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{{other uses|Rome (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2018}}{{EngvarB|date=September 2016}}{{short description|Capital of Italy}}

{{small|The Eternal City}} {{native name|la|Caput Mundi|italics=off}}{{small|The Capital of the world}}
Throne of St. Peter
#Etymology).}}| established_title = Founded753 BC}}| founder = King Romulus| image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg| map_caption = The territory of the comune (Roma Capitale, in red) inside the Metropolitan City of Rome (Città Metropolitana di Roma, in yellow). The white area in the centre is Vatican City.| pushpin_map = Italy#Europe| pushpin_map_caption = Location within Italy##Location within Europe| pushpin_relief = yes41N30region:IT-62_type:city(3000000)|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = | subdivision_type = CountryItaly{{efn|Excluding Vatican City}}}}Regions of Italy>Region| subdivision_name2 = Lazio| government_footnotes =| government_type = Special Comune ("Roma Capitale")City Council of Rome>Capitoline AssemblyMayor of Rome>MayorVirginia Raggi (Five Star Movement>M5S)| total_type = Total| unit_pref = IT| area_footnotes =| area_total_sq_mi = 496.3| elevation_footnote =| elevation_m = 21| elevation_ft = | population_total =| population_as_of = 30 April 2018| population_footnotes =| population_density_km2 = 2236List of cities in Italy>1st, Italy (4th in EU)| population_blank1_title = ComuneACCESSDATE=14 FEBRUARY 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170707030831/HTTP://DEMO.ISTAT.IT/BILMENS2017GEN/INDEX.HTML DF=DMY-ALL, Metropolitan cities of Italy>Metropolitan CityWEBSITE=DEMO.ISTAT.ITARCHIVE-DATE=2015-02-05, live, Central European Time>CET| utc_offset1 = +1Postal code>CAP code(s)| postal_code = 00100; 00118 to 00199| area_code = 06WEBSITE=COMUNE DI ROMA, 2019-08-22, | pushpin_label = Rome| un_locode = | footnotes =

| ID = 91| year = 19801431acre|abbr=on}}| buffer_zone = }}}}Rome (Latin and {{IPA-it|ˈroːma||It-Roma.ogg}}) is the capital city and a special comune of Italy (named Comune di Roma Capitale). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in {{convert|1285|km2|mi2|1|abbr=on}}, it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City (the smallest country in the world)NEWS,weblink What is the smallest country in the world?,, 2018-09-27, en, is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.WEB, Discorsi del Presidente Ciampi,weblink Presidenza della Repubblica, 17 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 September 2013, NEWS, Le istituzioni salutano Benedetto XVI,weblink La Repubblica, 17 May 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 March 2013, dmy-all, Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe.Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and De Rita, D. (2005), The Seven Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton University Press. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans, and Sabines. Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded by some as the first ever metropolis.WEB,weblink Old Age in Ancient Rome – History Today, live,weblink 12 June 2018, dmy-all, It was first called The Eternal City (; ) by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was also taken up by Ovid, Virgil, and Livy.Stephanie Malia Hom, "Consuming the View: Tourism, Rome, and the Topos of the Eternal City", Annali d'Igtalianistica 28:91–116 {{jstor|24016389}}WEB, Andres Perez, Javier, Approximación a la Iconografía de Roma Aeterna,weblink El Futuro del Pasado, 28 May 2014, 349–363, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all, Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy, and in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all the popes since Nicholas V (1447–1455) pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world.BOOK, Giovannoni, Gustavo, Topografia e urbanistica di Roma, 1958, Istituto di Studi Romani, Rome, 346–347, Italian, In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Rome, city, Italy, Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th, 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2010, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic.As in 2019 Rome is ranked as an Alpha - global city in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy.NEWS,weblink World's most visited cities, CNN, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2016, dmy-all, Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.WEB, Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura,weblink UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 8 June 2008, live,weblink 24 February 2011, dmy-all, Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The city also hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the MediterraneanWEB,weblink Rome chosen as seat of Euro-Med Assembly secretariat - Italy, 2018-07-13, (UfM) as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p.A., and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL. Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, and financial services. Rome is also an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies.WEB,weblink Cinecittà: Dream Factory, 2015-03-23, en, 2019-05-20,


File:0142 - Roma - Piazza del Campidoglio - Statua del Tevere - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 7-Apr-2008.jpg|right|thumb|Roman representation of Tiber as a god, Capitoline HillCapitoline HillAccording to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves,BOOK, Printed for A.Strahan, Livy, George Baker (trans.)year=1797, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first Rex (king), Romulus.HTTP://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/EBCHECKED/TOPIC/509038/ROMULUS-AND-REMUS ENCYCLOPEDIA=BRITANNICA.COM ACCESSDATE=9 MARCH 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150317100831/HTTP://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/EBCHECKED/TOPIC/509038/ROMULUS-AND-REMUS DF=DMY-ALL, However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Cf. Jaan Puhvel: Comparative mythology. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London 1989, p. 287. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain:Claudio Rendina: Roma Ieri, Oggi, Domani. Newton Compton, Roma, 2007, p. 17.
  • from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω (rhéō) and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow";{{efn|This hypothesis originates from the Roman Grammarian Maurus Servius Honoratus.}}
  • from the Etruscan word 𐌓𐌖𐌌𐌀 (ruma), whose root is rum- "teat", with possible reference either to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately named twins Romulus and Remus, or to the shape of the Palatine and Aventine Hills;
  • from the Greek word ῥώμη (rhṓmÄ“), which means strength.{{efn|This hypothesis originates from Plutarch.}}


Latins (Italic tribe) c. 2nd millennium – 753 BC
{{flagicon image|Lapis-niger.jpg}} Albanis (Latins) 10th century – 753 BC(Foundation of the city) 9th–c. BC{{flagicon image|Capitoline Wolf of Roman Kingdom.svg}} Roman Kingdom 753–509 BC{{flagicon|Roman Empire}} Roman Republic 509–27 BC {{flag|Roman Empire}} 27 BC–285 AD {{flagicon image|Labarum of Constantine the Great.svg}} Western Roman Empire 285–476 {{flagicon image|Odovacar Ravenna 477.jpg}} Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493 {{flagicon image|Teodorico re dei Goti (493-526).png}} Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 {{flagicon image|Simple Labarum.svg}} Eastern Roman Empire 553–754 {{flagicon image|Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg}} Papal States 754–1870 {{flagicon image|Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg}} Kingdom of Italy 1870–1946 {{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Vatican_City.svg}} Vatican City 1929–present {{flagicon image|Flag of Italy.svg}} Italian Republic 1946–present}}

Earliest history

There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. Evidence of stone tools, pottery, and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village (on the Capitol Hill, a village is attested since the end of the 14th century BC).Coarelli (1984) p. 9 However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed gradually through the aggregation ("synoecism") of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. This aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which also allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy (mainly Ischia and Cumae). These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the city. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome was founded deliberately in the middle of the eighth century BC, as the legend of Romulus suggests, remains a fringe hypothesis.NEWS,weblink More Clues in the Legend (or Is It Fact?) of Romulus, John Nobel, Wilford, 12 June 2007, New York Times, 11 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2009, dmy-all,

Legend of the founding of Rome

File:Kapitolinische Wölfin Museum Capitolini.jpg|thumb|Capitoline Wolf, sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and RemusRomulus and RemusTraditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf. They decided to build a city, but after an argument, Romulus killed his brother and the city took his name. According to the Roman annalists, this happened on 21 April 753 BC.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=73}} This legend had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set earlier in time, that had the Trojan refugee Aeneas escape to Italy and found the line of Romans through his son Iulus, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.BOOK, Penguin Books Ltd, 978-0-14-196307-5, Livy, The Early History of Rome, 2005, This was accomplished by the Roman poet Virgil in the first century BC. In addition, Strabo mentions an older story, that the city was an Arcadian colony founded by Evander. Strabo also writes that Lucius Coelius Antipater believe that Rome was founded by Greeks.WEB,weblink Strabo, Geography, book 5, chapter 3, section 3,, WEB,weblink LacusCurtius • Strabo's Geography — Book V Chapter 3,,

Monarchy, republic, empire

{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = Statue-Augustus.jpg| width1 = 155| caption1 = Augustus| image2 = César Ambrogio Parisi.jpg| width2 = 137| caption2 = Julius Caesar}}After the legendary foundation by Romulus,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=73}} Rome was ruled for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=73}}File:Palatino (Palatine Hill, Rome).jpg|thumb|The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine are a series of palaces located in the Palatine HillPalatine HillIn 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. Rome then began a period characterized by internal struggles between patricians (aristocrats) and plebeians (small landowners), and by constant warfare against the populations of central Italy: Etruscans, Latins, Volsci, Aequi, Marsi.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=77}} After becoming master of Latium, Rome led several wars (against the Gauls, Osci-Samnites and the Greek colony of Taranto, allied with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus) whose result was the conquest of the Italian peninsula, from the central area up to Magna Graecia.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=79}}The third and second century BC saw the establishment of Roman hegemony over the Mediterranean and the East, through the three Punic Wars (264–146 BC) fought against the city of Carthage and the three Macedonian Wars (212–168 BC) against Macedonia.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | pp=81-83}} Then were established the first Roman provinces: Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Hispania, Macedonia, Achaea and Africa.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | pp=81-85}}From the beginning of the 2nd century BC, power was contested between two groups of aristocrats: the optimates, representing the conservative part of the Senate, and the populares, which relied on the help of the plebs (urban lower class) to gain power. In the same period, the bankruptcy of the small farmers and the establishment of large slave estates provoked large-scale migration to the city. The continuous warfare made necessary a professional army, which was more loyal to its generals than to the republic. Because of this, in the second half of the second century and during the first century BC there were conflicts both abroad and internally: after the failed attempt of social reform of the populares Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=89}} and the war against Jugurtha,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=89}} there was a first civil war between Gaius Marius and Sulla.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=89}} To this followed a major slave revolt under Spartacus,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=91}}{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=91}} and then the establishment of the first Triumvirate with Caesar, Pompey and Crassus.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=91}}File:Trajansmärkte Forum.jpg|thumb|left|The Imperial fora belongs to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also in the image can be seen the Trajan's MarketTrajan's MarketThe conquest of Gaul made Caesar immensely powerful and popular, which led to a second civil war against the Senate and Pompey. After his victory, Caesar established himself as dictator for life.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=91}} His assassination led to a second Triumvirate among Octavian (Caesar's grandnephew and heir), Mark Antony and Lepidus, and to another civil war between Octavian and Antony.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=93}} The former in 27 BC became princeps civitatis and got the title of Augustus, founding the principate, a diarchy between the princeps and the senate.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=93}} During the reign of Nero, two thirds of the city was ruined after the Great Fire of Rome and the persecution of Christians commenced.WEB,weblink The Great Fire of Rome {{!, Background {{!}} Secrets of the Dead {{!}} PBS|date=2014-05-29|website=Secrets of the Dead|language=en-US|access-date=2019-04-07}}WEB,weblink Great Fire of Rome, Society, National Geographic, 2014-06-18, National Geographic Society, en, 2019-04-07, BOOK,weblink Egypt, Greece, and Rome : civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean, Freeman, Charles, 1947-, 9780199651917, Third, Oxford, 868077503, Rome was established as a de facto empire, which reached its greatest expansion in the second century under the Emperor Trajan. Rome was confirmed as caput Mundi, i.e. the capital of the world, an expression which had already been given in the Republican period. During its first two centuries, the empire saw as rulers, emperors of the Julio-Claudian,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=97}} Flavian (who also built eponymous amphitheatre, known as the Colosseum){{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=97}} and Antonine dynasties.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=99}} This time was also characterised by the spread of the Christian religion, preached by Jesus Christ in Judea in the first half of the first century (under Tiberius) and popularized by his apostles through the empire and beyond.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=107}} The Antonine age is considered the apogee of the Empire, whose territory ranged from the Atlantic Ocean to the Euphrates and from Britain to Egypt.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=99}}(File:RomanEmpire 117.svg|thumb|right|The Roman Empire at its greatest extent controlled approximately {{convert|6.5|e6km2|e6sqmi|1|abbr=off}}Parker, Philip, "The Empire Stops Here". p. 2. of land surface.)File:Foro Romano Forum Romanum Roman Forum (8043630550).jpg|thumb|right|280px|The Roman ForumRoman ForumAfter the end of the Severan Dynasty in 235, the Empire entered into 50-year period known as the Crisis of the Third Century during which there were numerous putsches by generals, who sought to secure the region of the empire they were entrusted with due to the weakness of central authority in Rome. There was the so-called Gallic Empire from 260-274 and the revolts of Zenobia and her father from the mid-260s which sought to fend off Persian incursions. Some regions – Britain, Spain, and North Africa – were hardly affected. Instability caused economic deterioration, and there was a rapid rise in inflation as the government debased the currency in order to meet expenses. The Germanic tribes along the Rhine and north of the Balkans made serious, uncoordinated incursions from the 250s-280s that were more like giant raiding parties rather than attempts to settle. The Persian Empire in the East invaded several times during the 230s to 260s but were eventually defeated.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=101}}Emperor Diocletian (284) undertook the restoration of the State. He ended the Principate and introduced the so-called dominate which tried to give the impression of absolute power. The most marked feature was the unprecedented intervention of the State down to the city level: whereas the State had submitted a tax demand to a city and allowed it to allocate the charges, from his reign the State did this down to the village level. In a vain attempt to control inflation, he imposed price controls which did not last. He or Constantine regionalized the administration of the empire which fundamentally changed the way it was governed by creating regional dioceses (the consensus seems to have shifted from 297 to 313/14 as the date of creation due to the argument of Constantin Zuckerman in 2002 "Sur la liste de Verone et la province de grande armenie, Melanges Gilber Dagron). The existence of regional fiscal units from 286 served as the model for this unprecedented innovation. The emperor quickened the process of removing military command from governors. Henceforth, civilian administration and military command would be separate. He gave governors more fiscal duties and placed them in charge of the army logistical support system as an attempt to control it by removing the support system from its control. Diocletian ruled the eastern half (with residence in Nicomedia). In 296, he elevated Maximian as Augustus of the western half where he ruled mostly from Mediolanum (Current day Milan) when not on the move.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=101}} In 292, he created two 'junior' emperors, the Caesars, one for each Augustus, Constantius for Britain, Gaul, and Spain whose seat of power was in Trier and Licinius in Srimium in the Balkans. The appointment of a Caesar was not unknown: Diocletian tried to turn into a system of non-dynastic succession. Upon abdication in 305, Caesars succeeded and they in turn appointed two colleagues for themselves.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=101}}File:Piazza di porta san Paolo 102 2167.jpg|left|thumb|The Pyramid of Caius Cestius and the Aurelian WallsAurelian WallsAfter the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305 and a series of civil wars between rival claimants to imperial power, during the years 306–313, the Tetrarchy was abandoned. Constantine the Great undertook a major reform of the bureaucracy, not by changing the structure but by rationalizing the competencies of the several ministries during the years 325–330, after he defeated Licinius, emperor in the East, at the end of 324.The so-called Edict of Milan of 313, actually a fragment of a Letter from Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, granted freedom of worship to everyone, including to Christians, and ordered the restoration of confiscated church properties upon petition to the newly created vicars of dioceses. He funded the building of several churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits (a measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much later). He transformed the town of Byzantium into his new residence, which however, was not officially anything more than an imperial residence like Milan or Trier or Nicomedia until given a city prefect in May 359 by Constantius II; Constantinople.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=103}} The creation of Constantinople would have a profound effect on Europe: it was the bulwark against invasion and conquest from the East for roughly 1,000 years.Christianity in the form of the Nicene Creed became the official religion of the empire in 380, via the Edict of Thessalonica issued in the name of three emperors – Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I – with Theodosius clearly the driving force behind it. He was the last emperor of a unified empire: after his death in 395, his sons, Arcadius and Honorius divided the empire into a western and an eastern part. The seat of government in the Western Roman Empire was transferred to Ravenna after the Siege of Milan in 402. During the 5th century, the emperors from the 430s mostly resided in the capital city, Rome.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=103}}Rome, which had lost its central role in the administration of the empire, was sacked in 410 by the Visigoths led by Alaric I,{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=115}} but very little physical damage was done, most of which was repaired. What could not be so easily replaced were portable items such as art work in precious metals and items for domestic use (loot). The popes embellished the city with large basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore (with the collaboration of the emperors). The population of the city had fallen from 800,000 to 450–500,000 by the time the city was sacked in 455 by Genseric, king of the Vandals.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=117}} The weak emperors of the fifth century could not stop the decay, leading to the deposition of Romulus Augustus on 22 August 476, which marked the end of the Western Roman Empire and, for many historians, the beginning of the Middle Ages.{{sfn | Kinder | Hilgemann | 1964 | p=103}} The decline of the city's population was caused by the loss of grain shipments from North Africa, from 440 onward, and the unwillingness of the senatorial class to maintain donations to support a population that was too large for the resources available. Even so, strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the Gothic siege of 537. The large baths of Constantine on the Quirinale were even repaired in 443; and the extent of the damage exaggerated and dramatized.Rome, An Urban History from Antiquity to the Present, Rabun Taylor, Katherine W. Rinne and Spiro Kostof, 2016 pp. 160–179 However, the city gave an appearance overall of shabbiness and decay because of the large abandoned areas due to population decline. Population declined to 500,000 by 452 and 100,000 by 500 AD (perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known). After the Gothic siege of 537, population dropped to 30,000, but had risen to 90,000 by the papacy of Gregory the Great.Rome, Profile of a City: 321–1308, Richard Krautheimer, p. 165 The population decline coincided with the general collapse of urban life in the West in the 5th and 6th centuries, with few exceptions. Subsidized state grain distributions to the poorer members of society continued right through the 6th century and probably prevented the population from falling further.Rome, Urban History, pp. 184–185 The figure of 450,000–500,000 is based on the amount of pork, 3,629,000 lbs. distributed to poorer Romans during five winter months at the rate of 5 Roman lbs per person per month, enough for 145,000 persons or 1/4 or 1/3 of the total population.Novel 36, 2, Emperor Valeninian III Grain distribution to 80,000 ticket holders at the same time suggests 400,000 (Augustus set the number at 200,000 or one-fifth of the population).

Middle Ages

File:Sack of Rome by Alaric - sacred vessels are brought to a church for safety (2nd of 2).jpg|thumb|right|15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visighotic king Alaric IAlaric IThe Bishop of Rome, called the Pope, was important since the early days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles Peter and Paul there. The Bishops of Rome were also seen (and still are seen by Catholics) as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome. The city thus became of increasing importance as the centre of the Catholic Church. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome was first under the control of Odoacer and then became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom before returning to East Roman control after the Gothic War, which devastated the city in 546 and 550. Its population declined from more than a million in 210 AD to 500,000 in 273WEB, Editors, Mandatory,weblink travel, history, civilizations, greatest cities, largest cities, Rome, Mandatory, 24 January 2013, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2013, dmy-all, to 35,000 after the Gothic War (535–554),BOOK, Tellier, Luc-Normand, Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective,weblink 2009, PUQ, 978-2-7605-2209-1, 185, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins, vegetation, vineyards and market gardens.Norman John Greville Pounds. An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.–A.D. 1330. p. 192. It is generally thought the population of the city until 300 AD was 1 million (estimates range from 2 million to 750,000) declining to 750–800,000 in 400 AD, 450–500,000 in 450 AD and down to 80–100,000 in 500 AD (though it may have been twice this).Rome in Late Antiquity, Bernard Lancon, 2001, pp. 14, pp. 115–119 {{ISBN|0-415-92976-8}}; Rome Profile of a City, Richard Krautheimer, 2000, pp. 4, 65 {{ISBN|0-691-04961-0}}; Ancient Rome, The Archaeology of the Eternal City, Editors Jon Coulston and Hazel Dodge, pp. 142–165 {{ISBN|978-0-947816-55-1}}After the Lombard invasion of Italy, the city remained nominally Byzantine, but in reality the popes pursued a policy of equilibrium between the Byzantines, the Franks, and the Lombards.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}} In 729, the Lombard king Liutprand donated to the church the north Latium town of Sutri, starting the temporal power of the church.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}} In 756, Pepin the Short, after having defeated the Lombards, gave to the Pope temporal jurisdiction over the Roman Duchy and the Exarchate of Ravenna, thus creating the Papal States.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}} Since this period, three powers tried to rule the city: the pope, the nobility (together with the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace), and the Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius, and Emperor.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}} These three parties (theocratic, republican, and imperial) were a characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}} On the Christmas night of 800, Charlemagne was crowned in Rome as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III: on that occasion the city hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for the universal power was to be a constant of the Middle Ages.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=19}}File:Detail coronation Charles the Great (Francis 1st of France) by Pope Leo III (Leo X) Vatican 11.jpg|left|thumb|Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's BasilicaOld Saint Peter's BasilicaIn 846, Muslim Arabs unsuccessfully stormed the city's walls, but managed to loot St. Peter's and St. Paul's basilica, both outside the city wall.WEB,weblink Italian Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D., 2008-12-05, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-12-05, dead, 2019-08-22, After the decay of Carolingian power, Rome fell prey to feudal anarchy: several noble families kept fighting against the pope, the emperor, and each other. These were the times of Theodora and her daughter Marozia, concubines and mothers of several popes, and of Crescentius, a powerful feudal lord, who fought against the Emperors Otto II and III.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=20}} The scandals of this period pushed the papacy to reform itself: the election of the pope was reserved to the cardinals, and a reform of the clergy was attempted. The driving force behind this renewal was the monk Ildebrando da Soana, who once elected pope under the name of Gregory VII became involved into the Investiture Controversy against Emperor Henry IV.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=20}} Subsequently, Rome was sacked and burned by the Normans of Robert Guiscard who had entered the city in support of the Pope, who was besieged in Castel S. Angelo.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=20}}During this period, the city was autonomously ruled by a senatore or patrizio: in the 12th century. This administration, as often in the Italian cities, evolved into the commune, a new form of social organisation, expression of the new wealthy classes.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=20}} Pope Lucius II had already to fight against the Roman commune, and the struggle was continued by his successor pope Eugenius III: then the commune, allied with the nobility, was supported by Arnaldo da Brescia, a monk who was a religious and social reformer.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} After the pope's death, Arnaldo was taken prisoner by Adrianus IV, which marked the end of the comune's autonomy.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} Under Pope Innocent III, whose reign marked the apogee of the papacy, the commune liquidated the senate, and replaced it with a Senatore, who was subject to the pope.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}}In this period, the papacy played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs and exercising additional political powers.Faus, José Ignacio Gonzáles. "Autoridade da Verdade – Momentos Obscuros do Magistério Eclesiástico". Capítulo VIII: Os papas repartem terras – Pág.: 64–65 e Capítulo VI: O papa tem poder temporal absoluto – Pág.: 49–55. Edições Loyola. {{ISBN|85-15-01750-4}}. Embora Faus critique profundamente o poder temporal dos papas ("Mais uma vez isso salienta um dos maiores inconvenientes do status político dos sucessores de Pedro" – pág.: 64), ele também admite um papel secular positivo por parte dos papas ("Não podemos negar que intervenções papais desse gênero evitaram mais de uma guerra na Europa" – pág.: 65).{{cathEncy|wstitle=Papal Arbitration|author=Jarrett, Bede}}Such as regulating the colonization of the New World. See Treaty of Tordesillas and Inter caetera.In 1266, Charles of Anjou, who was heading south to fight the Hohenstaufen on behalf of the pope, was appointed Senator. Charles founded the Sapienza, the university of Rome.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} In that period the pope died, and the cardinals, summoned in Viterbo, could not agree on his successor: the people of the city, angered, unroofed the building where they had met, imprisoning them until they had nominated the new pope: this happening marked the birth of the conclave.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} In this period the city was also shattered by continuous fights among the noble families: Annibaldi, Caetani, Colonna, Orsini, Conti, nested in their fortresses built above ancient Roman edifices, fought each other to control the papacy.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}}Pope Boniface VIII, born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the church's universal domain: he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna and, in 1300, called for the first Jubilee of Christianity, which brought to Rome millions of pilgrims.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} However, his hopes were crushed by the French king Philip the Fair, who took him prisoner and slashed him in Anagni, causing his death.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=21}} Afterwards, a new pope faithful to the French was elected, and the papacy was briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377).{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} During this period the city was neglected, until the power fell in the hand of a plebeian man, Cola di Rienzo.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} An idealist and a lover of ancient Rome, Cola dreamed about a rebirth of the Roman Empire: after assuming the power with the title of Tribuno, his reforms were rejected by the populace.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} Forced to flee, Cola could come back among the suite of cardinal Albornoz, in charge of restoring the church power in Italy.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} Back in power for a short time, he was lynched by the populace, and Albornoz could take possession of the city, that, in 1377, under Gregory XI, became again the seat of the papacy.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} The return of the pope to Rome in that year unleashed the western Schism (1377–1418), and during the next forty years, the city was prey of the fights which shattered the church.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}}

Early modern

File:Wolf-Dietrich-Klebeband Städtebilder G 123 III.jpg|thumb|Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario CartaroMario CartaroFile:0 Castel et pont Sant'Angelo (1).JPG|thumb|right|Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, it's a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, here Pope Alexander VI secluded himself, from the Ponte Sant'AngeloPonte Sant'AngeloFile:Fontana della Barcaccia restaurata, guardando verso Piazza Mignanelli.jpg|thumb|Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo BerniniGian Lorenzo BerniniIn 1418, the Council of Constance settled the Western Schism, and a Roman pope, Martin V, was elected.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}}This brought to Rome a century of internal peace, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} The ruling popes until the first half of the 16th century, from Nicholas V, founder of the Vatican Library, to Pius II, humanist and literate, from Sixtus IV, a warrior pope, to Alexander VI, immoral and nepotist, from Julius II, soldier and patron, to Leo X, who gave his name to this period ("the century of Leo X"), all devoted their energy to the greatness and the beauty of the Eternal City, to the power of their stock{{clarify|date=August 2017}}, and to the patronage of the arts.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}}During those years, the centre of the Italian Renaissance moved to Rome from Florence. Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity, although on Roman foundation) were created. To accomplish that, the Popes engaged the best artists of the time, including Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli.The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. The corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation. Under extravagant and rich popes, Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music, literature, education and culture. Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture.The Renaissance period changed the face of Rome dramatically, with works like the Pietà by Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartments. Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope Julius II (1503–1513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family.File:Lingelbach Karneval in Rom 001a.jpg|thumb|CarnivalCarnivalFile:View of the Piazza Navona, Rome LACMA 49.17.3.jpg|thumb|A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van LintHendrik Frans van LintIn this twenty-year period, Rome became one of the greatest centres of art in the world. The old St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the GreatWEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, Basilica of St. Peter,, 1 February 1912, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 January 2010, dmy-all, (which by then was in a dilapidated state) was demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli and Bramante, who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican. Raphael, who in Rome became one of the most famous painters of Italy, created frescoes in the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, plus many other famous paintings. Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and executed the famous statue of the Moses for the tomb of Julius II. Rome lost in part its religious character, becoming increasingly a true Renaissance city, with a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties, intrigues and licentious episodes.Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts. Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins. The fight between France and Spain in Europe caused the first plunder of the city in less than five hundred years after the previous sack. In 1527, the Landsknechts of Emperor Charles V sacked the city, putting to an abrupt end the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}}Beginning with the Council of Trent in 1545, the Church began the Counter-Reformation as an answer to the Reformation, a large-scale questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and governmental affairs. (This loss of confidence then led to major shifts of power away from the Church.){{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} Under the popes from Pius IV to Sixtus V, Rome became the centre of the reformed Catholicism and saw the instalment of new monuments which celebrated the papacy's restored greatness.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=23}} The popes and cardinals of the 17th and early 18th centuries continued the movement by having the city's landscape enriched with baroque buildings.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=23}}This was another nepotistic age: the new noble families (Barberini, Pamphili, Chigi, Rospigliosi, Altieri, Odescalchi) were protected by their respective popes, who built for their relatives huge baroque buildings.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=23}} During the Age of Enlightenment, new ideas reached also the Eternal City, where the papacy supported archaeological studies and improved the people's welfare.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}} But not everything went well for the Church during the Counter-Reformation. There were setbacks in the attempts to restrain the anti-Church policies of European powers of the time, the most notable setback perhaps being in 1773 when Pope Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order suppressed.{{sfn | Bertarelli | 1925 | p=22}}

Late modern and contemporary

The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (1798–1800), which was built under the influence of the French Revolution. The Papal States were restored in June 1800, but during Napoleon's reign Rome was annexed as a Département of the French Empire: first as Département du Tibre (1808–1810) and then as Département Rome (1810–1814). After the fall of Napoleon, the Church State under the pope was reinstated by decision of the Congress of Vienna of 1814.In 1849, a second Roman Republic was proclaimed during a year of revolutions in 1848. Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification, Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought for the short-lived republic.Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 with the temporary capital in Florence. That year Rome was declared capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III. French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control. in 1870 the French troops were withdrawn due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Italian troops were able to capture Rome entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Pope Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican. In 1871 the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, Pope Pius IX,, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2017, dmy-all, In 1870 the population of the city was 212,000, not all of whom lived with the area circumscribed by the ancient city walls of which 25% was built up; and in 1920, the population was 660,000, 75% within the walls was built up - however a significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area.File:Bombardamento di Roma.gif|thumb|right|Bombardment of Rome by Allied troops, 1943]]Soon after World War I in late 1922 Rome witnessed the rise of Italian Fascism led by Benito Mussolini, who led a march on the city. He did away with democracy by 1926 eventually declaring a new Italian Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany in 1938. Mussolini demolished fairly large parts of the city center in order to build wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist regime and the resurgence and glorification of classical Rome.BOOK, Cederna, Antonio, Mussolini urbanista, 1979, Laterza, Bari, passim, Italian, The interwar period saw a rapid growth in the city's population which surpassed one million inhabitants soon after 1930. During World War II, due to the art treasuries and the presence of the Vatican, Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny of other European cities. However, on 19 July 1943 the San Lorenzo district was bombed by Anglo-American forces, resulting in about 3,000 immediate deaths and 11,000 wounded of whom another 1,500 died. Mussolini was dismissed July 25. On the date of the Italian Armistice 8 September 1943 the city was occupied by the Germans. The Pope declared Rome an open city. It was liberated on June 4, 1944.Rome developed greatly after the war as part of the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation in the 1950s and early 1960s. During this period, the years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"), Rome became a fashionable city, with popular classic films such as Ben Hur, Quo Vadis, Roman Holiday and La Dolce Vita filmed in the city's iconic Cinecittà film studios. The rising trend in population growth continued until the mid-1980s, when the comune had more than 2.8 million residents. After that, population started to decline slowly as inhabitants began to move to nearby suburbs of Rome.'''EUR{Esposizione Universale Roma} [Edit].'''The EUR (initial designation R 42) is a residential and business area south of the city center. The region was originally selected in the 1930 as the venue of the 1942 World Fair, which Benito Mussolini planned to open to celebrate 20 years of fascism. The letters EUR mean Esposizione Universale Roma. The EU was also designed to direct the expansion of the city to the southwest and the sea and to become a new urban centre in Rome. The final design was presented in 1939 but due to the Second World War the exhibition never happened and the works stopped in 1942. [10] After the war, the unfinished facilities of the EUR were severely damaged.However, the authorities of Rome found that EUR could be the start of a super-urban business centre, which other capitals began planning decades later (the Docklands in London and the Dephance in Paris). So in the decades of 1950 and 1960 the unfinished buildings of the fascist era were completed and other new buildings were built at modern rates for the use of offices and governmental services, amid large gardens and parks.The EUR was almost fully completed for the 1960 Olympic Games. 11


{{See also|Mayor of Rome|City Council of Rome|Administrative subdivision of Rome}}

Local government

Rome constitutes a speciale, named "Roma Capitale",WEB,weblink Roma diventa Capitale, 6 March 2012, Italian, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2012, dmy-all, and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8,101 comuni of Italy. It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The seat of the comune is the Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill, the historic seat of the city government. The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio", the Italian name of the hill.

Administrative and historical subdivisions

(File:Roma - Municipi numerata.png|thumb|The municipi of Rome)File:Piazza della repubblica hdr.jpg|thumb|right|The Piazza della Repubblica, RomePiazza della Repubblica, RomeSince 1972, the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi (sing. municipio) (until 2001 named circoscrizioni).WEB, Territorio, Comune di Roma, 5 October 2009,weblink Italian, {{Dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} They were created for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation in the city. Each municipio is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years. The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city. The municipi were originally 20, then 19.In 1992 after a referendum the XIX Circoscrizione became the Comune of Fiumicino In 2013, their number has been reduced to 15.NEWS, Roma, sì all'accorpamento dei municipi: il Consiglio li riduce da 19 a 15,weblink 13 March 2013, Il Messaggero, 11 March 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2013, dmy-all, Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units. The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni, all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo.These originate from the Regiones of ancient Rome, which evolved in the Middle Ages into the medieval rioni.WEB,weblink The "Rioni" of Rome,, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 May 2009, dmy-all, In the Renaissance, under Pope Sixtus V, they reached again the number of fourteen, and their boundaries were finally defined under Pope Benedict XIV in 1743.A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon was ephemeral, and there were no sensible changes in the organisation of the city until 1870, when Rome became the third capital of Italy. The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls. In 1874, a fifteenth rione, Esquilino, was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. At the beginning of the 20th century other rioni where created (the last one was Prati – the only one outside the Walls of Pope Urban VIII – in 1921). Afterward, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city the name "quartiere" was used. Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city (Centro Storico).

Metropolitan and regional government

Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome, operative since 1 January 2015. The Metropolitan City replaced the old province, which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia. The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. At {{convert|5352|km2}}, its dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria. Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio region.

National government

File:Quirinale palazzo e obelico con dioscuri Roma.jpg|thumb|right|The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic ]]Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government. The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister, the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre. The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.



Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy on the Tiber () river. The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber Island, the only natural ford of the river in this area. The Rome of the Kings was built on seven hills: the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Capitoline Hill, the Esquiline Hill, the Palatine Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal Hill. Modern Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene, which flows into the Tiber north of the historic centre.Although the city centre is about {{convert|24|km|mi|0}} inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the shore, where the south-western district of Ostia is located. The altitude of the central part of Rome ranges from {{convert|13|m|0}} above sea level (at the base of the Pantheon) to {{convert|139|m|0}} above sea level (the peak of Monte Mario).BOOK, Ravaglioli, Armando, Roma anno 2750 ab Urbe condita, Tascabili Economici Newton, 1997, Rome, Italian, 978-88-8183-670-3, The Comune of Rome covers an overall area of about {{convert|1285|km2|0}}, including many green areas.


(File:Satellite view of Rome 2001.jpg|thumb|Satellite view of Rome)(File:Roma dall'aereo.JPG|thumb|right|Aerial view of Rome)Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city's walls. Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall, which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in 390 BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. These were almost {{convert |19|km|0}} long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom of Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870. The city's urban area is cut in two by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare ("GRA"), finished in 1962, which circles the city centre at a distance of about {{convert|10|km|0|abbr=on}}. Although when the ring was completed most part of the inhabited area lay inside it (one of the few exceptions was the former village of Ostia, which lies along the Tyrrhenian coast), in the meantime quarters have been built which extend up to {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} beyond it.The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan and Naples, and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities. It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development.As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves, and for agricultural use.


Rome has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa),WEB,weblink World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2010, dmy-all, hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters.Its average annual temperature is above {{convert|20|°C|°F|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|10|°C|°F|abbr=on}} at night. In the coldest month, January, the average temperature is {{convert|12|°C|°F|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|3|°C|°F|abbr=on}} at night. In the warmest months, July and August, the average temperature is {{convert|30|°C|°F|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|18|°C|°F|abbr=on}} at night.December, January and February are the coldest months, with a daily mean temperature of {{convert|8|°C|°F|abbr=on}}.Temperatures during these months generally vary between {{convert|10|and|15|C|F}} during the day and between {{convert|3|and|5|C|F|abbr=on}} at night, with colder or warmer spells occurring frequently. Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring almost every winter, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls approximately once every 5 years (most recently in 2018, previously 2012).WEB,weblink Storia della neve a Roma, 2 October 2014, 27 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink WEB, Snow startles Rome on Europe's coldest day of the winter, The Mercury News, 2018-02-26,weblink 2019-08-22, The average relative humidity is 75%, varying from 72% in July to 77% in November. Sea temperatures vary from a low of {{convert|13|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in February and March to a high of {{convert|24|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in August.WEB, Climate in Rome,, 2017-06-24,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2017-06-24, unfit, 2019-08-22, {{Weather boxRome Ciampino Airport (altitude: 105 m sl, {{convert>130LAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, )|metric first= yes|single line= yes|Jan high C= 11.9|Feb high C= 13.0|Mar high C= 15.2|Apr high C= 17.7|May high C= 22.8|Jun high C= 26.9|Jul high C= 30.3|Aug high C= 30.6|Sep high C= 26.5|Oct high C= 21.4|Nov high C= 15.9|Dec high C= 12.6|year high C= 20.4|Jan mean C= 7.5|Feb mean C= 8.2|Mar mean C= 10.2|Apr mean C= 12.6|May mean C= 17.2|Jun mean C= 21.1|Jul mean C= 24.1|Aug mean C= 24.5|Sep mean C= 20.8|Oct mean C= 16.4|Nov mean C= 11.4|Dec mean C= 8.4|year mean C= 15.2|Jan low C= 3.1|Feb low C= 3.5|Mar low C= 5.2|Apr low C= 7.5|May low C= 11.6|Jun low C= 15.3|Jul low C= 18.0|Aug low C= 18.3|Sep low C= 15.2|Oct low C= 11.3|Nov low C= 6.9|Dec low C= 4.2|year low C= 10.0|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm= 66.9|Feb precipitation mm= 73.3|Mar precipitation mm= 57.8|Apr precipitation mm= 80.5|May precipitation mm= 52.8|Jun precipitation mm= 34.0|Jul precipitation mm= 19.2|Aug precipitation mm= 36.8|Sep precipitation mm= 73.3|Oct precipitation mm= 113.3|Nov precipitation mm= 115.4|Dec precipitation mm= 81.0|year precipitation mm= 804.3|Jan precipitation days= 7.0|Feb precipitation days= 7.6|Mar precipitation days= 7.6|Apr precipitation days= 9.2|May precipitation days= 6.2|Jun precipitation days= 4.3|Jul precipitation days= 2.1|Aug precipitation days= 3.3|Sep precipitation days= 6.2|Oct precipitation days= 8.2|Nov precipitation days= 9.7|Dec precipitation days= 8.0|year precipitation days= 79.4|unit precipitation days = 1 mm|Jan sun= 120.9|Feb sun= 132.8|Mar sun= 167.4|Apr sun= 201.0|May sun= 263.5|Jun sun= 285.0|Jul sun= 331.7|Aug sun= 297.6|Sep sun= 237.0|Oct sun= 195.3|Nov sun= 129.0|Dec sun= 111.6|year sun= 2472.8|source 1= Servizio Meteorologico,WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2017,weblink Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di Roma-Ciampino Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000, Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare, data of sunshine hoursWEB,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2017,weblink
, Visualizzazione tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages Listed for the station Roma Ciampino, 13 June 2011, (1971–2000)|date=December 2014}}


{{Historical populations|type=National Institute of Statistics (Italy)>ISTAT, 2001194500212432273952422411518917660235930926115058916517542188160278199328402592775250266318226171752876051}}In 550 BC, Rome was the second largest city in Italy, with Tarentum being the largest.{{Citation needed|date=August 2019}} It had an area of about {{convert|285|ha|abbr=off}} and an estimated population of 35,000. Other sources suggest the population was just under 100,000 from 600–500 BC.Cornell (1995) 204–205BOOK,weblink Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome, Gregory S. Aldrete, 30 January 2007, 13 July 2014, live,weblink 30 November 2015, dmy-all, 978-0-8018-8405-4, When the Republic was founded in 509 BC the census recorded a population of 130,000. The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of 150,000 in 500 BC. It surpassed 300,000 in 150 BC.BOOK,weblink The History of Human Populations: Forms of growth and decline, P.M.G. Harris, 13 July 2014, live,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, 978-0-275-97131-1, 2001, JOURNAL, Herreros, Francisco,weblink Size and Virtue, European Journal of Political Theory, 6, 4, 463–482, 13 July 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, 10.1177/1474885107080651, 2007, JOURNAL, 295257, Roman Population, Territory, Tribe, City, and Army Size from the Republic's Founding to the Veientane War, 509 B.C.–400 B.C., Lorne H., Ward, 1 January 1990, The American Journal of Philology, 111, 1, 5–39, 10.2307/295257, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 September 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 January 2016, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present, Paul Bairoch, 18 June 1991, 13 July 2014, live,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, 978-0-226-03466-9, The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range. Glenn Storey estimates 450,000 people, Whitney Oates estimates 1.2 million, Neville Morely provides a rough estimate of 800,000 and excludes earlier suggestions of 2 million.N.Morley, Metropolis and Hinterland (Cambridge, 1996) 33–39Duiker, 2001. p. 149.{{expand citation|date=August 2019}}JOURNAL, Storey, Glenn R., 1997, The population of ancient Rome, Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 71, 274, 966–978, 10.1017/s0003598x00085859, 0003-598X, JOURNAL, Oates, Whitney J.,weblink The Population of Rome, Classical Philology, University of Chicago Press, 29, 2, 1934, 0009-837X, 10.1086/361701, 101–116, Estimates of the city's population vary. A.H.M. Jones estimated the population at 650,000 in the mid-fifth century. In any case, the damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated. The population already started to decline from the late 4th century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire.Arnold HM Jones The Decline of the Ancient World, Lonmans, Green and Co. Ltd, London 1966 According to Krautheimer it was still close to 800,000 in 400 A.D.; had declined to 500,000 by 452; and dwindled to perhaps 100,000 in 500 A.D. After the Gothic Wars, 535-552, the population may have dwindled temporarily to 30,000. During the pontificate of Gregory, 590-604, it may have reached 90,000 augmented by refugees.Richard Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City, 312-1308, 2000 p. 65 {{ISBN|0-691-04961-0}} Lancon estimates 500,000 based on the of 'incisi,' enrolled as eligible to receive bread, oil and wine rations, was 200,000 in the 4th century 25%-30% of the population; the number fell to 120,000 in the reform of 419 which suggests the population may have declined by 300,000.Bernard Lancon, Rome in Late Antiquity, 2001 p. 14 {{ISBN|0-415-92976-8}} Neil Christie citing free rations for the poorest estimated 500,000 in the mid-fifth century and still a quarter of a million at end of the century.Neil Christie, From Constantine to Charlemagne, An Archaeology of Italy 300-800 A.D. 2006 p. 61, ISBN 978-85928-421-6 Novel 36 of emperor Valentinian III records 3.629 million pounds of pork to be distributed to the needy at 5 lbs. per month for the five winter months sufficient for 145,000 recipients. This has been used to suggest a population just under 500,000. Supplies of grain remained in full until the seizure of the remaining provinces of North Africa in 439 by the Vandals, and may have continued to some degree afterwards for a while. The city's population declined to less than 50,000 people in the Dark Ages from the 700 A.D. It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance.P. Llewellyn, Rome in the Dark Ages (London 1993), p. 97.When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 225,000. Less than half the city within the walls was built up in 1881 when the population recorded was 275,000. This increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early 1930s.{{citation needed|date=March 2014}}{{clarify|why?|date=March 2014}} Population growth continued after the Second World War, helped by a post-war economic boom. A construction boom also created a many suburbs during the 1950s and 1960s.In mid-2010, there were 2,754,440 residents in the city proper, while some 4.2 million people lived in the greater Rome area (which can be approximately identified with its administrative metropolitan city, with a population density of about 800 inhabitants/km2 stretching over more than 5,000 km2). Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.00% of the population compared to pensioners who number 20.76%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Rome grew by 6.54%, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56%.WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT,, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2009, dmy-all, The current{{when|date=August 2017}} birth rate of Rome is 9.10 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.{{citation needed|date=August 2017}}The urban area of Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 3.9 million.WEB,weblink Demographia World Urban Areas, January 2015,,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-05-17, unfit, Between 3.2 and 4.2 million people live in the Rome metropolitan area.WEB,weblink Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), 2006, European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Ch. 3, 2019-08-22, WEB, Total population in Urban Audit cities, Larger Urban Zone, Total population in Urban Audit cities, Larger Urban Zone, 2009, Eurostat,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-09-24, unfit, 2019-08-22, WEB,weblink World Urbanization Prospects (2009 revision), 2010, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, (Table A.12. Data for 2007),weblink" title="">weblink 2010-04-25, dead, 2019-08-22, BOOK, OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Territorial Reviews Competitive Cities in the Global Economy,weblink 2006, OECD Publishing, Table 1.1, 978-92-64-02708-4,weblink 16 October 2015, live, WEB,weblink Major Agglomerations of the World, Brinkoff, Thomas, 2019-01-01, Population Statistics and Maps,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-07-04, unfit,

Ethnic groups

File:Esquilino da s M Maggiore 1240961.JPG|thumb|right|The Esquilino rione.]]According to the latest statistics conducted by ISTAT,WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT,, 30 January 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2011, dmy-all, approximately 9.5% of the population consists of non-Italians. About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins (chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian) numbering a combined total of 131,118 or 4.7% of the population. The remaining 4.8% are those with non-European origins, chiefly Filipinos (26,933), Bangladeshis (12,154), and Chinese (10,283).The Esquilino rione, off Termini Railway Station, has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood. It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown. Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there. A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine. There are wholesale clothes shops. Of the 1,300 or so commercial premises operating in the district 800 are Chinese-owned; around 300 are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; 200 are owned by Italians.WEB, Pretto, Emiliano, Rome Post - what's happening in Rome,, 2009-06-21,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-06-21, unfit, 2019-08-22,


File:La basilique Saint-Jean-de-Latran (Rome) (5990055352).jpg|thumb|right|Archbasilica of Saint John LateranArchbasilica of Saint John Lateran{| class="wikitable sortable floatright" style="font-size: 80%" Religion in Rome (2015)WEB,weblink Diocese of Roma - Statistics, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink A Roma e Provincia, immigrati il 10% degli abitanti: una guida alle religioni, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink Roma prima città italiana per presenza Musulmana, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink Gli Ebrei a Roma, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink Popolazione Roma 2001-2018, 11 July 2019, ! Affiliation! colspan="2"|% of population|Roman Catholic '''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'''Orthodox Christianity>Eastern Orthodox '''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'''Protestantism>Protestant '''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'''Islam>Muslim '''{{bartable|background:#87A96B}}'''Italian Jews>Jewish '''{{bartable|background:#E9967A}}'''Religious denomination>Other or non-religious '''{{bartable|background:#A9B2C3}}'''Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Roman Catholic, and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope. Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana (literally, the "Roman Religion") was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity. The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter, the most high, and Mars, god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus, according to tradition. Other gods and goddesses such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism. Later, after St Peter and St Paul were martyred in the city, and the first Christians began to arrive, Rome became Christian, and the Old St. Peter's Basilica was constructed in 313 AD. Despite some interruptions (such as the Avignon papacy), Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome, otherwise known as the Pope.File:Roma - 2016-05-23 - Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore - 2957.jpg|thumb|left|Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, it is one of the four Papal major basilicamajor basilicaDespite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. Peter's Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, located to the south-east of the city-centre. There are around 900 churches in Rome in total, aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include: the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the Basilica di San Clemente, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and the Church of the Gesù. There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, and Pontifical Oriental Institute.In recent years, there has been growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North African and Middle Eastern countries into the city.{{clarify |date=June 2017 |reason= How many Muslim migrants came; how many are living in Rome today?}} As a result of this increase of the local practitioners of the Islamic faith, the comune promoted the building of the Mosque of Rome, which is the largest mosque in Western Europe, that was designed by architect Paolo Portoghesi and inaugurated on 21 June 1995. Since the end of the Roman Republic, Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community,Coarelli, p. 308. which was once based in Trastevere, and later in the Roman Ghetto. There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore.

Vatican City

{{wide image|Vatikan Kolonaden Petersdom.jpg|1000px|alt=Panorama of St. Peter's Square|St. Peter's Square in Vatican City.}}The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus (Vatican Hill), and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city on the west bank of the Tiber, the area was a suburb that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV, later expanded by the current fortification walls of Paul III/Pius IV/Urban VIII.When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.The territory includes Saint Peter's Square, separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione, which runs from the Tiber to St. Peter's. This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, for want of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.


File:Petersdom bei Nacht Via della Conciliazione in Rome.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|right|St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della ConciliazioneVia della ConciliazioneRome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. The Pope was the most influential figure during the Middle Ages. The city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages and the focus of struggles between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in Rome in 800 by Pope Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377). Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St. Peter.Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to many sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem, which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial.NEWS,weblink Steps Jesus walked to trial restored to glory, Moore, Malcolm, 2007-06-13,, 2019-08-22, en-GB, 0307-1235, The stairs were, reputedly, brought to Rome by St. Helena in the 4th Century. For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Object of pilgrimage are also several catacombs built in the Roman age, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches (among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima), or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome and Roman citizens thanking God for a grace should visit by foot the seven pilgrim churches () in 24 hours. This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. The seven churches are the four major Basilicas (St Peter in Vatican, St Paul outside the Walls, St John in Lateran and Santa Maria Maggiore), while the other three are San Lorenzo fuori le mura (a palaeochristian Basilica), Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (a church founded by Helena, the mother of Constantine, which hosts fragments of wood attributed to the holy cross) and San Sebastiano fuori le mura (which lies on the Appian Way and is built above Roman catacombs).


{{See also|List of tourist attractions in Rome|List of streets in Rome}}


File:ThePantheon.jpg|thumb|The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future".]]File:Colosseo Romano Rome 04 2016 6289.jpg|thumb|The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world.NEWS,weblink Colosseum: The Largest Amphitheatre,, March 6, 2013, It was used for gladiatorgladiatorRome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern Fascist architecture. Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture, developing new forms such as the arch, the dome and the vault.Eyewitness Travel (2006), pp. 36–37. The Romanesque style in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries was also widely used in Roman architecture, and later the city became one of the main centres of Renaissance, Baroque and neoclassic architecture.

Ancient Rome

One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum (70–80 AD), the largest amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. A list of important monuments and sites of ancient Rome includes the Roman Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan's Column, Trajan's Market, the Catacombs, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla, Castel Sant'Angelo, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Ara Pacis, the Arch of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Bocca della Verità.


The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain. Basilicas dating from the Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls (the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century), both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics. Notable later notable medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santi Quattro Coronati, and Santa Prassede. Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti, both next the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.

Renaissance and Baroque

Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina.{{wide image|Piazza del Campidoglio panoramic view 39948px.jpg|800px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of Piazza del Campidoglio, with the copy of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius.}}Many of the famous city's squares – some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks, some small and picturesque – got their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque. The principal ones are Piazza Navona, Piazza di Spagna, Campo de' Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese, Piazza della Rotonda and Piazza della Minerva. One of the most emblematic examples of Baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.


File:Vittoriano Altare della Patria 2013-09-16.jpg|thumb|right|The Altare della PatriaAltare della PatriaIn 1870, Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity, became a predominant influence in Roman architecture. During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing agencies. One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of the Fatherland", where the Grave of the Unknown Soldier, that represents the 650,000 Italians that fell in World War I, is located.

Fascist architecture

File:Palazzo della civiltà del lavoro (EUR, Rome) (5904657870).jpg|thumb|The Palazzo della Civiltà ItalianaPalazzo della Civiltà Italiana{{See also|Fascist architecture}}The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 had its showcase in Rome. Mussolini allowed the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during the papal rule. The main activities during his government were: the "isolation" of the Capitoline Hill; Via dei Monti, later renamed Via del'Impero, and finally Via dei Fori Imperiali; Via del Mare, later renamed Via del Teatro di Marcello; the "isolation" of the Mausoleum of Augustus, with the erection of Piazza Augusto Imperatore; Via della Conciliazione.Architecturally, Fascism favored the most modern movements, such as Rationalism. Parallel to this, in the 1920s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. One important construction in the latter style is the Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico, by Enrico Del Debbio. Next to it, the most important Fascist site in Rome is the EUR district, designed in 1938 by Marcello Piacentini. This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano. The EUR was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). The most representative buildings of EUR are the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938–1943), the iconic design of which has been labelled the cubic of Square Colosseum, and the Palazzo dei Congressi, example of Rationalist style. The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940, and the realised buildings were partly destroyed in 1943 during the fighting between Italian and German army after the armistice and later abandoned. The quarter was restored in the 1950s, when the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Défense in Paris). Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was designed in 1935 in pure Fascist style.

Parks and gardens

File:Rome-VillaBorghese-TempleEsculape.jpg|thumb|The Temple of Aesculapius, in the gardens of the Villa BorgheseVilla BorghesePublic parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 February 2008, Green Areas,, 9 November 2008, dead, dmy-all, The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. The most notable of these are Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill comprising some {{convert|1.8|km2|1|abbr=out|lk=out}}. Also on the Gianicolo hill there is Villa Sciarra, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. In the nearby area of Trastevere the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees, but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden ('roseto comunale'). Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana, close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Overlooking Piazza del Popolo and the Spanish Steps are the gardens of Pincio and Villa Medici. Noteworthy is also the Pine wood of Castelfusano, near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.

Fountains and aqueducts

File:Fontana di Trevi Rome 04 2016 6768.jpg|thumb|The Trevi Fountain, start to built in the Ancient Rome and completed in 1762 by a design of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Behind the Palazzo PoliPalazzo PoliRome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical. The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome. During the Roman Empire, in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas. Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.Frontin, Les Aqueducs de la ville de Rome, translation and commentary by Pierre Grimal, Société d'édition Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 1944.During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens, were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement. In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power".Italian Gardens, a Cultural History, Helen Attlee. Francis Lincoln Limited, London 2006.


{{See also|Talking statues of Rome}}File:Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi Piazza Navona Rome 04 2016 6503.jpg|thumb|right|Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo BerniniGian Lorenzo BerniniRome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome. These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to (often satirically) voice their opinions. There are two main talking statues: the Pasquino and the Marforio, yet there are four other noted ones: il Babuino, Madama Lucrezia, il Facchino and Abbot Luigi. Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus, Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus, Marforio represents Oceanus, Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis, and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in 1580, and not representing anyone in particular. They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori.

Obelisks and columns

File:Piazza del Popolo Obelisco Flaminio a Roma.jpg|thumb|An ancient Egyptian obelisk in Piazza del PopoloPiazza del PopoloThe city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome.WEB,weblink Chasing Obelisks in Rome,, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2010, dmy-all, The city contains some of obelisks in piazzas, such as in Piazza Navona, St Peter's Square, Piazza Montecitorio, and Piazza del Popolo, and others in villas, thermae parks and gardens, such as in Villa Celimontana, the Baths of Diocletian, and the Pincian Hill. Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan's and Antonine Column, two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. The Column of Marcus Aurelius is located in Piazza Colonna and it was built around 180 AD by Commodus in memory of his parents. The Column of Marcus Aurelius was inspired by Trajan's Column at Trajan's Forum, which is part of the Imperial ForaWEB,weblink 7 Free Things To Do In Rome,, 17 January 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2017, dmy-all, 2017-01-12,


File:Bridge Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset.jpg|thumb|Ponte Vittorio Emanuele IIPonte Vittorio Emanuele IIThe city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi, which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank. The other surviving – albeit modified – ancient Roman bridges crossing the Tiber are Ponte Cestio, Ponte Sant'Angelo and Ponte Milvio. Considering Ponte Nomentano, also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene, currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.WEB,weblink The Bridges of Ancient Rome,, 3 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2010, Other noteworthy bridges are Ponte Sisto, the first bridge built in the Renaissance above Roman foundations; Ponte Rotto, actually the only remaining arch of the ancient Pons Aemilius, collapsed during the flood of 1598 and demolished at the end of the 19th century; and Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II, a modern bridge connecting Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Borgo. Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the finest ancient bridge remaining in Rome is the Ponte Sant'Angelo, which was completed in 135 AD, and was decorated with ten statues of the angels, designed by Bernini in 1688.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Sant'Angelo Bridge, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2010, dmy-all,


File:PiusXItomb2.jpg|thumb|right|The Vatican Caves, the place where the popes of history are buried]]Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff, a soft volcanic rock, outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome.


As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government (and its single Ministeri), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City. Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute. There are also specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the FAO. Rome also hosts major international and worldwide political and cultural organisations, such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Food Programme (WFP), the NATO Defense College and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM).{{wide image|Panoramic view of EUR business district, Rome.jpg|800px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of EUR business district.}}According to the GaWC study of world cities, Rome is an "Alpha -" city.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2018,, The city was ranked in 2014 as 32nd in the Global Cities Index, the highest in Italy.WEB,weblink 2014 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook, 2 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2014, With a 2005 GDP of €94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion),WEB,weblink Rapporto Censis 2006,, 3 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 April 2008, dmy-all, {{update inline|date=May 2018}} the city produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy), and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and 2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the European Union capital cities. Rome's economy grows at around 4.4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153 (US$37,412), which was second in Italy, (after Milan), and is more than 134.1% of the EU average GDP per capita.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead,, 6 August 2007, {{Update inline|date=May 2018}} Rome, on the whole, has the highest total earnings in Italy, reaching €47,076,890,463 in 2008,WEB,weblink La classifica dei redditi nei comuni capoluogo di provincia, Il Sole 24 ORE, 14 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2011, dmy-all, {{Update inline|date=May 2018}} yet, in terms of average workers' incomes, the city places itself 9th in Italy, with €24,509. On a global level, Rome's workers receive the 30th highest wages in 2009, coming three places higher than in 2008, in which the city ranked 33rd.WEB,weblink World's richest cities in 2009, City Mayors, 22 August 2009, 14 June 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2010, dmy-all, {{Update inline|date=May 2018}} The Rome area had a GDP amounting to 7.8 billion, and $38,765 per capita.WEB,weblink Global city GDP 2011, Brookings Institution, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2013, dmy-all, File:Temple of Hadrian.jpg|thumb|Rome chamber of commerce in ancient Temple of HadrianTemple of HadrianAlthough the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services, high-technology companies (IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications), research, construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy. Rome's international airport, Fiumicino, is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's 100 largest companies: Enel, Eni, and Telecom Italia.NEWS,weblink The World's 2000 Largest Public Companies, Scott, DeCarlo, 30 March 2006, Forbes, 16 January 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2007, dmy-all, Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry, thanks to the Cinecittà studios, working since the 1930s. The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina.


File:Sapienza entrance (20040201351).jpg|thumb|right|The Sapienza University of RomeSapienza University of RomeRome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance, along with Florence.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, Roman Academies,, 1 March 1907, 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2010, dmy-all, According to the City Brands Index, Rome is considered the world's second most historically, educationally and culturally interesting and beautiful city.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink usurped, 2008-12-17, Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index,, 2017-12-18, Rome has many universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is one of the largest in the world, with more than 140,000 students attending; in 2005 it ranked as Europe's 33rd best universityWEB,weblink Top 100 European Universities, 2005, Academic Ranking of World Universities,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-01-29, dead, and in 2013 the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings.WEB,weblink Top 100 Universities, 2013, Center for World University Rankings, 2019-08-22, and has been ranked among Europe's 50 and the world's 150 best colleges.WEB,weblink Top 100 European Universities, 2008, Academic Ranking of World Universities,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-05-21, dead, 2019-08-22, In order to decrease the overcrowding of La Sapienza, two new public universities were founded during the last decades: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma Tre in 1992. Rome hosts also the LUISS School of Government,WEB, LUISS School of Government,,weblink it, 2019-08-22, Italy's most important graduate university in the areas of international affairs and European studies as well as LUISS Business School, Italy's most important business school. Rome ISIA was founded in 1973 by Giulio Carlo Argan and is Italy's oldest institution in the field of industrial design.File:Biblioteca Casanatense.jpg|thumb|left|Biblioteca CasanatenseBiblioteca CasanatenseRome contains many pontifical universities and other institutes, including the British School at Rome, the French School in Rome, the Pontifical Gregorian University (the oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design, the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, the Link Campus of Malta, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome is also the location of two American Universities; The American University of RomeWEB,weblink The American University of Rome, The American University of Rome, 4 February 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2013, dmy-all, and John Cabot University as well as St. John's University branch campus, John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago and Temple University Rome, a campus of Temple University.WEB,weblink Temple Rome Study Abroad, Temple University, 4 February 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 February 2013, The Roman Colleges are several seminaries for students from foreign countries studying for the priesthood at the Pontifical Universities.WEB,weblink About the NAC, Pontifical North American College, 1 October 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2010, dmy-all, Examples include the Venerable English College, the Pontifical North American College, the Scots College, and the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome.File:Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Roma.jpg|thumb|right|National Central Library ]]Rome's major libraries include: the Biblioteca Angelica, opened in 1604, making it Italy's first public library; the Biblioteca Vallicelliana, established in 1565; the Biblioteca Casanatense, opened in 1701; the National Central Library, one of the two national libraries in Italy, which contains 4,126,002 volumes; The Biblioteca del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, specialised in diplomacy, foreign affairs and modern history; the Biblioteca dell'Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana; the Biblioteca Don Bosco, one of the largest and most modern of all Salesian libraries; the Biblioteca e Museo teatrale del Burcardo, a museum-library specialised in history of drama and theatre; the Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana, which is based in the Villa Celimontana and is the most important geographical library in Italy, and one of Europe's most important;Amedeo Benedetti, La Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana, "Biblioteche oggi", n. 3, aprile 2009, p. 41. and the Vatican Library, one of the oldest and most important libraries in the world, which was formally established in 1475, though in fact much older and has 75,000 codices, as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. There are also many specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome, the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History, a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences;WEB, Max Planck Gesellschaft e.V,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2008, Max Planck Society – Hanno and Ilse Hahn Prize,, 17 May 2006, 25 January 2010, dead, dmy-all,


Entertainment and performing arts

File:Teatro dell'Opera, Roma.jpg|thumb|right|The Teatro dell'Opera di RomaTeatro dell'Opera di RomaRome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres. It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, as well as several minor musical institutions. The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2004.Rome has also had a major impact in music history. The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.


File:Piazza di Spagna, Roma - scalinata fc03.jpg|thumb|The Spanish StepsSpanish StepsFile:Faber Village, Lido di Ostia RM, Lazio, Italy - panoramio (3).jpg|thumb|The Ostia Lido beach ]]Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" (parks). Among the most significant resources are the many museums – Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art – aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs. Rome is the third most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7–10 million tourists a year, which sometimes doubles on holy years. The Colosseum (4 million tourists) and the Vatican Museums (4.2 million tourists) are the 39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world, according to a recent study.WEB, The 50 Most Visited Places in The World,, 2009-10-02,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-10-02, dead, 2019-08-22, Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome,WEB,weblink AIRC-HC Program in Archaeology, Classics, and Mediterranean Culture,, 3 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 March 2010, and The Swedish Institute at Rome.WEB,weblink,, 3 February 2010, dmy-all,weblink" title="">weblink 18 April 2008, Rome contains numerous ancient sites, including the Forum Romanum, Trajan's Market, Trajan's Forum,MAGAZINE, Trajan's Glorious Forum, Archaeology, 51, 1, January–February 1998, James E. Packer, Archaeological Institute of America,weblink 2 October 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2010, dmy-all, the Colosseum, and the Pantheon, to name but a few. The Colosseum, arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world.I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), p. 1163BOOK,weblink America, the Land We Love, Miller, Francis Trevelyan, Wilson, Woodrow, Taft, William Howard Taft, Roosevelt, Theodore, W. T. Blaine, 1915, 201, 679498513, Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, 2019-08-22, Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains, mosaics, frescos, and paintings, from all different periods. Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work, coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.JOURNAL, 10.1017/S0009840X00221331, Toynbee, J.M.C., December 1971, Roman Art, The Classical Review, 21, 3, 439–442, 0009-840X, 708631, Rome later became a major centre of Renaissance art, since the popes spent vast sums of money for the constructions of grandiose basilicas, palaces, piazzas and public buildings in general. Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence, and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice. The city was affected greatly by the baroque, and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini, Caravaggio, Carracci, Borromini and Cortona.WEB,weblink Baroque Art of Rome (ROME 211),, 3 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2008, In the late 18th century and early 19th century, the city was one of the centres of the Grand Tour,WEB, Grand Tour of Europe: The Travels of 17th & 18th Century Twenty-Somethings, Matt Rosenberg,,weblink 3 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2010, dmy-all, when wealthy, young English and other European aristocrats visited the city to learn about ancient Roman culture, art, philosophy, and architecture. Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutesWEB,weblink The Franca Camiz Memorial Field Seminar in Art History, Trinity College, Hartford Connecticlt, 3 February 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2008, dead, dmy-all, and museums.{{wide image|Colosseo_di_Roma_panoramic.jpg|600px|align-cap=center|Internal view of the Colosseum}}File:Vatican Museums Spiral Staircase 2012.jpg|thumb|right|The Vatican MuseumsVatican MuseumsRome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. The National Gallery of Modern Art has works by Balla, Morandi, Pirandello, Carrà, De Chirico, De Pisis, Guttuso, Fontana, Burri, Mastroianni, Turcato, Kandisky, and Cézanne on permanent exhibition. 2010 saw the opening of Rome's newest arts foundation, a contemporary art and architecture gallery designed by acclaimed Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. Known as MAXXI – National Museum of the 21st Century Arts it restores a dilapidated area with striking modern architecture. MaxxiWEB,weblink Maxxi_Museo Nazionale Delle Arti Del Xxi Secolo,, 25 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2010, features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research. It is one of Rome's most ambitious modern architecture projects alongside Renzo Piano's Auditorium Parco della MusicaWEB,weblink Auditorium Parco della Musica,, 25 March 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2010, dmy-all, and Massimiliano Fuksas' Rome Convention Center, Centro Congressi Italia EUR, in the EUR district, due to open in 2016.NEWS, Pelati, Manuela, Eur spa, Diacetti: «La nuvola di Fuksas sarà completata entro il 2016,weblink 5 December 2015, Corriere della Sera, 30 September 2015, Italian, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, dmy-all, The convention centre features a huge translucent container inside which is suspended a steel and teflon structure resembling a cloud and which contains meeting rooms and an auditorium with two piazzas open to the neighbourhood on either side.


File:Fontana.della.barcaccia.arp.jpg|thumb|Via dei Condotti ]]Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the 2009 Global Language Monitor after Milan, New York, and Paris, and beating London.WEB,weblink The Global Language Monitor » Fashion,, 20 July 2009, 17 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 November 2009, dmy-all, Major luxury fashion houses and jewelry chains, such as Valentino, Bulgari, Fendi,WEB,weblink Fendi,, 17 October 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 January 2010, dmy-all, Laura Biagiotti, Brioni, and Renato Balestra, are headquartered or were founded in the city. Also, other major labels, such as Chanel, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Armani, and Versace have luxury boutiques in Rome, primarily along its prestigious and upscale Via dei Condotti.


File:Spaghetti alla Carbonara.jpg|thumb|Spaghetti alla Carbonara, a typical Roman dish]](File:Concia di zucchine.jpg|thumb|Concia di zucchine, example of Roman-Jewish cuisine)Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age. Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. Later, during the Renaissance, Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes. An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.BOOK, Rolland, Jacques, The food encyclopedia, Robert Rose, Toronto, 2006, 0-7788-0150-0, 70176309, 273, In the modern age, the city developed its own peculiar cuisine, based on products of the nearby Campagna, as lamb and vegetables (globe artichokes are common).BOOK, Culinaria Italy, Claudia, Piras, Culinaria Konemann, 2000, 3-8290-2901-2, 881159457, 291, In parallel, Roman Jews – present in the city since the 1st century BC – developed their own cuisine, the cucina giudaico-romanesca. Examples of Roman dishes include "Saltimbocca alla Romana" – a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla romana" – artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Carciofi alla giudia" – artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Spaghetti alla carbonara" – spaghetti with bacon, eggs and pecorino, and "Gnocchi di semolino alla romana" – semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.BOOK, Carnacina, Buonassisi, Vincenzo, Luigi, Roma in Cucina, Giunti Martello, Milano, 1975, Italian,


File:Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck on Vespa in Roman Holiday trailer.jpg|thumb|Roman Holiday with Audrey Hepburn and Gregory PeckGregory PeckRome hosts the Cinecittà Studios,WEB,weblink history of Cinecittà Studios in Rome,, 17 October 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2009, dmy-all, the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where many of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. The {{convert|99|acre|ha|adj=on}} studio complex is {{convert|9.0|km|mi}} from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, with well over 5,000 professionals – from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO's Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De Laurentiis' Decameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, and the films of Federico Fellini.Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini. Today, Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walk out" with a completed film.


File:DM TI Claudius Tiberinus.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Latin inscription, in the National Roman MuseumNational Roman MuseumAlthough associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity, Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes. The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in 509 BC. Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla, wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius. However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual. Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire.Latin evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the "volgare". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The Romanesco spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language in Campania. The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici Popes (Leo X and Clement VII), caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina and others), from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems. As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian. Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (one of the most important Italian poets altogether), Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella. It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a "lingua vernacola" (vernacular language), meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population.Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors and actresses, such as Alberto Sordi, Aldo Fabrizi, Anna Magnani. Carlo Verdone, Enrico Montesano, Gigi Proietti and Nino Manfredi.Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanization, the peoples of Italy, Gallia, the Iberian Peninsula and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonization and migration. Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest, borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.Ostler, N. (2007), Ad Infinitum: A Biography of Latin. London: HarperCollinsRome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and many foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city. Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.


File:Stadio Olimpico 2008.JPG|thumb|Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. LazioS.S. LazioAssociation football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country.The city hosted the final games of the 1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cup.The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium, which is also the shared home stadium for local Serie A clubs S.S. Lazio, founded in 1900, and A.S. Roma, founded in 1927, whose rivalry in the Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture.WEB,weblink Football First 11: Do or die derbies, CNN, 22 October 2008, 5 October 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2014, dmy-all, Footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players such as Francesco Totti and Daniele De Rossi (both for A.S. Roma), and Alessandro Nesta (for S.S. Lazio).Atletico Roma F.C. is a minor team that played in Lega Pro First Division until 2012; its home stadium was Stadio Flaminio.File:Roma - Stadio Olimpico - Stadio dei Marmi - Andrea - panoramio.jpg|right|thumb|The Stadio dei MarmiStadio dei MarmiRome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics, with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues. For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the 1990 FIFA World Cup), the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district), ecc. Rome made a bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files.WEB,weblink Media,, 15 September 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Candidate Cities for Future Olympic Games,, 17 October 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2009, dmy-all, Further, Rome hosted the 1991 EuroBasket and is home to the internationally recognized basketball team Virtus Roma. Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance.Until 2011 the Stadio Flaminio was the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team, which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since 2000. The team now plays home games at the Stadio Olimpico because the Stadio Flaminio needs works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma (founded in 1930 and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in 1999–2000), Unione Rugby Capitolina and S.S. Lazio 1927 (rugby union branch of the multisport club S.S. Lazio).Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia three times, in 1911, 1950, and 2009. Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball (M. Roma Volley), handball or waterpolo.


File:Aeroporto Fiumicino - Torre ENAV ristrutturata 2015.jpeg|thumb|right|Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.]]File:Giorcescivitavecchia3.JPG|thumb|right|Port of CivitavecchiaPort of CivitavecchiaRome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, at a distance of about {{convert|10|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} from the Capitol, by the ring-road (the Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA).Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini, is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day. The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina, has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink Eurostar Italia Alta Velocità, 3 December 2006,, As well as frequent high speed day trains to all major Italian cities, Rome is linked nightly by 'boat train' sleeper services to Sicily, and internationally by overnight sleeper services to Munich and Vienna by ÖBB Austrian railways.Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Roma-Urbe Airport, is a small, low-traffic airport located about {{convert|6|km|0|abbr=on}} north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights.Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea (Lido di Ostia), this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats. The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia, located about {{convert|62|km|abbr=off}} northwest of the city.WEB, Porti di Roma,weblink 6 March 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2015, dmy-all, The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.NEWS, Central Rome Streets Blocked by Taxi Drivers, New York Times,weblink 30 November 2007, 10 February 2008, Peter, Kiefer, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2009, dmy-all, Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre during the hours of daylight. Areas where these restriction apply are known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL) in Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere, Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts.(File:Roma Metropolitana e Ferrovia 2012.png|thumb|Roma Metrorail and Underground 2016)File:Inaugurazione metro B1.jpg|thumb|Conca d'Oro metro station]]A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s.BOOK, Dyson, Stephen L., Archaeology, Ideology and Urbanism in Rome from the Grand Tour to Berlusconi,weblink 2019, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-87459-5, 192, The line had been planned to quickly connect the main railway station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR (Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955, and it is now the south part of the B Line.The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999–2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short.The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line (B1) opened on 13 June 2012 after an estimated building cost of €500 million. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of {{convert|3.9|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}.A third line, the C line, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of {{convert|25.5|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. It will partly replace the existing Termini-Pantano rail line. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.NEWS, Tom, Kington, Roman remains threaten metro,weblink The Guardian, Guardian, 14 May 2007, 10 August 2008, London, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 August 2013, dmy-all, The first section with 15 stations connecting Pantano with the quarter of Centocelle in the eastern part of the city, opened on 9 November 2014.NEWS, Metro C, apre la Pantano-Centocelle: folla di romani all'inaugurazione,weblink 11 November 2014, Il Messaggero, 9 November 2014, Italian, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 November 2014, dmy-all, The end of the work was scheduled in 2015, but archaeological findings often delay underground construction work.A fourth line, D line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over a distance of {{convert|20|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. The first section was projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035, but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold.Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network (FR lines). The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S.p.A. (which originally stood for the Municipal Bus and Tramways Company, Azienda Tramvie e Autobus del Comune in Italian). The bus network has in excess of 350 bus lines and over eight thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system has {{convert|39|km|0|abbr=on}} of track and 192 stops.WEB,weblink ATAC,, it,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-01-06, dead, 2019-08-22, There is also one trolleybus line, opened in 2005, and additional trolleybus lines are planned.BOOK, Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009-2010, Webb, Mary, Jane's Information Group, 2009, 978-0-7106-2903-6, Coulsdon, 316826596,

International entities, organisations and involvement

File:FAO sede.jpg|thumb|FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo]]File:WFP Headquarters in Rome.jpg|thumb|WFP headquarters in Rome]]Among the global cities, Rome is unique in having two sovereign entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See, represented by the Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Vatican is an enclave of the Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the Holy See, which is the Diocese of Rome and the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian government, to the Holy See, to the Order of Malta and to certain international organizations. Several international Roman Colleges and Pontifical Universities are located in Rome.The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and its official seat is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (of which the President of the French Republic is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon", a title held by the heads of the French state since King Henry IV of France). Another body, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), took refuge in Rome in 1834, due to the conquest of Malta by Napoleon in 1798. It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status.Rome is the seat of the so-called Polo RomanoWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead,, 2 April 2015, made up by three main international agencies of the United Nations: the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. The Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo della Farnesina, seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, due the fact that the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties. In 1957 the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union), and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July 2004.Rome is the seat of the European Olympic Committee and of the NATO Defense College. The city is the place where the Statute of the International Criminal Court and the European Convention on Human Rights were formulated.The city hosts also other important international entities such as the IDLO (International Development Law Organisation), the ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) and the UNIDROIT (International Institute for the Unification of Private Law).

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy}}(File:Park de la Sorbonne.JPG|thumb|upright|Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the square Paul Painlevé in Paris)File:Castro Pretorio - Colonna di Parigi alle Terme di Diocleziano 1010023.JPG|thumb|upright|Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of DiocletianBaths of DiocletianRome is since 9 April 1956 exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Paris, France

{{it icon}} Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. {{fr icon}} Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris. "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."WEB,weblink Gemellaggio Roma – Parigi – (1955), PDF, Paris, 30 January 1956, Commune Roma, fr, Roma – Relazioni Internazionali Bilaterali, 10 September 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Dichiarazione congiunta Roma – Parigi – (2014), PDF, Rome, 1 October 2014, Commune Roma, fr, Roma – Relazioni Internazionali Bilaterali, 10 September 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 5 September 2012, Twinning with RomeTITLE=LES PACTES D'AMITIé ET DE COOPéRATION URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=11 OCTOBER 2007, HTTP://WWW.PARIS.FR/EN/CITY_GOVERNMENT/INTERNATIONAL/SPECIAL_PARTNERS.ASP >WORK=MAIRIE DE PARIS ACCESSDATE=14 OCTOBER 2007 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.TODAY/20070806151309/HTTP://WWW.PARIS.FR/EN/CITY_GOVERNMENT/INTERNATIONAL/SPECIAL_PARTNERS.ASP, 6 August 2007,

Other relationships

{{More citations needed section|date=September 2016}}Rome's other partner cities are:{{citation needed|date=September 2016}}{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  • {{flagdeco|BOL{edih} Achacachi, Bolivia
  • {{flagdeco|ALG}} Algiers, Algeria
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Beijing, ChinaWEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Municipal Government, 23 June 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Le jumelage avec Rome, 9 July 2008, Municipalité de Paris, French, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2008,
  • {{flagdeco|SRB}} Belgrade, Serbia
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Brasília, Brazil
  • {{flagdeco|ARG}} Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Cairo, Egypt
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Cincinnati, United States
  • {{flagdeco|UKR}} Kiev, Ukraine
  • {{flagdeco|Syria}} Kobanî, SyriaWEB,weblink Rome declares Kobane 'sister city', 18 December 2016, live,weblink 21 December 2016, dmy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Kraków, PolandWEB,weblink Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie, 10 August 2013, Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków, Polish, Kraków – Partnership Cities,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2013, dead, dmy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Madrid, SpainWEB, Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas, Ayuntamiento de Madrid,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 26 May 2012, 17 October 2009,
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} New Delhi, India
  • {{flagdeco|US}} New York City, United StatesWEB,weblink NYC's Partner Cities, The City of New York, 16 December 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|BUL}} Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • {{flagdeco|KOR}} Seoul, South KoreaWEB,weblink International Cooperation: Sister Cities, 26 January 2008, Seoul Metropolitan Government,,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2007, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 March 2012, Seoul – Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine], 23 August 2013, Seoul Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25),
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Sydney, Australia
  • {{flagdeco|ALB}} Tirana, AlbaniaWEB,weblink Twinning Cities: International Relations, 23 June 2009, Municipality of Tirana,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2011, Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved on 25 January 2008.
  • {{flagdeco|IRN}} Tehran, Iran
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Tokyo, JapanWEB,weblink Sister Cities(States) of Tokyo, 17 June 2019, Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
  • {{flagdeco|BEL}} Tongeren, Belgium
  • {{flagdeco|TUN}} Tunis, TunisiaWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2008, Cooperation Internationale, 2003–2009 City of Tunis Portal, French, 31 July 2009, dead, dmy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Washington, D.C., United StatesWEB, Visita a Washington del Sindaco,weblink 3 October 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2011, dmy-all,

See also







  • BOOK, Bertarelli, Luigi Vittorio, Guida d'Italia, IV, 1925, CTI, Rome, 552570307, it, harv,
  • BOOK, Brilliant, Richard, 2006, Roman Art. An American's View, Di Renzo Editore, Rome, 978-88-8323-085-1,
  • BOOK, Coarelli, Filippo, Guida archeologica di Roma, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1984, Italian, Milano,
  • JOURNAL, De Muro, Pasquale, Monni, Salvatore, Tridico, Pasquale, Knowledge-Based Economy and Social Exclusion: Shadow and Light in the Roman Socio-Economic Model, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35, 6, 2011, 1212–1238, 0309-1317, 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00993.x,
  • BOOK, Rome – Eyewitness Travel, DK, 2006, 978-1-4053-1090-1,
  • BOOK, Hughes, Robert, 2011, Rome, Weidenfeld & Nicolson,
  • BOOK, Kinder, Hermann, Hilgemann, Werner, Dtv-Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, 1, Dtv, 1964, 887765673, de, harv,
  • BOOK, Lucentini, Mario, 2002, La Grande Guida di Roma, Newton & Compton Editori, Rome, 978-88-8289-053-7, Italian,
  • BOOK, Rendina, Mario, 2007, Roma ieri, oggi, domani, Newton & Compton Editori, Rome, Italian,
  • BOOK, Spoto, Salvatore, 1999, Roma Esoterica, Newton & Compton Editori, Rome, 978-88-8289-265-4, Italian,

External links

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