image|Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg}} Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1929–1941{{flag|Independent State of Croatia}} 1941–1945{{flag|SFR Yugoslavia}} 1945–1992{{flag|Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina}} 1992–1997{{flag|Bosnia and Herzegovina}} 1997–Present}}

Ancient times

One of the earliest findings of settlement in the Sarajevo area is that of the Neolithic Butmir culture. The discoveries at Butmir were made on the grounds of the modern-day Sarajevo suburb Ilidža in 1893 by Austro-Hungarian authorities during the construction of an agricultural school. The area's richness in flint was attractive to Neolithic humans, and the settlement flourished. The settlement developed unique ceramics and pottery designs, which characterize the Butmir people as a unique culture, as described at the International Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists meeting in Sarajevo in 1894."The Culture & History", Tourism Association of Sarajevo Canton, Retrieved on 3 August 2006.The next prominent culture in Sarajevo were the Illyrians. The ancient people, who considered most of the West Balkans as their homeland, had several key settlements in the region, mostly around the river Miljacka and the Sarajevo valley. The Illyrians in the Sarajevo region belonged to the Daesitiates, the last Illyrian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to resist Roman occupation. Their defeat by the Roman emperor Tiberius in 9 AD marks the start of Roman rule in the region. The Romans never built up the region of modern-day Bosnia, but the Roman colony of Aquae Sulphurae was near the top of present-day Ilidža, and was the most important settlement of the time.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013171041weblink">weblink dead, 2007-10-13, Commission to preserve national monuments, 2007-10-13, 2018-08-14, After the Romans, the Goths settled the area, followed by the Slavs in the 7th century."Sarajevo", New Britannica, volume 10, edition 15 (1989). {{ISBN|0-85229-493-X}}.

Middle Ages

{{See also|Sarajevo during the Middle Ages}}During the Middle Ages Sarajevo was part of the Bosnian province of Vrhbosna near the traditional center of the Kingdom of Bosnia. Though a city named Vrhbosna existed, the exact settlement in Sarajevo at this time is debated. Various documents note a place called Tornik in the region, most likely in the area of Marijin Dvor neighborhood. By all indications, Tornik was a very small marketplace surrounded by a proportionally small village, and was not considered very important by Ragusan merchants.Other scholars say that Vrhbosna was a major town in the wider area of modern-day Sarajevo. Papal documents say that in 1238, a cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul was built in the area. Disciples of the notable saints Cyril and Methodius stopped in the region, founding a church near Vrelo Bosna. Whether or not the town was somewhere in the area of modern-day Sarajevo, the documents attest to its and the region's importance. There was also a citadel Hodidjed north-east to Old City, dating from around 1263 until it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1429."Sarajevo", Columbia Encyclopedia, edition 6, Retrieved on 3 August 2006 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060829204950weblink |date=29 August 2006 }}Stecak Zmeljaski Muzej Sarajevo.jpg|Stećak in the National Museum of Bosnia and HerzegovinaButmirska vaza.jpg|Neolithic period Butmir vaseSarajevo Bijela Tabija.JPG|White fortress of the old Vratnik Town

Ottoman era

{{See also|Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine}}File:Sebilj, Sarajevo.jpg|thumb|The Sebilj is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of BaščaršijaBaščaršijaSarajevo was founded by the Ottoman Empire in the 1450s upon its conquest of the region, with 1461 used as the city's founding date. The first Ottoman governor of Bosnia, Isa-Beg Ishaković, transformed the cluster of villages into a city and state capital by building a number of key structures, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and of course the governor's castle ("Saray") which gave the city its present name. The mosque was named "Careva Džamija" (the Tsar's Mosque) in honor of the Sultan Mehmed II. With the improvements Sarajevo quickly grew into the largest city in the region. By the 15th Century the settlement was established as a city, named Bosna-Saraj, around the citadel in 1461. The name Sarajevo is derived from Turkish saray ovası, meaning the field around saray.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}Following the expulsion of Jews from Spain at the end of the 15th century, and the invitation from the Ottoman Empire to resettle their population, Sephardic Jews arrived in Sarajevo, which over time would become a leading center of Sephardic culture and the Ladino language. Though relatively small in size, a Jewish quarter would develop over several blocks in Baščaršija.Many local Christians converted to Islam at this time. To accommodate the new pilgrims on the road to Mecca, in 1541 Gazi Husrev-Bey’s quartermaster Vekil-Harrach built a Pilgrim's mosque for which it is still known to this day Hadžijska mosque.Under leaders such as the second governor Gazi Husrev-beg, Sarajevo grew at a rapid rate. Husrev-beg greatly shaped the physical city, as most of what is now the Old Town was built during his reign. Sarajevo became known for its large marketplace and numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century numbered more than 100. At the peak of the empire, Sarajevo was the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul.{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}} By 1660, the population of Sarajevo was estimated to be over 80,000.{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}} By contrast, Belgrade in 1683 had 100.000,WEB,weblink The History of Belgrade: Middle Ages - Turkish Conquest - Liberation of Belgrade, Belgradenet.com, www.belgradenet.com, 26 August 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081230032249weblink">weblink 30 December 2008, dead, and Zagreb as late as 1851 had 14,000 people. As political conditions changed, Sarajevo became the site of warfare.In 1697, during the Great Turkish War, a raid was led by Prince Eugene of Savoy of the Habsburg Monarchy against the Ottoman Empire, which conquered Sarajevo and left it plague-infected and burned to the ground. After his men had looted thoroughly, they set the city on fire and destroyed nearly all of it in one day. Only a handful of neighborhoods, some mosques, and an Orthodox church, were left standing. Numerous other fires weakened the city, which was later rebuilt but never fully recovered from the destruction. By 1807, it had only some 60,000 residents.{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}}In the 1830s, several battles of the Bosnian uprising had taken place around the city. These had been led by Husein Gradaščević. Today, a major city street is named Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) in his honor. The rebellion failed and for several more decades the Ottoman state remained in control of Bosnia.The Ottoman Empire made Sarajevo an important administrative centre by 1850. Baščaršija became the central commercial district and cultural center of the city in the 15th century when Isa-Beg Isaković founded the town.WEB,weblink Baščaršija, bloger.hr, 24 September 2015, The toponym Baščaršija derives from the Turkish language.Sarajevo-bascarsija at night1.JPG|Baščaršija in twilightSarajevo Gazi-Husrev-Beg-Basar01.jpg|The Gazi-Husrev-Beg-Bazaar.Courtyard to the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque.jpg|Baščaršija Mosque courtyardBaščaršija 2006.jpg|Pigeon SquareBascarsija souvenirs.jpg|Sarajevo Old Town souvenirsMosque in Sarajevo.jpg|Mosque in Sarajevo's downtown

Austria-Hungary

(File:Sarajevo in 1915.jpg|thumb|Sarajevo in 1915)File:Minutos previos al atentado en Sarajevo.jpg|right|thumb|Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria arrives at the city hall on the day of his assassination, 28 June 1914]]File:The Bridge, site of the beginning of world war I.jpg|thumb|right|The Latin Bridge was the site of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.]]Austria-Hungary's occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina came in 1878 as part of the Treaty of Berlin, and complete annexation followed in 1908, angering the Serbs. Sarajevo was industrialized by Austria-Hungary, who used the city as a testing area for new inventions such as tramways, which were established in 1885 before they were later installed in Vienna. Architects and engineers wanting to help rebuild Sarajevo as a modern European capital rushed to the city. A fire that burned down a large part of the central city area (čarÅ¡ija) left more room for redevelopment. As a result, the city has a unique blend of the remaining Ottoman city market and contemporary western architecture. Sarajevo also has some examples of Secession- and Pseudo-Moorish styles that date from this period.The Austro-Hungarian period was one of great development for the city, as the Western power brought its new acquisition up to the standards of the Victorian age. Various factories and other buildings were built at this time,WEB,weblink BH Tourism – History, and a large number of institutions were both Westernized and modernized. For the first time in history, Sarajevo's population began writing in Latin script.FICE (International Federation of Educative Communities) Congress 2006. Sarajevo â€“ History.{{dead link|date=February 2016}} Congress in Sarajevo. Retrieved on 3 August 2006.For the first time in centuries, the city significantly expanded outside its traditional borders. Much of the city's contemporary central municipality (Centar) was constructed during this period.Architecture in Sarajevo quickly developed into a wide range of styles and buildings. The Cathedral of Sacred Heart, for example, was constructed using elements of neo-gothic and Romanesque architecture. The National Museum, Sarajevo brewery, and City Hall were also constructed during this period. Additionally, Austrian officials made Sarajevo the first city in this part of Europe to have a tramway.Although the Bosnia Vilayet de jure remained part of the Ottoman Empire, it was de facto governed as an integral part of Austria-Hungary with the Ottomans having no say in its day-to-day governance. This lasted until 1908 when the territory was formally annexed and turned into a condominium, jointly controlled by both Austrian Cisleithania and Hungarian Transleithania.In the event that triggered World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, along with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, an ethnic Serb and self-declared Yugoslav, and member of Young Bosnia.WEB,weblink Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated – Jun 28, 1914 – HISTORY.com, history.com, This was followed by the Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, which resulted in two deaths and destruction of property.In the ensuing war, however, most of the Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade, and Sarajevo largely escaped damage and destruction. Following the war, Bosnia was annexed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and Sarajevo became the capital of the Drina Province.Glavna posta (2991301799).jpg|Sarajevo Main Post officeNpsa 3 (2992157218).jpg|Sarajevo National Theatre design by Karel PaříkAcademy of fine art and Festina lente.jpg|The Academy of Fine Arts was originally built to serve as an Evangelical Church in 1899.Sarajevo Vijecnica 2013.JPG|National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina established in 1896File:Ferenc Ferdinánd emlékmű (2).jpg|Memorial of Franz Ferdinand

Yugoslavia

File:Vladimir "Valter" Perić plaque in Sarajevo.jpg|thumb|Vladimir "Valter" Perić plaque]]After World War I and pressure from the Serbian army, alongside rebelling Slavic nations in Austria-Hungary, Sarajevo became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Though it held some political significance as the center of first the Bosnian region and then the Drinska Banovina, the city was no longer a national capital and saw a decline in global influence.WEB,weblink Timeline: A short history of Sarajevo and region, Los Angeles, Times, latimes.com, During World War II the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's army was overrun by German and Italian forces. Following a German bombing campaign, Sarajevo was captured on 15 April 1941 by the 16th Motorized infantry Division. The Axis powers created the Independent State of Croatia and included Sarajevo in its territory.Immediately following the occupation, the main Sephardi Jewish synagogue, Il Kal Grande, was looted, burned, and destroyed by the Nazis. Within a matter of months, the centuries-old Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jewish communities of Sarajevo, comprising the vast majority of Bosnian Jewry, would be rounded up in the Old Synagogue (Stari hram) and deported to their deaths in Croatian concentration camps. Roughly 85% of Bosnia's Jewish population would perish at the hands of the Nazis and the Ustaše during the Holocaust. The Sarajevo Haggadah was the most important artifact which survived this period, smuggled out of Sarajevo and saved from the Nazis and Ustaše by the chief librarian of the National Museum, Derviš Korkut.On 12 October 1941, a group of 108 notable Bosniak citizens of Sarajevo signed the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs organized by the Ustaše, made a distinction between the Bosniaks who participated in such persecutions and the rest of the Bosniak population, presented information about the persecutions of Bosniaks by Serbs, and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.BOOK, Hadžijahić, Muhamed, Istorija Naroda Bosne i Hercegovine, 1973, Institut za istoriju radničkog pokreta, Sarajevo, Serbo-Croatian, 277, Muslimanske rezolucije iz 1941 godine [Muslim resolutions of 1941],weblink {{inconsistent citations, }} By mid-summer 1942, around 20,000 Serbs found refuge in Sarajevo from Ustaše terror.{{sfn|Gumz|1998|p=}}The city was bombed by the Allies from 1943 to 1944.Robert J. Donia, Sarajevo: a biography. University of Michigan Press, 2006. (p. 197) The Yugoslav Partisan movement was represented in the city. In period February–May 1945 Maks Luburić set up Ustaše headquarters in a building known as Villa Luburić and used it as torture and execution place whose 323 victims were identified after the war. Resistance was led by Vladimir "Walter" Perić, who died while leading the liberation of the city on 6 April 1945.After the war, Sarajevo was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Republic Government invested heavily in Sarajevo, building many new residential blocks in Novi Grad Municipality and Novo Sarajevo Municipality, while simultaneously developing the city's industry and transforming Sarajevo into a modern city. Sarajevo grew rapidly as it became an important regional industrial center in Yugoslavia. Between the end of the war and the end of Yugoslavia, the city grew from a population of 115,000 to more than 600,000 people. The Vraca Memorial Park, a monument for victims of World War II, was dedicated on 25 November, the "Day of Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina" when the ZAVNOBIH held their first meeting in 1943.BOOK, Donia, Robert J., Sarajevo: A Biography, 2006, University of Michigan Press, 978-0-472-11557-0, 240–241, A crowning moment of Sarajevo's time in Socialist Yugoslavia was the 1984 Winter Olympics. Sarajevo beat out Sapporo, Japan; and Falun/Göteborg, Sweden to host the Olympic games. The games were followed by a tourism boom, making the 1980s one of the city's most prosperous decades.Sachs, Stephen E. (1994). Sarajevo: A Crossroads in History. Retrieved on 3 August 2006.File:Sarajevo - Bosnia - War Memorial.jpg|Eternal flame symbolising World War II victory over fascismFile:Zgrade Momo i Uzeir, Sarajevo.jpg|UNITIC World Trade TowersFile:Sarajevo Markale.JPG|Markale market

Siege of Sarajevo during Bosnian War

{{See also|Sniper Alley}}File:Sarajevo Red Line 3.jpeg|thumb|right|The Sarajevo Red Line, a memorial event of the Siege of SarajevoSiege of SarajevoThe Bosnian War for independence resulted in large-scale destruction and dramatic population shifts during the Siege of Sarajevo between 1992 and 1996. Thousands of Sarajevans lost their lives under the constant bombardment and sniper shooting at civilians by the Serb forces during the siege,WEB,weblink Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780, Bassiouni, Cherif, 27 May 1994, United Nations, 10 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302163248weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare.NEWS,weblink The new siege of Sarajevo, Connelly, Charlie, 8 October 2005, The Times, UK, 10 May 2010, Bosnian Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army besieged Sarajevo from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996.When Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia and achieved United Nations recognition, Serbian leaders declared a new Serbian national state Republika Srpska (RS) which was carved out from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.WEB,weblink A statement at the seventh biennial meeting of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, Hartmann, Florence, July 2007, Helsinki, 11 May 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111213022305weblink">weblink 13 December 2011, dmy-all, The Serbian Army encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 18,000 stationed in the surrounding hills, from which they assaulted the city with artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs, and sniper rifles.NEWS,weblink Serb general Dragomir Milosevic convicted over Sarajevo siege, Strange, Hannah, 12 December 2007, The Times, UK, 10 May 2010, From 2 May 1992, the Serbs blockaded the city. The Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege.During the siege, 11,541 people lost their lives, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980.When the siege ended, the concrete scars caused by mortar shell explosions left marks that were filled with red resin. After the red resin was placed, it left floral patterns which led to them being dubbed Sarajevo Roses.Evstafiev-bosnia-cello.jpg|Vedran Smailović playing a cello on top of the ruins of the National library (in 1992)Evstafiev-sarajevo-building-burns.jpg|Executive Council Building in flames May 1992Sarajevo may 1996.png|Marijin Dvor May 1996Sarajevo Tower.jpg|Oslobođenje building destroyed

Present

Various modern buildings now occupy Sarajevo's skyline, most significantly the Bosmal City Center, BBI Centar, Sarajevo City Center and the Avaz Twist Tower, which at the time of its building was the tallest skyscraper in former Yugoslavia.Recent years have seen population growth as well as increases in tourism.WEB,weblink BiH Tourism Assessment – Analysis of Sarajevo, Herzegovina and Krajina Tourism Regions and Recommendations for Product Development, Marketing and Destination Management |Expo, Exportcouncil.ba, 5 April 2012, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In 2014 the city saw anti-government protests and riots and record rainfall that caused historic flooding.Bosmal City Centar.jpg|Bosmal City Center Towers, erected 2001Sarajevo Twist Tower.jpg|Avaz Twist Tower, erected 2008BBI Shopping and Business Center.jpg|BBI Centar, erected 2009Sarajevo City Center Summer 2015 (2).jpg|Sarajevo City Center, erected 2014

Administration

Largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina

(File:Zgrada Vijeća ministara BiH Sarajevo.JPG|thumb|Parliament Building)File:Predsjedništvo BiH (2989421535).jpg|thumb|left|Building of the Presidency of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBuilding of the Presidency of Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo is the capitalWEB,weblink Sarajevo, 5 January 2015, TripAdvisor, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its sub-entity, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as of the Sarajevo Canton. It is also the de jure capital of another entity, Republika Srpska.WEB,weblink Constitution of the Republika Srpska, Official Web Site of the Office of the High Representative, 6 August 2017, Each of these levels of government has its parliament or council, as well as judicial courts, in the city. All national institutions and foreign embassies are in Sarajevo.Sarajevo is home to the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the operational command of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.As per WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-10-02, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111004210928weblink">weblink 4 October 2011, Bosnia and Herzegovina's Parliament office in Sarajevo was damaged heavily in the Bosnian War. Due to damage the staff and documents were moved to a nearby ground level office to resume the work. In late 2006, reconstruction work started on the Parliament and was finished in 2007. The cost of reconstruction is supported 80% by the Greek Government through the Hellenic Program of Balkans Reconstruction (ESOAV) and 20% by Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Municipalities and city government

File:Sarajevo municipalities.PNG|thumb|The four municipalities, Stari Grad, Centar, Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad ]]The city comprises four municipalities Centar, Novi Grad, Novo Sarajevo, and Stari Grad. Each operate their own municipal government, united they form one city government with its own constitution. The executive branch () consists of a mayor, with two deputies and a cabinet. The legislative branch consists of the City Council, or Gradsko Vijeće. The council has 28 members, including a council speaker, two deputies, and a secretary. Councilors are elected by the municipality in numbers roughly proportional to their population. The city government also has a judicial branch based on the post-transitional judicial system as outlined by the High Representative's "High Judicial and Prosecutorial Councils".Government of Sarajevo on Sarajevo Official Web SiteSarajevo's Municipalities are further split into "local communities" (Bosnian, Mjesne zajednice). Local communities have a small role in city government and are intended as a way for ordinary citizens to get involved in city government. They are based on key neighborhoods in the city.File:View on Novi Grad, Sarajevo.JPG|thumb|View west toward Novi Grad ]]{{Panorama|image=File:Sarajevo panorama.jpg|fullwidth=14570|fullheight=2000Panorama>panoramic view of Sarajevo from the 36th-floor observation deck of the Avaz Twist Tower, spring 2011|alt=|height=210}}

Economy

File:Centralna banka BiH.JPG|thumb|left|Central Bank of Bosnia and HerzegovinaCentral Bank of Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo's large manufacturing, administrative, and tourism sectors make it the strongest economic region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Indeed, Sarajevo Canton generates almost 25% of the country's GDP.WEB,weblink Sarajevo's economic standpoint in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 12 February 2016, Canton of Sarajevo, 12 February 2016, After years of war, Sarajevo's economy saw reconstruction and rehabilitation programs.European Commission & World Bank. WEB,weblink The European Community (EC) Europe for Sarajevo Programme, 2006-07-26, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071106094414weblink">weblink 6 November 2007, The EC reconstruction programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina detailed by sector. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina opened in Sarajevo in 1997 and the Sarajevo Stock Exchange began trading in 2002.While Sarajevo had a large industrial base during its communist period, only a few pre-existing businesses have successfully adapted to the market economy. Sarajevo industries now include tobacco products, furniture, hosiery, automobiles, and communication equipment. Companies based in Sarajevo include BH Telecom, Bosnalijek, Energopetrol, Sarajevo Tobacco Factory, and Sarajevska Pivara (Sarajevo Brewery).In 2002 the total export for the greater Sarajevo region was worth about 259,569,000KM. Most of Sarajevo's exports (28.2%) head to Germany, with Great Britain following behind at 16.8% and Serbia and Montenegro third with 12.8%. The largest amount of imported goods come from Germany, at 15.8%. With a worth of total import at about 1,322,585,000KM, the total import is almost 5.1 times the total export.In 1981 Sarajevo's GDP per capita was 133% of the Yugoslav average.BOOK, Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju, 1984, 3rd, Sveučilišna naklada Liber, Zagreb, Croatian, Radovan, Radovinović, Ivan, Bertić, Gross pay in Sarajevo in February 2015 was {{currency|1,578|BAM}} or {{currency|790|code=EUR}}, while net salary was {{currency|1,020|BAM|linked=no}} or {{currency|521|code=EUR|linked=no}}.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-06-02, dead,weblink 6 November 2015, {{Clear}}{{Panorama|image=File:Sarajevo sa Koševskog Brda in 2010.jpg|fullwidth=14570|fullheight=2000Panorama>panoramic view of Sarajevo from Koševsko Hill (Koševsko Brdo), summer 2010.|alt=|height=210}}

Tourism and recreation

Sarajevo has a wide tourist industry and a fast expanding service sector thanks to the strong annual growth in tourist arrivals. Sarajevo also benefits from being both a summer and winter destination with continuity in its tourism throughout the year. The travel guide series, Lonely Planet named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010.In 2013 302.570 tourists visited Sarajevo, up 17.9% compared to 2012, giving 595.637 overnight stays, which is 18% more than in 2012.WEB,weblink Kanton Sarajevo: Više turista u 2011, Vijesti.ba, 2013-03-12, WEB,weblink Statistički Godišnjaci/Ljetopisi, Fzs.ba, 2013-03-12, Sports-related tourism uses the legacy facilities of the 1984 Winter Olympics, especially the skiing facilities on the nearby mountains of Bjelašnica, Igman, Jahorina, Trebević, and Treskavica. Sarajevo's 600 years of history, influenced by both Western and Eastern empires, makes it a tourist attraction with splendid variations.Sarajevo has hosted travellers for centuries, because it was an important trading center during the Ottoman and Austria-Hungarian empires and because was a natural stop for many routes between East and West. Examples of popular destinations in Sarajevo include the Vrelo Bosne park, the Sarajevo cathedral, and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, cultural sites and winter sports.Sarajevo is host to many parks throughout the city and on the outskirts of city. A popular activity among Sarajevo citizens is street chess, usually played at Trg oslobođenja Alija Izetbegović. Veliki Park is the largest green area in the center of Sarajevo. It's nestled between Titova, Koševo, Džidžikovac, Tina Ujevića and Trampina Streets and in the lower part there is a monument dedicated to the Children of Sarajevo. Hastahana is a popular place to relax in the Austro-Hungarian neighborhood of Marijin Dvor.NEWS,weblink Hastahana – Skate & relax, spottedbylocals.com, 7 September 2015, Goat's Bridge, locally known as Kozija Ćuprija, in the Miljacka Canyon is also a popular park destination along the Dariva walkway and river Miljacka.NEWS,weblink Dariva, sarajevo.travel/ba, 19 September 2015, NEWS,weblink Kozija ćuprija, sarajevo.travel/ba, 19 September 2015, On December 24 of 2012, a park hosting two brass sculptures resembling two mourning mothers was dedicated as the Friendship Park, commemorating over 45 years of friendship between Sarajevo and Baku.Sarajevo is also famous for its city lookouts; including an observation deck on Avaz Twist Tower, Park Prinčeva restaurant, Vidikovac lookout (Mt. Trebević), Zmajevac lookout and Yellow/White fortresses lookouts (in Vratnik) as well as numerous other rooftops throughout the city (i.e. Alta Shopping Center, BBI Center, Hotel Hecco Deluxe).Veliki Park Sarajevo.JPG|Great Park (Veliki Park)Koševo Park, Sarajevo.JPG|Koševo ParkVilsonovo šetalište.JPG|Vilsonovo Šetalište (Wilson's Promenade) around MiljackaIlidža - Velika aleja.JPG|Great Lane (Velika aleja), IlidžaRiver Bosna at Vrelo Bosne Park in Sarajevo.JPG|River Bosna at Vrelo Bosne Park

Demographics

(File:Sarajevo twilight.jpg|thumb|right|Sarajevo at twilight){| border="1" cellpadding="7" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 10px 0 10px 25px; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #AAA solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; float: center;" style="background: #E9E9E9" Ethnic composition of Sarajevo city proper, by municipalities, 2013 census|Municipality|Total|Bosniaks|Serbs|Croats|Others
|- Centar|55,181|41,702 (75.57%)|2,186 (3.96%)|3,333 (6.04%)|7,960 (14.42%)
Novi Grad|118,553|99,773 (84.16%)|4,367 (3.68%)|4,947 (4.17%)|9,466 (7.98%) Novo Sarajevo|64,814|48,188 (74.35%)|3,402 (5.25%)|4,639 (7.16%)|8,585 (13.24%) Stari Grad|36,976|32,794 (88.69%)|467 (1.3%)|685 (1.85%)|3,030 (8.19%) Total|275,524|222,457 (80.74%)|10,422 (3.78%)|13,604 (4.94%)|29,041 (10.54%)(File:Sarajevo - Etnicki sastav po naseljima 1991 1 L.gif|thumb|right|Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements 1991)(File:Sarajevo - Etnicki sastav po naseljima 2013 1 L.gif|thumb|right|Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements 2013)The last official Yugoslav census took place 1991 and recorded 527,049 people living in the city of Sarajevo (ten municipalities). In the settlement of Sarajevo proper, there were 416,497 inhabitants.Population density and urbanization. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. The war displaced hundreds of thousands of people, a large majority of whom have not returned.The first census since Bosnia and Herzegovina became an independent country was not taken until 2013 and as a result, for many years Sarajevo's population was not known clearly and statistics were based on estimates contributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and the Federal Office of Statistics of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, among other national and international non-profit organizations. {{As of|June 2011}}, the population of the city's four municipalities was estimated to be 411,161, whereas the Sarajevo Canton population was estimated at 578,757.WEB, Federal Office of Statistics, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,weblink First release, 3, 31 August 2011, 31 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511043530weblink">weblink 11 May 2013, With an area of {{convert|1280|km2|sqmi}}, Sarajevo has a population density of about {{convert|2173|PD/km2}}. According to these estimates, the Novo Sarajevo municipality is the most densely populated part of Sarajevo with about {{convert|7524|PD/km2}}, while the least densely populated is the Stari Grad, with {{convert|2742|PD/km2}}.Sarajevo Canton. Population Density by Municipalities of Sarajevo Canton. About Canton. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060809211210weblink |date=9 August 2006 }}In June 2016, the final results of the 2013 census were published. According to the census, the population of the Sarajevo Canton was 413,593, with 55,181 residents in Centar Sarajevo, 118,553 in Novi Grad, 64,814 in Novo Sarajevo and 36,976 in Stari Grad.WEB, Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013: Final results,weblink Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, June 2016, 6 July 2016, The war changed the ethnic and religious profile of the city. It had long been a multicultural city,Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State. Bosnia and Herzegovina International Religious Freedom Report 2005. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. and often went by the nickname of "Europe's Jerusalem". At the time of the 1991 census, 49.2 per cent of the city's population of 527,049 were Bosniaks, 29.8 percent Serbs, 10.7 percent Yugoslavs, 6.6 percent Croats and 3.6 percent other ethnicities (Jews, Romas, etc.). By 2002, 79.6 per cent of the canton's population of 401,118 were Bosniak, 11.2 percent Serb, a significantly smaller number of Serbs after the war as a result of the people being forced out, 6.7 percent Croat and 2.5 percent others (Jews, Romas, Arabs,"Сараево преплавено со Вехабии, преселени над 40 илјади". Faktor.mk. 3 September 2016. Retrieved on 19 June 2018. etc.).{{sfn|Markowitz|2010|p=83}}According to academic Fran Markowitz there is a number of "administrative apparatuses and public pressures that push people who might prefer to identify as flexible, multiply constituted hybrids or with one of the now unnamed minority groups into one of the three Bosniac-Croat-Serb constituent nations".{{sfn|Markowitz|2007|p=57}} These include respondents being encouraged by census interviewers to identity as belonging to one of the three constituent peoples.{{sfn|Markowitz|2007|p=69}} Her analysis of marriage registration data shows, for instance, that 67 per cent of people marrying in 2003 identified as Bosniak or Muslim, which is significantly lower than the 79.6 per cent census figure from 2002 (unlike the census, where people respond to an interviewer, applicants to the marriage registry fill in the form themselves).Tsars Mosque.jpg|Emperor's MosqueSaborna crkva u Sarajevu noću.jpg|Orthodox CathedralBosnia Church.jpg|Catholic Cathedral Sacred HeartSarajevo Synagoge 03.jpg|Sarajevo Synagogue

Transportation

Roads and highways

File:Ulica Zmaja od Bosne, Sarajevo (2).jpg|thumb|right|Dragon of Bosnia street]]Sarajevo's location in a valley between mountains makes it a compact city. Narrow city streets and a lack of parking areas restrict automobile traffic but allow better pedestrian and cyclist mobility. The two main roads are Titova Ulica (Street of Marshal Tito) and the east-west Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) highway (E761).Located roughly at the center of the country, Sarajevo is Bosnia's main intersection. The city is connected to all the other major cities by highway or national road like Zenica, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Mostar, Goražde and Foča.Tourists from Central Europe and elsewhere visiting Dalmatia driving via Budapest through Sarajevo also contribute to the traffic congestion in and around Sarajevo.The trans-European highway, Corridor 5C, runs through Sarajevo connecting it to Budapest in the north, and Ploče at the Adriatic sea in the south.Corridor 5C. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. The highway is built by the government and should cost 3.5 billion Euro. Up until March 2012, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina invested around 600 million Euro in the A1. In 2014 the sections Sarajevo-Zenica and Sarajevo-Tarcin were completed including the Sarajevo Beltway ring road.

Tram, bus and trolleybus

(File:Tram Satra II, Sarajevo.JPG|thumb|right|Sarajevo tram)Sarajevo's electric tramways, in operation since 1885, are the oldest form of public transportation in the city.About trams on Virtual City of Sarajevo {{dead link|date=September 2015}}Sarajevo had the first full-time (dawn to dusk) tram line in Europe, and the second in the world. Opened on New Year's Day in 1885, it was the testing line for the tram in Vienna and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and operated by horses. Originally built to {{RailGauge|760mm|allk=on}}, the present system in 1960 was upgraded to {{RailGauge|1435mm|allk=on}}. The trams played a pivotal role in the growth of the city in the 20th century.There are seven tramway lines supplemented by five trolleybus lines and numerous bus routes. The main railroad station in Sarajevo is in the north-central area of the city. From there, the tracks head west before branching off in different directions, including to industrial zones in the city. Sarajevo is undergoing a major infrastructure renewal; many highways and streets are being repaved, the tram system is undergoing modernization, and new bridges and roads are under construction.

Future metro plans

To solve traffic congestion in the city, Sarajevo-based architect Muzafer Osmanagić has proposed a study called "Eco Energy 2010–2015", idealizing a subway system underneath the bed of the river Miljacka. The first line of Metro Sarajevo would connect Baščaršija with Otoka. This line would cost some 150 million KM and be financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.WEB,weblink 404, Akta.ba, www.akta.ba, 24 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101118002845weblink">weblink 18 November 2010,

Cable car (Mt. Trebević)

Trebević Cable Car, Sarajevo's key landmark during 1984 Winter Olympic Games, was rebuilt by JKP GRAS Sarajevo and Sarajevo Canton as one of the new transportation systems in 2017 and it reopened on 6 April 2018 at 11:00 AM. The cable car runs from Sarajevo at Bistrik station to the slopes of Trebević at Vidikovac station.NEWS,weblink Chasing the Olympic dream, cloudlessness, 6 April 2018, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Airport

File:SJJAUG2016-2.jpg|thumb|Sarajevo International AirportSarajevo International AirportSarajevo International Airport {{airport codes|SJJ}}, also called Butmir, is just a few kilometers southwest of the city and was voted Best European Airport With Under 1,000,000 Passengers at the 15th Annual ACI-Europe in Munich in 2005.First regular flights to Sarajevo using an airfield in the suburb of Butmir begin in 1930 when the domestic airliner Aeroput opened a regular route linking Belgrade to Podgorica through Sarajevo.Drustvo za Vazdusni Saobracaj A D – Aeroput (1927–1948) at europeanairlines.n Later, Aeroput opened routed which linked Sarajevo with Split, Rijeka and Dubrovnik, and in 1938 first international flights were introduced when Aeroput extended the route Dubrovnik – Sarajevo – Zagreb to Vienna, Brno and Prague.Aeroput, the First Airline that Landed in Sarajevo at sarajevotimes.com, 21-4-2014, retrieved 19-7-2014 The airfield in Butmir remained in use all the way until 1969. The need for a new airport in Sarajevo, with an asphalt-concrete runway, was acknowledged in the mid-1960s when JAT, Yugoslav national carrier at that time, began acquiring jet planes. The construction of the airport began in 1966 at its present location, not far from the old one.{{citation needed|date=October 2016}}Sarajevo Airport opened on 2 June 1969 for domestic traffic. In 1970 Frankfurt became the first international destination served. Most of the time the airport was a 'feeder' airport where passengers embarked for flights to Zagreb and Belgrade on their way to international destinations. Over time the traffic volume steadily grew from 70,000 to 600,000 passengers a year. Later, during the Bosnian war, the airport was used for UN flights and humanitarian relief. Since the Dayton Accord in 1996, the airport retook its role as main air gate to Bosnia and Herzegovina.In 2017, 957,971 passengers traveled through the airport, which was 61,4% of the total airport traffic in Bosnia-Herzegovina.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 20 August 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170920044446weblink">weblink 20 September 2017, dead, WEB,weblink Home page, Plans for extension of the passenger terminal, together with upgrading and expanding the taxiway and apron, are planned to start in fall 2012. The existing terminal will be expanded by approximately {{convert|7,000|m2|0|abbr=off}}.WEB,weblink EX-YU aviation news: Sarajevo expansion to begin in 2012, Exyuaviation.blogspot.com, 17 September 2011, 5 April 2012, The upgraded airport will also be directly linked to the commercial retail center Sarajevo Airport Center, making it easier for tourists and travellers to spend their time before flight boarding shopping and enjoying the many amenities that will be offered.WEB,weblink A new shopping experience in Sarajevo!, Airportcentersarajevo.com, 5 April 2012, Between 2015 and 2018 the airport will be upgraded for more than 25 million euros.

Railway

Sarajevo has daily international connections which twice a day connect the city with Zagreb and Ploče. There are also connections between Sarajevo and all major cities within Bosnia and Herzegovina. Once, the East Bosnian railway connected Sarajevo to Belgrade.The Sarajevo railway station is among the biggest in Europe.{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}}11.05.11 Sarajevo ŽFBH 441.906 (5806017524).jpg|A locomotive hauled train at Sarajevo railway stationSarajevo Railway-Station 2011-10-01 (3).JPG|Sarajevo train station in 2011Sarajevo ŽFBH 441-047 2011-10-01.JPG|ŽFBH 441-047 at Sarajevo train station

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina}}

Twin towns – Sister cities

Sarajevo is twinned with:WEB, daenet d.o.o.,weblink Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities, Sarajevo.ba, 6 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090412141407weblink">weblink 12 April 2009, {|style="width:100%"
  • {{flagicon|Catalonia}} {{flagicon|ESP}} Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (since 2000)
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Zagreb, Croatia (since 2001)WEB,weblink Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb, 2006–2009 City of Zagreb, 23 June 2009,
  • {{flagicon|SVN}} Ljubljana, Slovenia (since 2002)WEB,weblink Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje, 2013-07-27, Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City), Slovenian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130626075304weblink">weblink 26 June 2013,
  • {{flagicon|Utah}} {{flagicon|USA}} Salt Lake City, UT, United States (since 2002)
  • {{flagicon|EGY}} Cairo, Egypt (since 2006)
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Dubrovnik, Croatia (since 2006)
  • {{flagicon|NOR}} Lillehammer, Norway (since 2006)

Fraternity cities

Sarajevo's fraternity cities include:WEB,weblink Fraternity cities on Sarajevo Official Web Site, City of Sarajevo 2001–2008, 9 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201150030weblink">weblink 1 December 2008, {|style="width:100%"
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Bursa in Turkey (since 1979)WEB,weblink KardeÅŸ Åžehirler, 2013-07-27, Bursa BüyükÅŸehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez, Tüm Hakları Saklıdır,
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Akhisar in Turkey
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Istanbul in Turkey (since 1997)WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Istanbul, 8 September 2007, NEWS,weblink Radikal, Turkish, 3 November 2003, 49 sister cities in 2003, Ä°stanbul'a 49 kardeÅŸ, Erdem, Selim Efe,
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Ankara in Turkey (since 2007)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114033014weblink">weblink KardeÅŸ Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com], Ankara BüyükÅŸehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır, 14 January 2009, 2013-07-21, Turkish, dead,
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Tianjin in China (since 1981)
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Shanghai in China
  • {{flagicon|Veneto}} {{flagicon|ITA}} Venice in Veneto, Italy (since 1994)
  • {{flagicon|Piedmont}} {{flagicon|ITA}} Collegno in Turin, Piedmont, Italy (since 1994)
  • {{flagicon|Emilia-Romagna}} {{flagicon|ITA}} Ferrara in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (since 1978)
  • {{flagicon|Campania}} {{flagicon|ITA}} Naples in Campania, Italy (since 1976)
  • {{flagicon|Tuscany}} {{flagicon|ITA}} Prato in Prato, Tuscany, Italy (since 1995)
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Budapest in Hungary (since 1995)WEB,weblink Budapest – Testvérvárosok, 2013-08-14, Budapest FÅ‘város Önkormányzatának hivatalos oldala [Official site of the Municipality of Budapest], Hungarian, Budapest – Twin Cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130809185135weblink">weblink 9 August 2013, dead, WEB, Sister City â€“ Budapest, Official website of New York City,weblink 14 May 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080421215230weblink">weblink 21 April 2008,
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Karlovac in Croatia
  • {{flagicon|ENG}} Coventry in West Midlands, England, United Kingdom (since 1957)WEB,weblink Coventry – Twin towns and cities, 2013-08-06, Coventry City Council.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130412062545weblink">weblink 12 April 2013, dead, WEB,weblink Coventry's twin towns, 2013-08-06, Griffin, Mary, 2011-08-02, Coventry Telegraph, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130806032050weblink">weblink 6 August 2013,
  • {{flagicon|Lower Saxony}} {{flagicon|GER}} Wolfsburg in Lower Saxony, Germany (since 1985)
  • {{flagicon|Saxony-Anhalt}} {{flagicon|GER}} Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (since 1972)WEB,weblink Twin cities, 2013-08-07, Zachert, Uwe, Annica Kunz, Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg],weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120901033335weblink">weblink 1 September 2012, dead,
  • {{flagicon|Baden-Württemberg}} {{flagicon|GER}} Friedrichshafen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany (since 1972)
  • {{flagicon|SPA}} Madrid in Spain (since 2007)WEB,weblink Official agreement paper between Sarajevo and Madrid (Spanish and Bosnian languages), dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021040805weblink">weblink 21 October 2013,
  • {{flagicon|Catalonia}} {{flagicon|SPA}} Barcelona in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (since 1986)WEB,weblink Official Barcelona Website: Sister Cities, 11 November 2008, Ajuntament de Barcelona 1995–2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090216085914weblink">weblink 16 February 2009,
  • {{flagicon|AUT}} Innsbruck in Tyrol, Austria (since 1980)
  • {{flagicon|NED}} Amsterdam in North Holland, Netherlands
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Serre Chevalier in Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France (since 1995)
  • {{flagicon|NMK}} Skopje in North Macedonia (since 2007)
  • {{flagicon|SWE}} Stockholm in Sweden (since 1997)
  • {{flagicon|CZE}} Tábor in Czech Republic
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Tirana in Albania (since 1996)
  • {{flagicon|Ohio}} {{flagicon|USA}} Dayton in Ohio, United States (since 1999)
  • {{flagicon|AZE}} Baku in Azerbaijan (since 1972)WEB,weblink Twin-cities of Azerbaijan, 2013-08-09, Azerbaijans.com,
  • {{flagicon|KUW}} Kuwait City in Kuwait (since 1998)
  • {{flagicon|ALG}} Algiers in Algeria
  • {{flagicon|ALG}} Tlemcen in Algeria (since 1964)
  • {{flagicon|LBY}} Tripoli in Libya (since 1976)

Communications and media

File:Telescope on Avaz Twist Tower.JPG|thumb|left|Observation deck top of Avaz Twist Tower, Dnevni avazDnevni avazAs the largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo is the main center of the country's media. Most of the communications and media infrastructure was destroyed during the war but reconstruction monitored by the Office of the High Representative has helped to modernize the industry as a whole.European Journalism Centre (November 2002). The Bosnia-Herzegovina media landscape. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130415011144weblink |date=15 April 2013 }} European Media Landscape. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. For example, internet was first made available to the city in 1995.Vockic-Avdagic, Jelenka. The Internet and the Public in Bosnia-Herzegovina in Spassov, O., and Todorov Ch. (eds.) (2003), New Media in Southeast Europe. SOEMZ, European University "Viadrina" (Frankfurt â€“ Oder) and Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski".OsloboÄ‘enje (Liberation), founded in 1943, is Sarajevo's longest running continuously circulating newspaper and the only one to survive the war. However, this long running and trusted newspaper has fallen behind Dnevni Avaz (Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutarnje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo.Udovicic, Radenko (2002 May 3). What is Happening with the Oldest Bosnian-Herzegovinian Daily: OsloboÄ‘enje to be sold for 4.7 Million Marks Mediaonline.ba: Southeast European Media Journal. Other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska riječ and the Bosnian magazine Start, as well as weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days). Novi Plamen, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication.The Radiotelevision of Bosnia-Herzegovina is Sarajevo's public television station and was created in 1945 under the umbrella of the Yugoslav Radio Television. It had its first television program aired in 1961, while continuous programming started in 1969. It is one of three main TV stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other stations based in the city include NRTV "Studio 99", NTV Hayat, TV 1, Open Broadcast Network, TV Kantona Sarajevo and Televizija Alfa.The headquarters of Al Jazeera Balkans are also in Sarajevo, with a broadcasting studio at the top of the BBI Center. The news channel covers Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro and the surrounding Balkan states.WEB,weblink Al Jazeera makes its Balkan debut | Europe | Deutsche Welle | 22 September 2010, Deutsche Welle, 15 September 2011, Many small independent radio stations exist, including established stations such as Radio M, Radio Stari Grad (Radio Old Town), Studentski eFM Radio,WEB,weblink eFM – Naslovnica, efm.ba, 24 September 2015, Radio 202, Radio BIR,WEB,weblink Radio BIR, Bir.ba, 5 April 2012, and RSG. Radio Free Europe, as well as several American and Western European stations are available.{{Clear}}

Education

Higher EducationFile:Sarajevo University building.JPG|thumb|right|Rectorate and the Faculty of Law, University of SarajevoUniversity of SarajevoFile:Sarajevo, knihovna.jpg|thumb|right|National and University Library of Bosnia and HerzegovinaNational and University Library of Bosnia and HerzegovinaHigher education has a long and rich tradition in Sarajevo. The first institution that can be classified as a tertiary educational institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1537; numerous other religious schools have been established over time. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia Law School began a five-year program.University of Sarajevo on Sarajevo official web site In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute, effectively building upon the foundations established by the Saraybosna Hanıka in 1537. In the 1950s, post-bachelor graduate degrees became available.History of University of Sarajevo {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081204110445weblink |date=4 December 2008 }} Severely damaged during the war, it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities.There are also several universities in Sarajevo, including: Primary and Secondary Education{{As of|2005}}, in Sarajevo there are 46 elementary schools (Grades 1–9) and 33 high schools (Grades 10–13), including three schools for children with special needs,Sarajevo Canton, 2000 WEB,weblink Primary Education & Secondary Education, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091122210412weblink">weblink 22 November 2009,  {{small|(1.28 MB)}}. Sarajevo 2000, p 107–08.There are also several international schools in Sarajevo, catering to the expatriate community; some of which are Sarajevo International School and the French International SchoolWEB,weblink Ecole française MLF de Sarajevo : News, École française MLF de Sarajevo, 19 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100224051747weblink">weblink 24 February 2010, of Sarajevo, established in 1998.{{Clear}}

Culture

File:National Museum of BiH Aerial.JPG|thumb|The National Museum of Bosnia and HerzegovinaNational Museum of Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo has been home to many different religions for centuries, giving the city a range of diverse cultures. In the time of Ottoman occupation of Bosnia, Muslims, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and Sephardi Jews all shared the city while maintaining distinctive identities. They were joined during the brief occupation by Austria-Hungary by a smaller number of Germans, Hungarians, Slovaks, Czechs and Ashkenazi Jews. By 1909, about 50% of the city's inhabitants were Muslim, 25% were Catholic, 15% were Orthodox, and 10% were Jewish.The New York Times, 3 April 1909, p. 19. Quote: "Of the 40,000 inhabitants of Sarajevo, the present capital of Bosnia, nearly one-half are Mohammedan, about one-quarter Roman Catholic, 6,000 followers of the Greek Orthodox or Serb faith, and 4,000 Jews..." (Newspapers.com)Historically, Sarajevo has been home to several prominent Bosnian poets, scholars, philosophers, and writers. To list only a very few; Nobel Prize-winner Vladimir Prelog is from the city, as are the writer Zlatko Topčić, and the poet Abdulah Sidran. Nobel Prize-winner Ivo Andrić attended high school in Sarajevo for two years. Academy Award-winning director Danis Tanović live in the city. Sarajevo is also the home of the East West Theatre Company, the only independent theater company in Bosnia and Herzegovina.The Sarajevo National Theatre is the oldest professional theater in Bosnia and Herzegovina, having been established in 1921.{{Clear}}{{Panorama|image=File:Sarajevo Bijela Tabija banner.jpg|fullwidth=14570|fullheight=2000Panorama>panoramic view of the ruined castle of Bijela Tabija "White Bastion" in the very east of Sarajevo.|alt=|height=210}}

Museums

File:Sarajevo Haggadah.jpg|thumb|left|Copies of the Sarajevo HaggadahSarajevo HaggadahThe city is rich in museums, including the Museum of Sarajevo, the Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, The Museum of Literature and Theatre Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (established in 1888) home to the Sarajevo Haggadah,WEB,weblink 13 April 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100425141127weblink">weblink 25 April 2010, Sarajevo.net Museum: The Sarajevo Haggadah, an illuminated manuscript and the oldest Sephardic Jewish document in the world{{citation needed|date=March 2014}} issued in Barcelona around 1350, containing the traditional Jewish Haggadah, is on permanent display at the museum. It is the only remaining illustrated Sephardic Haggadah in the world.WEB,weblink Haggadah.ba – About the Sarajevo Haggadah, Haggadah.ba, 28 March 2012, The National Museum also hosts year-round exhibitions pertaining to local, regional and international culture and history, and exhibits over 5,000 artefacts from Bosnia's history.The Alija Izetbegović Museum was opened on 19 October 2007 and is in the old town fort, more specifically in the Vratnik Kapija towers Ploča and Širokac. The museum is a commemoration to the influence and body of work of Alija Izetbegović, the first president of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.The city also hosts the Sarajevo National Theater, established in 1919, as well as East West Theatre Company and the Sarajevo Youth Theatre. Some other cultural institutions include the Center for Sarajevo Culture, Sarajevo City Library, Art Gallery of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Bosniak Institute, a privately owned library and art collection focusing on Bosniak history.Demolitions associated with the war, as well as reconstruction, destroyed several institutions and cultural or religious symbols including the Gazi Husrev-beg library, the national library, the Sarajevo Oriental Institute, and a museum dedicated to the 1984 Winter Olympics. Consequently, the different levels of government established strong cultural protection laws and institutions.Perlez, Jane (12 August 1996). Ruins of Sarajevo Library Is Symbol of a Shattered Culture The New York Times. Bodies charged with cultural preservation in Sarajevo include the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina (and their Sarajevo Canton counterpart), and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission to Preserve National Monuments.Sarajevo, Baščaršija II.jpg|Bosniak Institute, containing collections of the history of Bosnia and BosniaksSarajevo 1914 museum IMG 1118.JPG|Museum "Sarajevo 1878–1918"Sarajevo, muezum Alije Izetbegoviće.jpg|Alija Izetbegović museumMedieval tombstones around National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.JPG|Medieval tombstones around National Museum of Bosnia and HerzegovinaExterior house - Sarajevo Tunnel Museum (2).jpg|Sarajevo Tunnel Museum

Music

{{See also|List of Bosnia and Herzegovina patriotic songs}}Sarajevo is and has historically been one of the most important musical enclaves in the region. The Sarajevo school of pop rock developed in the city between 1961 and 1991. This type of music began with bands like Indexi, Pro Arte, and singer-songwriter Kemal Monteno. It continued into the 1980s, with bands such as Plavi Orkestar, Crvena Jabuka, and Divlje Jagode, by most accounts, pioneering the regional rock and roll movement. Sarajevo was also the home and birthplace of arguably the most popular and influential Yugoslav rock band of all time, Bijelo Dugme, somewhat of a Bosnian parallel to the Rolling Stones, in both popularity and influence. Sarajevo was also the home of a very notable post-punk urban subculture known as the New Primitives, which began during the early 1980s with the Baglama Band which was banned shortly after first LP and was brought into the mainstream through bands such as Zabranjeno Pušenje and Elvis J. Kurtović & His Meteors, as well as the Top Lista Nadrealista radio, and later television show. Other notable bands considered to be part of this subculture are Bombaj Štampa. Besides and separately from the New Primitives, Sarajevo is the hometown to one of the most significant ex-Yugoslavian alternative industrial-noise bands, SCH (1983–current).Perhaps more importantly, Sarajevo in the late 19th and throughout the 20th century was home to a burgeoning and large center of Sevdalinka record-making and contributed greatly to bringing this historical genre of music to the mainstream, which had for many centuries been a staple of Bosnian culture. Songwriters and musicians such as Himzo Polovina, Safet Isović, Zaim Imamović, Zehra Deović, Halid Bešlić, Hanka Paldum, Nada Mamula, Meho Puzić and many more composed and wrote some of their most important pieces in the city.Sarajevo also greatly influenced the pop scene of Yugoslavia with musicians like Dino Merlin, Hari Mata Hari, Kemal Monteno, Mladen Vojičić "Tifa", Zdravko Čolić, Željko Bebek, and many more.Many newer Sarajevo-based bands have also found a name and established themselves in Sarajevo, such as Regina who also had two albums out in Yugoslavia and Letu Štuke, who actually formed their band in Yugoslavia with the famous Bosnian-American writer Aleksandar Hemon and got their real breakthrough later in the 2000s. Sarajevo is now home to an important and eclectic mix of new bands and independent musicians, which continue to thrive with the ever-increasing number of festivals, creative showcases and concerts around the country. The city is also home to the region's largest jazz festival, the Sarajevo Jazz Festival (see "Festival" section below this).American heavy metal band Savatage, released a song entitled "Christmas Eve (Sarajevo 12/24)" on their 1995 album Dead Winter Dead, which was about a cello player playing a forgotten Christmas carol in war-torn Sarajevo. The song was later re-released by the same band under the name Trans-Siberian Orchestra on their 1996 debut album Christmas Eve and Other Stories, which the song gave them instant success.

Festivals

{{See also|List of festivals in Sarajevo}}File:Sarajevo National Theatre.JPG|thumb|left|220px|Sarajevo National Theatre, where the annual hosting of Sarajevo Film FestivalSarajevo Film FestivalSarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of over 50 annual festivals. The Sarajevo Film Festival was established in 1995 during the Bosnian War and has become the premier and largest film festival in South-East Europe.WEB,weblink About the Festival, Sarajevo Film Festival Official Website, It has been hosted at the National Theater, with screenings at the Open-air theater Metalac and the Bosnian Cultural Center, all in downtown Sarajevo. The MESS International Festival is an experimental theatre festival and the oldest living theatre festival in the Balkans.WEB,weblink MESS International Theatre Festival, befestival.org, The annual Sarajevo Youth Film Festival showcases feature, animated and short films from around the world and is the premier student film festival in the Balkans.WEB,weblink Omladinski filmski festival Sarajevo predstavlja nove mlade autore, Al Jazeera Balkans, 2017-07-04, The Sarajevo Winter Festival, Sarajevo Jazz Festival and Sarajevo International Music Festival are well-known, as is the BaščarÅ¡ija Nights festival, a month-long showcase of local culture, music, and dance.{{citation needed|date=June 2014}}The first incarnation of the Sarajevo Film Festival was hosted in still-warring Sarajevo in 1995, and has now progressed into being the biggest and most significant festival in south-eastern Europe. A talent campus is also held during the duration of the festival, with lecturers speaking on behalf of world cinematography and holding workshops for film students from across South-Eastern Europe.WEB,weblink Sarajevo Film Festival â€” Filmski Festivali â€” Filmski.Net, Filmski.net, 1 November 2008, The Sarajevo Jazz Festival is the region's largest and most diverse of its kind. The festival takes place at the Bosnian Cultural Center (aka "Main Stage"), just down the street from the SFF, at the Sarajevo Youth Stage Theater (aka "Strange Fruits Stage"), at the Dom Vojske Federacije (aka "Solo Stage"), and at the CDA (aka "Groove Stage").

Sports

File:Yugoslavia postage stamps FDC (Sarajevo 1984 Winter Olympics).jpg|thumb|left|200px|Postage stamps depicting 1984 Winter Olympics1984 Winter OlympicsFile:20150331 2026 AUT BIH 2177 Edin Džeko.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Bosnian football player Edin Džeko was born in Sarajevo. He is the all-time leading goalscorer of the (Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team|BiH national football team]].WEB,weblink FIFA.com: Edin DZEKO Profile, fifa.com, 15 June 2014, 17 June 2014, NEWS,weblink mcfc.co.uk, markbooth_mcfc, Dzeko signs four-year deal at City, 21 August 2014, 21 August 2014, Manchester, )File:Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium.jpg|thumb|left|200px|KoÅ¡evo City Stadium, home to FK SarajevoFK SarajevoFile:ATP World Tour 500 2016 A. Pavlasek (CZE) vs D. Dzumhur (BIH)-2.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Damir Džumhur, a Sarajevo born multi–Grand Slam tennis player.]]File:Stadion Grbavica - August 2018.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Stadion Grbavica, home-ground of FK Željezničar.]]File:Skenderija Arena 2018.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Mirza DelibaÅ¡ić Hall, home venue of KK BosnaKK BosnaThe city hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. Yugoslavia won one medal, a silver in men's giant slalom awarded to Jure Franko.IOC (2006). Jure Franko Athlete: Profiles. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. Many of the Olympic facilities survived the war or were reconstructed, including Olympic Hall Zetra and Asim Ferhatović Stadion. In an attempt to bring back some of Sarajevo's Olympic glory,Return the Olympics to Sarajevo. [returntheolympicstosarajevo.org] Retrieved on 26 January 2017. the original Olympic luge and bobsled tracks are being repaired, due to the efforts of both the Olympic Committee of Bosnia and HerzegovinaWinter Olympic host city Sarajevo to stage course for luge trainers. weblink Retrieved on 26 January 2017. and local sports enthusiasts.Sports enthusiasts repair devastated Winter Olympic tracks weblink Retrieved on 26 January 2017. After co-hosting the Southeast Europe Friendship games, Sarajevo was awarded the 2009 Special Olympic winter games,Special Olympics, (2005 â€“ Quarter 2). WEB,weblink 2009 Games in Sarajevo, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326162705weblink">weblink 26 March 2009,  {{small|(277 kB)}} Spirit. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. but cancelled these plans.Hem, Brad (29 July 2006). Idaho may be in the running to host the 2009 Special Olympics{{dead link|date=February 2016}} Idaho Statesman.Special Olympics (May 2006). Boise, Idaho (USA) Awarded 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101123420weblink |date=1 January 2016 }} Global News. The ice arena for the 1984 Olympics, Zetra Stadium, was used during the war as a temporary hospital and, later, for housing NATO troops of the IFOR.In 2011 Sarajevo was the host city of the 51st World Military Skiing Championship with over 350 participants from 23 different nations. This was the first international event of such standing since the 1984 Olympics.WEB, Phone Web,weblink CISM â€” Conseil International du Sport Militaire â€” International Military Sports Council, www.keezmovies.com, 9 June 2011, 15 September 2011, Football (soccer) is popular in Sarajevo; the city hosts FK Sarajevo and FK Željezničar, which both compete in European and international cups and tournaments and have a very large trophy cabinet in the former Yugoslavia as well as independent Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other notable soccer clubs are FK Olimpik, SAÅ K and Slavija.One of only two stadiums in Bosnia and Herzegovina that has the UEFA category 3 is the Stadion Grbavica, the home stadium of FK Željezničar.Another popular sport is basketball; the basketball club KK Bosna Sarajevo won the European Championship in 1979 as well as many Yugoslav and Bosnian national championships making it one of the greatest basketball clubs in the former Yugoslavia. The chess club, Bosna Sarajevo, has been a championship team since the 1980s and is the third ranked chess club in Europe, having won four consecutive European championships in the nineties. RK Bosna also competes in the European Champions League and is considered one of the most well organised handball clubs in South-Eastern Europe with a very large fan base and excellent national, as well as international results.Sarajevo often holds international events and competitions in sports such as tennis and kickboxing.The popularity of tennis has been picking up in recent years. Since 2003, BH Telecom Indoors is an annual tennis tournament in Sarajevo.Since 2007, the Sarajevo Marathon is being organized in late September. Giro di Sarajevo is also run in the city with over 2,200 cyclists taking part in 2015.WEB, klix.ba,weblink Giro di Sarajevo via drone, klix.ba, 6 September 2015, 6 September 2015, In February 2019, Sarajevo and East Sarajevo hosted the European Youth Olympic Winter Festival (EYOWF).{|class="wikitable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border: none;"! scope="col" |Club! scope="col" |Sport! scope="col" |Leagues! scope="col" |Venue! scope="col" |Est.FK Željezničar Sarajevo>ŽeljezničarFootball Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina>Football|Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina|Grbavica Stadium|1921FK Sarajevo>Sarajevo|Football|Premier League of Bosnia and HerzegovinaAsim Ferhatović Hase Stadium>Asim Ferhatović Hase|1946FK Olimpik Sarajevo>Olimpik|Football|First League of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina|Otoka Stadion|1993RK Bosna Sarajevo>RK BosnaHandball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina>Handball|Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina|Dvorana Mirza DelibaÅ¡ić|1948|KK BosnaNLB League>BasketballBasketball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina>Premier League of Basketball of Bosnia and Herzegovina|Dvorana Mirza DelibaÅ¡ić|1951|HK BosnaBosnia and Herzegovina Ice Hockey Federation>Ice Hockey|Bosnia and Herzegovina Hockey League|Olympic Hall Zetra|1980|VK Bosna|Waterpolo|Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterpolo League|Olimpijski Bazen Otoka|1984Bosnia and Herzegovina national sitting volleyball team#SDI Spid>SDI Spid|Volleyball|Bosnia Sitting Volleyball Championships|Dvorana Ramiz Salčin|1994Bosnia and Herzegovina national sitting volleyball team#OKI Fantomi>Fantomi|Volleyball|Bosnia Sitting Volleyball Championships|Dvorana Ramiz Salčin|1995

Historical Sarajevo gallery

File:Image from page 71 of "Durch Bosnien und die Herzegovina kreuz und quer; Wanderungen" (1897) (14594888440).jpg|Sarajevo in 1897File:Sarajevo Historic View.jpg|Sarajevo 1900.File:Sarajevo Tram (1901).png|Sarajevo Tram in 1901File:Sarajevo market 1914.png|Sarajevo market (in 1914)File:1914 Miljacka Sarajevo.png|Miljacka River Sarajevo in 1914File:Ferenc Ferdinánd emlékmű.jpg|Memorial of Franz Ferdinand

Modern Sarajevo gallery

File:Inside BBI.JPG|Inside BBI CenterFile:Sarajevo City Center Summer 2015 (1).jpg|Sarajevo City CenterFile:Hotel Europe Sarajevo.jpg|Hotel Europe next to medieval ruinsFile:Bosmal City Center Sarajevo.jpg|Bosmal City CenterFile:Sarajevo,blizanci.jpg|UNITIC twin towers

Mountains and hills surrounding Sarajevo

File:Hum Hill (Brdo Hum).JPG|Hum hill with Hum Tower (foreground) and Žuč hill (background), to North-NW.File:View towards Koševo Stadium, Sarajevo.JPG|Biosko hill (foreground) and Bukovik Mt. (background), to North-NE.File:Sarajevo Trebević.JPG|Trebević Mt., to SE.File:Mount Bjelašnica (snowy peaks).JPG|Bjelašnica Mt. (snow peaks, background) with Igman Mt. (foreground, dark-green below snow peaks), to SW.File:Mount Igman.JPG|Mt. Igman Mt. (foreground, dark-green) with Bjelašnica Mt. (snow peaks, background, left), to SW.

See also

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Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|26em}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Sarajevo#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Sarajevo}}

, Gumz
, Jonathan
, German Counterinsurgency Policy in Independent Croatia, 1941–1944
, 33–50
, The Historian
, 1998
, 61
, 1
, 10.1111/j.1540-6563.1998.tb01422.x
, harv
,
  • Halligan, Benjamin. (2010). "Idylls of Socialism: The Sarajevo Documentary School and the Problem of the Bosnian Sub-proletariat". Studies in Eastern European Cinema (Autumn 2010).
  • BOOK, harv, Tanzer, Kim, Longoria, Rafael, The Green Braid: Towards an Architecture of Ecology, Economy and Equity,weblink 11 April 2007, Routledge, 978-1-134-12058-1,
  • Maniscalco, Fabio (1997). Sarajevo. Itinerari artistici perduti (Sarajevo. Artistic Itineraries Lost). Naples: Guida
  • JOURNAL, Census and sensibilities in Sarajevo, Fran, Markowitz, 2007, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 49, 1, 40–73, 10.1017/S0010417507000400, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Sarajevo: A Bosnian Kaleidoscope, Fran, Markowitz, 2010, Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press, 978-0-252-07713-5, harv,
  • Prstojević, Miroslav (1992). Zaboravljeno Sarajevo (Forgotten Sarajevo). Sarajevo: Ideja
  • Valerijan, Žujo; Imamović, Mustafa; Ćurovac, Muhamed (1997). Sarajevo. Sarajevo: Svjetlost
  • My Life in Fire (a non-fiction story of a child in a Sarajevo war)
  • Mehmedinović, Semezdin (1998). Sarajevo Blues. San Francisco: City Lights.

External links

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