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Tehran
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{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{About|the Iranian capital city}}{{short description|Capital and largest city of Iran}}{{pp-move-indef}}







factoids
0.1emCapital city| image_skyline = {{Photomontage
| photo1a = Towers in Tehran City at night.jpg|px300{{!}}Milad Tower seen from Qarb Town
| photo2a = Azadi Tower - Tehran City.jpg{{!}}The Azadi Tower
| photo2b = North Tehran Towers.jpg{{!}}Northern Tehran seen from Ab-o-Atash Park
| photo3a = Bagh-e Ferdows Tajrish.jpg{{!}}Ferdows Garden
| photo3b = City Theater, Tehran.jpg{{!}}City Theater
| photo4a = نمایی از شمس العماره.jpg{{!}}Golestan Palace
| photo4b = Silk Bridge Tehran2.jpg{{!}}Mount Tochal seen from an expressway
| photo5a = Chitgar Lake, Tehran.jpg{{!}}Chitgar Lake
| photo5b = Tabiat_bridge_by_Tasnim.jpg{{!}}Tabiat Bridge
| spacing = 2
| size = 266
| foot_montage = Clockwise from top: Milad Tower seen from Qarb Town, northern Tehran seen from Ab-o-Atash Park, City Theater, Mount Tochal seen from Abrisham Bridge, Tabiat Bridge, Chitgar Lake, Golestan Palace, Ferdows Garden, and the Azadi Tower.
}}| image_caption = | image_seal = Tehran Logo.png| seal_alt = | image_shield = | shield_alt = | nickname = | motto = | image_map = | mapsize = | map_caption = | mapsize1 = | map_caption1 = | pushpin_map = Iran Tehran#Iran#Asia| pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_relief = yes| pushpin_map_caption = Location in Iran and Asia
35215120region:IR|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountryIran}} IranProvinces of Iran>ProvinceCounties of Iran>CountyBakhsh>District| subdivision_type4 = Tehran Province>TehranTehran County>TehranRay County, IranShemiranat County>ShemiranatCentral District (Tehran County)>Central| subdivision_name4 = | established_title = | established_date = 1778Mayor of Tehran>Mayor| leader_name = Pirouz HanachiIslamic City Council of Tehran>City Council Chairman| leader_name2 = Mohsen Hashemi RafsanjaniTehran{{dead link>date=March 2018 fix-attempted=yes }}. Daft Logic.| area_magnitude = | area_land_km2 = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = 1780| area_metro_km2 = 1748| area_urban_sq_mi = | elevation_footnotes = Tehran, Environment & Geography. Tehran.ir.| elevation_m = 900 to 1830| elevation_ft = 2952 to 6003| population_footnotes = Urban population: Data for Tehran County. ~97.5% of county population live in Tehran cityMetro population: Estimate on base of census data, includes central part of Tehran province and Karaj County and Fardis from Alborz province| population_density_km2 = 11800| population_urban = 8,693,70weblinkURL=HTTP://CITYPOPULATION.DE/WORLD/AGGLOMERATIONS.HTML TITLE = MAJOR AGGLOMERATIONS OF THE WORLD - POPULATION STATISTICS AND MAPS, 2018-09-13, | population_est = | population_est_as_of = | population_blank1_title = Population Rank in IranList of Iran cities by population>1stEnglish language>en)| area_code = (+98) 021Köppen climate classification>ClimateSemi-arid climate#Cold semi-arid climates>BSk| website = www.tehran.ir| footnotes = Iran Standard Time>IRST| utc_offset = +03:30Iran Daylight saving Time>IRDT| utc_offset_DST = +04:30}}{{Contains Perso-Arabic text}}Tehran ({{IPAc-en|t|ɛəˈr|æ|n|,_|-|ˈ|r|ɑː|n|,_|ˌ|t|eɪ|ə|-}}; {{transl|fa|Tehrân}} {{IPA-fa|tehˈɾɒːn||Fa-ir-Tehran_(1).ogg}}) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia,See List of metropolitan areas in Asia. and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.WEB,weblink The world's largest cities and urban areas in 2006, City Mayors, 2010-09-25, In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city.BOOK, Erdösy, George., The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity, Walter de Gruyter, 1995, 165, Possible western place names are the following: Raya-, which is also the ancient name of Median Raga in the Achaemenid inscriptions (Darius, Bisotun 2.13: a land in Media called Raga) and modern Rey south of Tehran, It was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran.Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.WEB,weblink Tehran (Iran) : Introduction – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012-05-21, Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, and the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower which was completed in 2007. The Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014.WEB,weblink Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge / Diba Tensile Architecture, ArchDaily, November 17, 2014, The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people,BOOK, Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat., The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction, Springer, September 30, 2009, 100–101, Region of Residence, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language.BOOK, Schuppe, Mareike., Coping with Growth in Tehran: Strategies of Development Regulation, GRIN Verlag, 2008, 13, Besides Persian, there are Azari, Armenian, and Jewish communities in Tehran. The vast majority of Tehran's residents are Persian-speaking (98.3%)., Tehran has an international airport (Imam Khomeini Airport), a domestic airport (Mehrabad Airport), a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a large network of highways.There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life.NEWS,weblink Iranian expats hard to woo as Western firms seek foothold in Iran, Barbaglia, Pamela., Reuters, March 29, 2016, According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations.WEB,weblink Bangkok Takes Title in 2016 Mastercard Global Destinations Cities Index, Erenhouse, Ryan., MasterCard's newsroom, September 22, 2016, October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was officially chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907weblink

History

{{See also|Timeline of Tehran}}The origin of the name Tehran is uncertain.WEB, Behrooz, Samira; Karampour, Katayoun.,weblink A Research on Adaptation of Historic Urban Landscapes, November 15, 2008, The settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years.NEW, Press TV,weblink 7,000-year-old human skeleton recovered in south Tehran, January 14, 2015,

Classical era

Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media ( {{transl|peo|Māda}}) in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages ( {{transl|peo|Ragā}}). In the Avesta's Videvdat (i, 15), Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Minorsky, Vladimir; Bosworth, Clifford Edmund., Al-Rayy, Encyclopaedia of Islam: New Edition, 8, 471–473, In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province (Bistun 2, 10–18). From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, who was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Bistun 3, 1–10). In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster,SARKHOSH CURTIS, VESTA; STEWART, SARAH., Birth of the Persian Empire", I.B. Tauris, 2005, 37, although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, which has been absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran.Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme,A. Tafazolli, "In Iranian Mythology" in Encyclopædia Iranica the Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient legends of Iran. It appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk (Bivarasp), and the place where Arash shot his arrow from.

Medieval period

During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan. Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad.In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, which was flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population mainly consisted of Iranians of all classes.(Bulddan, Yackubl, 276)The Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, and massacred many of its inhabitants. Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran.In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region.

Early modern era

Italian traveler Pietro della Valle passed through Tehran overnight in 1618, and in his memoirs, he mentioned the city as Taheran. English traveler Thomas Herbert entered Tehran in 1627, and mentioned it as Tyroan. Herbert stated that the city had about 3,000 houses.ENCYCLOPEDIA, New York, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Teheran,weblink 1911, 14782424, 11th, File:Aggha Mohammad Khan.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A portrait of Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan, kept at London's V&A Museum ]]In the early 18th century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ordered a palace and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital; but he later moved his government to Shiraz. Eventually, Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan chose Tehran as the capital of Iran in 1786.WEB,weblink Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, December 26, 2014, Abbas, Amanat, 1997, University of California Press, Agha Mohammad Khan's choice of his capital was based on a similar concern for the control of both northern and southern Iran. He was aware of the loyalties of the inhabitants of former capitals Isfahan and Shiraz to the Safavid and Zand dynasties respectively, and was wary of the power of the local notables in these cities. Thus, he probably viewed Tehran's lack of a substantial urban structure as a blessing, because it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by the notables and by the general public. Moreover, he had to remain within close reach of Azerbaijan and Iran's integral northern and southern Caucasian territories—at that time not yet irrevocably lost per the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay to the neighboring Russian Empire—which would follow in the course of the 19th century.BOOK, Dowling, Timothy C.,weblink Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond, 728–730, ABC-CLIO, December 2, 2014, 1-59884-948-4, (File:Tehran1857.jpg|thumb|upright|Map of Tehran in 1857)After 50 years of Qajar rule, the city still barely had more than 80,000 inhabitants. Up until the 1870s, Tehran consisted of a walled citadel, a roofed bazaar, and the three main neighbourhoods of Udlajan, Chale-Meydan, and Sangelaj, where the majority resided.The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. The second major planning exercise in Tehran took place under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun. The 1878 plan of Tehran included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometres, which mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe.WEB,weblink Vahdat Za, Vahid., Spatial Discrimination in Tehran's Modern Urban Planning 1906–1979, 2011, Journal of Planning History vol. 12 no. 1 49–62, 2013-04-11, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016094735weblink">weblink 2015-10-16,

Late modern era

File:Poster of Conquest of Tehran in July 1909 by Bakhtiaris.jpg|thumb|left|The Triumph of Tehran: Sardar Asad II and Sepahsalar e Tonekaboni conquering Tehran in July 1909]]The growing social awareness of civil rights resulted in the Constitutional Revolution and the first constitution of Iran in 1906. On June 2, 1907, the parliament passed a law on local governance known as the Baladie (municipal law), providing a detailed outline on issues such as the role of councils within the city, the members' qualifications, the election process, and the requirements to be entitled to vote. The then Qajar monarch Mohammad Ali Shah abolished the constitution and bombarded the parliament with the help of the Russian-controlled Cossack Brigade on June 23, 1908. That followed the capture of the city by the revolutionary forces of Ali-Qoli Khan (Sardar Asad II) and Mohammad Vali Khan (Sepahsalar e Tonekaboni) on July 13, 1909. As a result, the monarch was exiled and replaced with his son Ahmad, and the parliament was re-established.After World War I, the constituent assembly elected Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty as the new monarch, who immediately suspended the Baladie law of 1907, replacing the decentralized and autonomous city councils with centralist approaches of governance and planning.From the 1920s to the 1930s, under the rule of Reza Shah, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch. That followed a systematic demolition of several old buildings, including parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, and Tupkhane Square, which were replaced with modern buildings influenced by classical Iranian architecture, particularly the building of the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office, and the Military Academy.The changes in urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. The Grand Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished to be replaced with wide straight avenues.BOOK, Chaichian, Mohammad, Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization, 2009, Lexington Books, New York, 978-0-7391-2677-6, 95–116, As a result, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with intersecting cruciform streets that created large roundabouts, located on major public spaces such as the bazaar.As an attempt to create a network for easy transportation within the city, the old citadel and city walls were demolished in 1937, replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric. The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron networks.During World War II, Soviet and British troops entered the city. In 1943, Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.Toopkhooneh ghadeem.jpg|Tupkhane Square in 1911.Tehran1930.jpg|A street in Tehran in 1930.University of Tehran Faculty of Law 1318.jpg|University of Tehran's Faculty of Law in 1939.Bank Melli Sabze Meydan.JPG|National Bank of Iran, Sabze-Meydan, in the 1940s.Tehran Conference, 1943.jpg|The Tehran Conference in 1943.MajIes1956.JPG|The former Parliament Building in 1956.Ferdowsi-Ave-1960.jpg|Ferdowsi Avenue in 1960.Elizabeth (Keshavarz) Blvd-Tehran-1970s.jpg|Elizabeth Boulevard in 1970.Karimkhan Vila 1977jpg.jpg|Karimkhan Street in 1977.File:Vista de Teherán desde la Torre Milad, Irán, 2016-09-17, DD 76.jpg|thumb|left|Expressways in Tehran ]]The establishment of the planning organization of Iran in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover from 1949 to 1955. These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Reza Shah's son and successor Mohammad Reza Shah named the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was further accentuated.Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. In order to resolve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968. The consortium of Iranian architect Abd-ol-Aziz Farmanfarmaian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates identified the main problems blighting the city to be high-density suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment, and rural-urban migration. Eventually, the whole plan was marginalized by the 1979 Revolution and the subsequent Iran–Iraq War.File:Tehran's Azadi Tower at night.jpeg|thumb|The Azadi TowerAzadi TowerTehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by the order of the Shah in 1971. It was designed by Hossein Amanat, an architect who won a competition to design the monument, combining elements of classical Sassanian architecture with post-classical Iranian architecture. Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran.During the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and airstrikes.The 435-meter-high Milad Tower, which was part of the proposed development projects in pre-revolutionary Iran,WEB, Vanstiphout, Wouter, The Saddest City in the World,weblink The New Town, 1 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131219102023weblink">weblink 19 December 2013, was completed in 2007, and has thence become a famous landmark of Tehran. The 270-meter pedestrian overpass of Tabiat Bridge is a newly-built landmark, designed by award winning architect Leila Araghian, which was completed in 2014.{{-}}

Geography

Location and subdivisions

The metropolis of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative centre. 20 of the 22 municipal districts are located in Tehran County's Central District, while the districts 1 and 20 are respectively located in the counties of Shemiranat and Ray. Although administratively separate, the cities of Ray and Shemiran are often considered part of Greater Tehran.{{Tehran County divisions}}{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! Regions and municipal districts of Tehran|{|North:District 1: â€¢ ÄŒizar â€¢ Dar Abad â€¢ Darake â€¢ Darband â€¢ Džamaran â€¢ Velenjak â€¢ Gejtarije â€¢ Nobonjad â€¢ TadžriÅ¡ â€¢ ZafaranijeDistrict 2: â€¢ Farahzad â€¢ Shahrara â€¢ GiÅ¡a â€¢ Punak-e   Bahtari â€¢ Sadat Abad â€¢ Sadegije â€¢ Å ahrak-e Garb â€¢ Å ahrak-e   Å½andarmeri â€¢ TaraÅ¡t â€¢ TovhidDistrict 3: â€¢ Darus â€¢ Davudije â€¢ Ehtijarije â€¢ Golhak â€¢ Vanak â€¢ ŽordanDistrict 5: â€¢ Bulvar-e   Firdusi â€¢ Džanat Abad â€¢ Ekbatan â€¢ PunakDistrict 6: â€¢ Amir Abad â€¢ Aržantin â€¢ Jusef Abad â€¢ Park-e LaleEast:District 4: â€¢ Khak Sefid â€¢ Hakimije â€¢ Lavizan â€¢ Ozgol â€¢ Pasdaran â€¢ Resalat â€¢ Å ams Abad â€¢ Å emiran No â€¢ Tehranpars â€¢ ZargandeDistrict 7: â€¢ Abas Abad â€¢ Behdžat   Abad â€¢ Emam   Hosein â€¢ SabalanDistrict 8: â€¢ Moalem â€¢ Narmak â€¢ Samangan â€¢ Nezam AbadDistrict 13: â€¢ DuÅ¡an Tape â€¢ Niru Havaji â€¢ Teheran No â€¢ PirooziDistrict 14: â€¢ ÄŒaharsad   Dastgah â€¢ Dulab â€¢ Esfahanak â€¢ Horasan â€¢ Sad DastgahCenter:District 10: â€¢ Berjanak â€¢ Haft ÄŒenar â€¢ SalsabilDistrict 11: â€¢ Dohanijat â€¢ LaÅ¡kar â€¢ Monirije â€¢ Å ejh HadiDistrict 12: â€¢ Baharestan â€¢ Bazar-e Tehran â€¢ Firdusi â€¢ Gorgan â€¢ Park-e Å ar â€¢ Pič-e Å emiranDistrict 17: â€¢ Emamzade   Hasan â€¢ Hazane Falah â€¢ Kale MorgiSouth:District 15: â€¢ Afsarije â€¢ Bisim â€¢ Havaran â€¢ KijanÅ¡ar â€¢ Masudije â€¢ MoÅ¡irijeDistrict 16: â€¢ Ali Abad â€¢ Bag-e Azari â€¢ Hazane   Boharae â€¢ Jahči Abad â€¢ Javadieh â€¢ Nazi AbadDistrict 19: â€¢ Abdol Abad â€¢ Hava Niruz â€¢ Nemat AbadDistrict 20: â€¢ Dovlat Abad â€¢ Džavanm.-e   Kasab â€¢ Ebn-e   Babavejh â€¢ Hazrat-e   Abdol-Azim â€¢ Sizdah-e   AbanWest:District 9: â€¢ Džej â€¢ Sar-AsjabDistrict 18: â€¢ ÄŒahar Bari â€¢ Jaft Abad â€¢ Å ad Abad â€¢ Å ahrak-e   Vali-Asr â€¢ Tolid DaruDistrict 21: â€¢ Iran Hodro â€¢ Tehransar â€¢ VardavardDistrict 22: â€¢ Bag-e   Hadž-Sejf â€¢ Kan â€¢ Kuj-e   Sazman-e   Barname â€¢ Parc ÄŒitgar â€¢ PejkanÅ¡ar â€¢ Stadium-e   Azadi â€¢ Å ahrak-e   ÄŒeÅ¡me â€¢ Å ahrak-e   Rah-Ahan â€¢ Å ahrak-e   Omid{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! Municipal districts of Tehran|{|class="wikitable sortable"!Name!!Persian Name!!County!!Number ofMunicipal Regions!!Area!!Population!!Population Density!!Location within TehranDistrict 1 (Tehran)>District 1 منطقه Û± – Mantaqe ye Yek Shemiranat County 10 {{nts5936.9}}/km² (File:Tehran1.PNG|200px)District 2 (Tehran)>District 2 منطقه Û² – Mantaqe ye Dow Tehran County 9 {{nts10156.3}}/km² (File:Tehran2.PNG|200px)District 3 (Tehran)>District 3 منطقه Û³ – Mantaqe ye Se Tehran County 6 {{nts9396.8}}/km² (File:Tehran3.PNG|200px)District 4 (Tehran)>District 4 منطقه Û´ – Mantaqe ye Ĉahār Tehran County 9 {{nts14087.1}}/km² (File:Tehran4.PNG|200px)District 5 (Tehran)>District 5 منطقه Ûµ – Mantaqe ye Panj Tehran County 7 {{nts15122.9}}/km² (File:Tehran5.PNG|200px)District 6 (Tehran)>District 6 منطقه Û¶ – Mantaqe ye Åœeŝ Tehran County 6 {{nts10146.1}}/km² (File:Tehran6.PNG|200px)District 7 (Tehran)>District 7 منطقه Û· – Mantaqe ye Haft Tehran County 5 {{nts20113.3}}/km² (File:Tehran7.PNG|200px)District 8 (Tehran)>District 8 منطقه Û¸ – Mantaqe ye Haŝt Tehran County 3 {{nts28263.1}}/km² (File:Tehran8.PNG|200px)District 9 (Tehran)>District 9 منطقه Û¹ – Mantaqe ye Noh Tehran County 3 {{nts8673.5}}/km² (File:Tehran9.PNG|200px)District 10 (Tehran)>District 10 منطقه Û±Û° – Mantaqe ye Dah Tehran County 3 {{nts39024.4}}/km² (File:Tehran10.PNG|200px)District 11 (Tehran)>District 11 منطقه Û±Û± – Mantaqe ye Yāzdah Tehran County 4 {{nts22222.2}}/km² (File:Tehran11.PNG|200px)District 12 (Tehran)>District 12 منطقه Û±Û² – Mantaqe ye Davāzdah Tehran County 6 {{nts21597.6}}/km² (File:Tehran12.PNG|200px)District 13 (Tehran)>District 13 منطقه Û±Û³ – Mantaqe ye Sizdah Tehran County 4 {{nts21541.2}}/km² (File:Tehran13.PNG|200px)District 14 (Tehran)>District 14 منطقه Û±Û´ – Mantaqe ye Ĉahārdah Tehran County 6 {{nts19894.3}}/km² (File:Tehran14.PNG|200px)District 15 (Tehran)>District 15 منطقه Û±Ûµ – Mantaqe ye Pānzdah Tehran County 6 {{nts19623.7}}/km² (File:Tehran15.PNG|200px)District 16 (Tehran)>District 16 منطقه Û±Û¶ – Mantaqe ye Ŝānzdah Tehran County 6 {{nts18342.5}}/km² (File:Tehran16.PNG|200px)District 17 (Tehran)>District 17 منطقه Û±Û· – Mantaqe ye Hefdah Tehran County 3 {{nts31222.2}}/km² (File:Tehran17.PNG|200px)District 18 (Tehran)>District 18 منطقه Û±Û¸ – Mantaqe ye Heĵdah Tehran County 5 {{nts8456.7}}/km² (File:Tehran18.PNG|200px)District 19 (Tehran)>District 19 منطقه Û±Û¹ – Mantaqe ye Nuzdah Tehran County 3 {{nts12304.9}}/km² (File:Tehran19.PNG|200px)District 20 (Tehran)>District 20 منطقه Û²Û° – Mantaqe ye Bist Ray County, Iran >23.0}} km² 378,445 {{nts200px)District 21 (Tehran)>District 21 منطقه Û²Û± – Mantaqe ye Bist-o-Yek Tehran County 3 {{nts3060.8}}/km² (File:Tehran21.PNG|200px)District 22 (Tehran)>District 22 منطقه Û²Û² – Mantaqe ye Bist-o-Dow Tehran County 4 {{nts2573.5}}/km² (File:Tehran22.PNG|200px)Tochal-Tehran.jpg|Tehran and Mount Tochal in the winter of 2006.Elahiyeh.gif|Elahie, an upper-class residential and commercial district in northern Tehran.Ekhtiarieh, Tehran, Tehran, Iran - panoramio.jpg|Ekhtiarie, an old residential area in northern Tehran.Hormozan street, Shahrake Gharb.jpg|Hormozan Street in Qarb Town, northwestern Tehran.Boukhares Ave., Tehran - panoramio.jpg|Bucharest Street in Abbas Abad, north-central Tehran.Northern Tehran is the wealthiest part of the city,NEWS,weblink Iran Lightens Up On Western Ways, Chicago Tribune, May 9, 1993, consisting of various districts such as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Pasdaran, Kamranie, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, Qeytarie, and Qarb Town.Buzbee, Sally. "Tehran: Split Between Liberal, Hard-Line". Associated Press via The Washington Post. Thursday 4 October 2007.Hundley, Tom. "Pro-reform Khatami appears victorious after 30 million Iranians cast votes". Chicago Tribune. 8 June 2001. While the center of the city houses government ministries and headquarters, commercial centers are more located towards further north.

Climate

(File:Tehran Profile, Level 1, 2012.jpg|thumb|Urban sustainability analysis of the metropolitan area of Tehran, using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme)Tehran features a continental-influenced Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz mountains to its north and the country's central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter.File:A fall in Nation Park, Tehran City.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Mellat ParkMellat ParkBecause the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. For instance, the {{convert|17.3|km|abbr=on}} Valiasr Street runs from Tehran's railway station at {{convert|1117|m|abbr=on}} elevation above sea level in the south of the city to Tajrish Square at 1712.6 m (5612.3 ft) elevation above sea level in the north.WEB,weblink Elevation Finder, Tools, Free Map, www.freemaptools.com, en, 2017-02-02, However, the elevation can even rise up to {{convert|2000|m|abbr=on}} at the end of Velenjak in northern Tehran.Summer is long, hot, and dry with little rain, but relative humidity is generally low, making the heat tolerable. Average high temperatures are between {{convert|32|and|41|°C|0}}, and it can drop to 14 Â°C in the mountainous north of the city at night. Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July, with a mean minimum temperature of {{convert|33|°C}} and a mean maximum temperature of {{convert|38|°C}}, and the coldest is January, with a mean minimum temperature of {{convert|-5|°C}} and a mean maximum temperature of {{convert|1|°C}}.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030610002354weblink">weblink dead, 2003-06-10, Climate of Tehran, Irantour.org, 2010-11-12, The weather of Tehran can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is {{convert|43|°C|0}} and the record low is {{convert|-20|°C|0}}. On January 5 and 6, 2008, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and close down the capital on January 6 and 7.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080208071157weblink">Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (in Persian). irna.comTehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. This is most likely because of the afforestation projects, which also include expanding parks and lakes. The northern parts of Tehran are still lusher than the southern parts.{{Weather box |metric first= Yes |single line= Yes |location= Tehran-Shomal (north of Tehran), elevation: 1548.2 m or 5079.3 ft, 1988-2005|Jan record high C = 16.4|Feb record high C = 19.0|Mar record high C = 23.8|Apr record high C = 30.6|May record high C = 33.6|Jun record high C = 37.8|Jul record high C = 40.8|Aug record high C = 40.4|Sep record high C = 39.6|Oct record high C = 31.2|Nov record high C = 23.0|Dec record high C = 19.0|Jan high C = 6.1|Feb high C = 8.1|Mar high C = 12.9|Apr high C = 19.8|May high C = 25.0|Jun high C = 31.2|Jul high C = 33.9|Aug high C = 33.5|Sep high C = 29.3|Oct high C = 22.4|Nov high C = 14.3|Dec high C = 8.6|Jan low C = -1.5|Feb low C = -0.2|Mar low C = 4.0|Apr low C = 9.8|May low C = 14|Jun low C = 19.6|Jul low C = 22.6|Aug low C = 21.9|Sep low C = 17.5|Oct low C = 11.6|Nov low C = 5.4|Dec low C = 1.0|Jan record low C = -11.4|Feb record low C = -11.0|Mar record low C = -8.0|Apr record low C = -1.6|May record low C = 3.0|Jun record low C = 12.0|Jul record low C = 15.4|Aug record low C = 13.5|Sep record low C = 8.8|Oct record low C = 2.6|Nov record low C = -5.2|Dec record low C = -9.6|Jan rain days= 12.3|Feb rain days= 10.9|Mar rain days= 12.3|Apr rain days= 10.0|May rain days= 8.9|Jun rain days= 3.3|Jul rain days= 3.4|Aug rain days= 1.6|Sep rain days= 1.3|Oct rain days= 5.8|Nov rain days= 8.6|Dec rain days= 10.7|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm = 63.1|Feb precipitation mm = 66.5|Mar precipitation mm = 83.3|Apr precipitation mm = 50.1|May precipitation mm = 27.1|Jun precipitation mm = 4.0|Jul precipitation mm = 4.2|Aug precipitation mm = 3.2|Sep precipitation mm = 3.4|Oct precipitation mm = 16.5|Nov precipitation mm = 41.3|Dec precipitation mm = 66.3|Jan sun = 137.2|Feb sun = 151.1|Mar sun = 186.0|Apr sun = 219.1|May sun = 279.8|Jun sun = 328.7|Jul sun = 336.6|Aug sun = 336.8|Sep sun = 300.5|Oct sun = 246.8|Nov sun = 169.4|Dec sun = 134.1|Jan humidity = 67|Feb humidity = 59|Mar humidity = 53|Apr humidity = 44|May humidity = 39|Jun humidity = 30|Jul humidity = 31|Aug humidity = 31|Sep humidity = 33|Oct humidity = 44|Nov humidity = 57|Dec humidity = 66|Jan snow days= 8.9|Feb snow days= 6.6|Mar snow days= 2.5|Apr snow days= 0.1|May snow days= 0.1|Jun snow days= 0|Jul snow days= 0|Aug snow days= 0|Sep snow days= 0|Oct snow days= 0|Nov snow days= 0.6|Dec snow days= 4.9PUBLISHER=CLIMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180410064412/HTTP://CRI.AC.IR/FILES/DATA/SYNOPTIC%20DATA%20UP%20TO%20L2005/SHOMALTEURL-STATUS=DEAD, }}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Tehran, elevation: 1168 m or 3832 ft!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average Ultraviolet index34681111+11+1196327.1!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas WEB,weblink Tehran, Iran - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, 24 January 2019, In February 2005, heavy snow covered all of the parts of the city. Snow depth was {{convert|15|cm|0|abbr=on}} in the southern part of the city and {{convert|100|cm|0|abbr=on}} in the northern part of city. A newspaper said it had been the worst weather for 34 years. 10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers deployed to keep the main roads open.NEWS,weblink Harrison, Frances, Iran gripped by wintry weather, February 19, 2005, BBC News, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011190509weblink">weblink October 11, 2011, WEB,weblink Heavy Snowfall in Tehran, fa, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130426100918weblink">weblink 2013-04-26, On February 3, 2014, Tehran reached a heavy snowfall, specifically in the northern parts of the city, with a height of 2 meters. Within one week successive snowfall, roads were made impassable in some areas along with a temperature variety of −8 Â°C to −16 Â°C.NEWS,weblink Rare snow blankets Iran's capital Tehran, BBC News, On June 3, 2014, a severe thunderstorm with powerful microbursts created a haboob that engulfed the city in sand and dust. Five people were killed and more than 57 injured. This disaster also knocked numerous trees and power lines down. It struck between 5 and 6 pm, plumping temperatures from 33 Â°C to 19 Â°C in just an hour. The dramatic temperature drop was accompanied by wind gusts reaching nearly 118 km/h.WEB,weblink Deadly Dust Storm Engulfs Iran's Capital, June 3, 2014, AccuWeather,

Environmental issues

{{See also|Environmental issues in Tehran|Environmental issues in Iran|List of earthquakes in Iran}}File:Tehran Pollution.jpg|thumb|Air pollutionAir pollutionA plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years, due mainly to the environmental issues of the region. Tehran is rated as one of the world's most polluted cities, and is also located near two major fault lines.The city suffers from severe air pollution. 80% of the city's pollution is due to cars.WEB,weblink Car exhaust fumes blamed for over 80% of air pollution in Tehran, Payvand.com, 2006-11-22, 2010-09-25, The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of noise pollution in Tehran.WEB,weblink Motorcycles Account for 30% of Air Pollution in Tehran, Payvand.com, 2006-11-22, 2010-11-12, In 2010, the government announced that "for security and administrative reasons, the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized."WEB,weblink For Security and Administrative [sic] Reasons: Plan to Move Capital From Tehran Finalized, Payvand.com, 2010-09-25, There are plans to relocate 163 state firms and several universities from Tehran to avoid damages from a potential earthquake.WEB,weblink Iran Moots Shifting Capital from Tehran, Payvand.com, 2006-11-22, 2010-09-25, The officials are engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution. It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Furthermore, the government has set up a "Traffic Zone" covering the city centre during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit.There have also been plans to raise people's awareness of the hazards of pollution. One method that is currently being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO).

Demographics

{{See also|Demographics of Tehran}}{{Further|Ethnicities in Iran}}(File:Tehran Population (1956-2016).png|thumb|right|Population of Tehran)(File:Tehran Urbanization.gif|thumb|right|Tehran in 1985 and 2009){{Historical populations| title = Tehran's Population History| percentages = pagr 1,000 3,000 15,000 50,000 60,000 80,000 147,256 250,000 540,087 1,560,934 2,719,730 4,530,223 6,058,207 6,497,238 6,758,845 7,711,230 8,244,759 8,737,510}}The city of Tehran has a population of approximately 10 million in 2016. Its wider metropolitan has a population of 16 million. weblink {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071211144948weblink |date=December 11, 2007 }} With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The present-day dominant language of Tehran is the Tehrani variety of the Persian language, and the majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians. However, before, the native language of the Tehran–Ray region was not Persian, which is linguistically Southwest Iranian and originates in Fars, but a now extinct Northwestern Iranian language.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Central Dialects, Windfuhr, Gernot L., Gernot Windfuhr, Encyclopædia Iranica, Yarshater, Ehsan, Ehsan Yarshater, 1991, Routledge, London and New York, 242–252,weblink 23 August 2013, 5, Iranian Azeris form the second-largest ethnic group of the city, comprising about 20%{{source needed|date=June 2019}} to 1/4NEWS,weblink Iran-Azeris, Library of Congress Country Studies, December 1987, 13 August 2013, NEWS,weblink Country Study Guide-Azerbaijanis, STRATEGIC INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENTS-USA, 13 August 2013, of the total population, while ethnic Mazanderanis are the third-largest, comprising about 17% of the total population.NEWS,weblink یک و نیم میلیون مازندرانی پایتخت نشین شدند, Islamic Republic News Agency, IRNA, April 3, 2016, fa, Tehran's other ethnic communities include Kurds, Armenians, Georgians, Bakhtyaris, Talysh, Baloch, Assyrians, Arabs, Jews, and Circassians.According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of the University of Tehran, in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of the people were born in Tehran, 98% knew Persian, 75% identified themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% had some degree of proficiency in a European language.WEB,weblink چنددرصد تهرانی‌ها در تهران به دنیا آمده‌اند؟, tabnak.ir, fa, November 3, 2010, Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethnic-social composition in the early 1980s. After the political, social, and economic consequences of the 1979 Revolution and the years that followed, a number of Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran. The majority of Iranian emigrations have left for the United States, Germany, Sweden, and Canada.With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), the second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during the Iraqi air offensives on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at the time, economic isolation gave yet more reason for many inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and have struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.The unstable situation and the war in neighbouring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who arrived in their millions, with Tehran being a magnet for much seeking work, who subsequently helped the city to recover from war wounds, working for far less pay than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of the UNHCR, but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their own countries. Afghan refugees are mostly Dari-speaking Tajik and Hazara, speaking a variety of Persian, and Iraqi refugees are mainly Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers who are often of Iranian heritage.

Religion

{{See also|List of religious centres in Tehran|Religion in Iran}}The majority of Tehranis are officially Twelver Shia Muslims, which has also been the state religion since the 16th-century Safavid conversion. Other religious communities in the city include followers of the Sunni and Mystic branches of Islam, various Christian denominations, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Bahá'í Faith.There are many religious centres scattered around the city, from old to newly-built centres, including mosques, churches, synagogues, and Zoroastrian fire temples. The city also has a very small third-generation Indian Sikh community that has a local gurdwara that was visited by the Indian Prime Minister in 2012.WEB, Lakshman, Nikhil, Indian Prime Minister in Tehran,weblink Rediff.com, 3 September 2012, Shah Mosque, Tehran.jpg|Tehran's Shah MosqueGreek church of Virgin Mary Tehran.JPG|Tehran's Greek Orthodox Church of Virgin MaryChurch of holy mary کلیسای حضرت مریم 1.jpg|Saint Mary Armenian Apostolic Church, TehranYusefabad -5.jpg|Tehran's Yusef Abad SynagogueAdriaan2.jpg|Adrian Fire Temple, Tehran

Economy

{{See also|Economy of Tehran|Industry of Iran|Communications in Iran}}File:Iran Central Bank Tower.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Central Bank of Iran ]]Tehran is the economic centre of Iran.WEB,weblink Tehran (Iran) : People – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012-05-21, About 30% of Iran's public-sector workforce and 45% of its large industrial firms are located in the city, and almost half of these workers are employed by the government.WEB,weblink Cordesman, Anthony H., The US, Israel, the Arab States and a Nuclear Iran. Part One: Iranian Nuclear Programs, PDF, September 23, 2008, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2010-09-25, Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers.Few foreign companies operate in Tehran, due to the government's complex international relations. But prior to the 1979 Revolution, many foreign companies were active in Iran.BOOK, Chaichian, Mohammad, Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization, 2009, Lexington Books, New York, 978-0-7391-2677-6, 98–103, Tehran's present-day modern industries include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading centre for the sale of carpets and furniture. The oil refining companies of Pars Oil, Speedy, and Behran are based in Tehran.Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has been one of the world's best performing stock exchanges in recent years.NEWS,weblink Iran blocks share price gains, BBC News, 2003-08-06, 2012-05-21,

Shopping

{{See also|List of shopping malls in Iran}}Tehran has a wide range of shopping centers, and is home to over 60 modern shopping malls.WEB,weblink Hopes for shopping revolution as malls sprout in Iran, Gulf News, June 9, 2017, The city has a number of commercial districts, including those located at Valiasr, Davudie, and Zaferanie. The largest old bazaars of Tehran are the Grand Bazaar and the Bazaar of Tajrish.Most of the international branded stores and upper-class shops are located in the northern and western parts of the city. Tehran's retail business is growing with several newly-built malls and shopping centres.Hyper.star.jpg|Hyperstar, Tehran's subsidiary of French retailer CarrefourTiraje Mall, Tehran City.JPG|Tiraje Mall in western TehranTandis centre.jpg|Tandis Mall in TajrishTehran Old Bazaar.jpg|Tehran's Old Grand BazaarIran Mall Mahan Garden and Hotel.jpg|Iran Mall

Tourism

Tehran, as one of the main tourist destinations in Iran, has a wealth of cultural attractions. It is home to royal complexes of Golestan, Saadabad and Niavaran, which were built under the reign of the country's last two monarchies.There are several historic, artistic and scientific museums in Tehran, including the National Museum, the Malek Museum, the Cinema Museum at Ferdows Garden, the Abgineh Museum, Museum of the Qasr Prison, the Carpet Museum, the Reverse Glass Painting Museum (vitray art), and the Safir Office Machines Museum. There is also the Museum of Contemporary Art, which hosts works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Andy Warhol.The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, one of the largest jewel collections in the world, are also on display at Tehran's National Jewelry Museum.A number of cultural and trade exhibitions take place in Tehran, which are mainly operated by the country's International Exhibitions Company. Tehran's annual International Book Fair is known to the international publishing world as one of the most important publishing events in Asia.WEB,weblink : Tibf :, Tibf.ir, 2012-05-21, Milad tower - panoramio (1).jpg|Milad TowerTehran's Nature Bridge.jpg|Tabiat Bridgeكاخ گلستان.jpg|Golestan PalaceNiavaran palace.jpg|Niavaran ComplexKakh-e-sabz.JPG|Sa'dabad ComplexMasoodieh.jpg|Masoudie, Baharestan.Národní muzeum Íránu.jpg|National Museum of IranTehran Museum of Contemporary Art 1 edit.jpg|Museum of Contemporary ArtCarpet Museum, Tehran.jpg|Carpet Museum of Iranباغ موزه قصر1392.JPG|Museum of the Qasr Prisonموزه آبگینه16.jpg|Abgineh Museum

Infrastructure

Transport

{{See also|Transport in Iran}}Tehran has one of the highest betweenness and closeness centrality among the cities of Iran, regarding national road and air routes. JOURNAL, Annamoradnejad, Rahimberdi, Annamoradnejad, Issa, Safarrad, Taher, Habibi, Jafar, 2019, Using Web Mining in the Analysis of Housing Prices: A Case study of Tehran,weblink 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR), IEEE, 10.1109/icwr.2019.8765250, 9781728114316,

Highways and streets

{{See also|List of Expressways in Tehran}}The metropolis of Tehran is equipped with a large network of highways and interchanges.Tehran. An Educational Website about Tehran {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Fresh green ^ Red - panoramio.jpg|Valiasr StreetFajr Bridge Tehran2.jpg|Hemmat ExpresswayTehran111.jpg|Modarres ExpresswayKordestan-Resalat-Hakim.jpg|Kordestan Expressway interchange with Resalat and Hakim expresswaysFile:Tehran in a holiday and work day 04.jpg|thumb|The left image shows Tehran on a day-off during the NowruzNowruzA number of streets in Tehran are named after international figures, including:

Cars

{{See also|Automotive industry in Iran}}According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran was designed to have a capacity of about 300,000 cars, but currently more than five million cars are on the roads.WEB,weblink Smogglarm i många världsstäder, Göteborgs-Posten, 2015-12-19, 2015-12-19,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160102065656weblink">weblink 2016-01-02, dead, The automation industry has recently developed, but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101028145438weblink">weblink 2010-10-28,weblink 'Tehran's overpopulation will cause ecological ruin', Payvand.com, 2006-11-22, 2016-03-04, According to local media, Tehran has more than 200,000 taxis plying the roads daily,WEB,weblink Taxis in Tehran, 2017-12-24, with several types of taxi available in the city. Airport taxis have a higher cost per kilometer as opposed to regular green and yellow taxis in the city.Traffic light in Tehran.jpg|Traffic light in TehranNear Sunset at end of 2006 Spring In Modaress Highway, Tehran - panoramio - Behrooz Rezvani (1).jpg|Traffic in Modares ExpresswayTehran Hybrid Taxi 01.jpg|Tehran's hybrid taxiTehran Mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf driving a Taxi.jpg|Tehran's former Mayor, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, driving a taxi

Buses

{{See also|Trolleybuses in Tehran|Tehran Bus Rapid Transit}}File:Tehran BRT bus transport system.jpg|thumb|Tehran's bus rapid transit at the Azadi Terminal]]Buses have served the city since the 1920s. Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses, and bus rapid transit (BRT). The city's four major bus stations include the South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal, and the northcentral Beyhaghi Terminal.The trolleybus system was opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses built by Czechia's Škoda.Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia, pp. 57 and 99. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. {{ISBN|0-904235-18-1}}. This was the first trolleybus system in Iran. In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Imam Hossein Square.Trolleybus Magazine No. 265 (January–February 2006), pp. 16–17. National Trolleybus Association (UK). {{issn|0266-7452}}. Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway along Damavand Street, stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres along the routes, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such). The other three trolleybus routes run south and operate in mixed-traffic. Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services. A 3.2-kilometer extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square was opened in March 2010.Trolleybus Magazine No. 298 (July–August 2011), pp. 89–90. National Trolleybus Association (UK).Tehran's bus rapid transit (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008. It has 10 lines with some 215 stations in different areas of the city. {{As of|2011}}, the BRT system had a network of {{convert|100|km|0|abbr=off}}, transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. The city has also developed a bicycle sharing system that includes 12 hubs in one of Tehran's districts.Turquoise Partners: Iran Investment Monthly (February 2011). Retrieved April 30, 2011

Railway and subway

{{See also|Islamic Republic of Iran Railways|label 1=Iranian Railways|Tehran Metro}}Tehran has a central railway station that connects services round the clock to various cities in the country, along with a Tehran–Europe train line also running.The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction of Tehran's subway system were started in the 1970s. The first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened in 2001.Tehran Railway.jpg|Tehran's railway stationTehran subway.jpg|Inside one of Tehran's subway stationsTehran Imam Khomeini metro station (entrance stairway).jpg|Stairway of Tehran's Khomeini metro stationSubway-train-interior.jpg|Interior of one of Tehran's subway trainsایستگاه متروی کرج.JPG|Karaj Metro Station{| class="wikitable"|+List of Tehran Metro Lines!Line!OpeningWEB,weblink About Metro - Metro History, Tehran Urban & Suburban Railway Operating Company, 2014-04-23, !Length!StationsWEB,weblink Development of stations operating, 20 June 2011, Tehran Urban & Suburban Railway Operating Company, pdf, 2014-04-23, !Type'''1}}'''200170miWEBSITE=TEHRANMETROGROUP.COMACCESSDATE=2015-11-08, 32HTTP://METRO.TEHRAN.IR/DEFAULT.ASPX?TABID=215>TITLE=STATIONSACCESSDATE=2015-09-23, Rapid transit>Metro'''2}}'''200026miWEBSITE=TEHRANMETROGROUP.COMACCESSDATE=2015-11-08, 22Rapid transit>Metro'''3}}'''201237miWEBSITE=TEHRANMETROGROUP.COMACCESSDATE=2015-11-08, 24Rapid transit>Metro'''4}}'''200822miWEBSITE=TEHRANMETROGROUP.COMACCESSDATE=2015-11-08, 22Rapid transit>Metro'''5}}'''199943miWEBSITE=TEHRANMETROGROUP.COMACCESSDATE=2015-11-08, 11HTTP://METRO.TEHRAN.IR/PORTALS/1/ARTICLEPDF/11-STATISTICS.PDF>TITLE=FINAL PROFILE TEHRAN METRO STATION LINE 5PUBLISHER=TEHRAN URBAN & SUBURBAN RAILWAY OPERATING COMPANYACCESSDATE=2015-09-05, |Commuter rail'''6}}'''20199miACCESS-DATE=2019-04-07, en-gb, 3Rapid transit>Metro'''7}}'''201713.5miLAST=BARROWACCESS-DATE=2017-06-15, en-gb, 8Rapid transit>MetroMetro Subtotal:177.5miabbr=on}}'''111|Total:220.5miabbr=on}}'''122|

Airport

{{See also|Airlines of Iran}}Tehran is served by the international airports of Mehrabad and Khomeini. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport in western Tehran that doubles as a military base, is mainly used for domestic and charter flights. Khomeini Airport, located {{convert|50|km|0|abbr=off}} south of the city, handles the main international flights.Parked Airliner in Mehrabad International Airport at night.jpg|Parked airliners at the Mehrabad AirportTehran IKIA at Night.jpg|Entrance of the Khomeini AirportTehran IKI Airport.jpg|Inside the Khomeini AirportTwo Iran Air Airbus A300B4-605R undergoing maintenance at Mehrabad Airport.jpg|Undergoing maintenance at the Mehrabad AirportAirbus A350 demonstration at Tehran Mehrabad Airport (19).jpg|Airbus A350 demonstration at the Mehrabad Airport

Parks and green spaces

{{See also|List of Tehran metropolis parks}}File:AmingholamaliJamshidie Tehran1.JPG|thumb|left|Jamshidie Park, NiavaranNiavaranThere are over 2,100 parks within the metropolis of Tehran,WEB, IRNA,weblink Mokhtari: There are over 2,100 parks in Tehran, February 15, 2015, with one of the oldest being Jamshidie Park, which was first established as a private garden for Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu, and was then dedicated to the last empress of Iran, Farah Pahlavi. The total green space within Tehran stretches over 12,600 hectares, covering over 20 percent of the city's area. The Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran was established in 1960, and is responsible for the protection of the urban nature present in the city.WEB, Municipality of Tehran,weblink About Tehran Parks & Green Space Organization, 2015-11-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151029135406weblink">weblink 2015-10-29, dead, Tehran's Birds Garden is the largest bird park of Iran. There is also a zoo located on the Tehran–Karaj Expressway, housing over 290 species within an area of about five hectares.WEB, ITTO,weblink The Tehran Zoological Garden, 2015-11-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160102065655weblink">weblink 2016-01-02, dead,

Education

{{See also|Education in Iran|List of colleges and universities in Tehran|Science in Iran}}Tehran is the largest and the most important educational centre of Iran. There are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.File:TehranUniversityEntrancePanorama.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|The University of TehranUniversity of TehranSince the establishment of Dar ol Fonun by the order of Amir Kabir in the mid-19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran was named after, was one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran, which was one of the first modern high schools in the Middle East.Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences are the most prestigious. Other major universities located in Tehran include Tehran University of Art, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Iran's Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University, and Tarbiat Modarres University.Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.

Culture

Architecture

{{See also|Architecture of Tehran}}The oldest surviving architectural monuments of Tehran are from the Qajar and Pahlavi eras. Although, considering the area of Greater Tehran, monuments dating back to the Seljuk era remain as well; notably the Toqrol Tower in Ray. There are also remains of Rashkan Castle, dating back to the ancient Parthian Empire, of which some artifacts are housed at the National Museum;BOOK, Ancien Rey, Hossein, Karimian, Anjomane Asare Melli, and the Bahram fire temple, which remains since the Sassanian Empire.Tehran only had a small population until the late 18th century but began to take a more considerable role in Iranian society after it was chosen as the capital city. Despite the regular occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and after, some historic buildings have remained from that era.WEB,weblink Tehran Capital City of Iran, Kwintessential.co.uk, Tehran is Iran's primate city, and is considered to have the most modernized infrastructure in the country. However, the gentrification of old neighbourhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.WEB, Urschel, Donna,weblink The Style of Tehran – Library of Congress, Loc.gov, 2012-05-21, Tehran City Theater 1.jpg|A view of the building of the City Theater of TehranFile:Ministerstv spravedlnosti 1.jpg|The Courthouse of TehranIranian Foreign Affaire Ministry.jpg|Police House,the National GardenMeydan Mashgh Tehran.jpg|Cossack House,the National GardenFile:Tehran from Qeytariyeh.jpg|thumb|left|Qeytarie in February 2010]]Previously a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been built in recent decades in order to service its growing population. There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830.NEWS, The Guardian, Women to blame for earthquakes, says Iran cleric, 2010-04-19,weblink Tehran's International Tower is the tallest residential building in Iran. It is a 54-story building located in the northern district of Yusef Abad.The Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, has long been the most famous symbol of Tehran. Originally constructed in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, it combines elements of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras with post-classical Iranian architecture. The Milad Tower, which is the sixth tallest towerWEB,weblink NBN (Nasl Bartar Novin), Milad Tower, a perfect product for a perfect project, 2009-09-10, n.d., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091117010931weblink">weblink November 17, 2009, and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world,Andrew Burke, Mark Elliott. Iran (Lonely Planet Country Guide). p. 114. Lonely Planet Publications, 5th Edition, 2008. {{ISBN|978-1-74104-293-1}}. is the city's other famous landmark tower. Leila Araghian's Tabiat Bridge, the largest pedestrian overpass in Tehran, was completed in 2014 and is also considered a landmark.

Theater

File:RudakiHall.jpg|thumb|left|The Roudaki HallRoudaki HallUnder the reign of the Qajars, Tehran was home to the royal theatre of Tekye Dowlat, located to the southeast of the Golestan Palace, in which traditional and religious performances were observed. It was eventually destroyed and replaced with a bank building in 1947, following the reforms under the reign of Reza Shah.Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become the most famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes in the Middle East,BOOK, Kiann, Nima, 2015, The History of Ballet in Iran, Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. The hall was inaugurated in October 1967, named after prominent Persian poet Rudaki. It is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company.The City Theater of Tehran, one of Iran's biggest theatre complexes which contains several performance halls, was opened in 1972. It was built at the initiative and presidency of empress Farah Pahlavi, and was designed by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, constructed within five years.The annual events of Fajr Theater Festival and Tehran Puppet Theater Festival take place in Tehran.

Cinema

File:Bagh-e Ferdows Tajrish.jpg|thumb|Ferdows GardenFerdows GardenThe first movie theater of Tehran was established by Mirza Ebrahim Khan in 1904.WEB,weblink The history of Iranian cinema, Mehrabi, Massoud., 2017-06-09, Until the early 1930s, there were 15 theaters in Tehran Province and 11 in other provinces.WEB,weblink Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution, offscreen.com, November 1999, In present-day Tehran, most of the movie theatres are located downtown. The complexes of Kourosh Cinema, Mellat Gallery and Cineplex, Azadi Cinema, and Cinema Farhang are among the most popular cinema complexes in Tehran.Several film festivals are held in Tehran, including Fajr Film Festival, Children and Youth Film Festival, House of Cinema Festival, Mobile Film and Photo Festival, Nahal Festival, Roshd Film Festival, Tehran Animation Festival, Tehran Short Film Festival, and Urban Film Festival.

Sports

{{See also|Sport in Iran}}Football and volleyball are the city's most popular sports, while wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also major parts of the city's sporting culture.File:Dizin, Iran.jpeg|thumb|DizinDizin12 ski resorts operate in Iran, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours from the city of Tehran.Tochal's resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort at over {{convert|3730|m|ft|abbr=off|sp=us}} above sea level at its highest point. It is also the world's nearest ski resort to a capital city. The resort was opened in 1976, shortly before the 1979 Revolution. It is equipped with an {{convert|8|km|mi|0|adj=mid|-long}} gondola lift that covers a huge vertical distance.WEB,weblink Lines of Telecabin, tochal.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081121200006weblink">weblink 2008-11-21, There are two parallel chair ski lifts in Tochal that reach {{convert|3900|m|ft|abbr=off|sp=us}} high near Tochal's peak (at {{convert|4000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=x|/}}), rising higher than the gondola's 7th station, which is higher than any of the European ski resorts. From the Tochal peak, there are views of the Alborz range, including the {{convert|5610|m|ft|0|adj=mid|-high}} Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano.{{-}}{{wide image|Tehranderby76.jpg|1000px|The Azadi Stadium is the largest football stadium in West Asia.}}Tehran is the site of the national stadium of Azadi, the biggest stadium by capacity in West Asia, where many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held. The stadium is a part of the Azadi Sport Complex, which was originally built to host the 7th Asian Games in September 1974. This was the first time the Asian Games were hosted in West Asia. Tehran played host to 3,010 athletes from 25 countries/NOCs, which was at the time the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.WEB,weblink TEHRAN 1974, Olympic Council of Asia, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060711210717weblink">weblink 2006-07-11, That followed hosting the 6th AFC Asian Cup in June 1976, and then the first West Asian Games in November 1997. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF), and the intention of hosting the games every two years.WEB,weblink West Asian Games, Stokkermans, Karel, January 22, 2015, The city had also hosted the final of the 1968 AFC Asian Cup. Several FIVB Volleyball World League courses have also been hosted in Tehran.

Football clubs

The first football club of Tehran, named Iran Club, was founded in 1920 and dissolved within two years in 1923. Today, Tehran's oldest existing football club is Rah Ahan, which was founded in 1937. Persepolis and Esteghlal, which are the city's biggest clubs and two of the biggest clubs in Asia, compete in the Tehran derby. Tehran is also home to the football club of Ararat, a popular Armenian football team based at the Ararat Stadium.The following table lists Tehran's six major football clubs.{| class="wikitable"! Club! Sport! Founded! LeagueF.C. Ararat Tehran>Ararat F.C.|Association football|1944|Tehran Province LeagueEsteghlal F.C.Esteqlal F.C. Official Website {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071229005349weblink |date=2007-12-29 }}. Estqlal F.C.|Association football|1945|Iran Pro League (IPL)|Persepolis F.C.Persepolis F.C. Official Website. Persepolis F.C.|Association football|1967|Iran Pro League (IPL)|Paykan F.C.|Association football|1967|Iran Pro League (IPL)Smaller clubs based in Tehran are listed below.{| class="wikitable"! Club! Sport! LeagueBaadraan Tehran F.C.>Baadraan F.C.|Association football|Azadegan LeagueParseh Tehran F.C.>Parseh F.C.|Association football|Azadegan League|Niroo Zamini F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 2nd Division>2nd DivisionSanati Kaveh Tehran F.C.>Kaveh F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 2nd Division>2nd DivisionMoghavemat Tehran F.C.>Moghavemat F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 2nd Division>2nd DivisionOghab Tehran F.C.>Oghab F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 3rd Division>3rd Division|Entezam F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 3rd Division>3rd Division|Naftoon F.C.|Association footballIran Football's 3rd Division>3rd Division

Food

{{See also|Iranian cuisine}}There are many restaurants and cafes in Tehran, both modern and classic, serving both Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. Pizzerias, sandwich bars, and kebab shops make up the majority of food shops in Tehran.WEB,weblink Tehran Food Guide, The City Lane, July 27, 2015, Darband, Teherán, Irán, 2016-09-18, DD 16.jpg|A restaurant in DarbandPizza Capri, Tehran.jpg|A pizzeria in Kamyab Street, TehranSeryna Jappanese Restaurant 瀬里奈 - panoramio.jpg|A Japanese restaurant in Tehran2008 museum garden cafe Tehran 2789830499.jpg|Shemroon Cafe, in Tehran's Iranian Art Museum

Graffiti

File:Writing on the City picture Scenes.jpg|thumb|A scene from the 2016 documentary film Writing on the City, showing graffiti in Tehran's Sa'adat AbadSa'adat AbadMany styles of graffiti are seen in Tehran. Some are mainly political and revolutionary slogans painted by governmental organizations,WEB,weblink The fleeting freedom of street art in Tehran, Cheragh Abadi, Mehrnoush., February 10, 2017, Equal Times, and some are works of art by ordinary citizens, representing their views on both social and political issues. However, unsanctioned street art is forbidden in Iran, and such works are usually short-lived.During the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, many graffiti works were created by people supporting the Green Movement. They were removed from the walls by the paramilitary Basij forces.WEB,weblink Tehran’s graffiti war, France 24, March 2, 2010, In recent years, Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city. Several graffiti festivals have also taken place in Tehran, including the one organized by the Tehran University of Art in October 2014.WEB,weblink دانشگاه هنر میزبان فستیوال گرافیتی, Deutsche Welle, fa, October 24, 2012, dead,weblink" title="archive.li/20130911080951weblink">weblink September 11, 2013, {{-}}

Twin towns and partner cities

{{Refimprove section|date=July 2015}}Tehran is twinned with:{|class="wikitable"! colspan=2 | Country! colspan=2 | City! colspan=2 | State / Province / Region / Governorate!DateUSA}}|United States25px)|Los Angeles25px)|CaliforniaACCESSDATE=29 OCTOBER 2015, HTTP://WWW.SISTERCITIESOFLA.COM/TEHRAN-2 >TITLE=TEHRAN – IRAN ACCESSDATE=2015-06-03, The city is no longer listed as a sister city in the Municipality of Tehran's website: weblinkCUB}}|Cuba25px)|Havana25px)|La Habana ProvincePUBLISHER=TEHRAN MUNICIPALITY URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2013, HTTP://WWW.PAYVAND.COM/NEWS/01/MAR/1053.HTML >TITLE=TEHRAN, HAVANA NAMED SISTER CITIES DATE=2006-11-22, 2011-03-15, VEN}}|Venezuela25px)|Caracas25px)|Venezuelan Capital DistrictACCESSDATE=29 OCTOBER 2015, RSA}}|South Africa25px)|Pretoria||Gautengdate=July 2015}}HTTP://WWW.DFA.GOV.ZA/FOREIGN/MULTILATERAL/PROFILES/PERSIAN.HTM >TITLE=GULF REGION ACCESSDATE=2012-05-21, RUS}}|Russia25px)|Moscow25px)|Central Federal Districtdate=July 2015}}weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105114236weblink">"Тверская 13" 4.12.04. el.mos.ru (in Russian)CHN}}|China||Beijing|| Beijing Municipalitydate=July 2015}}GOLDKORN >FIRST=JEREMY TITLE=TEHRAN-BEIJING DIRECT FLIGHTS? ACCESSDATE=2012-05-21, TJK}}|Tajikistan22px)|Dushanbe||date=July 2015}}BLR}}|Belarus25px)|Minsk25px)|Minsk RegionACCESSDATE=29 OCTOBER 2015, HTTP://MINSK.GOV.BY/EN/CITY/>TITLE=MINSK CITY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, 29 October 2015, TUR}}|Turkey||Ankara|Central Anatolia Region>Central AnatoliaPUBLISHER=FARSNEWS, 2013-12-18, GEO}}Georgia (country)>Georgia25px)|Tbilisi25px)|Tbilisi|2015The Capitals of Georgia and Iran to become twin cities 22 May 2015HUN}}|Hungary25px)|Budapest25px)|Central Hungary|2015All Tehran’s sister cities.BIH}}|Bosnia and Herzegovina25px)|Sarajevo25px)|Sarajevo Canton|2016Sarajevo mayor's Tehran visit to give impetus to city diplomacy 30 October 2016Tehran has also signed Mutual Cooperation and Understanding with a number of cities, including Baghdad, Kabul, London, Milan, New York City, and Saint Petersburg.{{dead link|date=July 2015}}

Panoramic views

{{wide image|Tehran Night Panorama.jpg|900px|A panoramic view of Tehran at night}}{{wide image|Tehran panorama in winter.JPG|900px|A panoramic view of Tehran during the day}}{{Wide image|A panoramic view of Tehran during the day in summer.jpg|900px|A panoramic view of Tehran during the day in summer}}{{wide image|Tehran Panoramic View.jpg|900px|A panoramic view of Tehran during the day}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Tehran#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Tehran}}
  • Emerson, Charles. 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War (2013) compares Tehran to 20 major world cities; pp 309-24.

External links

{{Commons|Tehran}}{{Wikivoyage|Tehran}}

Videos
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