2020 Summer Olympics

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2020 Summer Olympics
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{{Redirect|Tokyo 2020|the Paralympics|2020 Summer Paralympics}}{{short description|Games of the XXXII Olympiad in Tokyo}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}

{{2020 Summer Olympics}}The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the {{Nihongo|Games of the XXXII Olympiad|第三十二回オリンピック競技大会|Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai|lead=yes}}() and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 22 July.Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 7 September 2013.WEB,weblink Olympics 2020: Tokyo wins race to host Games, 7 September 2013, BBC Sport, 13 February 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2015, no, These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympic Games to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympic Games twice, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' program to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer program after 2008).

Bidding process

{{Further|Bids for the 2020 Summer Olympics}}Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar) were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Host city election

The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.{{2020 Olympic host city election}}

Development and preparation

File:Odaiba Sunset.jpg|thumb|View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park]]File:Sapporo Dome moving pitchjpg.jpg|thumb|The Sapporo Dome in SapporoSapporoFile:180404M-0005.jpg|thumb|Yokohama StadiumYokohama StadiumThe Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors, but East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport.{{YouTube|HvyCUgi2HrM|JR東日本、東京五輪を前に都心部と羽田空港結ぶ新路線整備を}} Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area.NEWS, 羽田・成田発着を拡大、五輪へインフラ整備急ぐ,weblink 10 September 2013, 日本経済新聞, 10 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2013, no, There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.NEWS, 五輪で東京に1000万人 過密都市ゆえの課題多く,weblink 10 September 2013, 日本経済新聞, 10 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2013, no, The Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori.WEB, PST,weblink Mori heads Tokyo 2020 organizing committee,, 24 January 2014, 4 February 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 8 February 2014, no, Olympic and Paralympic Minister Shun'ichi Suzuki is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.WEB, List of Ministers (The Cabinet) {{!, Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet |url= | |accessdate=5 October 2018 |language=en |archive-url= |archive-date=29 September 2018 |dead-url=no }}

Venues and infrastructure

It was confirmed in February 2012 that the National Stadium in Tokyo, which was the central venue for the 1964 Summer Olympics, would be demolished and reconstructed. The project would receive a 100 billion yen upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics.WEB,weblink Himmer, Alastair, Rugby-Tokyo stadium set for billion dollar facelift, Reuters, 5 February 2012, 17 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 18 September 2017, no, A design competition for the New National Stadium was launched, and the Japan Sport Council announced in November 2012 that, out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects had been awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000.WEB,weblink Notice, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2013, Demolition of the old stadium was completed in May 2015, but Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the new stadium would be scrapped amid public discontent over the inflated building costs, and a second competition was launched to find an alternative design. In Autumn 2015, a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as the winning project. Kuma's design decreased the stadium's capacity, allowing it to be interchangeable between 60,000 and 80,000 depending on the event, much like the Stade de France.WEB,weblink Japan rips up 2020 Olympic stadium plans to start anew, Himmer, Alastair, 17 July 2015,, AFP, 17 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2015, no, As a result of the changes, the New National Stadium will not be completed in time for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, as originally planned.In September 2016, a review panel stated that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could increase to four times the original estimate; a major overhaul of the current plan was therefore proposed in order to reduce costs, including moving venues outside the city of Tokyo.NEWS,weblink Tokyo panel: Olympic cost could expand fourfold, NHK, 29 September 2016, 30 September 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2016, In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion.NEWS,weblink Tokyo 2020 costs skyrocket to US$25 billion, 4 November 2018, en, Of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo, 28 are within {{convert|8|km|mi|2|abbr=off}} of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed.WEB,weblink Tokyo 2020 candidature file â€“ section 8 â€“ Sports and Venues, Tokyo 2020, 10 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2013,

Heritage Zone

Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.{| class="wikitable sortable"! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Events! scope="col" | Capacity! scope="col" | StatusNew National Stadium| Opening and closing ceremonies60,102Under construction|Athletics|Football (finals)|Yoyogi National Gymnasium|Handball|13,291|Existing|Ryōgoku Kokugikan|Boxing|11,098|Existing|Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium|Table tennis|10,000|ExistingNippon Budokan|Judo14,471Existing|Karate|Tokyo International Forum|Weightlifting|5,012|ExistingTokyo Imperial Palace>Imperial Palace Gardens|Athletics (marathon, race walk)| 5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route| TemporaryACCESS-DATE=10 AUGUST 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=10 AUGUST 2018, bot: unknown, |Road cycling (start road races)| | Temporary

Tokyo Bay Zone

There will be 13 venues for 15 sports located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake, Odaiba and the surrounding artificial islands.{| class="wikitable sortable"! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Events! scope="col" | Capacity! scope="col" | Status|Kasai Rinkai Park|Canoeing (slalom)|8,000|Ready, built for the games|Oi Hockey Stadium|Field hockey|15,000 PUBLISHER=BUREAU OF OLYMPIC AND PARALYMPIC GAMES TOKYO 2020 PREPARATION ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180728131440/HTTPS://WWW.2020GAMES.METRO.TOKYO.JP/ENG/TAIKAIJYUNBI/TAIKAI/KAIJYOU/KAIJYOU_12/INDEX.HTML DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, |Tokyo Aquatics Centre|Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronized swimming)|15,000|Under construction|Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming CenterKoto, Tokyo; venue moved in June 2015. 東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除きACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2015DATE=9 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=10 JUNE 2015, no, |3,635|Existing|Yumenoshima Park|Archery|7,000 PUBLISHER=BUREAU OF OLYMPIC AND PARALYMPIC GAMES TOKYO 2020 PREPARATION ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180728131341/HTTP://WWW.2020GAMES.METRO.TOKYO.JP/ENG/TAIKAIJYUNBI/TAIKAI/KAIJYOU/KAIJYOU_16/INDEX.HTML DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, |Ariake Arena|Volleyball|15,000|Under constructionOlympic BMX Course| BMX cycling6,000Under construction|Skateboarding|Ariake Gymnastics Centre|Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, trampoline)|10,000|Temporary|Ariake Coliseum|Tennis|20,000 = 10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1; 3,000 court 2; 2,000 match courts (8x250)|Existing, renovatedOdaiba Marine Park|Triathlon5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along routeExisting with temporary stands|Aquatics (marathon swimming)|Shiokaze Park|Beach volleyball|12,000|TemporaryCentral Breakwater and Sea Forest Waterway|Equestrian (eventing)20,000Existing with temporary infrastructure|Rowing|Canoeing (sprint)Aomi Urban Sports Venue|3x3 basketball5,000Temporary|Sport climbing

Outlying venues

Twelve venues for 16 sports will be situated farther than {{convert|8|km|mi|0|abbr=off}} from the Olympic Village.{| class="wikitable sortable"! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Events! scope="col" | Capacity! scope="col" | Status|Camp Asaka|Shooting||Existing, renovatedMusashino Forest Sports Plaza|Modern pentathlon (fencing)10,000Ready, built for the gamesACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2015DATE=9 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=10 JUNE 2015, no, Tokyo Stadium|Football49,970Rugby sevens originally to be held at National Olympic Stadium; venue moved in June 2015. 東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き>URL=HTTP://WWW.NIKKEI.COM/ARTICLE/DGXLSSXK10834_Y5A600C1000000/WORK=NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUNARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150610030918/HTTP://WWW.NIKKEI.COM/ARTICLE/DGXLSSXK10834_Y5A600C1000000/DEAD-URL=NO, Existing|Modern pentathlon (excluding fencing)|Rugby sevens|Saitama Super Arena|BasketballACCESSDATE=10 JUNE 2015DATE=19 NOVEMBER 2014ARCHIVE-DATE=11 JUNE 2015ACCESSDATE=10 JUNE 2015DATE=3 MARCH 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=11 JUNE 2015, no, |ExistingEnoshima|SailingACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2015DATE=9 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=10 JUNE 2015, no, | Existing with temporary standsMakuhari Messe|Fencing6,000Existing with temporary stands|Taekwondo|WrestlingTokyo Big Sight; venue moved in June 2015. 東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除きACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2015DATE=9 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=10 JUNE 2015, no, |Baji KoenLAST1=DATE=28 FEBRUARY 2015ACCESS-DATE=16 AUGUST 2016ARCHIVE-DATE=22 AUGUST 2016, no, ||Existing with temporary stands|Kasumigaseki Country Club|GolfACCESS-DATE=1 OCTOBER 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=6 JULY 2017LAST1=BEALLDATE=20 MARCH 2017ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171002025317/HTTPS://WWW.GOLFDIGEST.COM/STORY/2020-OLYMPIC-GOLF-COURSE-CHANGES-POLICY-ALLOWS-WOMEN-FULL-MEMBERSHIPDEAD-URL=NO, |Existing with temporary stands|Izu Velodrome|Track cyclingLAST1=WILSONDATE=10 DECEMBER 2015ACCESS-DATE=10 DECEMBER 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=10 DECEMBER 2015, no, |Existing, expanded|Izu Mountain Bike CourseLAST1=DATE=9 DECEMBER 2015ACCESS-DATE=16 AUGUST 2016ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JULY 2016, no, ||Yokohama Stadium|Baseball30,000HTTP://WWW.YOMIURI.CO.JP/OLYMPIC/2020/20160804-OYT1T50126.HTML>TITLE=横浜スタジアム会場案...東京五輪に野球など追加, Existing|SoftballFukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium|Baseball (opening match)30,000Existing, renovatedWORK=THE TOKYO ORGANISING COMMITTEE OF THE OLYMPIC AND PARALYMPIC GAMESLANGUAGE=ENARCHIVE-DATE=31 MARCH 2017, no, | Fuji International Speedway| Road cycling(finish road races, time trial)|| Existing

Football venues

{| class="wikitable sortable"! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Location! scope="col" | Events! scope="col" | Matches! scope="col" | Capacity! scope="col" | StatusInternational Stadium YokohamaHTTPS://TOKYO2020.JP/EN/GAMES/SPORT/OLYMPIC/FOOTBALL/LAST1=DATE=21 NOVEMBER 2016ACCESS-DATE=21 NOVEMBER 2016ARCHIVE-DATE=21 NOVEMBER 2016, no, |Yokohama| Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final, Women's semi-final, Men's final10|70,000|ExistingAjinomoto Stadium>Tokyo Stadium| Tokyo| Men's and Women's opening round of preliminaries only4| 49,000| ExistingSaitama Stadium 2002>Saitama StadiumSaitama, Saitama>Saitama|Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final, Men's semi-final and 3rd place play-off11|62,000|Existing| Miyagi Stadium| Sendai| Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final10| 49,000| Existing| Kashima Soccer StadiumKashima, Ibaraki>Kashima| Men's and Women's preliminaries, quarter-final and semi-final, Women's 3rd place play-off10| 40,728| Existing| Sapporo Dome| Sapporo| Men's and Women's preliminaries10| 42,000| ExistingNew National Stadium (Tokyo)>New National Stadium| Tokyo| Women's final2| 60,012| Under construction

Non-competition venues

(File:Tokyo Big Sight at Night.jpg|thumb|The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower will be used as the IBC/MPC complex){| class="wikitable"! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Events|Imperial Hotel, Tokyo|IOC|Harumi Futo|Olympic VillageTokyo Big Sight|Media Press Center (MPC)|International Broadcast Center (IBC)


In December 2018, the Japanese government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A ban was also imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup.WEB,weblink Japanese Government announce ban on drones near venues during Tokyo 2020, James, Diamond, 25 December 2018,,


Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the organising committee.WEB,weblink More than 200,000 Applications Received for Tokyo 2020 Volunteer Programme, Tokyo 2020, 1 February 2019, Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and training will take place in October 2019.WEB,weblink Tokyo 2020: 180,000 apply to be volunteers, International Paralympic Committee, IPC, The volunteers at the venues will be known as "Field Cast" and the volunteers in the city will be known as "City Cast"; these names were chosen from a shortlist of four from an original 149 pairs of names. The other shortlisted names were "Shining Blue" & "Shining Blue Tokyo", "Games Anchor" & "City Anchor", and "Games Force" & "City Force". The names were chosen by the people who had applied to be volunteers at the Games.WEB,weblink Volunteer names unveiled for Tokyo 2020, 30 January 2019, International Olympic Committee, IOC,


In February 2017, the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced an electronics recycling program in partnership with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT docomo, soliciting donations of electronics (such as mobile phones) to be reclaimed as materials for the medals. Aiming to collect 8 tonnes of metals to produce the medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, collection boxes were deployed at public locations and NTT docomo retail shops that April.NEWS,weblink Tokyo 2020 urge public to help create recycled medals, Dan, Palmer, 1 February 2017,, 10 February 2019, NEWS,weblink Project to recycle old mobile phones for Olympic medals gets off to slow start, 2 January 2018, The Japan Times, 4 November 2018, en-US, 0447-5763,weblink 4 November 2018, no, A design competition for the medals launched in December 2017.NEWS,weblink 22 December 2017, Tokyo 2020 launches Olympic and Paralympic medal design competition, Daniel, Etchells,, 10 February 2019, In May 2018, the organizing committee reported that they had obtained half the required 2,700 kilograms of bronze, but that they were struggling to obtain the required amount of silver: although silver and bronze medals purely utilize their respective materials, IOC requirements mandate that gold medals utilize silver as a base.WEB,weblink Japan struggles for silver for Tokyo 2020 medals,, 10 February 2019, The collection of bronze was completed in November 2018, with the remainder estimated to be complete by March 2019.NEWS,weblink Bach donates to project recycling metals for Tokyo 2020 medals, Pavitt, Michael,, 10 February 2019, 25 November 2018, On 24 July 2019, the designs of the medals were unveiledweblink The medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Junichi Kawanishi following a nationwide competition.NEWS, Hitti, Natashah,weblink Olympic committee unveils 2020 medals made from recycled smartphones, Dezeen, 2019-07-25, 2019-07-26,

Torch relay

After its traditional lighting in Greece, the 2020 Summer Olympics torch relay will begin in Naraha, Fukushima on 26 March 2020.NEWS,weblink Recycled aluminium from temporary housing in Fukushima to be used for Tokyo 2020 Olympic Torches, Gillen, Nancy,, 4 January 2019,


The opening ceremony tickets will range from 12,000 to 300,000 yen, with a maximum price of 130,000 yen for the finals of athletics.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 27 July 2018,weblink 27 July 2018, bot: unknown, The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 50% of the tickets will be sold for 8,000 yen or less. A symbolic ticket price of 2,020 yen will be for families, groups resident in Japan and in conjunction with a school programme. Tickets will be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the Internet.WEB,weblink Tickets for Olympic Games / Tokyo Olympic Japan 2020, 30 August 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 31 August 2016, no, International guests will need to visit Japan during the sales period or arrange for tickets through a third party, such as a travel agent.WEB,weblink How To Buy Tokyo Olympic Tickets, TrulyTokyo, 3 May 2018,weblink 3 May 2018, no,

The Games


{{see also|Olympic sports}}The official programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. The president of the IOC, Thomas Bach, stated that the goal for the Tokyo Games was to make them more "youthful" and "urban", and to increase the number of female participants.WEB, 3-on-3 basketball officially added to Tokyo Olympics,weblink CBC Sports, 9 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2017, no, WEB, Tokyo 2020: Mixed-gender events added to Olympic Games,weblink BBC Sport, 9 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2017, no, The games will feature 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing 50 disciplines. Alongside the five new sports that will be introduced in Tokyo, there will be fifteen new events within existing sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, and new mixed events in several sports.In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
  • Aquatics
    • {{GamesSport|Artistic swimming|Events=2|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Diving|Events=8|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Swimming|Events=37|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Water polo|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Archery|Events=5|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Athletics|Events=48|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Badminton|Events=5|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Baseball|Events=1|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Softball|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Basketball|Format=d}}
    • Basketball (2)
    • 3x3 basketball (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Boxing|Events=13|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Canoeing|Format=d}}
    • Slalom (4)
    • Sprint (12)
  • {{GamesSport|Cycling|Format=d}}
    • BMX freestyle (2)
    • BMX racing (2)
    • Mountain biking (2)
    • Road cycling (4)
    • Track cycling (12)
  • {{GamesSport|Equestrian|Format=d}}
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Fencing|Events=12|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Field hockey|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Football|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Golf|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Gymnastics|Format=d}}
    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (2)
    • Trampoline (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Handball|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Judo|Events=15|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Karate|Format=d}}
    • Kata (2)
    • Kumite (6)
  • {{GamesSport|Modern pentathlon|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Rowing|Events=14|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Rugby sevens|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Sailing|Events=10|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Shooting|Events=15|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Skateboarding|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Sport climbing|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Surfing|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Table tennis|Events=5|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Taekwondo|Events=8|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Tennis|Events=5|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Triathlon|Events=3|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Volleyball|Format=d}}
    • Volleyball (2)
    • Beach volleyball (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Weightlifting|Events=14|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Wrestling|Format=d}}
    • Freestyle (12)
    • Greco-Roman (6)
{{div col end}}

New sports

As part of a goal to control costs and ensure that the Olympics remain "relevant to sports fans of all generations", the IOC assessed the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Olympics, with the remit of dropping one sport and thus retaining 25 "core" sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. This move would bring the total number of sports to 27, one less than the requirement of 28 for the 2020 Olympics programme, thus leaving a single vacancy which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports as well as the sport that had been dropped from the 2012 Olympics programme.On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the "core" programme for the 2020 Games; this was a surprising decision considering that wrestling is one of the oldest Olympic sports, having been included since the ancient Olympic Games and included in the original programme for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women's events in the sport.NEWS,weblink Wrestling, IOC make right moves in getting sport back on 2020 Olympics program, Hamilton, Tracee, 8 September 2013, Washington Post, 16 March 2018, en-US, 0190-8286,weblink 21 June 2018, no, NEWS,weblink Olympics Moves to Drop Wrestling in 2020, Longman, Jeré, 12 February 2013, The New York Times, 16 March 2018, en-US, 0362-4331,weblink 21 June 2018, no, WEB,weblink Wrestling to be dropped from 2020 Olympic Games, BBC Sport, 26 May 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2015, no, Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling.IOC: Baseball/softball, squash and wrestling make cut for IOC Session vote in Buenos Aires {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 June 2013 }} The other five sports were excluded from consideration at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu.WEB,weblink Wrestling, baseball/softball and squash shortlisted by IOC for 2020 as five fail to make cut, 12 August 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, no, On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively.WEB,weblink Wrestling added to Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024 Games, IOC, 8 September 2013, 8 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2013, no, Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest.WEB, Olympic Agenda 2020 Recommendations,weblink IOC, 23 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2015, no, As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu.WEB,weblink Baseball, softball among 8 sports proposed for 2020 Games,, 12 August 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2015, no, On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding.WEB, Olympics: Skateboarding & surfing among possible Tokyo 2020 sports,weblink BBC Sport, 29 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 22 April 2016, no, The five proposed sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and will be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.WEB,weblink IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020, 3 August 2016,, 3 August 2016,weblink 7 October 2016, no, WEB, You're in! Baseball/softball, 4 other sports make Tokyo cut, USA Today, 3 August 2016,weblink 18 August 2016,weblink 16 October 2017, no, dmy-all,

Test events

There will be 56 test events before the Olympic and Paralympic Games; they will be contested between June 2019 and June 2020, and will be completed before the start of the 2020 Summer Games. Several of the events are existing championships, but some will be newly created to serve as test events for the Olympics.WEB,weblink Tokyo 2020 Test Events, 3 January 2019, Tokyo 2020, WEB,weblink Tokyo 2020: Test event schedule announced, 2 October 2018, International Paralympic Committee, IPC, It was announced in February 2019 that the test events would be under the banner "Ready, Steady, Tokyo." The Tokyo Organising Committee is responsible for 22 of the test events, with the remaining events to be arranged by national and international organisations. The first test event is World Sailing's World Cup Series held at Enoshima, and the last event is set to be the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet in May 2020.WEB,weblink Tokyo 2020 unveils its Olympic test event schedule, 30 January 2019, International Olympic Committee, IOC,

Participating National Olympic Committees

{{clr}}(File:2020 Summer Olympics team numbers.svg|thumb|center|upright=2.8|Team numbers (as of 19 August 2019).)File:2020 Summer Olympic games countries.svg|thumb|center|upright=2.8|Participating countries (as of 19 August 2019).Blue = Participating for the first time.Green = Have previously participated.Yellow circle is host city (TokyoTokyo{{As of|2019|8|19}}, the following 108 NOCs are qualified.{| class="wikitable collapsible" style="width:100%;"! Participating (:Category:Nations at the 2020 Summer Olympics|National Olympic Committees)|{{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALB|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALG|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|ANG|2020 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARG|2020 Summer|86}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUS|2020 Summer|94}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUT|2020 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|AZE|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAH|2020 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAN|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAR|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BLR|2020 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|BEL|2020 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|BIH|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BOT|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRA|2020 Summer|103}}
  • {{flagIOC|IVB|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUL|2020 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUR|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|BDI|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAN|2020 Summer|77}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAY|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHI|2020 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHN|2020 Summer|98}}
  • {{flagIOC|TPE|2020 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|COL|2020 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRC|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRO|2020 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|CUB|2020 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|CYP|2020 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|CZE|2020 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|DEN|2020 Summer|26}}
  • {{flagIOC|DJI|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|DOM|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|ECU|2020 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|EGY|2020 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESA|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|ERI|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|EST|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIJ|2020 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIN|2020 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|FRA|2020 Summer|77}}
  • {{flagIOC|GEO|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|GER|2020 Summer|77}}
  • {{flagIOC|GHA|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|GBR|2020 Summer|100}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRE|2020 Summer|18}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRN|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUA|2020 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUY|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|HKG|2020 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|HUN|2020 Summer|27}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISL|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|IND|2020 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|INA|2020 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRI|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRL|2020 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISR|2020 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|ITA|2020 Summer|92}}
  • {{flagIOC|CIV|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|JAM|2020 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|JPN|2020 Summer|321}} (host nation)
  • {{flagIOC|KAZ|2020 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|KUW|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|KGZ|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|LAT|2020 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|LBR|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|LIE|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|LTU|2020 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|LUX|2020 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAS|2020 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MEX|2020 Summer|28}}
  • {{flagIOC|MDA|2020 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MGL|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|NAM|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|NED|2020 Summer|48}}
  • {{flagIOC|NZL|2020 Summer|69}}
  • {{flagIOC|NIG|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|PRK|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|NOR|2020 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|PER|2020 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|POL|2020 Summer|65}}
  • {{flagIOC|POR|2020 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|PUR|2020 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|QAT|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|ROU|2020 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|RUS|2020 Summer|103}}
  • {{flagIOC|RWA|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|SAM|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|SRB|2020 Summer|31}}
  • {{flagIOC|SVK|2020 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|SLO|2020 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|RSA|2020 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|KOR|2020 Summer|21}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESP|2020 Summer|72}}
  • {{flagIOC|SWE|2020 Summer|43}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUI|2020 Summer|18}}
  • {{flagIOC|TAN|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|THA|2020 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|TTO|2020 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUR|2020 Summer|15}}
  • {{flagIOC|UGA|2020 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|UKR|2020 Summer|26}}
  • {{flagIOC|USA|2020 Summer|206}}
  • {{flagIOC|URU|2020 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|UZB|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|VEN|2020 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|VIE|2020 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZAM|2020 Summer|1}}
{{div col end}}

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

{{As of|2019|8|19}}:{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed sortable" style="border:0;"! IOC! Country! AthletesJPN| 321USA| 206BRA| 103RUS| 103GBR| 100CHN| 98AUS| 94ITA| 92ARG| 86CAN| 77FRA| 77GER| 77ESP| 72NZL| 69POL| 65NED| 48SWE| 43SRB| 31MEX| 28HUN| 27DEN| 26UKR| 26ROU| 25KOR| 21GRE| 18SUI| 18ISR| 16RSA| 16TUR| 15ANG| 14CRO| 14CZE| 14BLR| 12EGY| 12FIJ| 12LTU| 12FIN| 11IND| 11NOR| 11UGA| 11COL| 10GUA| 9POR| 9TPE| 9AUT| 8BUL| 8HKG| 8PER| 8CUB| 7IRL| 7JAM| 7KAZ| 7MAS| 6MDA| 6SLO| 6TTO| 6BAH| 5CHI| 5THA| 5PUR| 5BEL| 4CYP| 4ECU| 4INA| 3LAT| 3LUX| 3SVK| 3URU| 3ALG| 2AZE| 2BAR| 2BIH| 2BOT| 2BDI| 2CIV| 2ERI| 2EST| 2GHA| 2GRN| 2IRI| 2KUW| 2MGL| 2PRK| 2QAT| 2TAN| 2UZB| 2VEN| 2ALB| 1BAN| 1BUR| 1CAY| 1CRC| 1DJI| 1DOM| 1ESA| 1GEO| 1GUY| 1ISL| 1IVB| 1KGZ| 1LBR| 1LIE| 1NAM| 1NIG| 1RWA| 1SAM| 1VIE| 1ZAM| 1 class="sortbottom" Total style="text-align:center; border:0px; background:#fff;"| 2,359


{{2020 Summer Olympics calendar}}

Event scheduling

Per the historical precedent of swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, swimming finals will be held in the morning to allow live primetime broadcasts in the Americas (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible; NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on 7 May 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games,NEWS, Olympics on NBC through 2032,weblink USA Today, Gannett Company, 7 May 2014, and is also one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC).{{web cite|url=|title=Fewer Russians Could Be a Windfall for U.S. Olympic Business|work=The New York Times|date=7 December 2017|accessdate=5 February 2018}} Japanese broadcasters were said to have criticized the decision, as swimming is one of the most popular Olympic events in the country.NEWS,weblink FINA back holding swimming finals in morning at Tokyo 2020 Olympics,, 25 July 2018,weblink 25 July 2018, no, NEWS,weblink Tokyo 2020 swimming finals set for prime-time in United States as agreement reached to hold morning medal races,, 24 September 2018,weblink 24 September 2018, no,


File:Tokyo 2020 mascots.svg|thumb|Miraitowa (left), the official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics, and Someity (right), the official mascot of the 240pxThe official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan".WEB, Checkered pattern by artist Tokolo chosen as logo for 2020 Tokyo Olympics,weblink Japan Times, 25 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2016, no, The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium. The Games' slogan is Discover Tomorrow (をつかもう|Ashita o tsukamō}}). While ashita literally means 'tomorrow', it is intentionally spelled as mirai 'future'.WEB,weblink 国際スローガン "Discover Tomorrow" 並びにルックプログラムを発表, Tokyo Extends an Invitation to "Discover Tomorrow" through 2020 Bid Campaign, The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, ja, 19 July 2012, 23 February 2019, The official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics is Miraitowa, a figure with blue-checkered patterns inspired by the Games' official emblem. Its fictional characteristics include the ability to teleport.WEB, Tokyo 2020 Mascots,weblink Tokyo 2020, The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, 7 December 2018, en,weblink 23 August 2018, no, Created by Japanese artist Ryo Taniguchi, the mascots were selected from a competition process which took place in late 2017 and early 2018. A total of 2,042 candidate designs were submitted to the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee, which selected three pairs of unnamed mascot designs to present to Japanese elementary school students for the final decision.NEWS,weblink 2020 Tokyo Olympic organizers begin soliciting mascot ideas, The Japan Times, 1 August 2017, 7 September 2017,weblink 8 September 2017, no, NEWS,weblink Tokyo 2020 lets children choose mascots from 3 finalists, NBC Sports, 7 December 2017, 17 February 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2018, no, The results of the selection were announced on 28 February 2018, and the mascots were named on 22 July 2018. Miraitowa is named after the Japanese words for "future" and "eternity", and Someity is named after someiyoshino, a type of cherry blossom. Someity's name also references the English phrase "so mighty".NEWS, Olympic mascots Miraitowa and Someity invoke the future and cherry trees for 2020 Games,weblink 22 July 2018, The Japan Times, AFP-JIJI, 22 July 2018, The mascots are expected to help finance the Tokyo Games through merchandising and licensing deals.WEB,weblink Cuddly and cute, but will Japan’s Olympic mascots be cash cows?, 23 January 2018, The Japan Times,weblink 23 January 2018, no, 8 July 2018,

Concerns and controversies

IAAF bribery claims

In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team.NEWS, Tokyo Olympics 2020: French prosecutors probe '$2m payment',weblink BBC News, 12 May 2016, 14 May 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2016, no, A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF". The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit.In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering. Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the Russian athletics team.WEB, Life bans for three athletics figures over alleged doping cover-up,weblink BBC Sport, 7 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 9 April 2016, no, Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee.WEB, Tokyo Olympics: Japan to 'fully cooperate' with suspicious payments inquiry,weblink The Guardian, 7 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2016, no, WEB, Tokyo 2020 Olympic bid leader refuses to reveal Black Tidings details,weblink The Guardian, 6 June 2016,weblink 4 June 2016, no, The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation.WEB, IOC concerned at suspect payments made by Tokyo 2020 bid team,weblink The Guardian, 7 June 2016,weblink 6 June 2016, no, In January 2019, a source revealed that Takeda was being formally investigated over alleged corruption.NEWS,weblink Tokyo 2020 Games: Japan Olympics chief 'investigated in French corruption probe', 11 January 2019, On 19 March 2019, Takeda resigned from the JOC.WEB,weblink Embattled head of Japan’s Olympic committee resigns ahead of 2020 Summer Games, Wharton, David, Los Angeles Times, 2019-03-19,

Logo plagiarism

{{multiple image|perrow = 2|total_width=250| image1 = 2020 Summer Olympics logo.svg| image2 = 2020 Summer Paralympics Logo.svg| image3 = Théâtre de Liège.svg2020 Summer Paralympics>Paralympics (top right) and the logo of the Théâtre de Liège (bottom).}}The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T": a red circle in the top-right corner representing a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other"; and a dark grey column in the centre representing diversity.NEWS, Tokyo 2020 unveils official emblem with five years to go,weblink 27 July 2015,,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2015, no, The Paralympic emblem was an inverted version of the pattern made to resemble an equal sign.WEB, Tokyo 2020 launches emblems for the Olympic and Paralympic Games,weblink IPC, 28 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2015, no, Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use.NEWS, Tokyo Olympic Games logo embroiled in plagiarism row,weblink 1 August 2015, The Guardian, 30 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 August 2015, no, WEB, Tokyo Olympics emblem said to look similar to Belgian theater logo,weblink The Japan Times, 30 July 2015, 30 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2015, no, Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo.NEWS, Tokyo 2020 Olympics logo scrapped after allegations of plagiarism,weblink 1 September 2015, The Guardian,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2015, no, The emblem's designer, Kenjirō Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo. However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yōichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design.On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.WEB, Tokyo 2020 Emblems Committee relax competition rules ahead of search for new logo,weblink, 26 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2015, no, WEB,weblink Tokyo Games organizers decide to scrap Sano emblem, 1 September 2015, NHK World, 1 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll—was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval.WEB, Japan unveils final four candidates for Tokyo 2020 Olympics logo,weblink 11 April 2016, Japan Times, 8 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2016, no, The new emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, the emblem takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan".WEB, Checkered pattern by artist Tokolo chosen as logo for 2020 Tokyo Olympics,weblink Japan Times, 25 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2016, no,

Fukushima radiation

In relation to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, which resulted in multiple nuclear meltdowns and an official Level 7 disaster, officials from W.H.O. and the United Nations have determined that the risks of dangerous exposure are minimal.WEB,weblink WHO {{!, Health risk assessment from the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, based on a preliminary dose estimation|website=WHO|access-date=2019-06-29}} Nevertheless, scientists and citizens alike remain skeptical.WEB,weblink The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster and the Tokyo Olympics {{!, The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus||access-date=2019-06-29}} Former nuclear industry executive and whistleblower Arnold Gundersen and his institute, Fairewinds Associates, tested for the presence of radioactive dust on land scheduled to be used for certain events, including baseball, softball and the Olympic torch relay.WEB,weblink Atomic Balm Part 2: The Run For Your Life Tokyo Olympics, Nuclear Energy, Reactor and Radiation Facts, en-US, 2019-06-29, At these facilities, the legally allowable radiation levels are higher than at other athletic facilities.WEB,weblink Atomic Balm Part 2: The Run For Your Life Tokyo Olympics - Nuclear Energy Info, Nuclear Energy, Reactor and Radiation Facts, en-US, 2019-08-13, . According to certain models, such as the National Academy of Sciences' "linear, no-threshold" model, small increases in radiation exposure may cause proportional health risks.WEB,weblink Radiation Standards, Domenici, Pete, June 2000, United States General Accounting Office,

Liancourt Islands and Kuril Islands

The official website of the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games posted a map with the disputed Liancourt Islands and the Kuril Islands. South Korean Foreign Minister Kang Kyung-wha had requested the organizing committee of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics remove the islands due to controversies surrounding the Liancourt Islands' sovereignty. South Korea controls the islands but its sovereignty over them is contested by Japanweblink" title="">weblink Elsewhere in Asia, Russian Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Maria Zakharova had also requested the organizing committee of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics remove the disputed Kuril Islands due to controversies surrounding the islands' sovereigntyweblink


Sony and Panasonic are partnering with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Olympics.WEB,weblink Sony and Panasonic target 8K TVs for 2020 Olympics, Vincent, James, 26 August 2016, The Verge, 21 July 2017,weblink 15 September 2017, no, NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Lost market share prompts Sony-Panasonic TV tech alliance, Nikkei Asian Review, 21 July 2017, en,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2017, yes, Italian broadcaster RAI announced an intent to deploy 8K broadcasting for the Games.WEB,weblink Italy’s Rai to start 8K broadcasts in time for 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Strauss, Will, SVG Europe, en, 8 March 2019, In the United States, the 2020 Summer Olympics will be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.NEWS, McCarthy, Michael, NBC wins U.S. TV rights to four Olympic Games through 2020,weblink USA Today, 7 June 2011, 7 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2013, no, In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games in favour of Eurosport, and Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024.NEWS,weblink Russian state broadcasters commit to PyeongChang coverage, 6 February 2018, en,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2018, no, Eurosport will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory and other Discovery Inc.-owned channels. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Eurosport holds exclusive pay television rights.WEB, Olympics coverage to remain on BBC after Discovery deal,weblink The Guardian, 7 June 2016,weblink 12 August 2016, no, WEB, Discovery Lands European Olympic Rights Through '24,weblink Sports Business Journal, 1 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2015, no, WEB, BBC dealt another blow after losing control of TV rights for Olympics,weblink The Guardian, 30 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2015, no, Telecom company NTT Docomo signed a deal with Finland's Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics.WEB,weblink Nokia, NTT DoCoMo prepare for 5G ahead of Tokyo Olympics launch, 2 March 2015, Reuters, 20 January 2018,weblink 21 January 2018, no, WEB,weblink Nokia wins 5G business with Japan's NTT DoCoMo - FierceWireless,, 20 January 2018,weblink 21 January 2018, no,





External links

{{Commons category|2020 Summer Olympics}}{{Wikivoyage|Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games 2020}} {{Olympic Games}}{{Qualification for the 2020 Summer Olympics}}{{Events at the 2020 Summer Olympics}}{{2020 Summer Olympic venues}}

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