Paul the Apostle

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Paul the Apostle
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5 ADIn the Footsteps of Paul. PBS. Retrieved 2010-11-19. style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"! style="width:50%;"| Acts! style="width:50%;"| Epistles -valign="top" -valign="top" -valign="top" -valign="top" -valign="top"
Raymond E. Brown>Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 436. Doubleday, Anchor Bible Series.Stephen L. Harris>Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. {{ISBNTITLE=UNDERSTANDING THE BIBLEYEAR=2002ISBN=978-0-7674-2916-0QUOTE=HE WAS PROBABLY MARTYRED IN ROME ABOUT 64 – 65 CE., HARRIS > FIRST=STEPHEN L. YEAR=2011 OCLC=436028175 PLACE = NEW YORK, NEW YORK EDITION = EIGHTH, | native_name = Sha'ul ha-Tarsi (Saul of Tarsus)| image = File"-Saint Paul Writing His Epistles" by Valentin de Boulogne.jpg| imagesize = 300px| caption = Saint Paul Writing His Epistles by Valentin de BoulogneTarsus, Mersin>Tarsus, Cilicia (Roman province), Roman Empire{{Bibleref2>Acts|22:3}}| death_place = probably in Rome, Roman Empire Christian martyrs#Degrees of martyrdom>Christian martyrdom, Sword| patronage = Missions, Theologians, Evangelists, and Gentile Christians

}}{{Christianity|state=collapsed}}Paul the Apostle (; ; ; c. 5 â€“ c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (; ),WEB,weblink Saint Paul, the Apostle., Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition,, 12 August 2016, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 2009. {{ISBN|978-0-8010-2868-7}} Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic AgeSanders, E.P., Saint Paul, the Apostle. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 32, p. 577, by James D.G. Dunn: "James, the brother of Jesus, and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures (besides Peter) in first-century Christianity" and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences.According to the New Testament book Acts of the Apostles (often simply called Acts), Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem prior to his conversion.Acts 8:1 "at Jerusalem"; Acts 9:13 "at Jerusalem"; Acts 9:21 "in Jerusalem"; Acts 26:10 "in Jerusalem".{{refn|group=note|In Galatians 1:13, Paul states that he "persecuted the church of God and tried to destroy it," but does not specify where he persecuted the church. In Galatians 1:22 he states that more than three years after his conversion he was "still unknown by sight to the churches of Judea that are in Christ," seemingly ruling out Jerusalem as the place he had persecuted Christians.WEB, Introduction to the New Testament History and Literature – 5. The New Testament as History,weblink Yale University, Open Yale Courses, 2009, Dale B., Martin, }} In the narrative of Acts, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God.Acts 9:20 And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God.Acts 9:21 But all that heard him were amazed, and said; Is not this he that destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests? Approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Paul's life and works.Thirteen of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul.Brown, Raymond E. (1997), An Introduction to the New Testament, p. [407]. Doubleday Seven of the Pauline epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder. Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.Tertullian knew the Letter to the Hebrews as being "under the name of Barnabas" (De Pudicitia, chapter 20 where T. quotes Heb. 6:4–8); Origen, in his now lost Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, is reported by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 6, 25, 13f.) as having written ". . if any Church holds that this epistle is by Paul, let it be commended for this. For not without reason have the ancients handed it down as Paul's. But who wrote the epistle, in truth, God knows. The statement of some who have gone before us is that Clement, bishop of the Romans, wrote the epistle, and of others, that Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews,The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, publ. Geoffrey Chapman, 1989, chapter 60:2 (at p. 920, col.2) but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars.BOOK, Geoffrey, Chapman, George Weigel, The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, 1989, That Paul is neither directly nor indirectly the author is now the view of scholars almost without exception. For details, see Kümmel, I[ntroduction to the] N[ew] T[estament, Nashville, 1975] 392–94, 401–03, 920 column 2 (Chapter 60), The other six are believed by some scholars to have come from followers writing in his name, using material from Paul's surviving letters and letters written by him that no longer survive.Paul's undisputed epistles are 1st Thessalonians, Galatians, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Romans, Philippians, and Philemon. The six letters believed by some but not all to have been written by Paul are Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. weblink" title="">Paul and His Influence in Early Christianity (United Methodist Church) Other scholars argue that the idea of a pseudonymous author for the disputed epistles raises many problems.Carson, D.A.; Moo, D.G. An Introduction to the New Testament. Nottingham: Apollos/Inter-Varsity Press. 2005 {{ISBN|978-1-84474-089-5}}Today, Paul's epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology, worship and pastoral life in the Latin and Protestant traditions of the West, as well as the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox traditions of the East.Aageson, James W. Paul, the Pastoral Epistles, and the Early Church. Hendrickson Publishers, 2008. {{ISBN|978-1-59856-041-1}} p. 1 Paul's influence on Christian thought and practice has been characterized as being as "profound as it is pervasive", among that of many other apostles and missionaries involved in the spread of the Christian faith. Martin Luther's interpretation of Paul's writings influenced Luther's doctrine of sola fide.


It has been popularly assumed that Saul's name was changed when he became a follower of Jesus Christ, but that is not the case.WEB, Why did God change Saul's name to Paul?,weblink Catholic Answers, 31 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 October 2012, BOOK, Marrow, Stanley B., Paul: His Letters and His Theology: An Introduction to Paul's Epistles, 1 Jan 1986, Paulist Press, 978-0809127443, 5, 7,weblink 31 August 2014, His Jewish name was "Saul" ({{Hebrew Name|שָׁאוּל|Sha'ûl|Šāʼûl}}), perhaps after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite and the first king of Israel. According to the Book of Acts, he was a Roman citizen.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|22:25–29}} As a Roman citizen, he also bore the Latin name of "Paul" (essentially a Latin Transliteration of Saul)—in biblical Greek: Παῦλος (Paulos),Greek lexicon G4569 Σαύλος (Saul)Greek lexicon G3972 Παύλος (Paul)Hebrew lexicon H7586 שׁאוּל (Shaul/Saul) and in Latin: Paulus.Paulus autem et Barnabas demorabantur Antiochiae docentes et evangelizantes cum aliis pluribus verbum Domini{{Bibleref2c|Acts|16:37}}{{Bibleref2c-nb|Acts|22:25–28}} It was typical for the Jews of that time to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek.CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, St. Paul, 11, Oxford University Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary, {{ISBN|0198642016}}, entry for Paulus: "a Roman surname (not a praenomen;)"WEB,weblink The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: An Introduction, 14 Dec 2014, Jesus called him "Saul, Saul"{{bibleref2|Acts|9:4;22:7;26:14}} in "the Hebrew tongue" in the book of Acts, when he had the vision which led to his conversion on the Road to Damascus.{{bibleref2|Acts|26:14|9}} Note: This is the only place in the Bible where the reader is told what language Jesus was speaking. Later, in a vision to Ananias of Damascus, "the Lord" referred to him as "Saul, of Tarsus".{{bibleref2|Acts|9:11|9}} This is the place where the expression "Saul of Tarsus" comes from. When Ananias came to restore his sight, he called him "Brother Saul".{{bibleref2|Acts.9:17;22:13||9|Acts 9:17; 22:13}}In {{Bibleref2|Acts|13:9}}, Saul is called "Paul" for the first time on the island of Cyprus—much later than the time of his conversion. The author (Luke) indicates that the names were interchangeable: "Saul, who also is called Paul." He thereafter refers to him as Paul, apparently Paul's preference since he is called Paul in all other Bible books where he is mentioned, including those that he authored. Adopting his Roman name was typical of Paul's missionary style. His method was to put people at their ease and to approach them with his message in a language and style to which they could relate, as in {{Bibleref2|1 Cor |9:19–23}}.


Available sources

{{further|Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles}}File:Conversion of Saint Paul (Michelangelo Buonarroti).jpg|thumb|The Conversion of Saul, fresco by MichelangeloMichelangeloThe main source for information about Paul's life is the material found in his epistles and in Acts. However, the epistles contain little information about Paul's pre-conversion past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Paul's life out of its narrative, such as his probable but undocumented execution in Rome."Paul, St", Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 Some scholars believe Acts also contradicts Paul's epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Paul's visits to the church in Jerusalem.Ehrman, Bart (2000, 2nd ed.). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. pp. 262–265.Sources outside the New Testament that mention Paul include:

Biblical narrative

Early life

File:Broad overview of geography relevant to paul of tarsus.png|thumb|Geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem to Rome ]]The two main sources of information by which we have access to the earliest segments of Paul's career are the Bible's Book of Acts and the autobiographical elements of Paul's letters to the early church communities. Paul was likely born between the years of 5 BC and 5 AD.{{harvp|White|2007|pp=145–47}} The Book of Acts indicates that Paul was a Roman citizen by birth, but Helmut Koester takes issue with the evidence presented by the text.BOOK, Koester, Helmut, Introduction to the New Testament, 2000, de Gruyter, New York, 3110149702, 107,weblink 2, 14 June 2013, {{Bibleref2c|Acts|16:37}}{{Bibleref2c|Acts|22:25–29}}He was from a devout Jewish family in the city of Tarsus, one of the largest trade centers on the Mediterranean coast.Montague, George T. The Living Thought of St. Paul, Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co. 1966. It had been in existence several hundred years prior to his birth. It was renowned for its university. During the time of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC, Tarsus was the most influential city in Asia Minor.Wright, G. Ernest, Great People of the Bible and How They Lived, (Pleasantville, New York: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1974).Paul referred to himself as being "of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee".{{Bibleref2c|Phil.|3:5}}The Bible reveals very little about Paul's family. Paul's nephew, his sister's son, is mentioned in {{bibleref2|Acts|23:16}}. Acts also quotes Paul referring to his father by saying he, Paul, was "a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee" ({{Bibleref2|Acts|23:6}}). In {{Bibleref2|Romans|16:7}} he states that his relatives, Andronicus and Junia, were Christians before he was and were prominent among the apostles.The family had a history of religious piety ({{Bibleref2|2Tim|1:3||2 Timothy 1:3}}).1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, and Titus may be "Trito-Pauline", meaning they may have been written by members of the Pauline school a generation after his death. Apparently the family lineage had been very attached to Pharisaic traditions and observances for generations.{{Bibleref2c|Philippians|3:5–6}} Acts says that he was in the tent-making profession.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|18:1–3}} This was to become an initial connection with Priscilla and Aquila with whom he would partner in tentmaking{{Bibleref2c|Acts|18:3}} and later become very important teammates as fellow missionaries.{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|16:4}}Professor Robert Eisenman of California State University, Long Beach argues that Paul was a member of the family of Herod the Great.See "Paul as Herodian", JHC 3/1 (Spring, 1996), 110–22. Eisenman makes a connection between Paul and an individual identified by Josephus as "Saulus", a "kinsman of Agrippa".Antiquities, Book XX, Chapter 9:4. at Another oft-cited element of the case for Paul as a member of Herod's family is found in {{Bibleref2|Romans|16:11}} where Paul writes, "Greet Herodion, my kinsman".While he was still fairly young, he was sent to Jerusalem to receive his education at the school of Gamaliel,{{Bibleref2c|Acts|22:3}} one of the most noted rabbis in history. The Hillel school was noted for giving its students a balanced education, likely giving Paul broad exposure to classical literature, philosophy, and ethics.Wallace, Quency E. (2002). "The Early Life and Background of Paul the Apostle". The American Journal of Biblical Theology. Some of his family may have resided in Jerusalem since later the son of one of his sisters saved his life there.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|23:16}} Nothing more is known of his background until he takes an active part in the martyrdom of Stephen.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|7:58–60; 22:20}} Paul confesses that "beyond measure" he persecuted the church of God prior to his conversion.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:13–14}} {{Bibleref2c|Phil.|3:6}} {{Bibleref2c|Acts|8:1–3}} Although we know from his biography and from Acts that Paul could speak Hebrew, modern scholarship suggests that Koine Greek was his first language.Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1977), Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, p. 43Dale Martin 2009. Introduction to New Testament History and Literature, lecture 14 "Paul as Missionary". Yale University.In his letters, Paul drew heavily on his knowledge of Stoic philosophy, using Stoic terms and metaphors to assist his new Gentile converts in their understanding of the revealed word of God.Kee, Howard and Franklin W. Young, Understanding The New Testament, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1958, p. 208. {{ISBN|978-0139365911}}He also owed much to his training in the law and the prophets, utilizing this knowledge to convince his Jewish countrymen of the unity of past Old Testament prophecy and covenants with the fulfilling of these in Jesus Christ. His wide spectrum of experiences and education gave the "Apostle to the Gentiles"{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|1:5}} {{Bibleref2c-nb|Rom|11:13}} {{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:8}} the tools which he later would use to effectively spread the Gospel and to establish the church in the Roman Empire.


File:Conversion on the Way to Damascus-Caravaggio (c.1600-1).jpg|thumb|Conversion on the Way to Damascus (1601), by CaravaggioCaravaggio
Paul's conversion can be dated to 31–36BOOK, Bromiley, Geoffrey William, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A–D (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Wbeerdmans)), 1979, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 0-8028-3781-6, 689, BOOK, Barnett, Paul, Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times, 2002, InterVarsity Press, 0-8308-2699-8, 21, BOOK, L. Niswonger, Richard, New Testament History, 1993, Zondervan Publishing Company, 0-310-31201-9, 200, by his reference to it in one of his letters. In {{Bibleref2|Galatians|1:16|ESV}} Paul writes that God "was pleased to reveal his son to me." In {{Bibleref2|1 Corinthians|15:8|NASB}}, as he lists the order in which Jesus appeared to his disciples after his resurrection, Paul writes, "last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also."According to the account in Acts, it took place on the road to Damascus, where he reported having experienced a vision of the resurrected Jesus. The account says that "he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" Saul replied, "Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: [it is] hard for thee to kick against the pricks (goads)."{{Bibleref2c|Acts|9:4–5|9}}According to the account in {{Bibleref2|Acts|9:1–22|9}}, he was blinded for three days and had to be led into Damascus by the hand. During these three days, Saul took no food or water and spent his time in prayer to God. When Ananias of Damascus arrived, he laid his hands on him and said: "Brother Saul, the Lord, [even] Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost."{{Bibleref2c |Acts|9:17|9}} His sight was restored, he got up and was baptized.{{Bibleref2c |Acts|9:18|9}} This story occurs only in Acts, not in the Pauline epistles.BOOK, Aslan, Reza, Zealot, 2013, Random House, New York, 978-0-8129-8148-3, 184, Paperback, The author of Acts of the Apostles may have learned of Paul's conversion from the church in Jerusalem, or from the church in Antioch, or possibly from Paul himself.{{harvp|McRay|2007|p=66}}According to Timo Eskola, early Christian theology and discourse was influenced by the Jewish Merkabah tradition.Timo Eskola. Messiah and the Throne: Jewish Merkabah Mysticism and Early Exaltation Discourse Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001. Similarly, Alan Segal and Daniel Boyarin regard Paul's accounts of his conversion experience and his ascent to the heavens as the earliest first person accounts we have of a Merkabah mystic in Jewish or Christian literature. Conversely, Timothy Churchill has argued that Paul's Damascus road encounter does not fit the pattern of Merkabah.Churchill, Timothy W. R. Divine Initiative and the Christology of the Damascus Road Encounter, Eugene: Pickwick, 2010.


File:Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - The Conversion of St. Paul - WGA04135.jpg|thumb|CaravaggioCaravaggioFile:Saint Paul, Rembrandt van Rijn (and Workshop?), c. 1657.jpg|thumb|Paul the Apostle, by Rembrandt Harmensz van RijnRembrandt Harmensz van Rijn}}

Early ministry

File:Ananias house.jpg|thumb|The house believed to be of Ananias of Damascus in DamascusDamascusFile:Damascus-Bab Kisan.jpg|thumb|Bab KisanBab KisanAfter his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, where Acts 9 states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.Hengel, Martin and Anna Maria Schwemer, trans. John Bowden. Paul Between Damascus and Antioch: The Unknown Years Westminster John Knox Press, 1997. {{ISBN|0-664-25736-4}} Paul says that it was in Damascus that he barely escaped death.{{Bibleref2c|2Cor.|11:32||2 Cor. 11:32}} Paul also says that he then went first to Arabia, and then came back to Damascus.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:17}}Kirsopp Lake, The earlier Epistles of St. Paul, their motive and origin (London 1911), pp. 320–23. Paul's trip to Arabia is not mentioned anywhere else in the Bible, and some suppose he actually traveled to Mount Sinai for meditations in the desert.N.T. Wright, "Paul, Arabia and Elijah" (PDF) {{webarchive|url= |date=2011-04-29 }}Martin Hengel, "Paul in Arabia" (PDF) Bulletin for Biblical Research 12.1 (2002) pp. 47–66. He describes in Galatians how three years after his conversion he went to Jerusalem. There he met James and stayed with Simon Peter for 15 days.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:13–24}} Paul located Mount Sinai in Arabia in {{Bibleref2|Galatians|4:24–25}}.Paul asserted that he received the Gospel not from man, but directly by "the revelation of Jesus Christ".{{Bibleref2c|Gal|1:11–16}} He claimed almost total independence from the Jerusalem community{{rp|316–20}} (possibly in the Cenacle), but agreed with it on the nature and content of the gospel.{{Bibleref2c|Gal|1:22–24}} He appeared eager to bring material support to Jerusalem from the various growing Gentile churches that he started. In his writings, Paul used the persecutions he endured to avow proximity and union with Jesus and as a validation of his teaching.Paul's narrative in Galatians states that 14 years after his conversion he went again to Jerusalem.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:1–10}} It is not known what happened during this time, but both Acts and Galatians provide some details.Barnett, Paul The Birth Of Christianity: The First Twenty Years (Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2005) {{ISBN|0-8028-2781-0}} p. 200 At the end of this time, Barnabas went to find Paul and brought him back to Antioch.(Acts 11:26)When a famine occurred in Judea, around 45–46,{{sfn|Ogg|1962}} Paul and Barnabas journeyed to Jerusalem to deliver financial support from the Antioch community.Barnett p. 83 According to Acts, Antioch had become an alternative center for Christians following the dispersion of the believers after the death of Stephen. It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called "Christians".(Acts 11:26)

First missionary journey

The author of Acts arranges Paul's travels into three separate journeys. The first journey,{{Bibleref2c|Acts|13–14}} led initially by Barnabas,The only indication as to who is leading is in the order of names. At first, the two are referred to as Barnabas and Paul, in that order. Later in the same chapter the team is referred to as Paul and his companions. took Paul from Antioch to Cyprus then into southern Asia Minor (Anatolia), and finally returning to Antioch. In Cyprus, Paul rebukes and blinds Elymas the magician{{Bibleref2c|Acts|13:8–12}} who was criticizing their teachings.They sail to Perga in Pamphylia. John Mark leaves them and returns to Jerusalem. Paul and Barnabas go on to Pisidian Antioch. On Sabbath they go to the synagogue. The leaders invite them to speak. Paul reviews Israelite history from life in Egypt to King David. He introduces Jesus as a descendant of David brought to Israel by God. He said that his team came to town to bring the message of salvation. He recounts the story of Jesus' death and resurrection. He quotes from the Septuagint"His quotations from Scripture, which are all taken, directly or from memory, from the Greek version, betray no familiarity with the original Hebrew text (..) Nor is there any indication in Paul's writings or arguments that he had received the rabbinical training ascribed to him by Christian writers (..)"WEB, Paul, the Apostle of the Heathen,weblink, 2012-02-10, to assert that Jesus was the promised Christos who brought them forgiveness for their sins. Both the Jews and the "God-fearing" Gentiles invited them to talk more next Sabbath. At that time almost the whole city gathered. This upset some influential Jews who spoke against them. Paul used the occasion to announce a change in his mission which from then on would be to the Gentiles.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|13:13–48}}Antioch served as a major Christian center for Paul's evangelism, and he remained there for "a long time with the disciples"{{Bibleverse|Acts|14:28|NKJV}} at the conclusion of his first journey. The exact duration of Paul's stay in Antioch is unknown, with estimates ranging from nine months to as long as eight years.BOOK, Spence Jones, Donald, Exell, Joseph S., Donald Spence Jones, The Complete Pulpit Commentary, Volume 8: Act to Philippians, Acts, Delmarva Publications, Harrington, DE, 2013,weblink In Raymond Brown's An Introduction to the New Testament (1997), a chronology of events in Paul's life is presented, illustrated from later 20th century writings of biblical scholars.Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 445. The first missionary journey of Paul is assigned a "traditional" (and majority) dating of 46-49 AD, compared to a "revisionist" (and minority) dating of after 37 AD.Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament, pp. 428-9.

Council of Jerusalem

{{See also|Circumcision controversy in early Christianity}}A vital meeting between Paul and the Jerusalem church took place in the year 49 by "traditional" (and majority) dating, compared to a "revisionist" (and minority) dating of 47/51.Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament, pp. 428-29, 445. The meeting is described in {{Bibleref2|Acts|15:2|NIV}} and usually seen as the same event mentioned by Paul in {{Bibleref2|Galatians|2:1|NIV}}. The key question raised was whether Gentile converts needed to be circumcised.BOOK, Herbermann, Charles George, Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, 8: Infamy–Lapparent, Judaizers, 537–38, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1910,weblink {{Bibleref2|Acts|15:2|NIV}}ff; {{Bibleref2|Galatians|2:1|NIV}}ff At this meeting, Paul states in his letter to the Galatians, Peter, James, and John accepted Paul's mission to the Gentiles.The Jerusalem meetings are mentioned in Acts, and also in Paul's letters.{{harvp|White|2007|pp=148–49}} For example, the Jerusalem visit for famine relief{{Bibleref2c|Acts|11:27–30}} apparently corresponds to the "first visit" (to Peter and James only).{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:18–20}} F. F. Bruce suggested that the "fourteen years" could be from Paul's conversion rather than from his first visit to Jerusalem.Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit, F. F. Bruce, Paternoster 1980, p. 151

Incident at Antioch

Despite the agreement achieved at the Council of Jerusalem, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter in a dispute sometimes called the "Incident at Antioch", over Peter's reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch because they did not strictly adhere to Jewish customs.Writing later of the incident, Paul recounts, "I opposed [Peter] to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong", and says he told Peter, "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?"{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:11–14}} Paul also mentions that even Barnabas, his traveling companion and fellow apostle until that time, sided with Peter.The final outcome of the incident remains uncertain. The Catholic Encyclopedia suggests that Paul won the argument, because "Paul's account of the incident leaves no doubt that Peter saw the justice of the rebuke". However Paul himself never mentions a victory and {{nowrap|L. Michael White's}} From Jesus to Christianity draws the opposite conclusion: "The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch as persona non grata, never again to return".{{harvp|White|2007|p=170}}The primary source account of the Incident at Antioch is Paul's letter to the Galatians.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:11–14}}

Second missionary journey

File:V&A - Raphael, St Paul Preaching in Athens (1515).jpg|thumb|Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515. This sermon addressed early issues in (Christology]].Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 {{ISBN|1-4051-0901-7}}, pp. 137–41Mercer Commentary on the New Testament by Watson E. Mills 2003 {{ISBN|0-86554-864-1}} pp. 1109–10)Paul left for his second missionary journey from Jerusalem, in late Autumn 49,Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum and Charles Quarles (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. Nashville, Tennessee, B&H Publishing Group. p. 400 after the meeting of the Council of Jerusalem where the circumcision question was debated. On their trip around the Mediterranean Sea, Paul and his companion Barnabas stopped in Antioch where they had a sharp argument about taking John Mark with them on their trips. The book of Acts said that John Mark had left them in a previous trip and gone home. Unable to resolve the dispute, Paul and Barnabas decided to separate; Barnabas took John Mark with him, while Silas joined Paul.Paul and Silas initially visited Tarsus (Paul's birthplace), Derbe and Lystra. In Lystra, they met Timothy, a disciple who was spoken well of, and decided to take him with them. Paul and his companions, Silas and Timothy, had plans to journey to the southwest portion of Asia Minor to preach the gospel but during the night, Paul had a vision of a man of Macedonia standing and begging him to go to Macedonia to help them. After seeing the vision, Paul and his companions left for Macedonia to preach the gospel to them.{{bibleref2c|Acts|16:6–10|9|Acts 16:6–10}} The Church kept growing, adding believers, and strengthening in faith daily.{{bibleref2c|Acts|16:5|KJV}}In Philippi, Paul cast a spirit of divination out of a servant girl, whose masters were then unhappy about the loss of income her soothsaying provided ({{bibleref2|Acts|16:16–24|9|Acts 16:16–24}}). They turned the city against the missionaries, and Paul and Silas were put in jail. After a miraculous earthquake, the gates of the prison fell apart and Paul and Silas could have escaped but remained; this event led to the conversion of the jailor ({{bibleref2|Acts|16:25–40|9|Acts 16:25–40}}). They continued traveling, going by Berea and then to Athens, where Paul preached to the Jews and God-fearing Greeks in the synagogue and to the Greek intellectuals in the Areopagus. Paul continued from Athens to Corinth.

Interval in Corinth

Around 50–52, Paul spent 18 months in Corinth. The reference in Acts to Proconsul Gallio helps ascertain this date (cf. Gallio Inscription). In Corinth, Paul met Priscilla and Aquila ({{bibleverse||Acts|18:2|NKJV}}), who became faithful believers and helped Paul through his other missionary journeys. The couple followed Paul and his companions to Ephesus, and stayed there to start one of the strongest and most faithful churches at that time ({{bibleverse||Acts|18:18–21|NKJV}}).In 52, departing from Corinth, Paul stopped at the nearby village of Cenchreae to have his hair cut off, because of a vow he had earlier taken.{{bibleverse||Acts|18:18|NKJV}} It is possible this was to be a final haircut prior to fulfilling his vow to become a Nazirite for a defined period of time.BOOK, Caldwell, Kenneth M., Catholic Encyclopedia: Nazarite,,weblink 15 June 2017, With Priscilla and Aquila, the missionaries then sailed to Ephesus{{bibleverse||Acts|18:19–21|NKJV}} and then Paul alone went on to Caesarea to greet the Church there. He then traveled north to Antioch, where he stayed for some time (, perhaps about a year), before leaving again on a third missionary journey.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} Some New Testament textsThis clause is not found in some major sources: Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Vaticanus or Codex Laudianus suggest that he also visited Jerusalem during this period for one of the Jewish feasts, possibly Pentecost.{{bibleverse||Acts|18:21|NKJV}} Textual critic Henry Alford and others consider the reference to a Jerusalem visit to be genuinePulpit Commentary on Acts 18weblink accessed 4 October 2015 and it accords with {{bibleverse||Acts|21:29|NKJV}}, according to which Paul and Trophimus the Ephesian had previously been seen in Jerusalem.

Third missionary journey

File:Eustache Le Sueur - The Preaching of St Paul at Ephesus - WGA12613.jpg|thumb|The Preaching of Saint Paul at Ephesus by Eustache Le SueurEustache Le SueurAccording to Acts, Paul began his third missionary journey by travelling all around the region of Galatia and Phrygia to strengthen, teach and rebuke the believers. Paul then traveled to Ephesus, an important center of early Christianity, and stayed there for almost three years, probably working there as a tentmaker,{{bibleverse||Acts|20:34|NKJV}} as he had done when he stayed in Corinth. He is claimed to have performed numerous miracles, healing people and casting out demons, and he apparently organized missionary activity in other regions. Paul left Ephesus after an attack from a local silversmith resulted in a pro-Artemis riot involving most of the city. During his stay in Ephesus, Paul wrote four letters to the church in Corinth.{{harvp|McRay|2007|p=185}}Paul went through Macedonia into Achaea ({{bibleref2|Acts|20:1–2|NKJV}}) and stayed in Greece, probably Corinth, for three months ({{bibleref2|Acts|20:1–2|NKJV}}) during 56–57 AD. Commentators generally agree that Paul dictated his Epistle to the Romans during this period.Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on Romans 1, accessed 7 October 2016 He then made ready to continue on to Syria, but he changed his plans and traveled back through Macedonia because of some Jews who had made a plot against him. In {{bibleref2|Romans|15:19}} Paul wrote that he visited Illyricum, but he may have meant what would now be called Illyria Graeca,BOOK,weblink A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, 2010-11-19, 978-0-567-05029-8, 1977, Burton, Ernest De Witt, which was at that time a division of the Roman province of Macedonia.Catholic Encyclopedia: Durazzo (Albania). (1909–05–01). Retrieved 2010–11–19. On their way back to Jerusalem, Paul and his companions visited other cities such as Philippi, Troas, Miletus, Rhodes, and Tyre. Paul finished his trip with a stop in Caesarea, where he and his companions stayed with Philip the Evangelist before finally arriving at Jerusalem.{{bibleref2c|Acts|21:8–10}} {{bibleref2c-nb|Acts|21:15}}

Journey from Rome to Spain

Among the writings of the early Christians, Pope Clement I said that Paul was "Herald (of the Gospel of Christ) in the West", and that "he had gone to the extremity of the west".1st Clement – Lightfoot translation1 Clem 5:5 "By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, [5:6] having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance".Where Lightfoot has "had preached" above, the Hoole translation has "having become a herald".See also the endnote(#3) by Arthur Cleveland Coxe on the last page of s:Ante-Nicene Fathers/Volume I/CLEMENT OF ROME/First Epistle to the Corinthians/Chapter LIX.|wikisource 1st Clement]] regarding Paul's preaching in Britain. John Chrysostom indicated that Paul preached in Spain: "For after he had been in Rome, he returned to Spain, but whether he came thence again into these parts, we know not".Chrysostom's Homilies on 2 Timothy, verse 4:20 Cyril of Jerusalem said that Paul, "fully preached the Gospel, and instructed even imperial Rome, and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, and performing Signs and wonders".s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fath (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II Volume VII, Lecture 17, para.26) The Muratorian fragment mentions "the departure of Paul from the city [of Rome] [5a] (39) when he journeyed to Spain".The Muratorian Fragment lines 38–39

Visits to Jerusalem in Acts and the epistles

This table is adapted from White, From Jesus to Christianity. Note that the matching of Paul's travels in the Acts and the travels in his Epistles is done for the reader's convenience and is not approved of by all scholars.{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto;" cellpadding="5"
  • First visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Acts|9:26–27}}
    • "after many days" of Damascus conversion
    • preaches openly in Jerusalem with Barnabas
    • meets apostles
  • First visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:18–20}}
    • three years after Damascus conversion{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:17–18}}
    • sees only Cephas (Peter) and James
  • Second visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Acts|11:29–30}} {{Bibleref2c-nb|Acts|12:25||, 12:25}}
    • for famine relief
  • There is debate over whether Paul's visit in Galatians 2 refers to the visit for famine relief{{Bibleref2c|Acts|11:30,12:25||Acts 11:30, 12:25}} or the Jerusalem Council.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|15}} If it refers to the former, then this was the trip made "after an interval of fourteen years".{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:1}}
  • Third visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Acts|15:1–19}}
    • with Barnabas
    • "Council of Jerusalem"
    • followed by confrontation with Barnabas in Antioch{{Bibleref2c|Acts|15:36–40}}
  • AnotherPaul does not exactly say that this was his second visit. In Galatians, he lists three important meetings with Peter, and this was the second on his list. The third meeting took place in Antioch. He does not explicitly state that he did not visit Jerusalem in between this and his first visit. visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:1–10}}
    • 14 years later (after Damascus conversion?)
    • with Barnabas and Titus
    • possibly the "Council of Jerusalem"
    • Paul agrees to "remember the poor"
    • followed by confrontation with Peter and Barnabas in Antioch{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|2:11–14}}
  • Fourth visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Acts|18:21–22}}
    • to "greet the church"
  • Apparently unmentioned.
  • Fifth visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2c|Acts|21:17ff}}
    • after an absence of several years{{Bibleref2c|Acts|24:17}}
    • to bring gifts for the poor and to present offerings
    • Paul arrested
  • AnotherNote that Paul only writes that he is on his way to Jerusalem, or just planning the visit. There might or might not have been additional visits before or after this visit, if he ever got to Jerusalem. visit to Jerusalem{{Bibleref2|Romans|15:25}},{{Bibleref2|2Corinthians|8–9|9|2 Corinthians 8–9}}, {{Bibleref2|1Corinthians|16:1–3||1 Corinthians 16:1–3}}
    • to deliver the collection for the poor

Last visit to Jerusalem and arrest

(File:Paul arrested.jpg|thumb|Saint Paul arrested, early 1900s Bible illustration)In 57, upon completion of his third missionary journey, Paul arrived in Jerusalem for his fifth and final visit with a collection of money for the local community. Acts reports that he initially was warmly received. However, Acts goes on to recount how Paul was warned by James and the elders that he was gaining a reputation for being against the Law, saying "they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs". Paul underwent a purification ritual in order to give the Jews no grounds to bring accusations against him for not following their law.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|21:17–26}}After seven days in Jerusalem, some "Jews from Asia" (most likely from Roman Asia) accused Paul of defiling the temple by bringing gentiles into it. He was seized and dragged out of the temple by an angry mob. He narrowly escaped being killed by surrendering to a group of Roman centurions, who arrested him, put him in chains and took him to the tribune.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|21:27–36}}When a plot to kill Paul on his way to an appearance before the Jews was discovered, he was transported by night to Caesarea Maritima. He was held as a prisoner there for two years by Marcus Antonius Felix, until a new governor, Porcius Festus, reopened his case in 59. When Festus suggested that he be sent back to Jerusalem for further trial, Paul exercised his right as a Roman citizen to "appeal unto Caesar". Finally, Paul and his companions sailed for Rome where Paul was to stand trial for his alleged crimes.BOOK, Capes, David B., Reeves, Rodney, Richards, E. Randolph, Rediscovering Paul: An Introduction to His World, Letters and Theology, The imprisoned Paul: letters to churches, 203, IVP Academic, Downers Grove, IL, 2007, 978-0-8308-3941-4,weblink Acts recounts that on the way to Rome for his appeal as a Roman citizen to Caesar, Paul was shipwrecked on "Melita" (Malta),{{Bibleref2c|Acts|27:39–44}} where the islanders showed him "unusual kindness" and where he was met by Publius.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|28:1–10}} From Malta, he travelled to Rome via Syracuse, Rhegium and Puteoli.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|28:11–14}}

Two years in Rome

File:Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 235.png|thumb|Paul Arrives in Rome, from (commons:Die Bibel in Bildern|Die Bibel in Bildern)]]He finally arrived in Rome around 60, where he spent another two years under house arrest. The narrative of Acts ends with Paul preaching in Rome for two years from his rented home while awaiting trial.{{bibleref2c|Acts|28:30–31|NKJV}}Irenaeus wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.Irenaeus Against Heresies 3.3.2: the "...Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. ... The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate". Paul was not a bishop of Rome, nor did he bring Christianity to Rome since there were already Christians in Rome when he arrived there.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|28:14–15}} Also, Paul wrote his letter to the church at Rome before he had visited Rome.{{Bibleref2c|Romans|1:1,7,11–13;15:23–29}} Paul only played a supporting part in the life of the church in Rome.MaGee Greg. "The Origins of the Church at Rome". Accessed 18 Mar 2013.


File:Decapitación de San Pablo - Simonet - 1887.jpg|thumb|The Beheading of Saint Paul by Enrique SimonetEnrique SimonetThe date of Paul's death is believed to have occurred after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64, but before the last year of Nero's reign, in 68. According to several Church Fathers and apocryphal books, Paul was beheaded in Rome by orders of Nero.{{refn|group=note|It is described in a number of sources:
  • I Clement (95–96 AD) suggests that both Paul and Peter were martyred.BOOK, McDowell, Sean, The Fate of the Apostles, 67–70,weblink 978-1317031901, 2016-03-09,
  • There is an early tradition found in the writing of Ignatius, probably around 110 AD, that Paul was martyred.Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Ephesians, Chapter XII
  • The Acts of Paul, an apocryphal work written around 160, describes the martyrdom of Paul. According to the Acts of Paul, Nero condemned Paul to death by decapitation.BOOK, James, Montague Rhodes, M. R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, The Acts of Paul, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1924,weblink
  • Dionysius of Corinth, in a letter to the Romans (166–174 AD), stated that Paul and Peter were martyred in Italy.WEB, of Corinth, Dionysius, Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III,weblink, 1 June 2015, "Therefore you also have by such admonition joined in close union the churches that were planted by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans and that of the Corinthians: for both of them went to our Corinth, and taught us in the same way as they taught you when they went to Italy; and having taught you, they suffered martyrdom at the same time." Eusebius also cites the Dionysius passage.WEB, Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History Book II Chapter 25:8,weblink, 1 June 2015,
  • Tertullian in his Prescription Against Heretics (200 AD) writes that Paul had a similar death to that of John the Baptist, who was beheaded.WEB, Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI,weblink, 1 June 2015, "Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood; where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's; where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's[the Baptist]; where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile."
  • Eusebius of Caesarea in his Church History (320 AD) testifies that Paul was beheaded in Rome and Peter crucified. He wrote that the tombs of these two apostles, with their inscriptions, were extant in his time; and quotes as his authority a holy man of the name of Caius.WEB, of Caesarea, Eusebius, Church History Book II Chapter 25:5–6,weblink, 1 June 2015,
  • Lactantius wrote that Nero "crucified Peter, and slew Paul" (318 AD).Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, addressed to Donatus Chapter II
  • Jerome in his De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) (392 AD) states that Paul was beheaded at Rome.WEB, saint, Jerome, On Illustrious Men Chapter 5,weblink 3 June 2015,
  • John Chrysostom (c. 349–407) wrote that Nero knew Paul personally and had him killed.John Chrysostom. Concerning Lowliness of Mind 4
  • Sulpicius Severus says Nero killed Peter and Paul. (403 AD)Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28–29.}}
A legend later{{when|date=April 2017}} developed that his martyrdom occurred at the Aquae Salviae, on the Via Laurentina. According to this legend, after Paul was decapitated, his severed head rebounded three times, giving rise to a source of water each time that it touched the ground, which is how the place earned the name "San Paolo alle Tre Fontane" ("St Paul at the Three Fountains").CONFERENCE, Joseph Aloisius, Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, General Audience of 4 February 2009: St Paul's martyrdom and heritage, Vatican Publishing House, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009, Paul VI Audience Hall, Rome,weblink 2016-04-01, Serena De Leonardis and Stefano Masi (1999). Art and history: Rome and the Vatican. Casa Editrice Bonechi. p. 21 Also according to legend, Paul's body was buried outside the walls of Rome, at the second mile on the Via Ostiensis, on the estate owned by a Christian woman named Lucina. It was here, in the fourth century, that the Emperor Constantine the Great built a first church. Then, between the fourth and fifth centuries it was considerably enlarged by the Emperors Valentinian I, Valentinian II, Theodosius I, and Arcadius. The present-day Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls was built there in 1800.


Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus (198 AD) mentions this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited: "I can point out the trophies of the apostles. For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way, you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church".WEB, presbyter, Caius (Gaius), Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus (198 AD) in Eusebius, Church History Book II Chapter 25:6–7,weblink, 1 June 2015, Jerome in his De Viris Illustribus (392 AD) writing on Paul's biography, mentions that "Paul was buried in the Ostian Way at Rome".In 2002, an {{convert|8|foot|m|adj=on}}-long marble sarcophagus, inscribed with the words "PAULO APOSTOLO MART" ("Paul apostle martyr") was discovered during excavations around the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls on the Via Ostiensis. Vatican archaeologists declared this to be the tomb of Paul the Apostle in 2005.BOOK, Silver, Sandra Sweeny, Footprints in parchment: Rome versus Christianity 30–313 AD, Catacombs, 18, AuthorHouse, Bloomington, IN, 2013, 978-1-4817-3373-1,weblink {{Self-published inline|certain=yes|date=January 2018}} In June 2009, Pope Benedict XVI announced excavation results concerning the tomb. The sarcophagus was not opened but was examined by means of a probe, which revealed pieces of incense, purple and blue linen, and small bone fragments. The bone was radiocarbon-dated to the 1st or 2nd century. According to the Vatican, these findings support the conclusion that the tomb is Paul's.St Paul's tomb unearthed in Rome from BBC News (2006-12-08); Vatican to open Apostle Paul's tombNEWS, Remains of St. Paul confirmed,weblink Washington Times, June 29, 2009,

Church tradition

File:Greek orthodox mural of Apostle Paul.jpg|thumb|Greek OrthodoxGreek OrthodoxVarious Christian writers have suggested more details about Paul's life.1 Clement, a letter written by the Roman bishop Clement of Rome around the year 90, reports this about Paul:The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, 5:5–6, translated by J.B. Lightfoot in BOOK, Joseph Barber, Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers: A Revised Text with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations, Macmillan, 1890, 274, 54248207,weblink 0-8010-5612-8, Commenting on this passage, Raymond Brown writes that while it "does not explicitly say" that Paul was martyred in Rome, "such a martyrdom is the most reasonable interpretation".BOOK, 124,weblink Raymond Edward, Brown, John Paul Meier, Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Catholic Christianity, Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 1983, 0-8091-2532-3, Eusebius of Caesarea, who wrote in the 4th century, states that Paul was beheaded in the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero.Hist. Eccl., II.25 - This event has been dated either to the year 64, when Rome was devastated by a fire, or a few years later, to 67. According to one tradition, the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane marks the place of Paul's execution. A Roman Catholic liturgical solemnity of Peter and Paul, celebrated on June 29, commemorates his martyrdom, and reflects a tradition (preserved by Eusebius) that Peter and Paul were martyred at the same time.Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., II.25, where he quotes Dionysius of Corinth to this effect The Roman liturgical calendar for the following day now remembers all Christians martyred in these early persecutions; formerly, June 30 was the feast day for St. Paul.WEB,weblink Saint Paul, the Apostle. June 30. Rev. Alban Butler. 1866. Volume VI: June. The Lives of the Saints,, Persons or religious orders with special affinity for St. Paul can still celebrate their patron on June 30.WEB,weblink June 30 – St. Paul The Apostle,, File:Statue of St. Paul, Community Mausoleum of All Saints Cemetery, Des Plaines, Illinois.jpg|left|thumb|Statue of St. Paul, Community Mausoleum of All Saints CemeteryAll Saints CemeteryThe apocryphal Acts of Paul and the apocryphal Acts of Peter suggest that Paul survived Rome and traveled further west. Some think that Paul could have revisited Greece and Asia Minor after his trip to Spain, and might then have been arrested in Troas, and taken to Rome and executed.{{Bibleref2c|2Ti|4:13|NIV|2 Tim. 4:13}} A tradition holds that Paul was interred with Saint Peter ad Catacumbas by the via Appia until moved to what is now the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome. Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, writes that Pope Vitalian in 665 gave Paul's relics (including a cross made from his prison chains) from the crypts of Lucina to King Oswy of Northumbria, northern Britain. Paul is considered the patron saint of London.The Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul is celebrated on January 25.WEB, Chambers' The Book of Days,weblink 1869, 2012-02-09,

Physical appearance

The New Testament offers little if any information about the physical appearance of Paul, but several descriptions can be found in apocryphal texts. In the Acts of PaulBarnstone, Willis. 'The Acts of Paul' in The Other Bible. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1984, p. 447. he is described as "A man of small stature, with a bald head and crooked legs, in a good state of body, with eyebrows meeting and nose somewhat hooked".Eisler, Robert. The Messiah Jesus and John the Baptist. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1931, p. 448. In the Latin version of the Acts of Paul and Thecla it is added that he had a red, florid face.In The History of the Contending of Saint Paul his countenance is described as "ruddy with the ruddiness of the skin of the pomegranate".Budge, E.A. Wallis. 'The History of the Contending of Saint Paul' in The Contendings of the Twelve Apostles: Being the Histories and the Lives and Martyrdomes and Deaths of the Twelve Apostles and Evangelists. Vol. 2. The English Translation. London: Henry Frowde, 1901, p. 531. The Acts of Saint Peter confirms that Paul had a bald and shining head, with red hair.'The Acts of Saint Peter,' p. 501.{{full citation needed|date=April 2016}}As summarised by Barnes,Barnes, Albert. Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on The New Testament. Vol. 6. II. Corinthians and Galatians. Glasgow, Edinburgh and London: Blackie & Son, 1844, p. 212. Chrysostom records that Paul's stature was low, his body crooked and his head bald. Lucian, in his Philopatris, describes Paul as "corpore erat parvo (he was small), contracto (contracted), incurvo (crooked), tricubitali (of three cubits, or four feet six)".The Catholic Encyclopedia,weblink s.v. Paul, Saint.Nicephorus claims that Paul was a little man, crooked, and almost bent like a bow, with a pale countenance, long and wrinkled, and a bald head. Pseudo-Chrysostom echoes Lucian's height of Paul, referring to him as "the man of three cubits".


{{Paul}}File:Paulus San Giovanni in Laterano 2006-09-07.jpg|thumb|Statue of St. Paul in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne MonnotPierre-Étienne Monnot{{Catholic philosophy}}Of the 27 books in the New Testament, 14 have been attributed to Paul; 7 of these are widely considered authentic and Paul's own, while the authorship of the other 7 is disputed. The undisputed letters are considered the most important sources since they contain what everyone agrees to be Paul's own statements about his life and thoughts. Theologian Mark Powell writes that Paul directed these 7 letters to specific occasions at particular churches. As an example, if the Corinthian church had not experienced problems concerning its celebration of the Lord's Supper,{{Bibleref2c|1cor|11:17–34||1 Cor. 11:17–34}} today we would not know that Paul even believed in that observance or had any opinions about it one way or the other. Powell asks if we might be ignorant of other matters simply because no crises arose that prompted Paul to comment on them.{{rp|234}}In Paul's writings, he provides the first written account of what it is to be a Christian and thus a description of Christian spirituality. His letters have been characterized as being the most influential books of the New Testament after the Gospels of Matthew and John.{{refn|group=note|Sanders: "Paul [...] only occasionally had the opportunity to revisit his churches. He tried to keep up his converts' spirit, answer their questions, and resolve their problems by letter and by sending one or more of his assistants (especially Timothy and Titus).Paul's letters reveal a remarkable human being: dedicated, compassionate, emotional, sometimes harsh and angry, clever and quick-witted, supple in argumentation, and above all possessing a soaring, passionate commitment to God, Jesus Christ, and his own mission. Fortunately, after his death one of his followers collected some of the letters, edited them very slightly, and published them. They constitute one of history's most remarkable personal contributions to religious thought and practice.}}


File:Probably Valentin de Boulogne - Saint Paul Writing His Epistles - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|Paul Writing His Epistles, painting attributed to Valentin de BoulogneValentin de BoulogneSeven of the 13 letters that bear Paul's name – Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon – are almost universally accepted as being entirely authentic (dictated by Paul himself).Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible by James D. G. Dunn (Nov 19, 2003) {{ISBN|0802837115}} p. 1274 "There is general scholarly agreement that seven of the thirteen letters bearing Paul's name are authentic, but his authorship of the other six cannot be taken for granted ... Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon are certainly Paul's own".Pheme Perkins, Reading the New Testament: An Introduction (Paulist Press, 1988), {{ISBN|0809129396}} pp. 4–7. They are considered the best source of information on Paul's life and especially his thought.Four of the letters (Ephesians, 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus) are widely considered pseudepigraphical, while the authorship of the other two is subject to debate.The Blackwell Companion to The New Testament by David E. Aune {{ISBN|1405108258}} p. 9 "While seven of the letters attributed to Paul are almost universally accepted as authentic (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon), four are just as widely judged to be pseudepigraphical, i.e., written by unknown authors under Paul's name: Ephesians and the Pastorals (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus). Colossians and 2 Thessalonians are possibly "Deutero-Pauline" meaning they may have been written by Paul's followers after his death. Similarly, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus may be "Trito-Pauline" meaning they may have been written by members of the Pauline school a generation after his death. According to their theories, these disputed letters may have come from followers writing in Paul's name, often using material from his surviving letters. These scribes also may have had access to letters written by Paul that no longer survive.The authenticity of Colossians has been questioned on the grounds that it contains an otherwise unparalleled description (among his writings) of Jesus as "the image of the invisible God", a Christology found elsewhere only in John's gospel.MacDonald, Margaret Y. Sacra Pagina: Colossians and Ephesians. Liturgical Press, 2000. {{ISBN|978-0-8146-5819-2}} However, the personal notes in the letter connect it to Philemon, unquestionably the work of Paul. Internal evidence shows close connection with Philippians.Ephesians is a letter that is very similar to Colossians, but is almost entirely lacking in personal reminiscences. Its style is unique. It lacks the emphasis on the cross to be found in other Pauline writings, reference to the Second Coming is missing, and Christian marriage is exalted in a way which contrasts with the reference in {{Bibleref2|1Cor|7:8–9||1 Cor. 7:8–9}}. Finally, according to R.E. Brown, it exalts the Church in a way suggestive of a second generation of Christians, "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets" now past.Brown, R.E., The Churches the Apostles Left Behind p. 48.The defenders of its Pauline authorship argue that it was intended to be read by a number of different churches and that it marks the final stage of the development of Paul's thinking. It has been said, too, that the moral portion of the Epistle, consisting of the last two chapters, has the closest affinity with similar portions of other Epistles, while the whole admirably fits in with the known details of Paul's life, and throws considerable light upon them.WEB,weblink Epistle to the Colossians – Catholic Encyclopedia,, 2010-11-19, File:Paul Apostle.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, RussiaRussiaThree main reasons have been advanced by those who question Paul's authorship of 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus â€“ also known as the Pastoral Epistles.
  • First, they have found a difference in these letters' vocabulary, style, and theology from Paul's acknowledged writings. Defenders of the authenticity say that they were probably written in the name and with the authority of the Apostle by one of his companions, to whom he distinctly explained what had to be written, or to whom he gave a written summary of the points to be developed, and that when the letters were finished, Paul read them through, approved them, and signed them.
  • Second, there is a difficulty in fitting them into Paul's biography as we have it.Barrett, C.K. the Pastoral Epistles pp. 4ff. They, like Colossians and Ephesians, were written from prison but suppose Paul's release and travel thereafter.
  • Third, 2 Thessalonians, like Colossians, is questioned on stylistic grounds with, among other peculiarities, a dependence on 1 Thessalonians â€“ yet a distinctiveness in language from the Pauline corpus. This, again, is explainable by the possibility that Paul requested one of his companions to write the letter for him under his dictation.


Although approximately half of Acts deals with Paul's life and works, the Book of Acts does not refer to Paul writing letters. Historians believe that the author of Acts did not have access to any of Paul's letters. One piece of evidence suggesting this is that Acts never directly quotes from the Pauline epistles. Discrepancies between the Pauline epistles and Acts would further support the conclusion that the author of Acts did not have access to those epistles when composing Acts.Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdelene: the followers of Jesus in history and legend By Bart Ehrman, pp. 98–100A commentary on the Acts of the Apostles by Charles Stephan Conway Williams, pp. 22, 240British Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby contended that the Paul as described in the book of Acts and the view of Paul gleaned from his own writings are very different people. Some difficulties have been noted in the account of his life. Paul as described in the Book of Acts is much more interested in factual history, less in theology; ideas such as justification by faith are absent as are references to the Spirit, according to Maccoby. He also pointed out that there are no references to John the Baptist in the Pauline Epistles, although Paul mentions him several times in the book of Acts.Others have objected that the language of the speeches is too Lukan in style to reflect anyone else's words. Moreover, George Shillington writes that the author of Acts most likely created the speeches accordingly and they bear his literary and theological marks.BOOK, Shillington, George, Introduction to Luke-Acts, 2007, T & T Clark, London, 978-0-567-03053-5, 18, Conversely, Howard Marshall writes that the speeches were not entirely the inventions of the author and while they may not be accurate word-for-word, the author nevertheless records the general idea of them.BOOK, Marshall, I. Howard, The Acts of the Apostles, 1980, W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand Rapids, 0-8028-1423-9, 42,weblink F. C. Baur (1792–1860), professor of theology at Tübingen in Germany, the first scholar to critique Acts and the Pauline Epistles, and founder of the Tübingen School of theology, argued that Paul, as the "Apostle to the Gentiles", was in violent opposition to the original 12 Apostles. Baur considers the Acts of the Apostles were late and unreliable. This debate has continued ever since, with Adolf Deissmann (1866–1937) and Richard Reitzenstein (1861–1931) emphasising Paul's Greek inheritance and Albert Schweitzer stressing his dependence on Judaism.


File:Saint-Paul.JPG|thumb|Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th – early 7th century (Musée de ClunyMusée de Cluny


In the opening verses of {{Bibleref2|Romans|1}}, Paul provides a litany of his own apostolic appointment to preach among the Gentiles{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:16}} and his post-conversion convictions about the risen Christ. Paul described himself as set apart for the gospel of God and called to be an apostle and a servant of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ had revealed Himself to Paul, just as He had appeared to Peter, to James, to the Twelve, after his Resurrection.{{Bibleref2c|1cor|9:1||1 Cor. 9:1}} Paul experienced this as an unforeseen, sudden, startling change, due to all-powerful grace, not as the fruit of his reasoning or thoughts.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:12–15|Gal. 1:12–15}} {{Bibleref2c|1cor|15:10||1 Cor. 15:10}}Paul also describes himself as inflicted with a debilitating physical condition akin to having a handicap which he refers to as "a thorn in the flesh";{{Bibleref2c|2cor|12:7||2 Cor. 12:7}}There are debates as to whether Paul understood himself as commissioned to take the gospel to the Gentiles at the moment of his conversion.BOOK, Horrell, David G, An Introduction to the Study of Paul, 2006, T&T Clark, New York, 0-567-04083-6, 30, Before his conversion he believed his violent persecution of the church to be an indication of his zeal for his religion;{{Bibleref2c|Phil.|3:6}} after his conversion he believed Jewish hostility toward the church was sinful opposition, that would incur God's wrath.{{Bibleref2c|1Thes|2:14–16||1 Thess. 2:14–16}} {{rp|236}} Paul believed he was halted by Christ, when his fury was at its height.{{Bibleref2c|Acts|9:1–2}} It was "through zeal" that he persecuted the Church,{{Bibleref2c|Philippians|3:6}} and he obtained mercy because he had "acted ignorantly in unbelief".{{Bibleref2c|1tim|1:13||1 Tim. 1:13}}

Understanding of Jesus Christ

Paul's writings emphasized the crucifixion, Christ's resurrection and the Parousia or second coming of Christ.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bromiley, Geoffrey William, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Paul the Apostle, 2009, W.B. Eerdmans, Michigan, 978-0802837844, Paul saw Jesus as Lord (kyrios), the true messiah and the Son of God, who was promised by God beforehand, through his prophets in the holy Scriptures. While being a biological descendant from David ("according to the flesh"),{{Bibleref2c|rom|1:3||Rom. 1:3}} He was declared to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead.According to E. P. Sanders, Paul "preached the death, resurrection, and lordship of Jesus Christ, and he proclaimed that faith in Jesus guarantees a share in his life."In Paul's view, "Jesus’ death was not a defeat but was for the believers’ benefit," a sacrifice which substitutes for the lifes of others, and frees them from the bondage of sin. Believers participate in Christ's death and resurrection by their baptism. The resurrection of Jesus was of primary importance to Paul, bringing the promise of salvation to believers. Paul taught that, when Christ returned, those who had died believing in Christ as the saviour of mankind would be brought back to life, while those still alive would be "caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air" {{Bibleref2c|1Thes|4:14–18||1 Thes. 4:14–18}}Sanders concludes that Paul's writings reveal what he calls the essence of the Christian message: "(1) God sent his Son; (2) the Son was crucified and resurrected for the benefit of humanity; (3) the Son would soon return; and (4) those who belonged to the Son would live with him forever. Paul’s gospel, like those of others, also included (5) the admonition to live by the highest moral standard: “May your spirit and soul and body be kept sound and blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ” ({{Bibleref2c|1Thes|5:23||1 Thes. 5:23}})"In Paul's writings, the public, corporate devotional patterns towards Jesus in the early Christian community are reflective of Paul's perspective on the divine status of Jesus in what scholars have termed a "binitarian" pattern of devotion. For Paul, Jesus receives prayer (1 Cor. 1:2; 2 Cor. 12:8-9; 1 Thess. 3:11), the presence of Jesus is confessionally invoked by believers (1 Cor. 16:22; Romans 10:9-13; Phil. 2:10-11), people are baptized in Jesus’ name (1 Cor. 6:11; Rom. 6:3), Jesus is the reference in Christian fellowship for a religious ritual meal (the Lord’s Supper; 1 Cor. 11:17-34 – in pagan cults, the reference for ritual meals is always to a deity), and Jesus is the source of continuing prophetic oracles to believers (1 Thess. 4:15-17).Hurtado, Larry. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Eerdmans, 2005, pp. 134-152.


Paul taught that Christians are redeemed from sin by Jesus' death and resurrection. His death was an expiation as well as a propitiation, and by Christ's blood peace is made between God and man."Atonement". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 By grace, through faith,{{bibleref2|Ephesiahs|2:8–9|9}} a Christian shares in Jesus' death and in his victory over death, gaining as a free gift a new, justified status of sonship.{{bibleref2|Galatians|4:4–7|9}}According to Krister Stendahl, the main concern of Paul's writings on Jesus' role, and salvation by faith, is not the individual conscience of human sinners, and their doubts about being chosen by God or not, but the problem of the inclusion of gentile (Greek) Torah observers into God's covenant.{{sfn|Stendahl|1963}}{{sfn|Dunn|1982|p=n.49}}{{sfn|Finlan|2001|p=2}}Stephen Westerholm (2015), The New Perspective on Paul in Review, Direction, Spring 2015 · Vol. 44 No. 1 · pp. 4–15{{refn|group=note|Dunn quotes Stendahl: "Cf Stendahl, Paul among Jews and Gentiles, passim-e.g "... a doctrine of faith was hammered out by Paul for the very specific and limited pupose of defending the rights of Gentile converts to be full and genuine heirs to the promise of God to Israel"(p.2)"{{sfn|Dunn|1982|p=n.49}}Stephen Westerholm: "For Paul, the question that “justification by faith” was intended to answer was, “On what terms can Gentiles gain entrance to the people of God?” Bent on denying any suggestion that Gentiles must become Jews and keep the Jewish law, he answered, “By faith—and not by works of the (Jewish) law.”" Westerholm refers to: Krister Stendahl, The Apostle Paul and the Introspective Conscience of the West, Harvard Theological Review 56 (1963), 199–215; reprinted in Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and Gentiles and Other Essays (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976), 78–96.Westerholm quotes Sanders: "Sanders noted that “the salvation of the Gentiles is essential to Paul’s preaching; and with it falls the law; for, as Paul says simply, Gentiles cannot live by the law (Gal. 2.14)” (496). On a similar note, Sanders suggested that the only Jewish “boasting” to which Paul objected was that which exulted over the divine privileges granted to Israel and failed to acknowledge that God, in Christ, had opened the door of salvation to Gentiles."}} 'Dying for our sins' refers to the problem of gentile Torah-observers, who, despite their faithfulness, cannot fully observe commandments, including circumcision, and are therefore 'sinners', excluded from God's covenant. {{sfn|Mack|1997|p=88-89, 92}} Jesus' death and resurrection solved this problem of the exclusion of the gentles from God's covenant, as indicated by Rom 3:21-26.{{sfn|Mack|1997|p=91-92}}Paul's conversion fundamentally changed his basic beliefs regarding God's covenant and the inclusion of Gentiles into this covenant. Paul believed Jesus' death was a voluntary sacrifice, that reconciled sinners with God.{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|5:6–10}}{{Bibleref2c|Phil.|2:8}} The law only reveals the extent of people's enslavement to the power of sin â€“ a power that must be broken by Christ.{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|3:20b}}{{Bibleref2c-nb|Rom.|7:7–12}} Before his conversion Paul believed Gentiles were outside the covenant that God made with Israel; after his conversion he believed Gentiles and Jews were united as the people of God in Christ Jesus.{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|3:28}} Before his conversion he believed circumcision was the rite through which males became part of Israel, an exclusive community of God's chosen people;{{Bibleref2c|Phil.|3:3–5}} after his conversion he believed that neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but that the new creation is what counts in the sight of God,{{Bibleref2c|Gal.|6:15}} and that this new creation is a work of Christ in the life of believers, making them part of the church, an inclusive community of Jews and Gentiles reconciled with God through faith.{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|6:4}}According to E.P. Sanders, who initiated the New Perspective on Paul with his 1977 publication Paul and Palestinian Judaism, Paul saw the faithful redeemed by participation in Jesus' death and rising. Though "Jesus’ death substituted for that of others and thereby freed believers from sin and guilt," a metaphor derived from "ancient sacrificial theology,"E.P. Sanders, Saint Paul, the Apostle, Encyclopedia Britannica{{refn|group=note|name="sacrifice"|According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), "The Mishnah says that sins are expiated (1) by sacrifice, (2) by repentance at death or on Yom Kippur, (3) in the case of the lighter transgressions of the positive or negative precepts, by repentance at any time [...] The graver sins, according to Rabbi, are apostasy, heretical interpretation of the Torah, and non-circumcision (Yoma 86a). The atonement for sins between a man and his neighbor is an ample apology (Yoma 85b)."Jewish Encyclopedia, SINThe Jewish Virual Library writes: "Another important concept [of sacrifices] is the element of substitution. The idea is that the thing being offered is a substitute for the person making the offering, and the things that are done to the offering are things that should have been done to the person offering. The offering is in some sense "punished" in place of the offerer. It is interesting to note that whenever the subject of Karbanot is addressed in the Torah, the name of G-d used is the four-letter name indicating G-d's mercy."Jewish Virtual Library, Jewish Practices & Rituals: Sacrifices and Offerings (Karbanot)The Jewish Encyclopedia further writes: "Most efficacious seemed to be the atoning power of suffering experienced by the righteous during the Exile. This is the idea underlying the description of the suffering servant of God in Isa. liii. 4, 12, Hebr. [...] of greater atoning power than all the Temple sacrifices was the suffering of the elect ones who were to be servants and witnesses of the Lord (Isa. xlii. 1-4, xlix. 1-7, l. 6). This idea of the atoning power of the suffering and death of the righteous finds expression also in IV Macc. vi. 27, xvii. 21-23; M. Ḳ. 28a; Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b; Lev. R. xx.; and formed the basis of Paul's doctrine of the atoning blood of Christ (Rom. iii. 25)."Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), ATONEMENT}} the essence of Paul's writing is not in the "legal terms" regarding the expiation of sin, but the act of "participation in Christ through dying and rising with him."{{sfn|Charry|1999|p=35}}{{refn|group=note|Jordan Cooper: "Sanders sees Paul’s motifs of salvation as more participationist than juristic. The reformation overemphasized the judicial categories of forgiveness and escape from condemnation, while ignoring the real heart of salvation, which is a mystical participation in Christ. Paul shows this in his argument in his first epistle to the Corinthians when arguing against sexual immorality. It is wrong because it affects one’s union with Christ by uniting himself to a prostitute. Sin is not merely the violation of an abstract law. This participationist language is also used in Corinthians in the discussion of the Lord’s Supper wherein one participates in the body and blood of Christ."Jordan Cooper, E.P. Sanders and the New Perspective on Paul}} According to Sanders, "those who are baptized into Christ are baptized into his death, and thus they escape the power of sin [...] he died so that the believers may die with him and consequently live with him." By this participation in Christ's death and rising, "one receives forgiveness for past offences, is liberated from the powers of sin, and receives the Spirit."{{sfn|Charry|1999|p=35-36}}

Relationship with Judaism

Some scholars see Paul (or Saul) as completely in line with 1st-century Judaism (a Pharisee and student of Gamaliel as presented by Acts),The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (1915), Volume 4, p. 2276 edited by James Orr others see him as opposed to 1st-century Judaism (see Marcionism), while the majority see him as somewhere in between these two extremes, opposed to insistence on keeping the "Ritual Laws" (for example the circumcision controversy in early Christianity) as necessary for entrance into God's New Covenant,{{sfn|Sanders|1977}}{{sfn|Dunn|1982}} but in full agreement on "Divine Law". These views of Paul are paralleled by the views of Biblical law in Christianity.
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}}Paul is critical both theologically and empirically of claims of moral or lineal superiority {{Bibleref2c|Rom.|2:16–26}} of Jews while conversely strongly sustaining the notion of a special place for the Children of Israel.{{Bibleref2c-nb|Rom.|9–11}} Paul's theology of the gospel accelerated the separation of the messianic sect of Christians from Judaism, a development contrary to Paul's own intent. He wrote that faith in Christ was alone decisive in salvation for Jews and Gentiles alike, making the schism between the followers of Christ and mainstream Jews inevitable and permanent. He argued that Gentile converts did not need to become Jews, get circumcised, follow Jewish dietary restrictions, or otherwise observe Mosaic laws to be saved. According to Fredriksen, Paul's opposition to male circumcison for Gentiles is in line with Old Testament predictions that "in the last days the gentile nations would come to the God of Israel, as gentiles (e.g., Zechariah 8:20-23), not as proselytes to Israel."Larry Hurtado (December 4, 2018 ), “When Christians were Jews”: Paula Fredriksen on “The First Generation” For Paul, Gentile male circumcison was therefore an affront to God's intentions. According to Hurtado, "Paul saw himself as what Munck called a salvation-historical figure in his own right," who was "personally and singularly deputized by God to bring about the predicted ingathering (the “fullness”) of the nations (Romans 11:25)."According to Sanders, Paul insists that salvation is received by the grace of God; according to Sanders, this insistence is in line with Judaism of ca. 200 NCE until 200 CE, which saw God's covenant with Israel as an act of grace of God. Observance of the Law is needed to maintain the covenant, but the covenant is not earned by observing the Law, but by the grace of God.Sanders' publicationsPaul and Palestinian Judaism in 1977; Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People in 1983 have since been taken up by Professor James Dunn who coined the phrase "The New Perspective on Paul".J.D.G. Dunn's Manson Memorial Lecture (4.11.1982): 'The New Perspective on Paul' BJRL 65(1983), 95–122. N.T. Wright,WEB,weblink New Perspectives on Paul,, 2003-08-28, 2010-11-19, the Anglican Bishop of Durham, notes a difference in emphasis between Galatians and Romans, the latter being much more positive about the continuing covenant between God and his ancient people than the former. Wright also contends that performing Christian works is not insignificant but rather proof of having attained the redemption of Jesus Christ by grace (free gift received by faith).{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|2:13ff}} He concludes that Paul distinguishes between performing Christian works which are signs of ethnic identity and others which are a sign of obedience to Christ.

World to come

{{See also|Christian eschatology|Second Coming|End times|World to Come}}According to Bart Ehrman, Paul believed that Jesus would return within his lifetime.Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. {{ISBN|0-19-530013-0}} Paul expected that Christians who had died in the meantime would be resurrected to share in God's kingdom, and he believed that the saved would be transformed, assuming heavenly, imperishable bodies.{{Bibleref2c|1Cor|15:51-53||1 Cor. 15:51-53}}Paul's teaching about the end of the world is expressed most clearly in his letters to the Christians at Thessalonica. He assures them that the dead will rise first and be followed by those left alive.{{Bibleref2c|1Thes|4:16ff||1 Thes. 4:16ff}} This suggests an imminent end but he is unspecific about times and seasons, and encourages his hearers to expect a delay.Rowlands, Christopher. Christian Origins (SPCK 1985) p. 113 The form of the end will be a battle between Jesus and the man of lawlessness{{Bibleref2c|2Thess.|2:3||2 Thess. 2:3}} whose conclusion is the triumph of Christ.Before his conversion he believed God's messiah would put an end to the old age of evil, and initiate a new age of righteousness; after his conversion he believed this would happen in stages that had begun with the resurrection of Jesus, but the old age would continue until Jesus returns.{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|16:25}} {{Bibleref2c|1cor|10:11||1 Cor. 10:11}} {{Bibleref2c|Gal.|1:4}} {{rp|236}}

Role of women

File:Attributed to Lucas van Leyden 001.jpg|thumb|Paul the Apostle, (16th-century) attributed to Lucas van LeydenLucas van Leyden{{See also|1 Timothy 2:12 ("I suffer not a woman")}}The second chapter of the first letter to Timothy â€“ one of the six disputed letters â€“ is used by many churches to deny women a vote in church affairs, reject women from serving as teachers of adult Bible classes, prevent them from serving as missionaries, and generally disenfranchise women from the duties and privileges of church leadership.Kroeger, Richard C. and Catherine C. I Suffer Not a Woman. Baker Book House, 1992. {{ISBN|0-8010-5250-5}}}}The KJV translation of this passage taken literally says that women in the churches are to have no leadership roles vis-à-vis men.Wright, N.T. "The Biblical Basis for Women's Service in the Church". Web: Dec. 16, 2009Fuller Seminary theologian J. R. Daniel KirkWEB,weblink Kirk, J. R. Daniel, Faculty – Fuller,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-24, finds evidence in Paul's letters of a much more inclusive view of women. He writes that {{Bibleref2|Romans|16}} is a tremendously important witness to the important role of women in the early church. Paul praises Phoebe for her work as a deaconess and Junia who is described by Paul in Scripture as being respected among the Apostles.{{Bibleref2c|Romans|16:7}} It is Kirk's observation that recent studies have led many scholars to conclude that the passage in {{Bibleref2|1Corinthians|14|TNIV|1 Corinthians 14}} ordering women to "be silent" during worship was a later addition, apparently by a different author, and not part of Paul's original letter to the Corinthians.Other scholars, such as Giancarlo Biguzzi, believe that Paul's restriction on women speaking in 1 Corinthians 14 is genuine to Paul but applies to a particular case where there were local problems of women â€“ who were not allowed in that culture to become educated â€“ asking questions or chatting during worship services. He does not believe it to be a general prohibition on any woman speaking in worship settings since in 1 Corinthians Paul affirms the right (responsibility) of women to prophesy.{{bibleref2c|1Cor|11||1 Cor. 11}}Giguzzi, Giancarlo "Paolo, un apostolo contro le donne?" in Credere Oggi: in dialogo con San Paolo e le sue lettere no. 124, Edizioni Messaggero Padova, 2004, pp. 95–107. at credereoggi.itThere were women prophets in the highly patriarchal times throughout the Old Testament. The most common term for prophet in the Old Testament is nabi in the masculine form, and nebiah in the Hebrew feminine form, is used six times of women who performed the same task of receiving and proclaiming the message given by God. These women include Miriam, Aaron and Moses' sister,{{Bibleref2c|Exod|15:20}} Deborah,{{Bibleref2c|Judges|4:4}} the prophet Isaiah's wife,{{Bibleref2c|Isa.|8:3}} and Huldah, the one who interpreted the Book of the Law discovered in the temple during the days of Josiah.{{Bibleref2c|2Ki|22:14||2 Kings 22:14}} {{Bibleref2c|2Chr|34:22||2 Chron. 34:22}} There were false prophetesses just as there were false prophets. The prophetess Noadiah was among those who tried to intimidate Nehemiah.{{Bibleref2c|Neh|6:14||Neh 6:14}} Apparently they held equal rank in prophesying right along with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Elisha, Aaron, and Samuel.Kirk's third example of a more inclusive view is {{Bibleref2|Galatians|3:28|NIV}}:In pronouncing an end within the church to the divisions which are common in the world around it, he concludes by highlighting the fact that "there were New Testament women who taught and had authority in the early churches, that this teaching and authority was sanctioned by Paul, and that Paul himself offers a theological paradigm within which overcoming the subjugation of women is an anticipated outcome".Kirk, J.R. Daniel. Jesus I Have Loved. But Paul? Baker, 2011. {{ISBN|978-1-4412-3625-8}}Classicist Evelyn Stagg and theologian Frank Stagg believe that Paul was attempting to "Christianize" the societal household or domestic codes that significantly oppressed women and empowered men as the head of the household. The Staggs present a serious study of what has been termed the New Testament domestic code, also known as the Haustafel.Stagg, Evelyn and Frank Stagg. Woman in the World of Jesus. Westminster Press, 1978. {{ISBN|0-664-24195-6}} The two main passages that explain these "household duties" are Paul's letters to the {{Bibleref2|Ephesians|5:22 – 6:5}} and to the {{Bibleref2|Colossians|3:18–4:1}}. An underlying Household Code is also reflected in four additional Pauline letters and 1 Peter: 1 Timothy 2:1ff., 8ff.; 3:1ff., 8ff.; 5:17ff.; 6:1f.; {{Bibleref2|Titus|2:1–10}} and {{Bibleref2|1Pet|3:1–9||1 Peter 2:13–3:9}}. Biblical scholars have typically treated the Haustafel in Ephesians as a resource in the debate over the role of women in ministry and in the home.Gombis, Timothy. "(PDF) A Radically Different New Humanity: The Function of the Haustafel in Ephesians". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 48/2 (June 2005) 317–30. Accessed 14 February 2013.Margaret MacDonald argues that the Haustafel, particularly as it appears in Ephesians, was aimed at "reducing the tension between community members and outsiders".MacDonald, Margaret. The Pauline Churches: A Socio-historical Study of Institutionalization in the Pauline and Deutero-Pauline Writings. SNTSMS 60; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. p109E. P. Sanders has labeled the Apostle's remark in {{Bibleref2|1Cor|14:34–36||1 Cor. 14:34–36}} about women not making any sound during worship as "Paul's intemperate outburst that women should be silent in the churches". Women, in fact, played a very significant part in Paul's missionary endeavors:
  • He became a partner in ministry with the couple Priscilla and Aquila who are specifically named seven times in the New Testament â€“ always by their couple name and never individually. Of the seven times they are named in the New Testament, Priscilla's name appears first in five of those instances, suggesting to some scholars that she was the head of the family unit.Achtenmeier, P.J. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (revised ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 882. {{ISBN|0-06-060037-3}}. They lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, becoming his honored, much-loved friends and coworkers in Christ Jesus.Keller, Marie Noël. Priscilla and Aquila: Paul's Coworkers in Christ Jesus. Liturgical Press, 2010. {{ISBN|978-0-8146-5284-8}}. In {{Bibleref2|Romans|16:3–4}}, thought to have been written in 56 or 57, Paul sends his greetings to Priscilla and Aquila and proclaims that both of them "risked their necks" to save Paul's life.
  • Chloe was an important member of the church in Corinth{{Bibleref2c|1Cor|1:11||1 Cor. 1:11}}
  • Phoebe was a "deacon" and a "benefactor" of Paul and others{{Bibleref2c|Rom.|16:1–2}}
  • {{Bibleref2|Romans|16}} names eight other women active in the Christian movement, including Junia ("prominent among the apostles"), Mary ("who has worked very hard among you"), and Julia
  • Women were frequently among the major supporters of the new Christian movement

Views on homosexuality

{{See also|Homosexuality in the New Testament}}Most Christian traditionsWEB,weblink Catechism of the Catholic Church – Article 6: The sixth commandment,, January 10, 1951, M. Mikhail. "The Coptic Orthodox Church's View on Homosexuality."WEB,weblink Christianity and Homosexuality, CARM – The Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry, 2008-11-25, say Paul clearly portrays homosexuality as sinful in two specific locations: {{Bibleref2|Romans|1:26–27}}, and {{Bibleref2|1Cor|6:9–10|9|1 Corinthians 6:9–10}}. Another passage addresses the topic more obliquely: {{Bibleref2|1Tim|1:8–11|9|1 Timothy 1:8–11}}. Since the nineteenth century, however, most scholars have concluded that 1 Timothy, along with 2 Timothy and Titus, are not original to Paul, but rather an unknown Christian writing in Paul's name some time in the late-first-to-mid-2nd century.Ehrman, Bart. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 393 {{ISBN|0-19-515462-2}}. "... when we come to the Pastoral epistles, there is greater scholarly unanimity. These three letters are widely regarded by scholars as non-Pauline."Collins, Raymond F. 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. 2004. p. 4 {{ISBN|0-664-22247-1}}. "By the end of the twentieth century New Testament scholarship was virtually unanimous in affirming that the Pastoral Epistles were written some time after Paul's death. ... As always some scholars dissent from the consensus view."


File:San Pablo (1606) - Gregorio Fernández.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Statue of St. Paul (1606) by Gregorio FernándezGregorio FernándezPaul's influence on Christian thinking arguably has been more significant than any other New Testament author. Paul declared that "Christ is the end of the law",{{Bibleref2|Romans|10:4|nasb}} exalted the Christian church as the body of Christ, and depicted the world outside the Church as under judgment. Paul's writings include the earliest reference to the "Lord's Supper",{{Bibleref2|1Cor|10:14–17||1 Corinthians 10:14–17}}, {{Bibleref2-nb|1Cor|11:17–34}} a rite traditionally identified as the Christian communion or Eucharist. In the East, church fathers attributed the element of election in {{Bibleref2|Romans|9}} to divine foreknowledge. The themes of predestination found in Western Christianity do not appear in Eastern theology.

Pauline Christianity

{{expand section|date=April 2019}}Paul had a strong influence on early Christianity.{{refn|group=note|Jamin A. Hübner: "Two thousand years later, scholars are still trying to figure out how and why Christianity came into existence. Paula Fredriksen’s When Christians Were Jews: The First Generation is the latest in a growing number of works on “Christian Origins.” As a work of revisionist history [...] [t]raditional Christians will be particularly challenged by the author’s perspective and reconsider a number of conventional ideas about the gospels, Paul, the early church’s thought-processes and motivations, and Jesus’s death and resurrection. Those familiar with “Christian Origins” will find something very similar to the work of Pamela Eisenbaum, Bart Ehrman, and others who suggest that “Christianity” was essentially a mistake that should never have gotten off the ground in the first place. Christians (in this view) have always misread Paul and the Gospels to conform with later developments without properly paying attention to the inherently Jewish context.Jamin A. Hübner (November 12, 2018), review of When Christians Were Jews}} Hurtado notes that Paul regarded his own Christological views and those of his predecessors and that of the Jerusalem Church as essentially similar. According to Hurtado, this "work[s] against the claims by some scholars that Pauline Christianity represents a sharp departure from the religiousness of Judean 'Jesus movements'."{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=160}}


Marcionism, regarded as heresy by contemporary mainstream Christianity, was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144.(115 years and 6 months from the Crucifixion, according to Tertullian's reckoning in Adversus Marcionem, xv) Marcion asserted that Paul was the only apostle who had rightly understood the new message of salvation as delivered by Christ.{{sfn|Mack|1995}}Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God, and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of Israel. Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament.


{{expand section|date=March 2019}}Augustine's foundational work on the gospel as a gift (grace), on morality as life in the Spirit, on predestination, and on original sin all derives from Paul, especially Romans.


{{expand section|date=March 2019}}

Modern theology

{{See also|Pauline Christianity|Jesuism}}In his commentary The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der Römerbrief; particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of 1922) Karl Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the cross of Jesus challenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures, achievements, or possessions.In addition to the many questions about the true origins of some of Paul's teachings posed by historical figures as noted above, some modern theologians also hold that the teachings of Paul differ markedly from those of Jesus as found in the Gospels.Maccoby, Hyam, The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity (Harpercollins, October 1987), p. 14. Barrie Wilson states that Paul differs from Jesus in terms of the origin of his message, his teachings and his practices.BOOK, Barrie A., Wilson, Barrie Wilson, How Jesus Became Christian, St. Martin's Press, 2008, New York; Toronto, chapters 9, 10, 12, Some have even gone so far as to claim that, due to these apparent differences in teachings, that Paul was actually no less than the "second founder" of Christianity (Jesus being its first).Dwyer, John C., Church History: Twenty Centuries of Catholic Christianity (Paulist Press, July 1985), p. 27.Wrede, William, Paul (trans. Edward Lummis; London: Philip Green, 1907), p. 179.
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}}As in the Eastern tradition in general, Western humanists interpret the reference to election in Romans 9 as reflecting divine foreknowledge.

Views on Paul

Jewish views

File:Saint Paul with a Scroll and a Sword.jpg|thumb|A statue of Paul holding a scroll (symbolising the ScriptureScripture{{See also|Messianic Judaism}}Jewish interest in Paul is a recent phenomenon. Before the positive historical reevaluations of Jesus by some Jewish thinkers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, he had hardly featured in the popular Jewish imagination and little had been written about him by the religious leaders and scholars. Arguably, he is absent from the Talmud and rabbinical literature, although he makes an appearance in some variants of the medieval polemic Toledot Yeshu (as a particularly effective spy for the rabbis).{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=23–56}}However, with Jesus no longer regarded as the paradigm of gentile Christianity, Paul's position became more important in Jewish historical reconstructions of their religion's relationship with Christianity. He has featured as the key to building barriers (e.g. Heinrich Graetz and Martin Buber) or bridges (e.g. Isaac Mayer Wise and Claude G. Montefiore) in interfaith relations,{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=57–96}} as part of an intra-Jewish debate about what constitutes Jewish authenticity (e.g. Joseph Klausner and Hans Joachim Schoeps),{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=97–153}} and on occasion as a dialogical partner (e.g. Richard L. Rubenstein and Daniel Boyarin).{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=154–76}}He features in an oratorio (by Felix Mendelssohn), a painting (by Ludwig Meidner) and a play (by Franz Werfel),{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=178–209}} and there have been several novels about Paul (by Shalom Asch and Samuel Sandmel).{{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=210–30}} Jewish philosophers (including Baruch Spinoza, Leo Shestov, and Jacob Taubes){{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=234–62}} and Jewish psychoanalysts (including Sigmund Freud and Hanns Sachs){{harvp|Langton|2010|pp=263–78}} have engaged with the apostle as one of the most influential figures in Western thought. Scholarly surveys of Jewish interest in Paul include those by Hagner (1980),BOOK, Hagner, Donald, Hagner, Donald, Paul in Modern Jewish Thought in Pauline Studies, 1980, Paternoster Press, Exeter, 143–65, Meissner (1996),BOOK, Meissner, Stefan, Die Heimholung des Ketzers, 1996, Mohr, Tübingen, and Langton (2010, 2011).{{harvp|Langton|2010}}BOOK, Langton, Daniel, Westerholm, Stephen, Jewish Readings of Paul in Blackwell Companion to Paul, 2011, Blackwell, 55–72, BOOK, Langton, Daniel, Levine, Amy-Jill, Paul in Jewish Thought in The Jewish Annotated New Testament, 2011, Oxford University Press, 585–87,


In the second (and possibly late first) century, Gnosticism was a competing religious tradition to Christianity which shared some elements of theology.Elaine Pagels concentrated on how the Gnostics interpreted Paul's letters and how evidence from gnostic sources may challenge the assumption that Paul wrote his letters to combat "gnostic opponents" and to repudiate their statement that they possess secret wisdom.Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Paul: Gnostic Exegesis of the Pauline Letters. Continuum International Publishing, 1992. {{ISBN|978-1563380396}}

Muslim views

Muslims have long believed that Paul purposefully corrupted the original revealed teachings of Jesus,BOOK, Ed Hindson, Ergun Caner, The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity, 1 May 2008, Harvest House Publishers, 978-0736936354, 280, BOOK, James De Young, Terrorism, Islam, and Christian Hope: Reflections on 9–11 and Resurging Islam, 9 Dec 2004, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 978-1597520058, 60, through the introduction of such elements as paganism,BOOK, Waardenburg, Jacques, Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions : A Historical Survey, 19 Aug 1999, Oxford University Press, 978-0195355765, 276, the making of Christianity into a theology of the cross,BOOK, Waardenburg, Jacques, Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions : A Historical Survey, 19 Aug 1999, Oxford University Press, 978-0195355765, 255, and introducing original sin and the need for redemption.BOOK, James De Young, Terrorism, Islam, and Christian Hope: Reflections on 9–11 and Resurging Islam, 9 Dec 2004, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 978-1597520058, 64, How did the original truth regarding God (Allah) come to be distorted? The culprit is the apostle Paul. Paul's concepts of original sin and the need for redemption are wrong because they contradict the teaching of the Old Testament (which denies that a son should suffer for the sins of his father; Deut. 24:16; Jer. 31:29–30; Ezek. 18:19–20); and they contradict the teaching of Jesus (John 9:1–3). Indeed, Paul's "revealed" version of Christianity was "fundamentally different from what the chosen disciples of Jesus knew to be the teaching of the Master, so that there was a serious conflict between Paul and the original followers of Christ" who never deviated from strict monotheism. [under 'Islam's Rejection of Christian Doctrine'], Sayf ibn Umar claimed that certain rabbis persuaded Paul to deliberately misguide early Christians by introducing what Ibn Hazm viewed as objectionable doctrines into Christianity.BOOK, Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm, 1 Jan 1996, Brill, 978-9004100343, 105–06, BOOK, Sean Anthony, The Caliph and the Heretic: Ibn Saba and the Origins of Shi'ism, 25 Nov 2011, Brill, 978-9004209305, 68, illustrated, Ibn Hazm repeated Sayf's claims.BOOK, Ross Brann, Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain, 21 Dec 2009, Princeton University Press, 978-1400825240, 65–66, Rabbi Jacob Qirqisani also believed that Paul created Christianity by introducing the doctrine of Trinity. Paul has been criticized by some modern Muslim thinkers. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas wrote that Paul misrepresented the message of Jesus,BOOK, Peter G. Riddell, Islam and the Malay-Indonesian World: Transmission and Responses, 2001, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0824824730, 235, illustrated, and Rashid Rida accused Paul of introducing shirk (polytheism) into Christianity.{{harvp|Waardenburg|1999|p=276}} Mohammad Ali Jouhar quoted Adolf von Harnack's critical writings of Paul.{{harvp|Waardenburg|1999|p=255}}In Sunni Muslim polemics, Paul plays the same role (of deliberately corrupting the early teachings of Jesus) as a later Jew, Abdullah ibn Saba', would play in seeking to destroy the message of Islam from within (by introducing proto-Shi'ite beliefs).BOOK, Ross Brann, Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain, 21 Dec 2009, Princeton University Press, 978-1400825240, 65–6, BOOK, Zoltan Pall, Lebanese Salafis Between the Gulf and Europe: Development, Fractionalization and Transnational Networks of Salafism in Lebanon, 2013, Amsterdam University Press, 978-9089644510, 55, Among those who supported this view were scholars Ibn Taymiyyah (who believed while Paul ultimately succeeded, Ibn Saba failed) and Ibn Hazm (who claimed that the Jews even admitted to Paul's sinister purpose).BOOK, Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm, 1 Jan 1996, Brill, 978-90-04-10034-3, 105–6,


Among the critics of Paul the Apostle was Thomas Jefferson, a Deist, who wrote that Paul was the "first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus."The Writings of Thomas Jefferson: Being his Autobiography, Correspondence, Reports, Messages, Addresses, and Other Writings, Official and Private. Published by the Order of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Library, from the Original Manuscripts, Deposited in the Department of State, With Explanatory Notes, Tables of Contents, and a Copious Index to Each Volume, as well as a General Index to the Whole, by the Editor H. A. Washington. Vol. VII. Published by Taylor Maury, Washington, D.C., 1854. Christian anarchists Leo TolstoyBOOK, Tolsoy, Leo, Church and State, 1882, This deviation begins from the time of the Apostle and especially after that hankerer after mastership Paul, and Ammon HennacyBOOK, Hennacy, Ammon, The Book of Ammon, 1970, take a similar view.

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Apostle (Christian)}}{{div col|colwidth=24em}} {{div col end}}







  • Aulén, Gustaf. Christus Victor (SPCK 1931)
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. {{ISBN|0-385-24767-2}}
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Church the Apostles left behind (Chapman 1984)
  • Bruce, F.F. "Is the Paul of Acts the Real Paul?" Bulletin John Rylands Library 58 (1976) 283–305
  • Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free ({{ISBN|0-8028-4778-1}})
  • Carson, D.A.; Moo, Douglas J. An Introduction to the New Testament {{ISBN|978-1-84474-089-5}}
  • Conzelmann, Hans, The Acts of the Apostles – A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (Augsburg Fortress 1987)
  • Davies, W.D. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. S.P.C.K., 3rd ed., 1970. {{ISBN|0-281-02449-9}}
  • Davies, W.D. "The Apostolic Age and the Life of Paul" in Matthew Black, ed. Peake's Commentary on the Bible. London: T. Nelson, 1962. {{ISBN|0-8407-5019-6}}
  • {{Citation | last =Dunn | first =James D.G. | year =1982 | title =The New Perspective on Paul. Manson Memprial Lecture, 4 November 1982}}
  • Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels (Grand Rapids (MI), Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2011)
  • Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul and the Law Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1990. {{ISBN|0-664-25095-5}}
  • {{Citation | last =Finlan | first =Stephen | year =2004 | title =The Background and Content of Paul's Cultic Atonement Metaphors | publisher =Society of Biblical Literature}}
  • Hanson, Anthony T. Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology. Eerdmans, 1974. {{ISBN|0-8028-3452-3}}
  • Holzbach, Mathis Christian, Die textpragmat. Bedeutung d. Kündereinsetzungen d. Simon Petrus u.d. Saulus Paulus im lukan. Doppelwerk, in: Jesus als Bote d. Heils. Stuttgart 2008, 166–72.
  • Horrell, David G. "An Introduction to the Study of Paul". T&T Clark Approaches to Biblical Studies. 2nd edition. London: T&T Clark, 2006
  • {{Citation | last =Hurtado |first =Larry |year =2005 | title =Lord Jesus Christ. Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity | publisher =Eerdmans}}
  • Kim, Yung Suk. A Theological Introduction to Paul's Letters. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011. {{ISBN|978-1-60899-793-0}}
  • BOOK, Langton, Daniel R., Daniel Langton, 2010, The Apostle Paul in the Jewish Imagination, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-51740-9, harv,
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. {{ISBN|0-06-015582-5}}
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983. {{ISBN|978-0664244644}}
  • {{Citation | last =Mack | first =Burton L. | year =1995 | authorlink =Burton L. Mack | title =Who wrote the New Testament? The making of the Christian myth | publisher =HarperSan Francisco | isbn =978-0-06-065517-4 | url = }}
  • {{Citation | last =Mack | first =Burton L. | year =1997 | orig-year =1995 | title =Wie schreven het Nieuwe Testament werkelijk? Feiten, mythen en motieven. (Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth) | publisher =Uitgeverij Ankh-Hermes bv}}
  • BOOK, McRay, John, 2007, Paul: His Life and Teaching, Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, MI, 978-1441205742, harv,
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Jesus and Paul: Parallel Lives (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2007) {{ISBN|0-8146-5173-9}}
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1995) {{ISBN|0-8146-5845-8}}
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul: A Critical Life (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996) {{ISBN|0-19-826749-5}}
  • BOOK, Ogg, George, Chronology of the New Testament, Matthew, Black, Peake's Commentary on the Bible, Peake's Commentary on the Bible, Nelson, 1962, 5847288M, harv,
  • Rashdall, Hastings, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919)
  • Ruef, John, Paul's First Letter to Corinth (Penguin 1971)
  • Sanders, E. P., Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977)
  • Segal, Alan F. Paul, the Convert, (New Haven/London, Yale University Press, 1990) {{ISBN|0-300-04527-1}}
  • Segal, Alan F., "Paul, the Convert and Apostle" in Rebecca's Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World (Harvard University Press 1986) {{ISBN|978-0674750760}}
  • Spong, John Shelby, "weblink" title="">The Man From Tarsus", in Rescuing the Bible From Fundamentalism, reprint ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1992).
  • {{Citation | last =Stendahl | first =Krister | year =1963 |title =The Apostle Paul and the Introspective Conscience of the West | journal =The Harvard Theological Review |volume=56 |issue=3 |pages=199–215 | url =| doi =10.1017/S0017816000024779 }}
  • BOOK, Waardenburg, Jacques, 1999, Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: A Historical Survey, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-535576-5, harv,
  • BOOK, White, L. Michael, L. Michael White, 2007, From Jesus to Christianity, HarperCollins, San Francisco, CA, 978-0-06-081610-0, harv,

Further reading

  • Bart D. Ehrman. Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend; 304 pages, Oxford University Press (March, 2008)
  • Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings; 608 pages, Oxford University Press (July, 2011); {{ISBN|978-0-19-975753-4}}
  • Efrain Agosto. Servant Leadership: Jesus and Paul; Chalice Press (November, 2012); {{ISBN|978-0-8272-3506-9}}
  • Hyam Maccoby. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity; 238 pages, Barnes & Noble Books (1998); {{ISBN|978-0-7607-0787-6}}
  • Hans-Joachim Schoeps. Paul: The Theology of the Apostle in the Light of Jewish Religious History (Library of Theological Translations); 34 pages, Lutterworth Press (July, 2002); {{ISBN|978-0-227-17013-7}}
  • Pinchas Lapide, Peter Stuhlmacher. Paul: Rabbi and Apostle; 77 pages, Augsburg Publishing House; (December 1984)
  • Pinchas Lapide, Leonard Swidler, Jürgen Moltmann. Jewish Monotheism and Christian Trinitarian Doctrine; 94 pages, Wipf & Stock Publishers (May, 2002)

External links

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