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Belgrade
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factoids
| map_caption = Interactive map outlining Belgrade| pushpin_map_caption = Location within Serbia##Location within Europe| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map = Serbia#Europe44N28region:RS|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountrySerbia}} Administrative divisions of Serbia>DistrictMunicipalities of Serbia>Municipalities| subdivision_name1 = Belgrade#Municipalities>17| established_title = EstablishmentSingidunum)HTTP://WWW.BEOGRAD.RS/CMS/VIEW.PHP?ID=201172PUBLISHER=CITY OF BELGRADEACCESSDATE=16 NOVEMBER 2010, | government_type = | leader_party = IndependentMayor of Belgrade>Mayor| leader_name = Zoran RadojičićList of political parties in Serbia>Ruling partiesSerbian Progressive Party>SNS/Social Democratic Party of Serbia/Party of United Pensioners of Serbia>PUPS – Socialist Party of Serbia/United Serbia>JSPUBLISHER=CITY OF BELGRADE, 6 May 2009, | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 359.9| area_urban_km2 = 1,035| area_metro_km2 = 3222.6| area_metro_sq_mi = | area_rank = PUBLISHER=CITY OF BELGRADE, 10 July 2007, | elevation_m = 117| elevation_ft = 384| population_as_of = 2011 Census| population_urban = 1,233,796TITLE=REGIONS IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2018ACCESSDATE=14 NOVEMBER 2018, | population_total = 1,166,763{{Serbian census 2011}}| population_density_km2 = 3241| population_density_urban_km2 = 1192| population_density_metro_km2 = 514English language>en)BeograÄ‘anin (sr)Human Development Index>HDI (2017)WEBSITE=GLOBALDATALAB.ORG, – very high| postal_code_type = Postal code| postal_code = 11000| area_code = +381(0)11Telephone numbers in Serbia>Area codeVehicle registration plates of Serbia>BG| iso_code = RS-00weblink|www.beograd.rs}}Central European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2}}Belgrade ({{IPAc-en|'|b|É›|l|É¡|ɹ|eɪ|d}} {{respell|BEL|grayd}}; , {{IPA-sh|beÇ’É¡rad|pron|sr-beograd.ogg}}; (Names of European cities in different languages: B|names in other languages)) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula.WEB,weblink Why invest in Belgrade?, City of Belgrade, 11 October 2010, The urban area of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within the administrative limits of the City of Belgrade (which encompasses almost all of its metropolitan area), a quarter of total population of Serbia.WEB,weblink PDF, Regions in Republic of Serbia, 2018, publikacije.stat.gov.rs, 14 November 2018, One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it SingidÅ«n.WEB,weblink Discover Belgrade, City of Belgrade, 5 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090518005044weblink">weblink 18 May 2009, live, It was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, and changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin in 1284. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.WEB,weblink The History of Belgrade, BelgradeNet Travel Guide, 5 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081230032249weblink">weblink 30 December 2008, dead, It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when it was attached to the city, due to former Austro-Hungarian territories becoming the part of the new [Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes], after [world war I]. In a fatally strategic position, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed 44 times.NEWS, Nurden, Robert,weblink Belgrade has risen from the ashes to become the Balkans' party city, Independent, 22 March 2009, 5 May 2009, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326054925weblink">weblink 26 March 2009, live, Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006.Being Serbia's primate city, Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia.WEB,weblink Assembly of the City of Belgrade, City of Belgrade, 10 July 2007, It is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and government ministries, as well as home of almost all of the largest Serbian companies, media, and scientific institutions. Belgrade is classified as a Beta-Global City.WEB, The World According to GAWC 2012,weblink GAWC, 10 January 2015,

History

Prehistory

{{See also|Prehistoric sites in Serbia|Prehistory of Southeastern Europe}}File:Vinca_clay_figure_02.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.5|A Vinča cultureVinča cultureChipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras. Some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans. Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have also been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago.JOURNAL, Saric, J., 10.2298/STA0858009S, Paleolithic and mesolithic finds from profile of the Zemun loess, Starinar, 58, 9–9, 2008, The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC.BOOK, Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects, Chapman, John, 2000, Routledge, London, 978-0-415-15803-9, 236, There are several Starčevo sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. The Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture (5500–4500 BC), a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and also named for a site in the Belgrade region (Vinča-Belo Brdo). The Vinča culture is known for its very large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe.BOOK, The Vinča culture of south-east Europe: Studies in chronology, economy and society (2 vols), Chapman, John, 1981, BAR, Oxford, 0-86054-139-8, BAR International Series, 117, Also associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe,JOURNAL, Radivojević, M., Rehren, T., Pernicka, E., Šljivar, D. A., Brauns, M., Borić, D. A., 10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012, On the origins of extractive metallurgy: New evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, 37, 11, 2775, 2010, and a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC.BOOK, Haarmann, Harald, Geschichte der Schrift, C.H. Beck, 2002, 978-3-406-47998-4, 20, German, Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890. The skull is dated to before 5000 BC.

Antiquity

Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends. The ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts.BOOK,weblink Belgrade A Cultural History, 16 January 2016, Oxford University Press, 9780199704521, 29 October 2008, NEWS,weblink Jason and the Argonauts sail again, 16 January 2016, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, In the time of antiquity, too, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings.WEB,weblink Belgrade Fortress history, 18 January 2011, Public Enterprise "Belgrade Fortress", dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110905092854weblink">weblink 5 September 2011, Specifically, Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi; following Celtic invasion in 279 BC, the Scordisci wrested the city from their hands, naming it SingidÅ«n (dÅ«n, fortress). In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade. It became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia (the highest city class) by the end of the century.BOOK,weblink The City in Late Antiquity, Rich, John, 113, CRC Press, 1992, 978-0-203-13016-2, While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I, also known as Constantine the GreatENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Constantine I – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080618100901weblink">weblink 18 June 2008, live, 7 July 2009, —was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus (Jovian), was born in Singidunum.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20070813044518weblink">weblink dead, 13 August 2007, Philologic Results-, Artfl.uchicago.edu, 7 July 2009, Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.WEB,weblink History (Ancient Period), Official website, 10 July 2007, Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum (Zemun); the two were connected with a bridge throughout Roman and Byzantine times.WEB,weblink City of Belgrade – Ancient Period, Beograd.rs, 5 October 2000, 7 July 2009,

Middle Ages

{{See also|Serbia in the Middle Ages}}
Tribal state of the Scordisci 279BC–33BC
{{flagicon image|Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus, denarius, 54 BC, RRC 433-1 reverse.jpg}} Roman Republic 33BC–27BC{{flag|Roman Empire}} 27BC–471AD{{flagicon image|Teodorico re dei Goti (493-526) white.jpg}} Ostrogothic Kingdom 471–539{{flagicon image|Simple Labarum.svg}} Byzantine Empire 539–829{{flagicon image|Simeon the Great anonymous seal.jpg}} Bulgarian Empire 829–1018{{flagicon image|Simple Labarum.svg}} Byzantine Empire 1018–1185{{flagicon image|Flag of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg}} Bulgarian Empire 1185–1246{{flagicon image|Flag of Hungary (13th century).svg}} Kingdom of Hungary 1246–1284{{flagicon image|Flag_of_Serbia_1281.svg}} Kingdom of Serbia (Syrmia) 1284–1402{{flagicon image|Coat of arms of the Serbian Despotate.svg}} Serbian Despotate 1402–1427{{flagicon image|Flag of Vladislaus II of Hungary.svg}} Kingdom of Hungary 1427–1521{{flag|Ottoman Empire}} 1521–1688 {{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.svg}} Habsburg Monarchy 1688–1690 {{flag|Ottoman Empire}} 1690–1717 {{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.svg}} Habsburg Monarchy 1717–1739 {{flag|Ottoman Empire}} 1739–1789 {{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.svg}} Habsburg Monarchy 1789–1791 {{flag|Ottoman Empire}} 1791–1806 {{flagicon image|Flag of Revolutionary Serbia.svg}} Revolutionary Serbia 1806–1813 {{flag|Ottoman Empire}} 1813–1815 {{flag|Principality of Serbia}} 1815–1882{{flag|Kingdom of Serbia}} 1882–1918{{flag|Kingdom of Yugoslavia}} 1918–1941{{flagicon image|Flag of Germany (1935–1945).svg}} German-occupied Serbia 1941–1944{{flag|SFR Yugoslavia}}{{refn|Known as Democratic Federal Yugoslavia until 1945}} 1944–1992{{flag|Serbia and Montenegro}}{{refn|Officially known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 2003}} 1992–2006{{flag|Republic of Serbia}} 2006–Present}}In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun.BOOK, Gerard Friell, Stephen Williams, The Rome that Did Not Fall: The Survival of the East in the Fifth Century,weblink 1999, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-15403-1, 67, In 471, it was taken by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy.BOOK, Roy E. H. Mellor, Eastern Europe: a geography of the Comecon countries,weblink 1975, Macmillan, 43, As the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines.Procopius, De Bello Gothico, III:34, quoted in Pohl 1997, pp. 89–90 In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region.BOOK, Bury, J. B., J. B. Bury,weblink History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene Vol. II, Cosimo Classics, New York, 2009, 1889, 117, 978-1-60520-405-5, The Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582.Warriors of the Steppe: a military history of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to 1700, p. 76 Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands; they received provinces in the west, towards the Adriatic, which they would rule as subjects to Heraclius (610–641).Bohlau, 1964, Slavistische Forschungen, Volume 6, p. 103. University of California. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add Singidunum and its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.A Concise History of Bulgaria, R. J. Crampton, Edition 2, revised, Cambridge University Press, 2005, {{ISBN|1139448234}}, p. 10.Земя на световен кръстопът, Борис Стоев Чолпанов, Изд. на Българската академия на науките, 1993, стр. 39.The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in a Papal missiveWEB,weblink LIBI, t. II (1960) (2_151.jpg), promacedonia.org, to Bulgarian ruler Boris I. This name would appear in several variants: Alba Bulgarica in Latin, Griechisch Weissenburg in High German, Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, and Castelbianco in Venetian, among other names, all variations of 'white fortress'. For about four centuries, the city would become a battleground between the Byzantine Empire, the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, and the Bulgarian Empire.WEB,weblink The History of Belgrade, Belgradenet.com, 16 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707223012weblink">weblink 7 July 2011, dead, Basil II (976–1025) installed a garrison in Belgrade.Byzantium in the year 1000,p. 121 The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade,WEB,weblink How to Conquer Belgrade – History, Beligrad.com, 16 December 1934, 7 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090616085512weblink">weblink 16 June 2009, dead, but, while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade in ruins.WEB,weblink The History of Belgrade, Belgradenet.com, 7 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090628031001weblink">weblink 28 June 2009, dead, King Stefan Dragutin (r. 1276–1282) received Belgrade from his father-in-law, Stephen V of Hungary, in 1284, and it served as the capital of the Kingdom of Syrmia, a vassal state to the Kingdom of Hungary. Dragutin (Hungarian: Dragutin István) is regarded as the first Serbian king to rule over Belgrade.WEB,weblink History (Medieval Serbian Belgrade), Official website, 10 July 2007, Following the battles of Maritsa (1371) and Kosovo field (1389), Moravian Serbia, to Belgrade's south, began to fall to the Ottoman Empire.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Battle of Maritsa, Encyclopædia Britannica, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614084904weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, live, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Battle of Kosovo, Encyclopædia Britannica, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070626175037weblink">weblink 26 June 2007, live, The northern sections of what is now Serbia persisted as the Serbian Despotate, with Belgrade as its capital. The city flourished under Stefan Lazarević, the son of Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazarević built a castle with a citadel and towers, of which only the Despot's tower and the west wall remain. He also refortified the city's ancient walls, allowing the Despotate to resist Ottoman conquest for almost 70 years. During this time, Belgrade was a haven for many Balkan peoples fleeing Ottoman rule, and is thought to have had a population ranging between 40,000 and 50,000 people.In 1427, Stefan's successor Đurađ Branković, returning Belgrade to the Hungarian king, made Smederevo his new capital. Even though the Ottomans had captured most of the Serbian Despotate, Belgrade, known as Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1440 and 1456.BOOK, Ćorović, Vladimir, Vladimir Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda,weblink 1997, Project Rastko, Banja Luka / Belgrade, Serbian, V. Despot Đurađ Branković,weblink 17 July 2007, 86-7119-101-X, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130319070121weblink">weblink 19 March 2013, As the city presented an obstacle to the Ottoman advance into Hungary and further, over 100,000 Ottoman soldiersWEB,weblink The History of Belgrade, Belgradenet.com, 7 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081230032249weblink">weblink 30 December 2008, dead, besieged it in 1456, in which the Christian army led by the Hungarian General John Hunyadi successfully defended it.WEB, Kovach, Tom R.,weblink Ottoman-Hungarian Wars: Siege of Belgrade in 1456, Military History magazine, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070626184935weblink">weblink 26 June 2007, dead, The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world to this day.WEB,weblink Hungary: A Brief History, Mek.oszk.hu, 16 November 2010,

Ottoman rule and Austrian invasions

{{See also|History of Ottoman Serbia|Ottoman–Habsburg wars}}(File:Belgrade_1684.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|Belgrade in 1684)Seven decades after the initial siege, on 28 August 1521, the fort was finally captured by Suleiman the Magnificent, 250,000 Turkish soldiers, and over 100 ships. Subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Orthodox Christian population was deported to Istanbul to an area that has since become known as the Belgrade forest.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120909184933weblink">weblink dead, 9 September 2012, The Rough Guide to Turkey: Belgrade Forest, Rough Guides, 5 May 2009, Belgrade was made the seat of the Pashalik of Belgrade (also known as the Sanjak of Smederevo), and quickly became the second largest Ottoman town in Europe at over 100,000 people, surpassed only by Constantinople. Ottoman rule introduced Ottoman architecture, including numerous mosques, and the city was resurrected—now by Oriental influences.WEB,weblink History (Turkish and Austrian Rule), Official website, 10 July 2007, In 1594, a major Serb rebellion was crushed by the Ottomans. Later, Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha ordered the relics of Saint Sava to be publicly torched on the Vračar plateau; in the 20th century, the Temple of Saint Sava was built to commemorate this event.JOURNAL,weblink Nationalism In Construction: The Memorial Church of St. Sava on Vračar Hill In Belgrade, Aleksov, Bojan, Balkanologie, VII, 47, 52–53, December 2003, 15 September 2010, Occupied by the Habsburgs three times (1688–1690, 1717–1739, 1789–1791), headed by the Holy Roman Princes Maximilian of Bavaria and Eugene of Savoy,WEB,weblink Belgrade Fortress: History, Razgledanje.tripod.com, 23 August 2004, 7 July 2009, and field marshal Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon, respectively, Belgrade was quickly recaptured by the Ottomans and substantially razed each time. During this period, the city was affected by the two Great Serbian Migrations, in which hundreds of thousands of Serbs, led by two Serbian Patriarchs, retreated together with the Austrian soldiers into the Habsburg Empire, settling in today's Vojvodina and Slavonia.BOOK,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071023044533weblink">weblink 23 October 2007, Oči u oči, Tajne poruke svetog Save" Svetosavska crkva i velika seoba Srba 1690. godine, Dejan Medaković, BIGZ (online reprint by Serbian Unity Congress library), Belgrade, 978-86-13-00903-0, Medaković, Dejan, 17 May 2007, 1990, dead,

Principality of Serbia

At the beginning of the 19th century, Belgrade was predominantly inhabited by a Muslim population. Traces of Ottoman rule and architecture—such as mosques and bazaars, were to remain a prominent part of Belgrade's townscape into the 19th century; several decades, even, after Serbia was granted autonomy from the Ottoman Empire.BOOK, Basare und Boulevards: Belgrad im 19. Jahrhundert., Mišković, Nataša, 2008, Vienna, 16, During the First Serbian Uprising, Serbian revolutionaries held the city from 8 January 1807 until 1813, when it was retaken by the Ottomans.WEB,weblink History (Liberation of Belgrade), Official website, 10 July 2007, After the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, Serbia achieved some sort of sovereignty, which was formally recognised by the Porte in 1830.JOURNAL, Nations into States: National Liberations in Former Yugoslavia, Pavkovic, Aleksandar, National Europe Centre Paper No. 5, The Australian National University, 19 October 2001,weblink The development of Belgrade architecture after 1815 can be divided into four periods. In the first phase, which lasted from 1815 to 1835, the dominant architectural style was still of a Balkan character, with substantial Ottoman influence. At the same time, an interest in joining the European mainstream allowed Central and Western European architecture to flourish. Between 1835 and 1850, the amount of neoclassicist and baroque buildings south of the Austrian border rose considerably, exemplified by St Michael's Cathedral (Serbian: Saborna crkva), completed in 1840. Between 1850 and 1875, new architecture was characterised by a turn towards the newly-popular Romanticism, along with older European architectural styles. Typical of Central European cities in the last quarter of the 19th century, the fourth phase was characterised by an eclecticist style based on the Renaissance and Baroque periods.BOOK, Istorija Beograda., Antonić, Zdravko (ed.), 1995, Belgrade, 263–264, In 1841, Prince Mihailo Obrenović moved the capital of the Principality of Serbia from Kragujevac to Belgrade.WEB,weblink History, City of Kragujevac official website, 15 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100329035624weblink">weblink 29 March 2010, dead, WEB,weblink History (Important Years Through City History), Official website, 10 July 2007, During his first reign (1815–1839), Prince Miloš Obrenović pursued expansion of the city's population through the addition of new settlements, aiming and succeeding to make Belgrade the centre of the Principality's administrative, military and cultural institutions. His project of creating a new market space (the Abadžijska čaršija), however, was less successful; trade continued to be conducted in the centuries-old Donja čaršija and Gornja čaršija. Still, new construction projects were typical for the Christian quarters as the older Muslim quarters declined; from Serbia's autonomy until 1863, the number of Belgrade quarters even decreased, mainly as a consequence of the gradual disappearance of the city's Muslim population. An Ottoman city map from 1863 counts only 9 Muslim quarters (mahalas). The names of only five such neighbourhoods are known today: Ali-pašina, Reis-efendijina, Jahja-pašina, Bajram-begova and Laz Hadži-Mahmudova.BOOK, Beogradski odonimi., Radović, Srđan, 2014, Belgrade, 47–48, On 18 April 1867, the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which had been since 1826 the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from Kalemegdan. The forlorn Porte's only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event.Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 2: Reform, Revolution and Republic—The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975 (Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 148. In the following years, urban planner Emilijan Josimović had a significant impact on Belgrade. He conceptualised a regulation plan for the city in 1867, in which he proposed the replacement of the town's crooked streets with a grid plan. Of great importance also was the construction of independent Serbian political and cultural institutions, as well as the city's now-plentiful parks. Pointing to Josimović's work, Serbian scholars have noted an important break with Ottoman traditions. However, Istanbul—the capital city of the state to which Belgrade and Serbia de jure still belonged—underwent similar changes.BOOK, Nationalism and Architecture., Quek, Raymond (ed.), 2012, Farnham, 97, In May 1868, knez Mihailo was assassinated with his cousin Anka Konstantinović while riding in a carriage in his country residence.{{citation |last=Hawkesworth |first=Celia |title=Voices in the Shadows: Women and Verbal Art in Serbia and Bosnia |publisher=Budapest and New York: Central European University Press |year=2000 |isbn=963-9116-62-9 |page=101}}

Kingdom of Serbia

File:Knez Mihailova, Serbia, XIX century.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.0|Knez MihailovaKnez MihailovaWith the Principality's full independence in 1878 and its transformation into the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882, Belgrade once again became a key city in the Balkans, and developed rapidly.WEB,weblink History (The Capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia), Official website, 10 July 2007, Nevertheless, conditions in Serbia remained those of an overwhelmingly agrarian country, even with the opening of a railway to Niš, Serbia's second city. In 1900, the capital had only 70,000 inhabitantsWEB, Lahmeyer, Jan,weblink The Yugoslav Federation: Historical demographical data of the urban centers, www.populstat.info, 3 February 2003, 17 May 2007, (at the time Serbia numbered 2.5 million). Still, by 1905, the population had grown to more than 80,000 and, by the outbreak of World War I in 1914, it had surpassed the 100,000 citizens, disregarding Zemun, which still belonged to Austria-Hungary.CE1913, Belgrade and Smederevo, The first-ever projection of motion pictures in the Balkans and Central Europe was held in Belgrade in June 1896 by André Carr, a representative of the Lumière brothers. He shot the first motion pictures of Belgrade in the next year; however, they have not been preserved.BOOK,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130319065325weblink">weblink dead, 19 March 2013,weblink The history of Serbian Culture, Serbian Film and Cinematography (1896–1993), Kosanovic, Dejan, 1-870732-31-6, Porthill Publishers, 10 July 2007, 1995,

World War I

The First World War began on 28 July 1914 when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Most of the subsequent Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade. Austro-Hungarian monitors shelled Belgrade on 29 July 1914, and it was taken by the Austro-Hungarian Army under General Oskar Potiorek on 30 November. On 15 December, it was re-taken by Serbian troops under Marshal Radomir Putnik. After a prolonged battle which destroyed much of the city, starting on 6 October 1915, Belgrade fell to German and Austro-Hungarian troops commanded by Field Marshal August von Mackensen on 9 October of the same year. The city was liberated by Serbian and French troops on 1 November 1918, under the command of Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey of France and Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Belgrade, decimated as a front-line city, lost the title of largest city in the Kingdom to Subotica for some time.WEB,weblink Serbia :: Vojvodina, Balkanology, 7 July 2009,

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

(File:TrgRepublike1934.jpg|thumb|right|Theatre square (today Republic Square) in 1934)After the war, Belgrade became the capital of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. The Kingdom was split into banovinas and Belgrade, together with Zemun and Pančevo, formed a separate administrative unit.{{ISBN|86-17-09287-4}}: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије, Belgrade, 2002, p. 144.During this period, the city experienced fast growth and significant modernisation. Belgrade's population grew to 239,000 by 1931 (with the inclusion of Zemun), and to 320,000 by 1940. The population growth rate between 1921 and 1948 averaged 4.08% a year.JOURNAL
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, In 1927, Belgrade's first airport opened, and in 1929, its first radio station began broadcasting. The Pančevo Bridge, which crosses the Danube, was opened in 1935,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118092237weblink">weblink 18 January 2008, Twentieth Century – Innovations in Belgrade, Serbia-info.com (Government of Serbia website), 21 July 2007, dead, while King Alexander Bridge over the Sava was opened in 1934. On 3 September 1939 the first Belgrade Grand Prix, the last Grand Prix motor racing race before the outbreak of World War II, was held around the Belgrade Fortress and was followed by 80,000 spectators.{{citation|url=http://www.automagazin.rs/sport/kruzne-trke/10094/poslednji-grand-prix-u-beogradu |title=Poslednji Grand Prix u Beogradu |publisher=Auto Magazin |date=2 September 2011 |language=Serbian |accessdate=12 December 2012 }} The winner was Tazio Nuvolari.{{citation |last=Krivokapić |first=Branislav |url=http://www.blic.rs/Vesti/Reportaza/121839/Preteca-Formule-1-na-Kalemegdanu |title=Preteča formule 1 na Balkanu |date=22 September 2009 |language=Serbian |accessdate=12 December 2012 }}

World War II

On 25 March 1941, the government of regent Crown Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis powers in an effort to stay out of the Second World War and keep Yugoslavia neutral during the conflict. This was immediately followed by mass protests in Belgrade and a military coup d'état led by Air Force commander General Dušan Simović, who proclaimed King Peter II to be of age to rule the realm. As a result, the city was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe on 6 April 1941, killing up to 2,274 people.WEB,weblink DA NIJE BILO 6. APRILA Najlepše srušene zgrade Beograda, 25 November 2015, WEB,weblink Lovački avioni Drugog svetskog rata, Samir, Aslani, 1 June 2004, Samir Aslani, Google Books, BOOK, A Man Called Intrepid, The Secret War, Stevenson, William, 1976, 230, Ballantine Books, New York, 0-345-27254-4, BOOK,weblink The German campaign in the Balkans (Spring 1941), Part Two the Yugoslav Campaign, United States Army Center of Military History,weblink 7 July 2009, CMH Pub 104-4, 1986, 1953,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090619234443weblink">weblink 19 June 2009, live, Yugoslavia was then invaded by German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces. Belgrade was captured by subterfuge, with six German soldiers led by their officer Fritz Klingenberg feigning threatening size, forcing the city to capitulate.Taking Belgrade by bluff. By: Heaton, Colin D., World War II, 08984204, Jan98, Vol. 12, Issue 5 Belgrade was more directly occupied by the German Army in the same month and became the seat of the puppet Nedić regime, headed by its namesake general.WEB,weblink Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 19 April 2016, File:Belgrád,_Szerbia._A_Moszkva_szálló_a_Terazijén._Fortepan_16206.jpg|thumb|German bombing of Belgrade in 1941 ]]During the summer and fall of 1941, in reprisal for guerrilla attacks, the Germans carried out several massacres of Belgrade citizens; in particular, members of the Jewish community were subject to mass shootings at the order of General Franz Böhme, the German Military Governor of Serbia. Böhme rigorously enforced the rule that for every German killed, 100 Serbs or Jews would be shot.BOOK, Rubenstein, Richard L, Roth, John King, Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its Legacy, 2003, Westminster John Knox Press, 0-664-22353-2, 170,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081013012423weblink">weblink dead, 13 October 2008, The resistance movement in Belgrade was led by Major Žarko Todorović from 1941 until his arrest in 1943.Zbornik dokumenata vojnoistorijskog instituta: TOM XIV, Knjiga 1, znaci.net; accessed 15 March 2016.Just like Rotterdam, which was devastated twice by both German and Allied bombing, Belgrade was bombed once more during World War II, this time by the Allies on 16 April 1944, killing at least 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter.WEB,weblink Anniversary of the Allied Bomb Attacks Against Belgrade, Radio-Television of Serbia, 17 April 2008, 5 May 2009, Most of the city remained under German occupation until 20 October 1944, when it was liberated by the Red Army and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans. On 29 November 1945, Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in Belgrade (later to be renamed to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 7 April 1963).WEB,weblink Tekstovi (Texts), Napredniklub.org, 16 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727110857weblink">weblink 27 July 2011, Higher estimates from the former secret police place the victim count of political persecutions in Belgrade at 10,000.WEB,weblink Izmedju Srpa i Cekica (Between the hammer and sickle), Scribd.com, 20 April 2009, 16 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100530041540weblink">weblink 30 May 2010,

Socialist Yugoslavia

When the war ended, the city was left with 11,500 demolished housing units.{{Citation | title = Rastao je na ruševinama (reprint on 20 October 2017) |trans-title=(Belgrade) rose on the ruins| newspaper = Politika | language = Serbian | date = 20 October 1967 }} During the post-war period, Belgrade grew rapidly as the capital of the renewed Yugoslavia, developing as a major industrial centre. In 1948, construction of New Belgrade started. In 1958, Belgrade's first television station began broadcasting. In 1961, the conference of Non-Aligned Countries was held in Belgrade under Tito's chairmanship. In 1962, Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport was built. In 1968, major student protests led to several street clashes between students and the police.{{citation|url=http://www.boell.eu/downloads/mai_68_uk.pdf |page=49 |last=Popov |first=Nebojša |title=Belgrade, June 1968 |journal=1968 revisited: 40 years of protest movements |publisher=Heinrich Böll Foundation |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130618055051weblink |archivedate=18 June 2013 }}

Breakup of Yugoslavia

File:P1150877cc.JPG|alt=|left|thumb|Ministry of Defence building damaged in the 1999 NATO bombing]]On 9 March 1991, massive demonstrations led by Vuk Drašković were held in the city against Slobodan Milošević.WEB,weblink Prvi udarac Miloševićevom režimu, Danas (newspaper), Danas, 9 March 2006, Serbian, 10 July 2007, According to various media outlets, there were between 100,000 and 150,000 people on the streets.MAGAZINE, Graff, James L.,weblink Yugoslavia: Mass bedlam in Belgrade, Time (magazine), TIME, 25 March 1991, 10 July 2007, Two people were killed, 203 injured and 108 arrested during the protests, and later that day tanks were deployed onto the streets to restore order.WEB,weblink Srbija na mitinzima (1990–1999), Vreme, 21 August 1999, Serbian, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070619005413weblink">weblink 19 June 2007, live, Further protests were held in Belgrade from November 1996 to February 1997 against the same government after alleged electoral fraud in local elections.WEB,weblink History (Disintegration Years 1988–2000), Official website, 10 July 2007, These protests brought Zoran Đinđić to power, the first mayor of Belgrade since World War II who did not belong to the League of Communists of Yugoslavia or its later offshoot, the Socialist Party of Serbia.NEWS, Perlez, Jane,weblink New Mayor of Belgrade: A Serbian Chameleon, The New York Times, 23 February 1997, 17 May 2007, In 1999, during the Kosovo War, NATO bombings caused damage to the city. Among the sites bombed were various ministry buildings, the RTS building, hospitals, Hotel Jugoslavija, the Central Committee building, Avala Tower, and the Chinese embassy.WEB,weblink NATO bombing, Official website, 17 May 2007, After the 2000 presidential elections, Belgrade was the site of major public protests, with over half a million people on the streets. These demonstrations resulted in the ousting of president Milošević as a part of the Otpor! movement.WEB,weblink Parties, citizens mark October 5, B92, 5 October 2007, 7 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090418190114weblink">weblink 18 April 2009, dead, WEB,weblink October 5, 2000, City of Belgrade, 7 May 2009,

Modern Belgrade

In 2014, Belgrade Waterfront, an urban renewal project, was initiated by the Government of Serbia and its Emirati partner, Eagle Hillls Properties. Aimed at improving Belgrade's cityscape and economy, the project hopes to revitalise the Sava amphitheatre, a neglected expanse on the right bank of the Sava river between the Belgrade Fair and the former Belgrade Main railway station. Around €3.5 billion will be jointly invested by the Serbian government and their Emirati partners.NEWS,weblink Ovako će izgledati "Beograd na vodi", Blic.rs, 19 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222204657weblink">weblink 22 February 2014, The project includes office and luxury apartment buildings, five-star hotels, a shopping mall and the envisioned 'Belgrade Tower'. The project is, however, quite controversial—there are a number of uncertainties regarding its funding, necessity, and its architecture's arguable lack of harmony with the rest of the city.WEB,weblink A Look at Abu Dhabi's 'Bad Joke': The Belgrade Waterfront Project, Apart from Belgrade Waterfront, the city is currently under rapid development and reconstruction, especially in the area of Novi Beograd, where many apartment and office buildings are under construction to support the burgeoning IT sector, now one of Serbia's largest economic players.

Geography

Topography

Belgrade lies {{convert|116.75|m|ft}} above sea level and is located at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers. The historical core of Belgrade, Kalemegdan, lies on the right banks of both rivers. Since the 19th century, the city has been expanding to the south and east; after World War II, New Belgrade was built on the left bank of the Sava river, connecting Belgrade with Zemun. Smaller, chiefly residential communities across the Danube, like Krnjača, Kotež and Borča, also merged with the city, while Pančevo, a heavily industrialised satellite city, remains a separate town. The city has an urban area of {{convert|360|km2|sqmi}}, while together with its metropolitan area it covers {{convert|3223|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.On the right bank of the Sava, central Belgrade has a hilly terrain, while the highest point of Belgrade proper is Torlak hill at {{convert|303|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The mountains of Avala ({{convert|511|m|ft|abbr=on}}) and Kosmaj ({{convert|628|m|ft|abbr=on}}) lie south of the city. Across the Sava and Danube, the land is mostly flat, consisting of alluvial plains and loessial plateaus.WEB,weblink City of Belgrade (official website), Natural Features, 12 December 2012, One of the characteristics of the city terrain is mass wasting. On the territory covered by the General Urban Plan there are 1,155 recorded mass wasting points, out of which 602 are active and 248 are labeled as the 'high risk'. They cover almost 30% of the city territory and include several types of mass wasting. Downhill creeps are located on the slopes above the rivers, mostly on the clay or loam soils, inclined between 7 and 20%. Most critical ones are in Karaburma, Zvezdara, Višnjica, Vinča and Ritopek, in the Danube valley, and Umka, and especially its neighbourhood of Duboko, in the Sava valley. They have moving and dormant phases, and some of them have been recorded for centuries. Less active downhill creep areas include the entire Terazije slope above the Sava (Kalemegdan, Savamala), which can be seen by the inclination of the Pobednik monument and the tower of the Cathedral Church, and the Voždovac section, between Banjica and Autokomanda.Landslides encompass smaller areas, develop on the steep cliffs, sometimes being inclined up to 90%. They are mostly located in the artificial loess hills of Zemun: Gardoš, Ćukovac and Kalvarija. However, the majority of the land movement in Belgrade, some 90%, is triggered by the construction works and faulty water supply system (burst pipes, etc.). The neighbourhood of Mirijevo is considered to be the most successful project of fixing the problem. During the construction of the neighbourhood from the 1970s, the terrain was systematically improved and the movement of the land is today completely halted.{{Citation | last = | first = | author =Nikola Belić | title = Klizišta nisu samo hir prirode| newspaper = Politika | pages = | language = Serbian | date = 8 November 2011 | url =weblink}}{{Citation | last = | first = | author =Nikola Belić | title = Otapanje pokreće i klizišta | newspaper = Politika | pages = | language = Serbian | date = 22 February 2012 | url =weblink}}

Climate

Belgrade has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to Köppen climate classification, with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation. Monthly averages range from {{convert|1.4|°C|1}} in January to {{convert|23.0|°C|1}} in July, with an annual mean of {{convert|12.5|°C|1}}. There are, on average, 31 days a year when the temperature is above {{convert|30|°C}}, and 95 days when the temperature is above {{convert|25|°C}}. Belgrade receives about {{convert|691|mm|0}} of precipitation a year, with late spring being wettest. The average annual number of sunny hours is 2,112.The highest officially recorded temperature in Belgrade was {{convert|43.6|C}} on 24 July 2007,NEWS,weblink Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Record-breaking heat measured in Belgrade, 24 July 2007, 10 August 2007, Monsters and Critics,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120714085754weblink">weblink 14 July 2012, while on the other end, the lowest temperature was {{convert|-26.2|°C|0}} on 10 January 1893.WEB,weblink Climate, City of Belgrade (official website), 10 July 2007, {{Weather box|width=|location = Belgrade (1981–2010)|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan record high C = 20.7|Feb record high C = 23.9|Mar record high C = 28.8|Apr record high C = 32.2|May record high C = 34.9|Jun record high C = 37.4|Jul record high C = 43.6|Aug record high C = 40.0|Sep record high C = 37.5|Oct record high C = 30.7|Nov record high C = 28.4|Dec record high C = 22.6|year record high C = 43.6|Jan high C = 4.6|Feb high C = 7.0|Mar high C = 12.4|Apr high C = 18.0|May high C = 23.5|Jun high C = 26.2|Jul high C = 28.6|Aug high C = 28.7|Sep high C = 23.9|Oct high C = 18.4|Nov high C = 11.2|Dec high C = 5.8|year high C = 17.4|Jan mean C = 1.4|Feb mean C = 3.1|Mar mean C = 7.6|Apr mean C = 12.9|May mean C = 18.1|Jun mean C = 21.0|Jul mean C = 23.0|Aug mean C = 22.7|Sep mean C = 18.0|Oct mean C = 12.9|Nov mean C = 7.1|Dec mean C = 2.7|year mean C = 12.5|Jan low C = -1.1|Feb low C = -0.1|Mar low C = 3.7|Apr low C = 8.3|May low C = 13.0|Jun low C = 15.8|Jul low C = 17.5|Aug low C = 17.6|Sep low C = 13.5|Oct low C = 9.0|Nov low C = 4.2|Dec low C = 0.2|year low C = 8.5|Jan record low C = -18.2|Feb record low C = -15.4|Mar record low C = -12.4|Apr record low C = -3.4|May record low C = 2.5|Jun record low C = 6.5|Jul record low C = 9.4|Aug record low C = 6.7|Sep record low C = 4.7|Oct record low C = -4.5|Nov record low C = -7.8|Dec record low C = -13.4|year record low C = -18.2|Jan precipitation mm = 46.9|Feb precipitation mm = 40.0|Mar precipitation mm = 49.3|Apr precipitation mm = 56.1|May precipitation mm = 58.0|Jun precipitation mm = 101.2|Jul precipitation mm = 63.0|Aug precipitation mm = 58.3|Sep precipitation mm = 55.3|Oct precipitation mm = 50.2|Nov precipitation mm = 55.1|Dec precipitation mm = 57.4|year precipitation mm = 690.9|Jan humidity = 78|Feb humidity = 71|Mar humidity = 63|Apr humidity = 61|May humidity = 61|Jun humidity = 63|Jul humidity = 61|Aug humidity = 61|Sep humidity = 67|Oct humidity = 71|Nov humidity = 75|Dec humidity = 79|year humidity = 68|precipitation colour = green|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 13|Feb precipitation days = 12|Mar precipitation days = 11|Apr precipitation days = 13|May precipitation days = 13|Jun precipitation days = 13|Jul precipitation days = 10|Aug precipitation days = 9|Sep precipitation days = 10|Oct precipitation days = 10|Nov precipitation days = 12|Dec precipitation days = 14|year precipitation days = 139| Jan snow days = 10| Feb snow days = 7| Mar snow days = 4| Apr snow days = 1| May snow days = 0| Jun snow days = 0| Jul snow days = 0| Aug snow days = 0| Sep snow days = 0| Oct snow days = 0| Nov snow days = 3| Dec snow days = 8| year snow days = 33|Jan sun = 72.2|Feb sun = 101.7|Mar sun = 153.2|Apr sun = 188.1|May sun = 242.2|Jun sun = 260.9|Jul sun = 290.8|Aug sun = 274.0|Sep sun = 204.3|Oct sun = 163.1|Nov sun = 97.0|Dec sun = 64.5|year sun = 2111.9| Jan uv =1| Feb uv =2| Mar uv =3| Apr uv =5| May uv =7| Jun uv =8| Jul uv =8| Aug uv =7| Sep uv =5| Oct uv =3| Nov uv =2| Dec uv =1|source 1 = Hydrometeorological Service of SerbiaWEB,weblink Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981 – 2010-Belgrade, Serbian, Hydrometeorological Service of SerbiaLAST=D.O.OWEBSITE=WEATHER ATLASACCESS-DATE=2019-07-03, | date = September 2010}}

Administration

{{See also|Mayor of Belgrade}}Belgrade is a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city authority. The Assembly of the City of Belgrade has 110 members, elected on four-year terms.WEB, Assembly of the City of Belgrade,weblink Official site, 4 November 2013, A 13-member City Council, elected by the Assembly and presided over by the mayor and his deputy, has the control and supervision of the city administration,WEB, City Council,weblink Official site, 4 November 2013, which manages day-to-day administrative affairs. It is divided into 14 Secretariats, each having a specific portfolio such as traffic or health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes.WEB, City Administration,weblink Official site, 4 November 2013, The 2014 Belgrade local elections were won by the Serbian Progressive Party, which formed a ruling coalition with the Socialist Party of Serbia. These elections ended the long-time rule of the Democratic Party, which was in power from 2004 to 2013.{{citation| url=http://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2013&mm=09&dd=24&nav_id=87773 |title=Councilors vote to remove Belgrade mayor from office |publisher=B92 |date=24 September 2013 |accessdate=4 November 2013}}As the capital city, Belgrade is seat of all Serbian state authorities – executive, legislative, judiciary, and the headquarters of almost all national political parties as well as 75 diplomatic missions.{{citation|url=http://www.mup.gov.rs/cms_lat/sadrzaj.nsf/ambasade.h |title=Ambasade i konzularna predstavništva u Beogradu |publisher=Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Serbia |language=Serbian |accessdate=12 December 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130128091441weblink |archivedate=28 January 2013 }} This includes the National Assembly, the Presidency, the Government of Serbia and all the ministries, Supreme Court of Cassation and the Constitutional Court.

Municipalities

{{See also|Subdivisions of Belgrade}}(File:Belgrade_municipalities02.png|thumb|Municipalities of Belgrade map)The city is divided into 17 municipalities.WEB,weblink Urban Municipalities, Official website, 10 July 2007, Previously, they were classified into 10 urban (lying completely or partially within borders of the city proper) and 7 suburban municipalities, whose centres are smaller towns.{{citation |last=Bačić |first=B. Č. |title=Najveći problem izjednačavanje statusa gradskih i prigradskih opština |url=http://www.danas.rs/danasrs/srbija/beograd/najveci_problem_izjednacavanje_statusa_gradskih_i_prigradskih_opstina_.39.html?news_id=141062 |publisher=Danas |date=1 October 2008 |accessdate=9 February 2010 |language=Serbian}} With the new 2010 City statute, they were all given equal status, with the proviso that suburban ones (except Surčin) have certain autonomous powers, chiefly related with construction, infrastructure and public utilities.Most of the municipalities are situated on the southern side of the Danube and Sava rivers, in the Šumadija region. Three municipalities (Zemun, Novi Beograd, and Surčin), are on the northern bank of the Sava in the Syrmia region and the municipality of Palilula, spanning the Danube, is in both the Šumadija and Banat regions.{| class="sortable wikitable" style="text-align:right"! Municipality! Classification! Area (km2)! Population (2011)! Population density (per km2) Barajevo suburban 213 27,110 127 Čukarica urban 156 181,231 1,162 Grocka suburban 289 83,907 290 Lazarevac suburban 384 58,622 153 Mladenovac suburban 339 53,096 16 New Belgrade >| 5,232 Obrenovac suburban 411 72,524 176 Palilula (Belgrade) >| 385 Rakovica, Belgrade >| 3,505 Savski Venac urban 14 39,122 2,794 Sopot, Serbia >| 75 Stari Grad, Belgrade >| 9,690 Surčin urban 285 43,819 154 Voždovac urban 148 158,213 1,069 Vračar urban 3 56,333 18,778 Zemun urban 154 168,170 1,092 Zvezdara urban 32 151,808 4,744 style="background:#e9e9e9;"! style="text-align:left"| Total || || style="text-align:right"|3,227 || style="text-align:right"|1,659,440 || style="text-align:right"|514

Demographics

According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 1,166,763, while the urban area of Belgrade (with adjacent urban settlements of Borča, Ovča, and Surčin included) has 1,233,796 inhabitants, and the population of the metropolitan area (the administrative area of the City of Belgrade) stands at 1,659,440 people.{{Historical populations|type =50000HTTP://WWW.BELGRADENET.COM/BELGRADE_HISTORY_MIDDLE_AGES.HTML>TITLE=THE HISTORY OF BELGRADE: MIDDLE AGES – TURKISH CONQUEST – LIBERATION OF BELGRADEWEBSITE=BELGRADENET.COMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20081230032249/HTTP://WWW.BELGRADENET.COM/BELGRADE_HISTORY_MIDDLE_AGES.HTMLURL-STATUS=DEAD, 100000 25000HTTP://WWW.POPULSTAT.INFO/EUROPE/YUGOSLFT.HTM>TITLE=THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION : URBAN POPULATION18501860187518801890190019101921193119481953196119711981199120022011|1233796|}}Belgrade is home to many ethnicities from across the former Yugoslavia and the wider Balkans region. The main ethnic groups are: Serbs (1,505,448), Roma (27,325), Montenegrins (9,902), Yugoslavs (8,061), Croats (7,752), Macedonians (6,970), and Muslims by nationality (3,996).WEB,weblink 2011 Census, 21 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140811224233weblink">weblink 11 August 2014, Many people came to the city as economic migrants from smaller towns and the countryside, while tens of thousands arrived as refugees from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, as a result of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.Refugee Serbs Assail Belgrade Government: The Washington Post, Tuesday, 22 June 1999. Between 10,000 and 20,000WEB,weblink Stranci tanje budžet, Novosti.rs, 16 November 2010, Chinese people are estimated to live in Belgrade and, since their arrival in the mid-1990s, Block 70 in New Belgrade has been known colloquially as the Chinese quarter.WEB,weblink Kinezi Marko, Miloš i Ana, Kurir, 20 February 2005, 18 July 2007, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090212031104weblink">weblink 12 February 2009, WEB, Vasić, Biljana,weblink Kineska četvrt u bloku 70, Vreme, 15 January 2001, 18 July 2007, Serbian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070715030740weblink">weblink 15 July 2007, live, Many Middle Easterners, mainly from Syria, Iran, Jordan and Iraq, arrived in order to pursue their studies during the 1970s and 1980s, and have remained in the city.WEB, Zimonjic, Vesna Peric,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927225101weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, A unique friendship club in Belgrade, Dawn – International, 7 December 2005, 17 July 2007, dead, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right"! Settlements! Population{{Serbian census 2011}} Belgrade 1,166,763 Borča 46,086 Grocka 26,904 Lazarevac 26,006 Obrenovac 25,429 Mladenovac 23,609 Sremčica 21,001 Surčin 18,205 Ripanj 11,088 Ugrinovci 10,807 Leštane 10,473Although there are several historic religious communities in Belgrade, the religious makeup of the city is relatively homogeneous. The Serbian Orthodox community is by far the largest, with 1,475,168 adherents. There are also 31,914 Muslims, 13,720 Roman Catholics, and 3,128 Protestants. There once was a significant Jewish community in Belgrade but, following the World War II Nazi occupation of the city and subsequent Jewish emigration, their numbers have fallen from over 10,000 to just 295.WEB,weblink 2011 Census, 17 December 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140715000726weblink">weblink 15 July 2014,

Economy

{{See also|Belgrade IT sector|Architectural projects in Belgrade}}
File:New Belgrade.jpg|thumb|left|New BelgradeNew BelgradeBelgrade is the financial centre of Serbia and Southeast Europe, with a total of {{convert|17|e6m2|abbr=off}} of office space.WEB,weblink Lokale neće ni džabe, novosti.rs, It is also home to the country's Central Bank. Currently, over 700,000 peopleWEB,weblink Nije normalno da se 16 milijardi dinara godišnje daje GSP-u za subvencije, B92.net, are employed in 120,286 companies,WEB,weblink U Beogradu radi 120.000 firmi, Večernje Novosti, 23 April 2013, 4 November 2013, 60,000 enterprisesWEB,weblink Mali: Nikad bolji privredni ambijent u Beogradu, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of, Serbia, and 50,000 shops.WEB,weblink Privredna komora Beograda, Docstoc.com, 4 October 2011, 12 March 2013, The City of Belgrade itself owns {{convert|267,147|m²|abbr=off}} of rentable office space.WEB,weblink Tržni centri zatvorili lokale, 14 August 2016, As of 2009, Belgrade contained 31.4% of Serbia's employed population and generated over 38% of its GDP.WEB,weblink Economic Chamber of Belgrade, Privreda Beograda, Serbian, 19 January 2010, The City's nominal GDP in 2014 was estimated at 16.97 billion USD, amounting to 859,329 RSD ($10,086) per capita.{{citation |url=http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/public/PublicationView.aspx?pKey=41&pLevel=1&pubType=2&pubKey=2036 |title=Regional GDP of the Republic of Serbia – preliminary data, 2012 |publisher=Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia |accessdate=4 November 2013}} GDP at purchasing power parity was estimated at $36.1bn USD, which was $31,461 per capita in terms of purchasing power parity.WEB,weblink Спољнотрговинска робна размена Републике Србије, септембар 2014, 4 November 2014, dead,weblink 14 January 2015, File:Erport siti Beograd1.jpg|thumb|Airport City BelgradeAirport City BelgradeNew Belgrade is the country's Central business district and one of Southeastern Europe's financial centres. It offers a range of facilities, such as hotels, congress halls (e.g. Sava Centar), Class A and B office buildings, and business parks (e.g. Airport City Belgrade). Over {{convert|1.2|e6m2|abbr=off}} of land is currently under construction in New Belgrade, with the value of planned construction over the next three years estimated at over 1.5 billion euros. The Belgrade Stock Exchange is also located in New Belgrade, and has a market capitalisation of €6.5 billion (US$9 billion).With 6,924 companies in the IT sector ({{as of|2013|alt=according to 2013 data||df=}}), Belgrade is one of the foremost information technology hubs in Southeast Europe. Microsoft's 'Development Center Serbia', located in Belgrade was, at the time of its establishment, the fifth such programme on the globe.WEB,weblink Microsoft Development Center Serbia, Microsoft.com, 1 April 2011, 15 May 2013, Many global IT companies choose Belgrade as their European or regional centre of operations, such as Asus,WEB,weblink Asus otvorio regionalni centar u Beogradu, Emportal.rs, 16 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110522124646weblink">weblink 22 May 2011, Intel,WEB,weblink Centar kompanije 'Intel' za Balkan u Beogradu – Srbija deo 'Intel World Ahead Program', E kapija, 7 July 2009, Dell,WEB, Beograd, Ana Vlahović,weblink Srbija centar IT industrije, Pressonline.rs, 25 September 2011, 12 March 2013, Huawei and NCR.{{citation |url=http://www.ekapija.com/website/sr/page/762729/NCR-planira-da-udvostruči-broj-zaposlenih-u-Srbiji-u-2014 |title=NCR planira da udvostruči broj zaposlenih u Srbiji u 2014 |publisher=eKapija |date=24 July 2013 |accessdate=4 November 2013 |language=Serbian}} The most famous Belgrade IT startups, among others, are Nordeus, ComTrade Group, MicroE, FishingBooker, and Endava. IT facilities in the city include the Mihajlo Pupin Institute and the ILR,WEB,weblink LOLA CNC sistemi – Lola institut, li.rs, as well as the brand-new IT Park Zvezdara.WEB,weblink Naučno-tehnološki park Beograd, Naučno-tehnološki park Beograd, Many prominent IT innovators began their careers in Belgrade, including Voja Antonić and Veselin Jevrosimović.File:Савоград.JPG|thumb|Sava CitySava CityIn September 2013, the average Belgrade monthly salary stood at 53,564 RSD ($635) in net terms, with the gross equivalent at 73,970 RSD ($877).WEB,weblink Regional GDP in the Republic of Serbia, Statistics office of the Republic of Serbia, October 2014, 4 November 2014, Serbian, The 2013 Annual Economist Intelligence Unit Survey ranked Belgrade the 86th most expensive out of 131 world cities.{{citation|url=http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/ekonomija/aktuelno.239.html:447266-Prema-koverti-i-cenovnici |title=Prema koverti i cenovnici |publisher=Večernje novosti |date=3 August 2013 |accessdate=4 November 2013 |language=Serbian}}{{citation| url=http://store.eiu.com/Product.aspx?pid=1300111914&gid=0 |title=Worldwide Cost of Living 2013 (payment required)|publisher=Economist Intelligence Unit |date=1 February 2013}} According to the 2015 Survey,WEB,weblink UPOTREBA INFORMACIONO-KOMUNIKACIONIH TEHNOLOGIJA U REPUBLICI SRBIJI, 2015, 30 August 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160830063656weblink">weblink 30 August 2016, 73% of the city's households owned a computer, 65.8% had a broadband internet connection and 73.9% had pay television services.

Culture

File:Matematička gimnazija - Mathematical Gymnasium Belgrade - MGB - Anniversary.jpg|thumb|left|The Grand Hall of the National Theatre ]]Belgrade hosts many annual international cultural events, including the Film Festival, Theatre Festival, Summer Festival, BEMUS, Belgrade Early Music Festival, Book Fair, Eurovision Song Contest 2008, and the Beer Fest.WEB,weblink Culture and Art (Cultural Events), Official website, 10 July 2007, The Nobel Prize winning author Ivo Andrić wrote his most famous work, The Bridge on the Drina, in Belgrade.WEB,weblink The biography of Ivo Andrić, The Ivo Andrić Foundation, 18 May 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090907050949weblink">weblink 7 September 2009, Other prominent Belgrade authors include Branislav Nušić, Miloš Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavić and Meša Selimović.WEB,weblink Borislav Pekić – Biografija, Project Rastko, Serbian, 19 May 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090116220235weblink">weblink 16 January 2009, WEB, Tabbi, Joseph,weblink Miloš Crnjanski and his descendents, Electronic Book Review, 26 July 2005, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070711120527weblink">weblink 11 July 2007, live, WEB,weblink Meša Selimović – Biografija, Kitabhana.net, 10 July 2007, Bosnian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070716130556weblink">weblink 16 July 2007, live, The most internationally prominent artists from Belgrade are Marina Abramović and Milovan Destil Marković.Most of Serbia's film industry is based in Belgrade. FEST is an annual film festival that held since 1971, and, through 2013, had been attended by four million people and had presented almost 4,000 films.{{citation|url=http://voiceofserbia.org/content/belgrade-film-festival-%E2%80%93-fest |title=Belgrade Film Festival – FEST |publisher=VoiceOfSerbia.org |date=22 February 2013}}File:Belgrade_Book_Fair_2.jpg|thumb|right|Belgrade Book FairBelgrade Book FairThe city was one of the main centres of the Yugoslav new wave in the 1980s: VIS Idoli, Ekatarina Velika, Šarlo Akrobata and Električni Orgazam were all from Belgrade. Other notable Belgrade rock acts include Riblja Čorba, Bajaga i Instruktori and Partibrejkers.WEB,weblink Beogradska rock scena je otišla u ilegalu, Glas.ba, 18 January 2011, Serbian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706131047weblink">weblink 6 July 2011, dead, BOOK, Shepherd, John, Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world, Continuum, 2005, 142, 3–7, 978-0-8264-7436-0, Today, it is the centre of the Serbian hip hop scene, with acts such as Beogradski Sindikat, Škabo, Marčelo, and most of the Bassivity Music stable hailing from or living in the city.WEB, Pavlić, Aleksandar,weblink Beogradski Sindikat: Svi Zajedno, Popboks magazine, 9 February 2005, 23 May 2007, Serbian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070513014844weblink">weblink 13 May 2007, dead, WEB, Todorović, S. S.,weblink Liričar među reperima, Balkanmedia, 30 January 2004, 23 May 2007, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070617175739weblink">weblink 17 June 2007, There are numerous theatres, the most prominent of which are National Theatre, Theatre on Terazije, Yugoslav Drama Theatre, Zvezdara Theatre, and Atelier 212. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also based in Belgrade, as well as the National Library of Serbia. Other major libraries include the Belgrade City Library and the Belgrade University Library. Belgrade's two opera houses are: National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera House.WEB,weblink National Theatre Belgrade – Opera, Narodnopozoriste.rs, 1 May 2013, 15 May 2013, WEB,weblink About Madlenianum, Madlenianum.rs, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515105613weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, There are many foreign cultural institutions in Belgrade, including the Spanish Instituto Cervantes,WEB,weblink El Instituto Cervantes de Belgrado, Belgrado.cervantes.es, 15 May 2013, the German Goethe-InstitutWEB,weblink Goethe-Institut Belgrad – Über uns, Goethe.de, 15 May 2013, and the French Institut français,WEB, Konstantinovic, Jasmina,weblink Institut français de Serbie – Qui sommes-nous ?, Institutfrancais.rs, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130621000205weblink">weblink 21 June 2013, which are all located in the central pedestrian area of Knez Mihailova Street. Other cultural centres in Belgrade are American Corner,WEB, American Corners In Serbia,weblink ac beograd – american corners in serbia, Americancorners-sam.net, 16 May 2003, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521092435weblink">weblink 21 May 2013, Austrian Cultural Forum,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130114192359weblink">weblink dead, 14 January 2013, Das Kulturforum Belgrad, Bmeia.gv.at, 15 May 2013, British Council,WEB,weblink British Council Serbia, Britishcouncil.org, 3 March 2012, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130405120959weblink">weblink 5 April 2013, Chinese Confucius Institute,WEB,weblink Confucius Institute in Belgrade, Konfucije.fil.bg.ac.rs, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605173502weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, Canadian Cultural centre,WEB,weblink City of Belgrade Cultural Centers and Organizations, Beograd.rs, 15 May 2013, Hellenic Foundation for Culture,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140829235117weblink">weblink dead, 29 August 2014, Hellenic Foundation for Culture – Belgrade Branch, HFC Belgrade, 15 May 2013, Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura,WEB,weblink Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Belgrado, Iicbelgrado.esteri.it, 15 May 2013, Iranian Culture centre,Iranski kulturni centar – О нама {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121205150856weblink |date=5 December 2012 }} Azerbaijani Culture centreWEB,weblink Azerbejdžanski kulturni centar, Azerbejdzan.rs, 15 May 2013, and Russian centre for Science and Culture.WEB,weblink О Русском Доме – Русский Дом в Белграде, Ruskidom.rs, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511172337weblink">weblink 11 May 2013, European Union National Institutes for Culture operates a cluster of cultural centres from the EU.WEB,weblink EUNIC cluster in Belgrade, Eunic-online.eu, 15 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130206014433weblink">weblink 6 February 2013, File:Kalemegdan - Umetnički paviljon “Cvijeta Zuzorić“ - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Art pavilion Cvijeta ZuzorićCvijeta ZuzorićFollowing the victory of Serbia's representative Marija Šerifović at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, Belgrade hosted the Contest in 2008.NEWS,weblink Helsingin Sanomat, Serbian ballad wins Eurovision Song Contest – Belgrade hosts in 2008, 14 May 2007, 10 July 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070830011312weblink">weblink 30 August 2007,

Museums

{{See also|List of museums in Belgrade}}The most prominent museum in Belgrade is the National Museum, founded in 1844 and reconstructed from 2003 till June 2018. The museum houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits (over 5600 paintings and 8400 drawings and prints, including many foreign masters like Bosch, Juan de Flandes, Titian, Tintoretto, Rubens, Van Dyck, Cézanne, G.B. Tiepolo, Renoir, Monet, Lautrec, Matisse, Picasso, Gauguin, Chagall, Van Gogh, Mondrian etc.) and also the famous Miroslav's Gospel.WEB, Cvjetićanin, Tatjana,weblink From the history of the National Museum in Belgrade, National Museum of Serbia, 27 July 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110814163742weblink">weblink 14 August 2011, The Ethnographic Museum, established in 1901, contains more than 150,000 items showcasing the rural and urban culture of the Balkans, particularly the countries of former Yugoslavia.WEB,weblink Museums 3, Official website, 10 July 2007, File:Narodni muzej - panoramio (3).jpg|thumb|left|National Museum of SerbiaNational Museum of SerbiaThe Museum of Contemporary Art was the first contemporary art museum in Yugoslavia and, following its foundation in 1965, has amassed a collection of more than 8,000 works from art produced across the former Yugoslavia.WEB,weblink About the Museum, eng.msub.org.rs, 2019-03-30, The museum was closed in 2007, but has since been reopened in 2017 to focus on the modern as well as on the Yugoslav art scenes.NEWS,weblink Art gathers dust as Serbia museums kept shut, 27 August 2013, BBC News, The Military Museum, established in 1878 in Kalemegdan, houses a wide range of more than 25,000 military objects dating from the prehistoric to the medieval to the modern eras. Notable items include Turkish and oriental arms, national banners, and Yugoslav Partisan regalia.WEB,weblink Military Museum, Lonely Planet, 18 January 2010, WEB,weblink Military Museum {{!, About Us|website=muzej.mod.gov.rs|access-date=2019-03-30}}The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade located near Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport has more than 200 aircraft, of which about 50 are on display, and a few of which are the only surviving examples of their type, such as the Fiat G.50. This museum also displays parts of shot down US and NATO aircraft, such as the F-117 and F-16.WEB,weblink Lična karta Muzeja ratnog vazduhoplovstva, Museum of Air force Belgrade, 19 May 2007, Serbian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060528075833weblink">weblink 28 May 2006, dead, The Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. It holds around 160,000 original documents and around 5,700 personal other items including his urn.WEB,weblink Nikola Tesla Museum, About the museum, 10 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070610092417weblink">weblink 10 June 2007, dead, The last of the major Belgrade museums is the Museum of Vuk and Dositej, which showcases the lives, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and Dositej Obradović, the 19th century reformer of the Serbian literary language and the first Serbian Minister of Education, respectively.WEB,weblink City of Belgrade – Museums 1, Official website, 10 July 2007, Belgrade also houses the Museum of African Art, founded in 1977, which has a large collection of art from West Africa.WEB,weblink Cultural institutions: Museum of African Art, Official website, 10 July 2007, With around 95,000 copies of national and international films, the Yugoslav Film Archive is the largest in the region and among the 10 largest archives in the world.WEB,weblink Action programme 2006 for Serbia: Support to the Yugoslav Film Archive, European Agency for Reconstruction, 1 January 2006, 10 July 2007, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070802113127weblink">weblink 2 August 2007, dead, The institution also operates the Museum of Yugoslav Film Archive, with movie theatre and exhibition hall. The archive's long-standing storage problems were finally solved in 2007, when a new modern depository was opened.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011202918weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, New Depository for the Yugoslav Film Archive's treasure, SEECult.org, Culture Portal of Southeastern Europe, 7 June 2007, 10 July 2007, dead, The Yugoslav Film Archive also exhibits original Charlie Chaplin's stick and one of the first movies by Auguste and Louis Lumière.WEB,weblink U Noći muzeja 60 kulturnih institucija, novosti.rs, The Belgrade City Museum moved into a new building in downtown in 2006.{{citation|url=http://www.mgb.org.rs/en/the-new-museum-building |title=The New Museum's Building |accessdate=26 February 2013 |publisher=Belgrade City Museum |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130401012108weblink |archivedate=1 April 2013 }} The museum hosts a range of collections covering the history of urban life since prehistory.{{citation|url=http://www.mgb.org.rs/en/collections |title=Collections |accessdate=26 February 2013 |publisher=Belgrade City Museum |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130401011549weblink |archivedate=1 April 2013 }}The Museum of Yugoslav History has collections from the Yugoslav era. Beside paintings, the most valuable are Moon rocks donated by Apollo 11 crew Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins while visiting Belgrade in 1969 and from mission Apollo 17 donated by Richard Nixon in 1971.WEB,weblink Najbolje, u Muzeju 25. maj – SEEcult.org Portal za kulturu jugoistočne Evrope, seecult.org, Museum also houses Joseph Stalin's sabre with 260 brilliants and diamonds, donated by Stalin himself.WEB,weblink Политика Online – Од Стаљина сабља, а од астронаута каменчићи с Месеца, Politika Online, File:Muzej Nikole Tesle.jpg|thumb|Nikola Tesla MuseumNikola Tesla MuseumMuseum of Science and Technology moved to the building of the first city's power plant in Dorćol in 2005.{{citation |url=http://www.muzejnt.rs/en/206 |title=Project for Reconstruction and Adaptation of the Museum of Science and Technology |publisher=Museum of Science and Technology |accessdate=26 February 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130511075002weblink |archive-date=11 May 2013 |url-status=dead }}

Architecture

{{See also|List of buildings in Belgrade|List of streets and squares in Belgrade |Bridges of Belgrade|Architectural projects in Belgrade|Religious architecture in Belgrade|Gates of Belgrade}}File:Vue depuis Forteresse Kalemegdan.jpg|thumbFile:Novi most.jpg|thumbBelgrade has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Zemun, typical of a Central European town,WEB, Comrie, Nicholas, Moore, Lucy, Zemun: The Town Within the City,weblink B92 Travel, 1 October 2007, 17 May 2007, to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade. The oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan Park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from the 18th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions.WEB, Manević, Zoran,weblink Architecture and Building, MIT website, 19 May 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070811101910weblink">weblink 11 August 2007, The oldest public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, from late 18th century.WEB, Mitrović, Prof. Dr. Mihajlo,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20100117001440weblink">weblink dead, 17 January 2010, Seventh Belgrade triennial of world architecture, ULUS, 27 June 2003, 19 May 2007, Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism, and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, Cathedral Church and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau. Elements of Serbo-Byzantine Revival are present in buildings such as House of Vuk's Foundation, old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church (based on the Gračanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava.In the socialist period, housing was built quickly and cheaply for the huge influx of people fleeing the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the blokovi ('blocks') of New Belgrade; a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Trade Union Hall. However, in the mid-1950s, modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade architecture.File:Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (13808353324).jpg|thumb|Serbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsSerbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsBelgrade has the second oldest sewer system in Europe.WEB, Potrebno uložiti 1,6 milijardi evra u energetsku efikasnost,weblink Blic, 10 December 2014,

Tourism

{{See also|Tourism in Serbia}}File:Yugo_s%C4%B1lavya_belgrad_by_ismail_soytekino%C4%9Flu_-_panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|Knez Mihailova StreetKnez Mihailova StreetLying on the main artery connecting Europe and Asia, as well as, eventually, the Orient Express, Belgrade has been a popular place for travellers through the centuries. During Ottoman rule, as one of the largest cities of Turkey-in-Europe, various hans (English: khans) existed in the city: the Oriental variant of the roadside inn, they provided travellers with food, drink and resting facilities. One of the largest such resting places in Belgrade at the time was the Turski han (Turski han), located where the modern Faculty of Philosophy Plateau is. Other well known hans were the Paranos han (the modern Hotel Bristol), Davičo han, Batal-džamija han (House of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia), among others. However, the hans lacked comfort as the visitors mostly slept on the ground on mats they would bring themselves. They mostly provided shelter from the rain, but not always from the wind. Because of that, certain kafanas began adapting the floors above the dining areas into the rooms for the lodgers. Such kafanas soon changed their names to gostionica (inn) as Serbia Westernised.NEWS, Dragan Perić, Kada su svi putevi vodili u Beograd, When all roads were leading to Belgrade, Politika-Magazin, No. 1092, 28–29, Serbian, 2 September 2018,weblink In 1843, on Dubrovačka Street (today Kralj Petar Street ), Serbia's knez Mihailo Obrenović built a large edifice which became the first hotel in Belgrade: Kod jelena ('at the deer's'), in the neighbourhood of Kosančićev Venac. Many criticised the move at the time due to the cost and the size of the building, and it soon became the gathering point of the Principality's wealthiest citizens. Colloquially, the building was also referred to as the staro zdanje, or the 'old edifice'. It remained a hotel until 1903 before being demolished in 1938. After the staro zdanje, numerous hotels were built in the second half of the 19th century: Nacional and Grand, also in Kosančićev Venac, Srpski Kralj, Srpska Kruna, Grčka Kraljica near Kalemegdan, Balkan and Pariz in Terazije, London, etc.As Belgrade became connected via steamboats and railway (after 1884), the number of visitors grew and new hotels were open with the ever luxurious commodities. In Savamala, the hotels Bosna and Bristol were opened. Other hotels included Solun and Orient, which was built near the Financial Park. Tourists which arrived by the Orient Express mostly stayed at the Petrograd Hotel in Wilson Square. Hotel Srpski Kralj, at the corner of Uzun Mirkova and Pariska Street was considered the best hotel in Belgrade during the Interbellum. It was destroyed during World War II.The historic areas and buildings of Belgrade are among the city's premier attractions. They include Skadarlija, the National Museum and adjacent National Theatre, Zemun, Nikola Pašić Square, Terazije, Students' Square, the Kalemegdan Fortress, Knez Mihailova Street, the Parliament, the Church of Saint Sava, and the Old Palace. On top of this, there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops on both sides of the river. The hilltop Avala Monument and Avala Tower offer views over the city.{{multiple image| align = left| direction = horizontal| header =| header_align = left/right/center| header_background =| footer =| footer_align = left/right/center| footer_background =| width =| image1 = Crkva Ružica.jpg| width1 = 150| alt1 =| caption1 = Belgrade Fortress.| image2 = Kula_na_Gardošu_u_Zemunu.jpg| width2 = 155| alt2 =| caption2 = Gardoš Tower, Zemun}}Elite neighbourhood of Dedinje is situated near the Topčider and Košutnjak parks. The Beli dvor (White Palace), house of royal family Karađorđević, is open for visitors. The palace has many valuable artworks.WEB, Wolfs, Laura,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707205638weblink">weblink dead, 7 July 2011, A Palacial Tour, Balkan Insight, 21 June 2010, 18 September 2011, Nearby, Josip Broz Tito's mausoleum, called The House of Flowers, documents the life of the former Yugoslav president.Ada Ciganlija is a former island on the Sava River, and Belgrade's biggest sports and recreational complex. Today it is connected with the right bank of the Sava via two causeways, creating an artificial lake. It is the most popular destination for Belgraders during the city's hot summers. There are {{convert|7|km|0|abbr=off}} of long beaches and sports facilities for various sports including golf, football, basketball, volleyball, rugby union, baseball, and tennis.WEB,weblink Ada Ciganlija, Tourist Organization of Belgrade, 15 September 2010, During summer there are between 200,000 and 300,000 bathers daily.WEB, Ada: Too Early for Swimming, Livinginbelgrade.com,weblink 8 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120808153418weblink">weblink File:Ada_Ciganlija_panorama2.jpg|thumb|Ada CiganlijaAda CiganlijaExtreme sports are available, such as bungee jumping, water skiing, and paintballing.WEB, Sport Activities in Belgrade,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115140556weblink">weblink 15 January 2013, There are numerous tracks on the island, where it is possible to ride a bike, go for a walk, or go jogging. Apart from Ada, Belgrade has total of 16 islandsWEB, Nikolov, Ana, Beograd – grad na rekama, Institut za Arhitekturu i Urbanizam Srbije, 29 July 2005,weblink 5 June 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070628210222weblink">weblink 28 June 2007, live, on the rivers, many still unused. Among them, the Great War Island, at the confluence of Sava, stands out as an oasis of unshattered wildlife (especially birds).WEB,weblink Zbogom, oazo!, Kurir, 23 May 2006, 5 June 2007, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101020233543weblink">weblink 20 October 2010, These areas, along with nearby Small War Island, are protected by the city's government as a nature preserve.WEB, Beoinfo, Prirodno dobro "Veliko ratno ostrvo" stavljeno pod zaštitu Skupštine grada,weblink Ekoforum, 4 August 2005, 5 June 2007, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726020707weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, There are 37 protected natural resources in the Belgrade urban area, among which eight are geo-heritage sites, i.e. Straževica profile, Mašin Majdan-Topčider, Profile at the Kalemegdan Fortress, Abandoned quarry in Barajevo, Karagača valley, Artesian well in Ovča, Kapela loess profile, and Lake in Sremčica. Other 29 places are biodiversity sites.JOURNAL, Petrović, Marko, Lukić, Dobrila, Radovanović, Milan, Vujko, Aleksandra, Gajić, Tamara, Vuković, Darko, 5 October 2017, "Urban geosites" as an alternative geotourism destination – evidence from Belgrade,weblink Open Geosciences, 9, 1, 442–456, 10.1515/geo-2017-0034, 2391-5447, Tourist income in 2016 amounted to nearly one billion euros;WEB,weblink Beogradu od turizma gotovo pola milijarde evra, Rs.seebiz.eu, 12 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130624014837weblink">weblink 24 June 2013, dead, with a visit of almost a million registered tourists.WEB,weblink Vesti online / Slobodno Vreme / Putovanja / Nikad više turista: Beograd najviše vole Turci i Hrvati, vesti-online.com, Of those, more than 70,000 arrived by 550 river cruisers. Average annual growth is between 13% and 14%.As of 2018, there are three officially designated camp grounds in Belgrade. The oldest one is located in Batajnica, along the Batajnica Road. Named "Dunav", it is one of the most visited campsites in the country. Second one is situated within the complex of the ethno-household "Zornić's House" in the village of Baćevac, while the third is located in Ripanj, on the slopes of the Avala mountain. In 2017 some 15,000 overnights were recorded in camps.NEWS, Ana Vuković, Kamping turizam – neiskorišćena šansa, Camping tourism – unused chance, Politika, 14, Serbian, 16 August 2018,weblink

Nightlife

File:Skadarlija-Beograd - panoramio - Dragan Jankovic Faza….jpg|thumb|left|Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood]]Belgrade has a reputation for vibrant nightlife; many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. The most recognisable nightlife features of Belgrade are the barges (splav) spread along the banks of the Sava and Danube Rivers.NEWS, Prentice, Eve-Ann,weblink Why I love battereBelgrade, The Guardian Travel, 10 August 2003, 19 May 2007, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070515043701weblink">weblink 15 May 2007, dead, NEWS, Sherwood, Seth,weblink Belgrade Rocks, The New York Times, 16 October 2005, 19 May 2007, WEB, Gruber, Barbara,weblink Belgrade's Nightlife Floats on the Danube, Deutsche Welle, 22 August 2006, 19 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070616155059weblink">weblink 16 June 2007, live, (File:Belgrade nightlife on riverclubs.jpg|thumb|right|Belgrade nightlife)Many weekend visitors—particularly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia—prefer Belgrade nightlife to that of their own capitals due to its perceived friendly atmosphere, plentiful clubs and bars, cheap drinks, lack of significant language barriers, and a lack of night life regulation.WEB,weblink Slovenci dolaze u jeftin provod, Glas Javnosti, 21 December 2004, Serbian, 10 July 2007, WEB,weblink U Beograd na vikend-zabavu, Večernji list, 6 January 2006, Croatian, 15 June 2007,weblink 6 January 2006, Famous alternative clubs in the city include Akademija and the KST (Klub Studenata Tehnike), located in the basement of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Electrical Engineering.BOOK, The Culture of Power in Serbia: Nationalism and the Destruction of Alternatives, 121–122, Gordy, Eric D., The Destruction of Musical Alternatives, Penn State Press, 10 July 2007,weblink 0-271-01958-1, 1999, WEB,weblink Intro, Club "Akademija", 10 July 2007, WEB,weblink Klub Studenata Tehnike – O nama, Serbian, One of the most famous sites for alternative cultural happenings in the city is the SKC (Student Cultural Centre), located right across from Belgrade's highrise landmark, the Belgrade Palace tower. Concerts featuring famous local and foreign bands are often held at the centre. SKC is also the site of various art exhibitions, as well as public debates and discussions.WEB, Galić, David,weblink Studentski Kulturni Centar, Balkan Insight, 22 February 2010, 19 January 2011, A more traditional Serbian nightlife experience, accompanied by traditional music known as Starogradska (roughly translated as Old Town Music), typical of northern Serbia's urban environments, is most prominent in Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood where the poets and artists of Belgrade gathered in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Skadar Street (the centre of Skadarlija) and the surrounding neighbourhood are lined with some of Belgrade's best and oldest traditional restaurants (called kafanas in Serbian), which date back to that period.WEB,weblink Skadarlija, Tourist Organisation of Belgrade, 19 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101220050323weblink">weblink 20 December 2010, At one end of the neighbourhood stands Belgrade's oldest beer brewery, founded in the first half of the 19th century.WEB,weblink Beogradska Industrija Piva AD, SEE News, 5 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090426083313weblink">weblink 26 April 2009, dead, One of the city's oldest kafanas is the Znak pitanja ('?').WEB,weblink Znamenite građevine 3, Official site, Serbian, 10 July 2007, The Times reported that Europe's best nightlife can be found in Belgrade.NEWS,weblink Europe's best nightlife, Official site, 11 April 2008, London, Gareth, Scurlock, 4 November 2008, In the Lonely Planet 1000 Ultimate Experiences guide of 2009, Belgrade was placed at the 1st spot among the top 10 party cities in the world.NEWS,weblink The world's top 10 party towns, 9 November 2009, The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100410045707weblink">weblink 10 April 2010, live,

Sport

{{See also|List of sporting events in Belgrade}}File:BGArena4.jpg|thumb|The Štark Arena in New BelgradeNew BelgradeThere are approximately one-thousand sports facilities in Belgrade, many of which are capable of serving all levels of sporting events.WEB,weblink Sport and Recreation, Official website, 10 July 2007, Belgrade has hosted several major sporting events recently, including EuroBasket 2005, the 2005 European Volleyball Championship, the 2006 European Water Polo Championship, the European Youth Olympic Festival 2007, and the 2009 Summer Universiade.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080209234741weblink">weblink 9 February 2008, Universiade 2009 (Belgrade), International University Sports Federation, FISU, 19 May 2007, dead, The city is home to Serbia's two biggest and most successful football clubs, Red Star Belgrade and Partizan Belgrade. Red Star won the 1991 UEFA Champions League (European Cup). The two major stadiums in Belgrade are the Marakana (Red Star Stadium) and the Partizan Stadium.WEB,weblink Sport and Recreation (Stadiums), Official website, 10 July 2007, The rivalry between Red Star and Partizan is one of the fiercest in world football.NEWS, Fortune, Matt,weblink THE LIST: The greatest rivalries in club football, Nos 10–1, Dailymail.co.uk, 27 November 2009, 15 May 2013, London, File:Fk_Red_Star_stadium.jpg|thumb|right|Red Star StadiumRed Star StadiumThe Štark Arena has a capacity of 19,384.WEB,weblink О Штарк Арени, About Štark Arena, Štark Arena, 5 August 2018, It is used for major sporting events and large concerts. In May 2008 it was the venue for the 53rd Eurovision Song Contest.WEB, Belgrade Arena Profile,weblink Belgrade Arena, 28 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120608082527weblink">weblink 8 June 2012, The Aleksandar Nikolić Hall is the main venue of basketball clubs KK Partizan, European champion of 1992, and KK Crvena zvezda.WEB,weblink Sport and Recreation (Sport Centers and Halls), Official website, 10 July 2007, WEB,weblink Venues, EYOF Belgrade 2007, 30 July 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071008062254weblink">weblink 8 October 2007, In recent years, Belgrade has also given rise to several world-class tennis players such as Ana Ivanović, Jelena Janković and Novak Đoković. Ivanović and Đoković are the first female and male Belgraders, respectively, to win Grand Slam singles titles and been ATP number 1 with Jelena Janković. The Serbian national team won the 2010 Davis Cup, beating the French team in the finals played in the Belgrade Arena.WEB,weblink Tipsarevic sends Serbia into first Davis Cup final, 19 September 2010, Davis Cup official website, 20 September 2010,

Fashion and design

File:Avala 01.jpg|thumb|upright|Avala TowerAvala TowerSince 1996,WEB,weblink O nama, Belgrade Fashion Week, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111107082930weblink">weblink 7 November 2011, semiannual (autumn/winter and spring/summer seasons) fashion weeks are held citywide. Numerous Serbian and foreign designers and fashion brands have their shows during Belgrade Fashion Week. The festival, which collaborates with London Fashion Week, has helped launch the international careers of local talents such as George Styler and Ana Ljubinković. British fashion designer Roksanda Ilincic, who was born in the city, also frequently presents her runway shows in Belgrade.In addition to fashion, there are two major design shows held in Belgrade every year which attract international architects and industrial designers such as Karim Rashid, Daniel Libeskind, Patricia Urquiola, and Konstantin Grcic. Both the Mikser Festival and Belgrade Design Week feature lectures, exhibits and competitions. Furthermore, international designers like Sacha Lakic, Ana Kraš, Bojana Sentaler, and Marek Djordjevic are originally from Belgrade.

Media

{{See also|List of media organisations in Belgrade}}Belgrade is the most important media hub in Serbia. The city is home to the main headquarters of the national broadcaster Radio Television Serbia (RTS), which is a public service broadcaster.WEB,weblink Medijski javni servis građana, 13 November 2008, Radio Television of Serbia, Serbian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520041218weblink">weblink 20 May 2011, The most popular commercial broadcaster is RTV Pink, a Serbian media multinational, known for its popular entertainment programmes. One of the most popular commercial broadcasters is B92, another media company, which has its own TV station, radio station, and music and book publishing arms, as well as the most popular website on the Serbian internet.MAGAZINE, Manasek, Jared,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070310234840weblink">weblink 10 March 2007, The Paradox of Pink, Columbia Journalism Review, January 2005, 19 May 2007, dead, WEB,weblink B92 na 8.598. mestu na svetu, B92, 1 September 2006, 19 May 2007, Serbian, Other TV stations broadcasting from Belgrade include 1Prva (formerly Fox televizija), Nova, N1 and others which only cover the greater Belgrade municipal area, such as Studio B.High-circulation daily newspapers published in Belgrade include Politika, Blic, Alo!, Kurir and Danas. There are 2 sporting dailies, Sportski žurnal and Sport, and one economic daily, Privredni pregled. A new free distribution daily, 24 sata, was founded in the autumn of 2006. Also, Serbian editions of licensed magazines such as Harper's Bazaar, Elle, Cosmopolitan, National Geographic, Men's Health, Grazia and others have their headquarters in the city.

Education

{{See also|List of educational institutions in Belgrade}}File:Kapetan_Mišino_zdanje,_Beograd,_02.JPG|thumb|right|The Rectorate of the University of Belgrade ]]Belgrade has two state universities and several private institutions of higher education. The University of Belgrade, founded in 1808 as a grande école, is the oldest institution of higher learning in Serbia.WEB,weblink The University of Belgrade – The Seedbed of University Education, Faculty of Law of University of Belgrade, 18 May 2007, Having developed with much of the rest of the city in the 19th century, several university buildings are recognised as forming a constituent part of Belgrade's architecture and cultural heritage. With enrolment numbers of nearly 90,000 students, the university is one of Europe's largest.WEB,weblink Word by the Rector, University of Belgrade, 19 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101006194902weblink">weblink 6 October 2010, The city is also home to 195 primary (elementary) schools and 85 secondary schools. The primary school system has 162 regular schools, 14 special schools, 15 art schools, and 4 adult schools, while the secondary school system has 51 vocational schools, 21 gymnasiums, 8 art schools and 5 special schools. The 230,000 pupils are managed by 22,000 employees in over 500 buildings, covering around {{convert|1.1|e6m2|abbr=off}}.WEB,weblink Education and Science, City of Belgrade, 10 July 2007,

Transportation

{{See also|Bridges in Belgrade}}
File:Prokop_station.jpg|thumb|left|Belgrade Centre railway stationBelgrade Centre railway stationBelgrade has an extensive public transport system consisting of buses (118 urban lines and more than 300 suburban lines), trams (12 lines), trolleybuses (8 lines) and S-Train BG Voz (3 lines).WEB,weblink Statistics, Public Transport Company "Belgrade", 19 May 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090510071133weblink">weblink 10 May 2009, WEB,weblink busevi.com, busevi.com, Buses, trolleybuses and trams are run by GSP Beograd and SP Lasta in cooperation with private companies on some bus routes. The S-train network, BG Voz, run by city government in cooperation with Serbian Railways, is a part of the integrated transport system, and currently has three lines (Batajnica-Ovča and Ovča-Resnik and Belgrade centre-Mladenovac), with more announced.WEB,weblink Bg Voz, Administrator, expatserbia.com, 19 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130905111325weblink">weblink 5 September 2013, dead,weblink Busevi.com The BusPlus ticketing system based on contactless smart cards began operating in February 2012. Daily connections link the capital to other towns in Serbia and many other European destinations through the city's central bus station.Beovoz was the suburban/commuter railway network that provided mass-transit services in the city, similar to Paris's RER and Toronto's GO Transit. The main usage of system was to connect the suburbs with the city centre. Beovoz was operated by Serbian Railways.WEB,weblink Železnice Srbije – Red voznje za Beovoz i BG:VOZ, Serbian railways, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101010040713weblink">weblink 10 October 2010, However, this system was abolished back in 2013, mostly due to introduction of more efficient BG Voz. Belgrade is one of the last big European capitals and cities with over a million people to have no metro or subway or other rapid transit system, though Belgrade Metro is in its planning stages.File:CAF GSP 1509.jpg|thumb|right|Trams in BelgradeTrams in BelgradeThe new Belgrade Centre railway station is the hub for almost all the national and international trains. Currently, the high-speed rail that will connect Belgrade with Novi Sad, Subotica and Budapest is under construction, with the first half of 2020s planned for its beginning of operation.The city is placed along the Pan-European corridors X and VII. The motorway system provides for easy access to Novi Sad and Budapest to the north, Niš to the south, and Zagreb to the west. Expressway is also toward Pančevo and new Expressway construction toward Obrenovac (Montenegro) is scheduled for March 2017. Belgrade bypass is connecting the E70 and E75 motorways and it is currently under construction.WEB,weblink Belgrade Bypass, Serbia, CEE Bankwatch network, 19 May 2007,weblink" title="archive.today/20071011035406weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, dead, Situated at the confluence of two major rivers, the Danube and the Sava, Belgrade has 11 bridges, the most important of which are Branko's bridge, the Ada Bridge, Pupin Bridge and the Gazela Bridge, the last two of which connect the core of the city to New Belgrade. In addition, an 'inner magistral semi-ring' is almost done and include a new Ada Bridge across the Sava river and a new Pupin Bridge across Danube river, which eased commuting within the city and unload the Gazela and Branko's bridge traffic.WEB,weblink 1. faza prve deonice Unutrašnjeg magistralnog poluprstena, Belgrade Direction for Building and Real Estate Land/EBRD, 1 July 2005, 15 September 2007, Serbian, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809064808weblink">weblink 9 August 2007, dead, File:BAM-68-Kompleks_AB-JAT-MVB.jpg|thumb|right|Belgrade Nikola Tesla AirportBelgrade Nikola Tesla AirportFile:Beogradski Metro.svg|thumb|Proposed route of Belgrade MetroBelgrade MetroThe Port of Belgrade is on the Danube, and allows the city to receive goods by river.WEB,weblink Luka Beograd AS – Istorijat, History of the Port of Belgrade, Port of Belgrade, 11 October 2010, Serbian, The city is also served by Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, {{convert|12|km}} west of the city centre, near Surčin. At its peak in 1986, almost 3 million passengers travelled through the airport, though that number dwindled to a trickle in the 1990s.WEB,weblink Airports and Flying fields, Aviation guide through Belgrade, 5 May 2009, {{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Following renewed growth in 2000, the number of passengers reached approximately 2 million in 2004 and 2005,WEB,weblink Regionalni centar putničkog i kargo saobraćaja, Danas, 20 May 2005, Serbian, 10 July 2007, {{dead link|date=June 2016}} over 2.6 million passengers in 2008,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190206130723weblink">weblink dead, 6 February 2019, www.beg.aero | Nikola Tesla Belgrade Airport | News, Airport-belgrade.rs, 7 July 2009, reaching over 3 million passengers.WEB,weblink Aerodrom Nikola Tesla | News, Beg.aero, 12 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130512234016weblink">weblink 12 May 2013, dead, All-time peak, with over 4 million passengers, was accomplished in 2014, when Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport became the second fastest growing major airport in Europe.WEB,weblink Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport among fastest growing in Europe, 6 August 2016, 13 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306131755weblink">weblink 6 March 2016, dead, {{clearleft}}

International cooperation and honours

{{see also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Serbia}}List of Belgrade's sister and twin cities:WEB,weblink International Cooperation, City of Belgrad, official website, 16 June 2015,
  • {{flagicon|UK}} Coventry, UK, since 1957WEB,weblink Coventry's twin towns, 6 August 2013, Griffin, Mary, 2 August 2011, Coventry Telegraph, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130806032050weblink">weblink 6 August 2013, WEB,weblink Coventry – Twin towns and cities, 6 August 2013, Coventry City Council.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130412062545weblink">weblink 12 April 2013, dead,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Chicago, USA, since 2005
  • {{flagicon|SVN}} Ljubljana, Slovenia, since 2010WEB,weblink Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje, 27 July 2013, Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City), Slovenian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130626075304weblink">weblink 26 June 2013, WEB,weblink Gradonačelnici Beograda i Ljubljane potpisali sporazum o bratimljenju dva glavna grada, Beograd.rs, 15 May 2013,
  • {{flagicon|MKD}} Skopje, North Macedonia, since 2012WEB,weblink Сител Телевизија, mk, 2019-07-31, WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131024131101weblink">weblink Official portal of City of Skopje - Skopje Sister cities, 2013-10-24, web.archive.org, 2019-07-31,
  • {{flagicon|CHN}} Shanghai, China, since 2018NEWS, Potpisan sporazum o bratimljenju Beorgada i Å angaja,weblink 21 May 2018, b92.net, Tanjug, 21 May 2018, Serbian,
Other friendships and cooperations, protocols, memorandums:{{Div col}}
  • {{flagicon|KAZ}} Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation WEB,weblink Kazakhstan, Serbia agree to cooperate on air communication, AKIpress, 16 November 2016,
  • {{flagicon|IRI}} Tehran, Iran, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation WEB,weblink Tehran, Belgrade sign agreement to boost ties, Tehran Municipality, 6 October 2016,
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Corfu, Greece, since 2010, Protocol on Cooperation
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Shenzhen, China, since 2009, Agreement on CooperationWEB,weblink Saradnja Beograda i Å endžena, B92, 11 July 2009,
  • {{flagicon|NMK}} Skopje, North Macedonia, since 2006, Letter of Intent
  • {{flagicon|Bosnia-Herzegovina}} Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, since 2005, Agreement on CooperationWEB,weblink sr:Градови партнери, 9 August 2013, Administrative Office of the City of Banja Luka, Serbian, City of Banja Luka – Partner cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110917132032weblink">weblink 17 September 2011, dead,
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Zagreb, Croatia, since 2003, Letter of Intent
  • {{flagicon|UKR}} Kiev, Ukraine, since 2002, Agreement on Cooperation
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1990, Agreement on Cooperation
  • {{flagicon|ROM}} Bucharest, Romania, since 1999, Agreement on Cooperation
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Beijing, China, since 1980, Agreement on CooperationWEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Municipal Government, 23 September 2008,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Rome, Italy, since 1971, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Athens, Greece, since 1966, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation
{{Colend}}Some of the city's municipalities are also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities; for details see their respective articles.Belgrade has received various domestic and international honours, including the French Légion d'honneur (proclaimed 21 December 1920; Belgrade is one of four cities outside France, alongside Liège, Luxembourg and Volgograd, to receive this honour), the Czechoslovak War Cross (awarded 8 October 1925), the Yugoslavian Order of the Karađorđe's Star (awarded 18 May 1939) and the Yugoslavian Order of the People's Hero (proclaimed on 20 October 1974, the 30th anniversary of the overthrow of Nazi German occupation during World War II).WEB,weblink Received Decorations, 16 May 2007, Official website, All of these decorations were received for the war efforts during World War I and World War II.WEB,weblink Beograd – grad heroj, 6 November 2009, 15 November 2009, RTV Pink, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715211706weblink">weblink 15 July 2011, In 2006, Financial Times' magazine Foreign Direct Investment awarded Belgrade the title of City of the Future of Southern Europe.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927004828weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, European Cities of the Future 2006/07, 10 July 2007, fDi magazine, 6 February 2006, dead, WEB, Miloradović, Aleksandar,weblink Belgrade – City of the Future in Southern Europe, 1 September 2006, 10 July 2007, TheRegion, magazine of SEE Europe, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808143913weblink">weblink 8 August 2007, dead,

See also

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Pavić, Milorad, Milorad Pavić (writer), A Short History of Belgrade, Dereta, 2000, Belgrade, 86-7346-117-0,
  • BOOK, TeÅ¡anović, Jasmina, Jasmina TeÅ¡anović, The Diary of a Political Idiot: Normal Life in Belgrade, Cleis Press, 2000, 1-57344-114-7, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, Levinsohn, Florence Hamlish, Florence Levinsohn, Belgrade : among the Serbs, Ivan R. Dee, 1995, Chicago, 1-56663-061-4,
  • BOOK, Paton, Andrew Archibald, Andrew Archibald Paton, Servia, Youngest Member of the European Family: or, A Residence in Belgrade, and Travels in the Highlands and Woodlands of the Interior, during the years 1843 and 1844., Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1845, London,weblink Project Gutenberg reprint, 4 November 2005, 22 July 2009,

External links

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