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{{for|other uses |Graffiti (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-protected|small=yes}}{{Multiple issues|{{original research|date=March 2019}}{{POV|date=March 2019}}}}{{short description|Drawings and paintings on walls}}
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- Graffiti Panorama rome.jpg -
Graffiti on the banks of the Tiber river in Rome, Italy
File:Graffiti Kom Ombo.JPG|thumb|Ancient graffito at Kom Ombo TempleKom Ombo TempleGraffiti (both singular and plural; the singular graffito is very rare in English except in archeology)The Italian singular form "graffito" is so rare in English (except in specialist texts on archeology) that it is not even recorded or mentioned in some dictionaries, for example the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English and the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.American Heritage Dictionary is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually as a form of artistic expression, without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire. In modern times, spray paint and marker pens have become commonly used graffiti materials, and there are many different types and styles of graffiti, it is a rapidly developing art form.Graffiti is a controversial subject. In most countries, marking or painting property without permission is considered by property owners and civic authorities as defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime, citing the use of graffiti by street gangs to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. WEB,weblink Why Gang Graffiti Is Dangerous - Los Angeles Police Department, www.lapdonline.org, en, 2018-02-19, On the other hand, graffiti artists, particularly marginalized artists with no access to mainstream media, resist this viewpoint to display their art or political views in public locations.The life of artist Jean-Michel Basquiat illustrates the subjective nature of the public response to graffiti. He started out as a street graffiti artist chased by authorities, and later one of his paintings sold for over $100,000,000.{{TOC limit|limit=3}}

Etymology

File:Graffiti signature commemorating Union of Lublin 01.jpg|thumb|1569 scratched graffiti in the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin, commemorating Union of LublinUnion of LublinBoth "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato ("scratched"). "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface. A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was primarily used by potters who would glaze their wares and then scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used. The word originates from Greek —graphein—meaning "to write".WEB,weblink graffiti {{!, Origin and meaning of graffiti by Online Etymology Dictionary|website=www.etymonline.com|language=en|access-date=2018-02-19}}

History

(File:Graffitti, Castellania, Malta.jpeg|thumb|left|Figure graffito, similar to a relief, at the Castellania, in Valletta) The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism.WEB, How Old Is Graffiti?,weblink Wonderopolis, 24 January 2017, The only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD.WEB,weblink Ancient Arabia: Languages and Cultures - Safaitic Database Online, dan, krc2.orient.ox.ac.uk, en-gb, 2018-02-19, WEB,weblink The Online Corpus of the Inscriptions of Ancient North Arabia - Safaitic, dan, krc.orient.ox.ac.uk, en-gb, 2018-02-19,

Modern-style graffiti

The first known example of "modern style"{{clarify|date=June 2018}} graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus (in modern-day Turkey). Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint, a number, and a carved image of a woman's head.The ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which also survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, and simple words of thought, compared to today's popular messages of social and political idealsThe eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, which includes Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, alphabets, political slogans, and famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute, apparently of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, mansueta tene ("handle with care").Disappointed love also found its way onto walls in antiquity:{{poemquote|Quisquis amat. veniat. Veneri volo frangere costasfustibus et lumbos debilitare deae.Si potest illa mihi tenerum pertundere pectusquit ego non possim caput illae frangere fuste?Whoever loves, go to hell. I want to break Venus's ribswith a club and deform her hips.If she can break my tender heartwhy can't I hit her over the head?|CIL IV, 1824.CIL IV, 4200 shows a failed attempt to write this little poem, maybe because the writer forgot the verses: see JOURNAL, 706251, Three Pompeian Wall-Inscriptions, and Petronius, The Classical Review, 53, 1, 5–9, Todd, F. A., 1939, 10.1017/S0009840X00088211, page 6 note 2 and BOOK,weblink Att Återupptäcka Pompeji, 9788870626865, Bretschneider, L'Erma di, 1990, page 39 note 85.}}Ancient tourists visiting the 5th-century citadel at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka scribbled over 1800 individual graffiti there between the 6th and 18th centuries. Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose, poetry, and commentary. The majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society: royalty, officials, professions, and clergy. There were also soldiers, archers, and even some metalworkers. The topics range from love to satire, curses, wit, and lament. Many demonstrate a very high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art and poetry. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there. One reads:{{poemquote|Wet with cool dew dropsfragrant with perfume from the flowerscame the gentle breezejasmine and water lilydance in the spring sunshineside-long glancesof the golden-hued ladiesstab into my thoughtsheaven itself cannot take my mindas it has been captivated by one lassamong the five hundred I have seen here.}}Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Yazid al-Himyari, an Umayyad Arab and Persian poet, was most known for writing his political poetry on the walls between Sajistan and Basra, manifesting a strong hatred towards the Umayyad regime and its walis, and people used to read and circulate them very widely.حسين مروّة، تراثنا كيف نعرفه، مؤسسة الأبحاث العربية، بيروت، 1986{{clarify|date=October 2014}}{{clarify|date=October 2014}}

Level of literacy often evident in graffiti

Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in these graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin. Examples are CIL IV, 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed[ilem] quactiliar[ii] {{sic}} rog[ant]. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co". The 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle which was being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens. The graffiti were left by both the foreman and his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18–20 contains more than 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients. The gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens (Suspirium puellarum Celadus thraex: "Celadus the Thracian makes the girls sigh.")Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine:{{poemquote|Landlord, may your lies malignBring destruction on your head!You yourself drink unmixed wine,Water [do you] sell [to] your guests instead.}}It was not only the Greeks and Romans who produced graffiti: the Maya site of Tikal in Guatemala contains examples of ancient Maya graffiti. Viking graffiti survive in Rome and at Newgrange Mound in Ireland, and a Varangian scratched his name (Halvdan) in runes on a banister in the Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. These early forms of graffiti have contributed to the understanding of lifestyles and languages of past cultures.Graffiti, known as Tacherons, were frequently scratched on Romanesque Scandinavian church walls.When Renaissance artists such as Pinturicchio, Raphael, Michelangelo, Ghirlandaio, or Filippino Lippi descended into the ruins of Nero's Domus Aurea, they carved or painted their names and returned to initiate the grottesche style of decoration.There are also examples of graffiti occurring in American history, such as Independence Rock, a national landmark along the Oregon Trail.WEB, Independence Rock - California National Historic Trail (National Park Service),weblink National Park Service, 18 January 2018, Later, French soldiers carved their names on monuments during the Napoleonic (French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1798|campaign of Egypt) in the 1790s. Lord Byron's survives on one of the columns of the Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion in Attica, Greece.Rufus est caricature villa misteri Pompeii.jpg|Ancient Pompeii graffito caricature of a politician2487(Admiror paries).jpg|Ironic wall inscription commenting on boring graffitiJesus graffito.jpg|Satirical Alexamenos graffito, possibly the earliest known representation of JesusAncientgrafS.jpg|Graffiti, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, JerusalemCrusader Graffiti in the Church of the holy supulchure Jerusalem Victor 2011 -1-21.jpg|Crusader graffiti in the Church of the Holy SepulchreHagia-sofia-viking.jpg|Viking mercenary graffiti at the Hagia Sofia in Istanbul, TurkeySigiriya-graffiti.jpg|Graffiti on the Mirror Wall, Sigiriya, Sri Lanka

Contemporary graffiti

Contemporary graffiti style has been heavily influenced by hip hop culture WEB,weblink Is Graffiti Really An Element Of Hip-Hop? (book excerpt), 10 February 2015, The Concise Guide to Hip-Hop Music, 23 August 2018, Paul, Edwards, and the myriad international styles derived from Philadelphia and New York City Subway graffiti, however, there are many other traditions of notable graffiti in the twentieth century. Graffiti have long appeared on building walls, in latrines, railroad boxcars, subways, and bridges.The oldest known example of modern graffiti are the "monikers" found on traincars created by hobos and railworkers since the late 1800s. The Bozo Texino monikers were documented by filmmaker Bill Daniel in his 2005 film, Who is Bozo Texino?.WEB,weblink Who Is Bozo Texino?, 22 July 2010, 23 August 2018, Bill, Daniel, WEB,weblink Who Is Bozo Texino?, 2005, Who Is Bozo Texino? The Secret History of Hobo Graffiti, 23 August 2018, Bill, Daniel, Some graffiti have their own poignancy. In World War II, an inscription on a wall at the fortress of Verdun was seen as an illustration of the US response twice in a generation to the wrongs of the Old World:NEWS,weblink Words From a War, 14 August 1985, The New York Times, 2 January 2017, {{poemquote|Austin White – Chicago, Ill – 1918Austin White – Chicago, Ill – 1945This is the last time I want to write my name here.}}During World War II and for decades after, the phrase "Kilroy was here" with an accompanying illustration was widespread throughout the world, due to its use by American troops and ultimately filtering into American popular culture. Shortly after the death of Charlie Parker (nicknamed "Yardbird" or "Bird"), graffiti began appearing around New York with the words "Bird Lives". The student protests and general strike of May 1968 saw Paris bedecked in revolutionary, anarchistic, and situationist slogans such as L'ennui est contre-révolutionnaire ("Boredom is counterrevolutionary") expressed in painted graffiti, poster art, and stencil art. At the time in the US, other political phrases (such as "Free Huey" about Black Panther Huey Newton) became briefly popular as graffiti in limited areas, only to be forgotten. A popular graffito of the early 1970s was "Dick Nixon Before He Dicks You", reflecting the hostility of the youth culture to that US president.Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-309-0816-20A, Italien, Soldat zeichnend.jpg|Soldier with tropical fantasy graffiti (1943–1944)Graffiti inside the ruins of the German Reichstag building.jpg|Soviet Army graffiti in the ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin (1945)Kilroy Was Here - Washington DC WWII Memorial - Jason Coyne.jpg|Permanent engraving of Kilroy on the World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Advent of aerosol paint

Rock and roll graffiti is a significant subgenre. A famous graffito of the twentieth century was the inscription in the London tube reading "Clapton is God" in a link to the guitarist Eric Clapton. The phrase was spray-painted by an admirer on a wall in an Islington station on the Underground in the autumn of 1967. The graffito was captured in a photograph, in which a dog is urinating on the wall.Graffiti also became associated with the anti-establishment punk rock movement beginning in the 1970s. Bands such as Black Flag and Crass (and their followers) widely stenciled their names and logos, while many punk night clubs, squats, and hangouts are famous for their graffiti. In the late 1980s the upside down Martini glass that was the tag for punk band Missing Foundation was the most ubiquitous graffito in lower Manhattan{{According to whom|date=March 2019}}NYC R36 1 subway car.png|New York City Subway trains were covered in graffiti (1973)GRAFFITI ON A WALL IN CHICAGO. SUCH WRITING HAS ADVANCED AND BECOME AN ART FORM, PARTICULARLY IN METROPOLITAN AREAS.... - NARA - 556232.jpg|Graffiti in Chicago (1973)

Spread of hip hop culture

In 1979, graffitists Lee Quinones and Fab 5 Freddy were given a gallery opening in Rome by art dealer Claudio Bruni. For many outside of New York, it was their first encounter with their art form. Fab 5 Freddy's friendship with Debbie Harry influenced Blondie's single "Rapture" (Chrysalis, 1981), the video of which featured Jean-Michel Basquiat, and offered many their first glimpse of a depiction of elements of graffiti in hip hop culture. JaJaJa toured Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, and Holland with a large graffiti canvas as a backdrop. Charlie Ahearn's independently released fiction film Wild Style (Wild Style, 1983), the early PBS documentary Style Wars (1983), hit songs such as "The Message" and "Planet Rock" and their accompanying music videos (both 1982) contributed to a growing interest outside New York in all aspects of hip hop.Style Wars depicted not only famous graffitists such as Skeme, Dondi, MinOne, and ZEPHYR, but also reinforced graffiti's role within New York's emerging hip-hop culture by incorporating famous early break-dancing groups such as Rock Steady Crew into the film and featuring rap in the soundtrack. Although many officers of the New York City Police Department found this film to be controversial, Style Wars is still recognized as the most prolific film representation of what was going on within the young hip hop culture of the early 1980s. Fab 5 Freddy and Futura 2000 took hip hop graffiti to Paris and London as part of the New York City Rap Tour in 1983. Hollywood also paid attention, consulting writers such as PHASE 2 as it depicted the culture and gave it international exposure in movies such as Beat Street (Orion, 1984).

Stencil graffiti emerges

This period also saw the emergence of the new stencil graffiti genre. Some of the first examples were created in 1981 by graffitists Blek le Rat in Paris, in 1982 by Jef Aerosol in Tours (France);{{citation needed|date=October 2015}} by 1985 stencils had appeared in other cities including New York City, Sydney, and Melbourne, where they were documented by American photographer Charles Gatewood and Australian photographer Rennie Ellis.TankStencil.jpg|Modern stencil graffiti, a very common style, in Toronto, Ontario, Canadabanksy.on.the.thekla.arp.jpg|Stencil by Banksy on the waterline of The Thekla, an entertainment boat in central BristolI-barc.JPG|Stencil in Barcelona, SpainGraffiti in Tartu 03.JPG|Stencil graffito by Edward von Lõngus in Tartu, Estonia, that takes a popular children's book character and manipulates it to produce a social-critical work about the war on drugsGraffiti in Lisbon.jpg|Graffiti in Lisbon, Portugal

Graffiti as a memorial

People often leave their traces in wet cement or concrete. This type of graffito often commemorates the mutual commitment of a couple, or simply records a person's presence at a particular moment. Often this type of graffito is dated and is left untouched for decades, offering a look into local historical minutiae.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}

Commercialization and entrance into mainstream pop culture

With the popularity and legitimization of graffiti has come a level of commercialization. In 2001, computer giant IBM launched an advertising campaign in Chicago and San Francisco which involved people spray painting on sidewalks a peace symbol, a heart, and a penguin (Linux mascot), to represent "Peace, Love, and Linux." IBM paid Chicago and San Francisco collectively US$120,000 for punitive damages and clean-up costs.In 2005, a similar ad campaign was launched by Sony and executed by its advertising agency in New York, Chicago, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Miami, to market its handheld PSP gaming system. In this campaign, taking notice of the legal problems of the IBM campaign, Sony paid building owners for the rights to paint on their buildings "a collection of dizzy-eyed urban kids playing with the PSP as if it were a skateboard, a paddle, or a rocking horse".

Gamer culture

Along with the commercial growth has come the rise of video games also depicting graffiti, usually in a positive aspect – for example, the Jet Set Radio series (2000–2003) tells the story of a group of teens fighting the oppression of a totalitarian police force that attempts to limit the graffitists' freedom of speech. In plotlines mirroring the negative reaction of non-commercial artists to the commercialization of the art form by companies such as IBM (and, later, Sony itself) the Rakugaki Ōkoku series (2003–2005) for Sony's PlayStation 2 revolves around an anonymous hero and his magically imbued-with-life graffiti creations as they struggle against an evil king who only allows art to be produced which can benefit him. Following the original roots of modern graffiti as a political force came another game title, (Marc Eckō's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure) (2006), featuring a story line involving fighting against a corrupt city and its oppression of free speech, as in the Jet Set Radio series.Other games which feature graffiti include Bomb the World (2004), an online graffiti simulation created by graffitists Klark Kent where users can paint trains virtually at 20 locations worldwide, and Super Mario Sunshine (2002), in which the hero, Mario must clean the city of graffiti left by the villain, Bowser Jr. in a plotline which evokes the successes of the Anti-Graffiti Task Force of New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani (a manifestation of the "broken window theory") or those of the "Graffiti Blasters" of Chicago's Mayor Richard M. Daley.Numerous other non-graffiti-centric video games allow the player to produce graffiti (such as the Half-Life series, the Tony Hawk's series, (The Urbz: Sims in the City), Rolling, and (Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas)). Counter-Strike, which is a Half-Life mod, allows users to create their own graffiti tags to use in the game. Many other titles contain in-game depictions of graffiti, including The Darkness, (Double Dragon (series)#Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone|Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone), NetHack, (Samurai Champloo: Sidetracked), The World Ends with You, The Warriors, Just Cause, Portal, and various examples of Virtual Graffiti. There also exist games where the term "graffiti" is used as a synonym for "drawing" (such as Yahoo! Graffiti, Graffiti, etc.).

Advocates

Marc Ecko, an urban clothing designer, has been an advocate of graffiti as an art form during this period, stating that "Graffiti is without question the most powerful art movement in recent history and has been a driving inspiration throughout my career."Henry Chalfant is one of the foremost advocates of modern graffiti, having produced the documentary film Style Wars and co-authored the books Subway Art and Spray Can Art. His most recent work, Henry Chalfant's Graffiti Archive: New York City's Subway Art and Artists displays his over 800 photographs of New York City Subway Graffiti Art.Keith Haring was another well-known graffitists who brought Pop Art and graffiti to the commercial mainstream. In the 1980s, Haring opened his first Pop Shop: a store that offered everyone access to his works, which until then could only be found spray-painted on city walls. Pop Shop offered commodities such as bags and t-shirts. Haring explained that "The Pop Shop makes my work accessible. It's about participation on a big level, the point was that we didn't want to produce things that would cheapen the art. In other words, this was still art as statement."WEB,weblink Pop Shop, 2018, The Keith Haring Foundation Website, 23 August 2018, Keith, Haring, Graffiti have become a common stepping stone for many members of both the art and design communities in North America and abroad. Within the United States graffitists such as Mike Giant, Pursue, Rime, Noah, and countless others have made careers in skateboard, apparel, and shoe design for companies such as DC Shoes, Adidas, Rebel8, Osiris, or Circa Meanwhile, there are many others such as DZINE, Daze, Blade, and The Mac who have made the switch to being gallery artists, often not even using their initial medium, spray paint.

Global developments

South America

Tristan Manco wrote that Brazil "boasts a unique and particularly rich, graffiti scene ... [earning] it an international reputation as the place to go for artistic inspiration." Graffiti "flourishes in every conceivable space in Brazil's cities." Artistic parallels "are often drawn between the energy of São Paulo today and 1970s New York." The "sprawling metropolis," of São Paulo has "become the new shrine to graffiti;" Manco alludes to "poverty and unemployment ... [and] the epic struggles and conditions of the country's marginalised peoples," and to "Brazil's chronic poverty," as the main engines that "have fuelled a vibrant graffiti culture." In world terms, Brazil has "one of the most uneven distributions of income. Laws and taxes change frequently." Such factors, Manco argues, contribute to a very fluid society, riven with those economic divisions and social tensions that underpin and feed the "folkloric vandalism and an urban sport for the disenfranchised," that is South American graffiti art.(File:Graffiti in Tel Aviv, Israel.jpg|thumb|180px|A graffiti piece found in Tel Aviv by the artist DeDe)Prominent Brazilian graffitists include Os Gêmeos, Boleta, Nunca, Nina, Speto, Tikka, and T.Freak. Their artistic success and involvement in commercial design ventures has highlighted divisions within the Brazilian graffiti community between adherents of the cruder transgressive form of pichação and the more conventionally artistic values of the practitioners of grafite.

Middle East

Graffiti in the Middle East is emerging slowly, with pockets of taggers operating in the various 'Emirates' of the United Arab Emirates, in Israel, and in Iran. The major Iranian newspaper Hamshahri has published two articles on illegal writers in the city with photographic coverage of Iranian artist A1one's works on Tehran walls. Tokyo-based design magazine, PingMag, has interviewed A1one and featured photographs of his work. The Israeli West Bank barrier has become a site for graffiti, reminiscent in this sense of the Berlin Wall. Many graffitists in Israel come from other places around the globe, such as JUIF from Los Angeles and DEVIONE from London. The religious reference "נ נח נחמ נחמן מאומן" ("Na Nach Nachma Nachman Meuman") is commonly seen in graffiti around Israel.

Southeast Asia

There are also a large number of graffiti influences in Southeast Asian countries that mostly come from modern Western culture, such as Malaysia, where graffiti have long been a common sight in Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur. Since 2010, the country has begun hosting a street festival to encourage all generations and people from all walks of life to enjoy and encourage Malaysian street culture.Grafiti, Čakovec (Croatia).2.jpg|Graffiti on a wall in Čakovec, CroatiaGraffiti in Budapest, Pestszentlőrinc.jpg|Graffiti of the character Bender on a wall in Budapest, HungaryMAAU-SP.jpg|Open Museum of Urban Art of São Paulo, BrazilGraffiti in Ho Chi Minh City.JPG|Graffiti in Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamTehranurbanartalone.jpg|Graffiti in Tehran, IranMr. Wany's work-in-progress artwork for Kul Sign Festival.JPG|Graffiti art in Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaGraffiti in Upper Manhattan November 3, 2013.jpg|Graffiti on a retaining wall in Upper ManhattanGraffiti in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.jpg|Graffiti in Yogyakarta, IndonesiaGraffiti in Bangkok 12.jpg|Graffiti in Bangkok, Thailand

Characteristics of common graffiti

{{See also|Graffiti terminology|Graffiti in the United States}}

Methods and production

The modern-day graffitists can be found with an arsenal of various materials that allow for a successful production of a piece. This includes such techniques as scribing. However, spray paint in aerosol cans is the number one medium for graffiti. From this commodity comes different styles, technique, and abilities to form master works of graffiti. Spray paint can be found at hardware and art stores and comes in virtually every color.Stencil graffiti is created by cutting out shapes and designs in a stiff material (such as cardboard or subject folders) to form an overall design or image. The stencil is then placed on the "canvas" gently and with quick, easy strokes of the aerosol can, the image begins to appear on the intended surface.File:Vlg shop.jpg|The first graffiti shop in Russia was opened in 1992 in TverFile:Eurofestival graffiti 2.jpg|Graffiti application at Eurofestival in Turku, FinlandFile:Graffity in the making...(On a wall at Thrissur) CIMG9868.JPG|Graffiti application in India using natural pigments (mostly charcoal, plant saps, and dirt)File:Graffity in the making...(On a wall at Thrissur) CIMG9873.jpg|Completed landscape scene, in Thrissur, Kerala, IndiaFile:Leake Street TQ3079 352.JPG|A graffiti artist at work in London

Modern experimentation

File:Knitted graffiti 1.jpg|thumb|right|Knitted graffiti in Seattle, Washington ]](File:Spiderweb Yarnbomb Installation by Stephen Duneier.JPG|thumbnail|Spiderweb Yarnbomb Installation by Stephen Duneier both hides and highlights previous graffiti.)Modern graffiti art often incorporates additional arts and technologies. For example, Graffiti Research Lab has encouraged the use of projected images and magnetic light-emitting diodes (throwies) as new media for graffitists. Yarnbombing is another recent form of graffiti. Yarnbombers occasionally target previous graffiti for modification, which had been avoided among the majority of graffitists.

Tagging

File:Tag by Spore.jpg|thumb|A tag in DallasDallas{{unreferenced section|date=May 2015}}File:Grafitti on Class 376 train at Cannon Street.jpg|thumb|A tagged {{BRC|376}} train at Cannon Street stationCannon Street stationSome of the most common styles of graffiti have their own names. A tag is the most basic writing of an artist's name; it is simply a handstyle. A graffiti writer's tag is his or her personalized signature. Tagging is often the example given when opponents of graffiti refer to any acts of handstyle graffiti writing (it is by far the most common form of graffiti). Tags can contain subtle and sometimes cryptic messages, and may incorporate the artist's crew initials or other letters.One form of tagging, known as pissing, involves taking a refillable fire-extinguisher and replacing the contents with paint, allowing for tags as high as approximately {{convert|20|ft|m}}. Aiming and keeping a handstyle steady in this form of tagging is very difficult, usually coming out wavy and sloppy.Another form is the throw-up, also known as a bombing, which is normally painted very quickly with two or three colors, sacrificing aesthetics for speed. Throw-ups can also be outlined on a surface with one color. A piece is a more elaborate representation of the artist's name, incorporating more stylized letters, usually incorporating a much larger range of colors. This is more time-consuming and increases the likelihood of the artist getting caught. File: Graffiti under a bridge in Poland.jpg|thumb|Throw-ups and a piece under a railway bridge in PolandPolandA blockbuster or roller is a large piece, almost always done in a block-shaped style, done simply to cover a large area solidly with two contrasting colors, sometimes with the whole purpose of blocking other writers from painting on the same wall. These are usually accomplished with extended paint rollers and gallons of cheap exterior paint.A more complex style is wildstyle, a form of graffiti usually involving interlocking letters and connecting points. These pieces are often harder to read by non-graffitists as the letters merge into one another in an often-undecipherable manner.Some artists also use self-adhesive stickers as a quick way to do catch ups. While certain critics from within graffiti culture consider this lazy, stickers can be quite detailed in their own right and often, are used in conjunction with other materials. Sticker tags are commonly executed on blank postage stickers, as these can easily be acquired with no cost on the writer's part.Many graffitists believe that doing complex pieces involves too great an investment of time to justify the practice. Doing a piece can take (depending on experience and size) from 30 minutes to months on end, as was the case for Saber MSK while working on the world's largest graffiti piece on the LA river.Another graffitists can go over a piece in a matter of minutes with a simple throw-up. This was exemplified by the writer "CAP" in the documentary Style Wars, who, other writers complain, ruins pieces with his quick throw ups. This became known as capping and often is done when there is a "beef", or conflict between writers.A number of recent examples of graffiti make use of hashtags.weblink "Hashtag on the pavement connects with Fitzrovia's past", Fitzrovia News, 23 July 2015, Retrieved 17 January 2016weblink "#RISKROCK #GRAFFITI IN #SANFRANCISCO", Mass Appeal, Retrieved 17 January 2016.{{wide image|Graffiti i baggård i århus 2c.jpg|1300px|align-cap=center|Densely-tagged parking area in Århus, Denmark|center|}}

Uses

Theories on the use of graffiti by avant-garde artists have a history dating back at least to the Asger Jorn, who in 1962 painting declared in a graffiti-like gesture "the avant-garde won't give up".BOOK, Expression as vandalism: Asger Jorn's "Modifications", The University of Chicago Press, Karen Kurczynski, 2008, 293, Many contemporary analysts and even art critics have begun to see artistic value in some graffiti and to recognize it as a form of public art. According to many art researchers, particularly in the Netherlands and in Los Angeles, that type of public art is, in fact an effective tool of social emancipation or, in the achievement of a political goal.In times of conflict, such murals have offered a means of communication and self-expression for members of these socially, ethnically, or racially divided communities, and have proven themselves as effective tools in establishing dialog and thus, of addressing cleavages in the long run. The Berlin Wall was also extensively covered by graffiti reflecting social pressures relating to the oppressive Soviet rule over the GDR.Many artists involved with graffiti are also concerned with the similar activity of stenciling. Essentially, this entails stenciling a print of one or more colors using spray-paint. Recognized while exhibiting and publishing several of her coloured stencils and paintings portraying the Sri Lankan Civil War and urban Britain in the early 2000s, graffitists Mathangi Arulpragasam, aka M.I.A., has also become known for integrating her imagery of political violence into her music videos for singles "Galang" and "Bucky Done Gun", and her cover art. Stickers of her artwork also often appear around places such as London in Brick Lane, stuck to lamp posts and street signs, she having become a muse for other graffitists and painters worldwide in cities including Seville.

Personal expression

Many graffitists choose to protect their identities and remain anonymous or to hinder prosecution.With the commercialization of graffiti (and hip hop in general), in most cases, even with legally painted "graffiti" art, graffitists tend to choose anonymity. This may be attributed to various reasons or a combination of reasons. Graffiti still remains the one of four hip hop elements that is not considered "performance art" despite the image of the "singing and dancing star" that sells hip hop culture to the mainstream. Being a graphic form of art, it might also be said that many graffitists still fall in the category of the introverted archetypal artist.Banksy is one of the world's most notorious and popular street artists who continues to remain faceless in today's society. He is known for his political, anti-war stencil art mainly in Bristol, England, but his work may be seen anywhere from Los Angeles to Palestine. In the UK, Banksy is the most recognizable icon for this cultural artistic movement and keeps his identity a secret to avoid arrest. Much of Banksy's artwork may be seen around the streets of London and surrounding suburbs, although he has painted pictures throughout the world, including the Middle East, where he has painted on Israel's controversial West Bank barrier with satirical images of life on the other side. One depicted a hole in the wall with an idyllic beach, while another shows a mountain landscape on the other side. A number of exhibitions also have taken place since 2000, and recent works of art have fetched vast sums of money. Banksy's art is a prime example of the classic controversy: vandalism vs. art. Art supporters endorse his work distributed in urban areas as pieces of art and some councils, such as Bristol and Islington, have officially protected them, while officials of other areas have deemed his work to be vandalism and have removed it.Pixnit is another artist who chooses to keep her identity from the general public. Her work focuses on beauty and design aspects of graffiti as opposed to Banksy's anti-government shock value. Her paintings are often of flower designs above shops and stores in her local urban area of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Some store owners endorse her work and encourage others to do similar work as well. "One of the pieces was left up above Steve's Kitchen, because it looks pretty awesome"- Erin Scott, the manager of New England Comics in Allston, Massachusetts.{{Citation needed|date=October 2015}}Graffiti at the Temple of Philae (XIII).jpg|Drawing at Temple of Philae, Egypt depicting three men with rods, or staves.4091(Quisquis amat).jpg|Inscription in Pompeii lamenting a frustrated love, "Whoever loves, let him flourish, let him perish who knows not love, let him perish twice over whoever forbids love."Post Apocalyptic Zombie Graffiti, Jan 2015.jpg|Post-apocalyptic despairMermaid Sliema.JPG|Mermaid in Sliema, Malta

Radical and political

File:M2109 Iraq War Protest (Black Bloc Element).jpg|thumb|upright=1.05|Black bloc members spray graffiti on a wall during an Iraq War Protest in Washington, D.C.]]Graffiti often has a reputation as part of a subculture that rebels against authority, although the considerations of the practitioners often diverge and can relate to a wide range of attitudes. It can express a political practice and can form just one tool in an array of resistance techniques. One early example includes the anarcho-punk band Crass, who conducted a campaign of stenciling anti-war, anarchist, feminist, and anti-consumerist messages throughout the London Underground system during the late 1970s and early 1980s. In Amsterdam graffiti was a major part of the punk scene. The city was covered with names such as "De Zoot", "Vendex", and "Dr Rat". To document the graffiti a punk magazine was started that was called Gallery Anus. So when hip hop came to Europe in the early 1980s there was already a vibrant graffiti culture.The student protests and general strike of May 1968 saw Paris bedecked in revolutionary, anarchistic, and situationist slogans such as L'ennui est contre-révolutionnaire ("Boredom is counterrevolutionary") and Lisez moins, vivez plus ("Read less, live more"). While not exhaustive, the graffiti gave a sense of the 'millenarian' and rebellious spirit, tempered with a good deal of verbal wit, of the strikers.The developments of graffiti art which took place in art galleries and colleges as well as "on the street" or "underground", contributed to the resurfacing in the 1990s of a far more overtly politicized art form in the subvertising, culture jamming, or tactical media movements. These movements or styles tend to classify the artists by their relationship to their social and economic contexts, since, in most countries, graffiti art remains illegal in many forms except when using non-permanent paint. Since the 1990s with the rise of Street Art, a growing number of artists are switching to non-permanent paints and non-traditional forms of paintingWEB,weblink Temporary Street Art That's Changing The Graffiti Game, Ziptopia, STEVEN, HARRINGTON, 26 August 2018, WEB,weblink Street Art: It's Not Meant to be Permanent, Huffington Post, Ron, English, 6 Dec 2017, 26 August 2018, for a variety of reasons—but primarily because is it difficult for the police to apprehend them and for the courts to sentence or even convict a person for a protest that is as fleeting and less intrusive than marching in the streets. In some communities, such impermanent works survive longer than works created with permanent paints because the community views the work in the same vein as that of the civil protester who marches in the street—such protest are impermanent, but effective nevertheless.In some areas where a number of artists share the impermanence ideal, an informal competition develops: the length of time that a work escapes destruction is viewed as a measure of the respect the work garners in the community. A crude work that deserves little respect would be invariably removed immediately, while the most talented artists might have works last for days.Contemporary practitioners, accordingly, have varied and often conflicting practices. Some individuals, such as Alexander Brener, have used the medium to politicize other art forms, and have used the prison sentences enforced on them as a means of further protest.The practices of anonymous groups and individuals also vary widely, and practitioners by no means always agree with each other's practices. For example, the anti-capitalist art group the Space Hijackers did a piece in 2004 about the contradiction between the capitalistic elements of Banksy and his use of political imagery.WEB,weblink Banksy, Tanya Baxter Contemporary Gallery, 26 August 2018, WEB,weblink Banksy, Haynes Fine Art, 26 August 2018, On top of the political aspect of graffiti as a movement, political groups and individuals may also use graffiti as a tool to spread their point of view. This practice, due to its illegality, has generally become favored by groups excluded from the political mainstream (e.g. far-left or far-right groups) who justify their activity by pointing out that they do not have the money – or sometimes the desire – to buy advertising to get their message across, and that a "ruling class" or "establishment" controls the mainstream press, systematically excluding the radical and alternative point of view. This type of graffiti can seem crude; for example fascist supporters often scrawl swastikas and other Nazi images.One innovative form of graffiti that emerged in the UK in the 1970s was devised by the Money Liberation Front (MLF), essentially a loose affiliation of underground press writers such as the poet and playwright Heathcote Williams and magazine editor and playwright Jay Jeff Jones. They initiated the use of paper currency as a medium for counterculture propaganda, overprinting banknotes, usually with a John Bull printing set. Although short lived, the MLF was representative of London's Ladbroke Grove centered alternative and literary community of the period. The area was also a scene of considerable anti-establishment and humorous street graffiti, much of which is also produced by Williams. In 2009, following the elections in Iran, protesters (who regarded the electoral result as rigged) began to deface banknotes with slogans such as "Death to the dictator". In Colombia writing and drawing on banknotes has become increasingly popular, either to make political comments, for fun or as an artistic medium. The national government has run advertising campaigns in an attempt to discourage the practice. In the UK there have been signs of an MLF resurgence with a number of banknotes in circulation being over-marked with protest slogans such as "Banks=Robbers", relating to the perceived culpability of banks in the financial crisis.Both sides of the conflict in Northern Ireland produce political graffiti. As well as slogans, Northern Irish political graffiti includes large wall paintings, referred to as murals. Along with the flying of flags and the painting of kerb stones, the murals serve a territorial purpose, often associated with gang use. Artists paint them mostly on house gables or on the Peace Lines, high walls that separate different communities.The murals often develop over an extended period and tend to stylization, with a strong symbolic or iconographic content. Loyalist murals often refer to historical events dating from the war between James II and William III in the late seventeenth century, whereas Republican murals usually refer to the more recent troubles.Territorial graffiti marks urban neighborhoods with tags and logos to differentiate certain groups from others. These images are meant to show outsiders a stern look at whose turf is whose. The subject matter of gang-related graffiti consists of cryptic symbols and initials strictly fashioned with unique calligraphies. Gang members use graffiti to designate membership throughout the gang, to differentiate rivals and associates and, most commonly, to mark borders which are both territorial and ideological.Nablus Graffiti Resistance Victor Grigas 2011-01-76.jpg|Wall in Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (2011)Vote for Filip Filipovic.jpg|Wall in Sremska Street in Belgrade, Serbia, with the slogan "Vote for Filip Filipović", who was the communist candidate for the mayor of Belgrade (1920)The separation barrier which runs through Bethlehem.jpg|An interpretation of Liberty Leading the People on the separation barrier which runs through BethlehemBerlinAnhalterBunker.jpg|WWII bunker near Anhalter Bahnhof (Berlin) with a graffiti inscription Wer Bunker baut, wirft Bomben (those who build bunkers, throw bombs)Gates in the 'Peace Line'.jpg|Gates in a peace line in West Belfast, marking the boundary between segregated communities in Northern IrelandAmsterdam Grafitti Freedom Lives When the State Dies.png|Graffiti on the train line leading to Central Station in AmsterdamRiia-002.JPG|"Let's JOKK" in Tartu refers to political scandal with the Estonian Reform Party (2012)Mural painting celebrating Pol Pot in Sundsvall.jpg|Mural tribute to Cambodian revolutionary leader Pol Pot in Sundsvall, Sweden (2007)Moscow Russia anti-Putin Graffiti R-EVOLUTION-2.jpg|"R-evolution" stencil pro-Putin graffito in Moscow, Russia (2012)Egyptian Anonymous - ثورة الاحفاد هترجع الامجاد.jpg|Egyptian stencil combining a Pharaonic image with a Guy Fawkes maskPieksämäki - Kekkos-graffiti IMG 0227 C.JPG|Stencil in Pieksämäki representing former president of Finland, Urho Kekkonen, well known in Finnish popular cultureOneWaytoPeace Donated By Matthew Staben DivineSnapshots.com Sept.19.2010.jpg|Peace symbol added to traffic signKeep your rosaries graffiti.jpg|Feminist graffiti in A Coruña, Spain that reads in Galician: "Keep your rosaries off our ovaries"Australia steals Timor Oil.jpg|East Timorese protest against Australian petroleum extractionGraffiti in Montclair.JPG|Graffiti as a method of expressing sexual orientation in Montclair, CaliforniaSanctuary - Berlin Wall.JPG|Picture of two Eastern Bloc leaders kissing, on the Berlin WallBethlehem Wall Graffiti 1.jpg|Ironic graffiti in BethlehemGraffiti Należysz do stada?.JPG|This Polish graffiti asks, "Do you belong to the herd?"Keizer artwork.JPG|Protest stencil in Cairo, Egypt (2011)Berliner Mauer.jpg|Berlin Wall: "Anyone who wants to keep the world as it is, does not want it to remain"Georgia (666).jpg|Graffiti of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler with sign Diarrhea above, Tbilisi

As advertising

{{Unreferenced section|date=March 2009}}Graffiti has been used as a means of advertising both legally and illegally. Bronx-based TATS CRU has made a name for themselves doing legal advertising campaigns for companies such as Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Toyota, and MTV. In the UK, Covent Garden's Boxfresh used stencil images of a Zapatista revolutionary in the hopes that cross referencing would promote their store.Smirnoff hired artists to use reverse graffiti (the use of high pressure hoses to clean dirty surfaces to leave a clean image in the surrounding dirt) to increase awareness of their product. Shepard Fairey rose to fame after his "Andre the Giant Has a Posse" sticker campaign, in which his art was plastered in cities throughout America.1969(Lais felat).jpg|Ancient Pompeiian graffiti advertising by a pimpGrafitti as advertising in China 02.jpg|Graffiti as advertising in Haikou, Hainan Province, China, which is an extremely common form of graffiti seen throughout the countryWarszawa Stary Mokotów graffiti on shop window.jpg|Graffiti as legal advertising on a grocer's shop window in Warsaw, Poland

Offensive graffiti

File:Stop graffitti.jpg|thumb|Gang symbol markings on public property, Millwood, WashingtonMillwood, WashingtonGraffiti may also be used as an offensive expression. This form of graffiti may be difficult to identify, as it is mostly removed by the local authority (as councils which have adopted strategies of criminalization also strive to remove graffiti quickly). Therefore, existing racist graffiti is mostly more subtle and at first sight, not easily recognized as "racist". It can then only be understood if one knows the relevant "local code" (social, historical, political, temporal, and spatial), which is seen as heteroglot and thus a 'unique set of conditions' in a cultural context.
A spatial code for example, could be that there is a certain youth group in an area that is engaging heavily in racist activities. So, for residents (knowing the local code), a graffiti containing only the name or abbreviation of this gang already is a racist expression, reminding the offended people of their gang activities. Also a graffiti is in most cases, the herald of more serious criminal activity to come. A person who does not know these gang activities would not be able to recognize the meaning of this graffiti. Also if a tag of this youth group or gang is placed on a building occupied by asylum seekers, for example, its racist character is even stronger.
By making the graffiti less explicit (as adapted to social and legal constraints), these drawings are less likely to be removed, but do not lose their threatening and offensive character.Elsewhere, activists in Russia have used painted caricatures of local officials with their mouths as potholes, to show their anger about the poor state of the roads.NEWS, Schreck, Carl, 2015-06-19, Russian politicians mocked with guerrilla pothole portraits,weblink New East Network, 2015-09-24, In Manchester, England a graffitists painted obscene images around potholes, which often resulted in their being repaired within 48 hours.NEWS, 2015-04-29, Meet the man using penises to fill potholes,weblink The Telegraph, 2015-09-24,

Decorative and high art

File:JonesyLondon.jpg|thumb|upright|A bronze work by Jonesy on a wall in Brick Lane (LondonLondonIn the early 1980s, the first art galleries to show graffitists to the public were Fashion Moda in the Bronx, Now Gallery and Fun Gallery, both in the East Village, Manhattan.JOURNAL,weblink From the Street to Art Galleries : How Graffiti Became a Legitimate Art Form, 2014, 26 August 2018, Open Edition, David, diallo, WEB,weblink 35 Years After Fashion Moda, a Bronx Gallery Revisits the Landmark Space, August 6, 2015, 26 August 2018, Hyperallergic, Tiernan, Morgan, NEWS,weblink When a South Bronx Collective Went International, March 23, 2012, 26 August 2018, New York Times, SUSAN, HODARA, WEB,weblink The legacy of Fashion Moda, a shuttered art and performance space, to be spotlighted, 15 February 2013, 26 August 2018, New York Daily News, TANYANIKA, SAMUELS, A 2006 exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum displayed graffiti as an art form that began in New York's outer boroughs and reached great heights in the early 1980s with the work of Crash, Lee, Daze, Keith Haring, and Jean-Michel Basquiat. It displayed 22 works by New York graffitists, including Crash, Daze, and Lady Pink. In an article about the exhibition in the magazine Time Out, curator Charlotta Kotik said that she hoped the exhibition would cause viewers to rethink their assumptions about graffiti. Terrance Lindall, an artist and executive director of the Williamsburg Art and Historic Center, said regarding graffiti and the exhibition:"Graffiti is revolutionary, in my opinion", he says, "and any revolution might be considered a crime. People who are oppressed or suppressed need an outlet, so they write on walls—it's free."From the 1970s onwards, Burhan Dogancay photographed urban walls all over the world; these he then archived for use as sources of inspiration for his painterly works. The project today known as "Walls of the World" grew beyond even his own expectations and comprises about 30,000 individual images. It spans a period of 40 years across five continents and 114 countries. In 1982, photographs from this project comprised a one-man exhibition titled "Les murs murmurent, ils crient, ils chantent..." (The walls whisper, shout and sing ...) at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.In Australia, art historians have judged some local graffiti of sufficient creative merit to rank them firmly within the arts. Oxford University Press's art history text Australian Painting 1788–2000 concludes with a long discussion of graffiti's key place within contemporary visual culture, including the work of several Australian practitioners.Between March and April 2009, 150 artists exhibited 300 pieces of graffiti at the Grand Palais in Paris — a clear acceptance of the art form into the French art world.Figurines by KAWS, featuring icons of pop culture, often with crossed-out eyes, run in limited editions and sell for thousands of dollars. World-renowned street artist Banksy directed a film in 2010, Exit Through the Gift Shop, which explored street art and commercialism.Miss Van y Ciou (aikijuanma).jpg|Graffiti by Miss Van and Ciou in BarcelonaGraffiti Obelisco.jpg|Graffiti in Buenos Aires, showing the Obelisk2009 010 CES utka.JPG|Return of the three funny types by Dutch graffiti artist Ces53Graffiti Hamburg No false move.JPG|Graffiti No false move in HamburgElisabethmarkt Muenchen Graffiti 2.jpg|Decorative wall painting at Elisabethmarkt in MunichWarsaw-graffiti-face.jpg|Wall art in WarsawOlindaGraffiti.jpg|This artwork makes use of existing windows in Olinda, Pernambuco, BrazilZeichen der Zeit Hochhaus-Graffiti.jpg|This is said to be the tallest graffiti in the world, at Hamburg-Lohbrügge, GermanyStreet art, Batumi.jpg|Graffiti in Batumi, GeorgiaGraffiti in Sydney Mines, NS.png|Graffiti on an abandoned wall in Nova ScotiaGraffiti (Budapest, Pestszentlőrinc).jpg|Graffiti on a wall in Budapest

Environmental effects

Spray paint has many negative environmental effects. The paint contains toxic chemicals, and the can uses volatile hydrocarbon gases to spray the paint onto a surface.WEB,weblink Health and Environmental Issues of Spray Paint, Healthcare Environmental Resource Center, 2019-04-30,

Government responses

Asia

In China, Mao Zedong in the 1920s used revolutionary slogans and paintings in public places to galvanise the country's communist revolution.Based on different national conditions, many people believe that China's attitude towards Graffiti is fierce, but in fact, according to Lance Crayon's film "Spray Paint Beijing: Graffiti in the Capital of China", Graffiti is accepted by many people in Beijing, China, and even the police do not make much interference. But politically and religiously sensitive graffiti is not allowed.WEB,weblink Beijing's thriving graffiti culture may surprise you, Public Radio International, en, 2019-04-24, In Hong Kong, Tsang Tsou Choi was known as the King of Kowloon for his calligraphy graffiti over many years, in which he claimed ownership of the area. Now some of his work is preserved officially.In Taiwan, the government has made some concessions to graffitists. Since 2005 they have been allowed to freely display their work along some sections of riverside retaining walls in designated "Graffiti Zones". From 2007, Taipei's department of cultural affairs also began permitting graffiti on fences around major public construction sites. Department head Yong-ping Lee (李永萍) stated, "We will promote graffiti starting with the public sector, and then later in the private sector too. It's our goal to beautify the city with graffiti". The government later helped organize a graffiti contest in Ximending, a popular shopping district. graffitists caught working outside of these designated areas still face fines up to NT$6,000 under a department of environmental protection regulation. However, Taiwanese authorities can be relatively lenient, one veteran police officer stating anonymously, "Unless someone complains about vandalism, we won't get involved. We don't go after it proactively."In 1993, after several expensive cars in Singapore were spray-painted, the police arrested a student from the Singapore American School, Michael P. Fay, questioned him, and subsequently charged him with vandalism. Fay pleaded guilty to vandalizing a car in addition to stealing road signs. Under the 1966 Vandalism Act of Singapore, originally passed to curb the spread of communist graffiti in Singapore, the court sentenced him to four months in jail, a fine of S$3,500 (US$2,233), and a caning. The New York Times ran several editorials and op-eds that condemned the punishment and called on the American public to flood the Singaporean embassy with protests. Although the Singapore government received many calls for clemency, Fay's caning took place in Singapore on 5 May 1994. Fay had originally received a sentence of six strokes of the cane, but the presiding president of Singapore, Ong Teng Cheong, agreed to reduce his caning sentence to four lashes.In South Korea, Park Jung-soo was fined 2 million South Korean won by the Seoul Central District Court for spray-painting a rat on posters of the G-20 Summit a few days before the event in November 2011. Park alleged that the initial in "G-20" sounds like the Korean word for "rat", but Korean government prosecutors alleged that Mr. Park was making a derogatory statement about the president of ROK, Lee Myung-bak, the host of the summit. This case led to public outcry and debate on the lack of government tolerance and in support of freedom of expression. The court ruled that the painting, "an ominous creature like a rat" amounts to "an organized criminal activity" and upheld the fine while denying the prosecution's request for imprisonment for Park.Taiwan 2009 HuaLien City Street Art in Poetic Form FRD 8395.jpg|Street art in poetic form in Hualien City, TaiwanSpecial Graffiti Zone in Taipei.JPG|Sign designating a sanctioned graffiti zone in TaipeiTsang graffiti.jpg|Street graffiti in Hong Kong201712 Graffiti on a building of Shentangqiao1.jpg|The Graffiti Piece "Tante" (by Chen Dongfan) on the surface wall of an old residential building in Hangzhou, ZhejiangGraffiti in Haikou near Evergreen Park - 01.JPG|In Haikou, Hainan

Europe

(File:Graffiti removal berlin.jpg|thumb|upright|Graffiti removal in Berlin)In Europe, community cleaning squads have responded to graffiti, in some cases with reckless abandon, as when in 1992 in France a local Scout group, attempting to remove modern graffiti, damaged two prehistoric paintings of bison in the Cave of Mayrière supérieure near the French village of Bruniquel in Tarn-et-Garonne, earning them the 1992 Ig Nobel Prize in archeology.In September 2006, the European Parliament directed the European Commission to create urban environment policies to prevent and eliminate dirt, litter, graffiti, animal excrement, and excessive noise from domestic and vehicular music systems in European cities, along with other concerns over urban life.The Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 became Britain's latest anti-graffiti legislation. In August 2004, the Keep Britain Tidy campaign issued a press release calling for zero tolerance of graffiti and supporting proposals such as issuing "on the spot" fines to graffiti offenders and banning the sale of aerosol paint to anyone under the age of 16. The press release also condemned the use of graffiti images in advertising and in music videos, arguing that real-world experience of graffiti stood far removed from its often-portrayed 'cool' or 'edgy' image.To back the campaign, 123 MPs (including then Prime Minister Tony Blair), signed a charter which stated: "Graffiti is not art, it's crime. On behalf of my constituents, I will do all I can to rid our community of this problem."In the UK, city councils have the power to take action against the owner of any property that has been defaced under the Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003 (as amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005) or, in certain cases, the Highways Act. This is often used against owners of property that are complacent in allowing protective boards to be defaced so long as the property is not damaged.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}In July 2008, a conspiracy charge was used to convict graffitists for the first time. After a three-month police surveillance operation, nine members of the DPM crew were convicted of conspiracy to commit criminal damage costing at least £1 million. Five of them received prison sentences, ranging from eighteen months to two years. The unprecedented scale of the investigation and the severity of the sentences rekindled public debate over whether graffiti should be considered art or crime.Some councils, like those of Stroud and Loerrach, provide approved areas in the town where graffitists can showcase their talents, including underpasses, car parks, and walls that might otherwise prove a target for the 'spray and run.'In Budapest, Hungary both a city-backed movement called I Love Budapest and a special police division tackle the problem, including the provision of approved areas.Bridge-Gallery Lörrach 2011.JPG|"Approved" graffiti at Bridge-Gallery Loerrach, GermanyNokia Nst-4 cam 015.jpg|19Ž44 logo of LithuaniaGraffiti in London.jpg|Graffiti in London, United KingdomAsh astronaut.jpg|Astronaut/Cosmonaut, Berlin 2007Distillery (400700006).jpg|Graffiti tag in GermanyГраффити (Мелитополь).JPG|Graffiti tag in Melitopol, UkraineMur de tags au Forum de Barcelone.jpg|Multi-artist graffiti in Barcelona, SpainKGD zumaia 1.jpg|Integration of graffiti into its environment, Zumaia 2016Grafiti na Trsatu, Rijeka (Croatia).jpg|Graffiti made by school children in Rijeka, Croatiaქორქ?.jpg|Graffiti written in Georgian script, TbilisiPrincip Gavrilo grafit.JPG|Historical graffito of Gavrilo Princip in Belgrade, SerbiaGraffiti art, Epplehaus Tübingen (2018).jpg|Graffiti art, EpplehausSee German Wikipedia: (:de:Epplehaus|Epplehaus) in Tübingen (2018)File:Graffiti in Kaunas.jpg|Graffiti on an abandoned house in Kaunas, LithuaniaFile:Graffiti in Sofia 1..jpg|Graffiti in Sofia, BulgariaFile:Graffiti on the wall of Freetown Christiana.jpg|Graffiti in Freetown Christiana, Copenhagen, Denmark

Australia

File:Graffiti tunnel 2009, University of Sydney.jpg|thumb|Graffiti Tunnel, University of Sydney at Camperdown (2009)]]In an effort to reduce vandalism, many cities in Australia have designated walls or areas exclusively for use by graffitists. One early example is the "Graffiti Tunnel" located at the Camperdown Campus of the University of Sydney, which is available for use by any student at the university to tag, advertise, poster, and create "art". Advocates of this idea suggest that this discourages petty vandalism yet encourages artists to take their time and produce great art, without worry of being caught or arrested for vandalism or trespassing. Others disagree with this approach, arguing that the presence of legal graffiti walls does not demonstrably reduce illegal graffiti elsewhere. Some local government areas throughout Australia have introduced "anti-graffiti squads", who clean graffiti in the area, and such crews as BCW (Buffers Can't Win) have taken steps to keep one step ahead of local graffiti cleaners.Many state governments have banned the sale or possession of spray paint to those under the age of 18 (age of majority). However, a number of local governments in Victoria have taken steps to recognize the cultural heritage value of some examples of graffiti, such as prominent political graffiti. Tough new graffiti laws have been introduced in Australia with fines of up to A$26,000 and two years in prison.Melbourne is a prominent graffiti city of Australia with many of its lanes being tourist attractions, such as Hosier Lane in particular, a popular destination for photographers, wedding photography, and backdrops for corporate print advertising. The Lonely Planet travel guide cites Melbourne's street as a major attraction. All forms of graffiti, including sticker art, poster, stencil art, and wheatpasting, can be found in many places throughout the city. Prominent street art precincts include; Fitzroy, Collingwood, Northcote, Brunswick, St. Kilda, and the CBD, where stencil and sticker art is prominent. As one moves farther away from the city, mostly along suburban train lines, graffiti tags become more prominent. Many international artists such as Banksy have left their work in Melbourne and in early 2008 a perspex screen was installed to prevent a Banksy stencil art piece from being destroyed, it has survived since 2003 through the respect of local street artists avoiding posting over it, although it has recently had paint tipped over it.

New Zealand

(File:Christchurch Stock Yards.jpg|thumb|Former Christchurch stock yards)In February 2008 Helen Clark, the New Zealand prime minister at that time, announced a government crackdown on tagging and other forms of graffiti vandalism, describing it as a destructive crime representing an invasion of public and private property. New legislation subsequently adopted included a ban on the sale of paint spray cans to persons under 18 and increases in maximum fines for the offence from NZ$200 to NZ$2,000 or extended community service. The issue of tagging become a widely debated one following an incident in Auckland during January 2008 in which a middle-aged property owner stabbed one of two teenage taggers to death and was subsequently convicted of manslaughter.

United States

missing image!
- Elevator graffiti.jpg -
An elevator position indicator with scratch graffiti

Tracker databases

Graffiti databases have increased in the past decade because they allow vandalism incidents to be fully documented against an offender and help the police and prosecution charge and prosecute offenders for multiple counts of vandalism. They also provide law enforcement the ability to rapidly search for an offender's moniker or tag in a simple, effective, and comprehensive way. These systems can also help track costs of damage to city to help allocate an anti-graffiti budget. The theory is that when an offender is caught putting up graffiti, they are not just charged with one count of vandalism; they can be held accountable for all of the other damage for which they are responsible. This has two main benefits for law enforcement. One, it sends a signal to the offenders that their vandalism is being tracked. Two, a city can seek restitution from offenders for all of the damage that they have committed, not merely a single incident. These systems give law enforcement personnel real-time, street-level intelligence that allows them to not only focus on the worst graffiti offenders and their damage, but also to monitor potential gang violence that is associated with the graffiti.

Gang injunctions

Many restrictions of civil gang injunctions are designed to help address and protect the physical environment and limit graffiti. Provisions of gang injunctions include things such as restricting the possession of marker pens, spray paint cans, or other sharp objects capable of defacing private or public property; spray painting, or marking with marker pens, scratching, applying stickers, or otherwise applying graffiti on any public or private property, including, but not limited to the street, alley, residences, block walls, and fences, vehicles and/or any other real or personal property. Some injunctions contain wording that restricts damaging or vandalizing the property of another, both public and private property, including, but limited to any vehicle, light fixture, door, fence, wall, gate, window, building, street sign, utility box, telephone box, trees, or power pole.

Hotlines and reward programs

To help address many of these issues, many local jurisdictions have set up graffiti abatement hotlines, where citizens can call in and report vandalism and have it removed. San Diego's hotline receives more than 5,000 calls per year, in addition to reporting the graffiti, callers can learn more about prevention. One of the complaints about these hotlines is the response time; there is often a lag time between a property owner calling about the graffiti and its removal. The length of delay should be a consideration for any jurisdiction planning on operating a hotline. Local jurisdictions must convince the callers that their complaint of vandalism will be a priority and cleaned off right away. If the jurisdiction does not have the resources to respond to complaints in a timely manner, the value of the hotline diminishes. Crews must be able to respond to individual service calls made to the graffiti hotline as well as focus on cleanup near schools, parks, and major intersections and transit routes to have the biggest impact. Some cities offer a reward for information leading to the arrest and prosecution of suspects for tagging or graffiti related vandalism. The amount of the reward is based on the information provided, and the action taken.

Search warrants

When the police use search warrants in connection with a vandalism investigation they are often seeking judicial approval to look for items such as cans of spray paint and nozzles from other kinds of aerosol sprays, etching tools, or other sharp or pointed objects used to etch or scratch glass and other hard surfaces, such as permanent marking pens and markers or paint sticks; evidence of membership or affiliation with any gang or tagging crew, paraphernalia to include any reference to "(tagger's name)," and any drawings, writings, objects, or graffiti depicting taggers' names, initials, logos, monikers, slogans, or mention of tagging crew membership; any newspaper clippings relating details of or referring to any graffiti crime.SUBWAY CAR - NARA - 554325.jpg|Rampant graffiti hampers visibility into and out of subway cars (1973)Graffiti Tunnel (2078441177).jpg|Graffiti-lined tunnel in San FranciscoSmear Street Art1.jpg|Graffiti in Los Angeles (2006)Love your country, not government.jpg|Anti-governmental graffiti in Bolinas, CaliforniaI'm a Man Mural in Memphis 2.jpg|Protest art in Memphis, Tennessee

Documentaries

  • 80 Blocks from Tiffany's (1979) – A rare glimpse into late 1970s New York toward the end of the infamous South Bronx gangs, the documentary shows many sides of the mainly Puerto Rican community of the South Bronx, including reformed gang members, current gang members, the police, and the community leaders who try to reach out to them.
  • Stations of the Elevated (1980), the earliest documentary about subway graffiti in New York City, with music by Charles Mingus.
  • Style Wars (1983), an early documentary on hip hop culture, made in New York City.
  • Piece by Piece (2005), a feature-length documentary on the history of San Francisco graffiti from the early 1980s until the present day.
  • Infamy (2005), a feature-length documentary about graffiti culture as told through the experiences of six well-known graffiti writers and a graffiti buffer.
  • (NEXT: A Primer on Urban Painting) (2005), a documentary about global graffiti culture.
  • RASH (2005), a feature documentary about Melbourne, Australia and the artists who make it a living host for illegal artwork called street art.
  • Jisoe (2007), a glimpse into the life of a Melbourne, Australia graffiti writer, shows the audience an example of graffiti in struggling Melbourne Areas.
  • Roadsworth: Crossing the Line (2009) is a Canadian documentary about Montréal artist Peter Gibson and his controversial stencil art on public roads.
  • Exit Through The Gift Shop (2010) is a documentary produced by the notorious artist Banksy that tells the story of Thierry Guetta, a French immigrant in Los Angeles, and his obsession with street art; Shepard Fairey and Invader, whom Guetta discovers is his cousin, are also in the film.
  • still on and non the wiser (2011) is a 90 minute long documentation that accompanies the exhibition with the same name in the Kunsthalle Barmen of the Von der Heydt-Museum in Wuppertal (Germany) draws vivid portrays of the artists by means of very personal interviews and also catches the creation process of the works before the exhibition was opened.
  • Graffiti Wars (2011), documentary detailing King Robbo's feud with Banksy as well as the authorities' differing attitude towards graffiti and street art.

Dramatic films

  • Wild Style (1983), a drama about hip hop and graffiti culture in New York City
  • Bomb the System (2002), a drama about a crew of graffitists in modern-day New York City
  • Quality of Life (2004), a graffiti drama shot in the Mission District of San Francisco, starring and co-written by a retired graffiti writer
  • Wholetrain (2006), German film

Novel

  • The 2016 crime-thriller novel, The Fifth Streeter, incorporates urban graffiti as a central plot device.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}

See also

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References

Further reading

  • {{citation |url=http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/20 |first=Matthew |last=Champion |title=The Priest, the Prostitute, and the Slander on the Walls: Shifting Perceptions Towards Historic Graffiti |journal=Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture |volume=6 |issue=1 |year=2017 |pages=5–37}} {{open access}}
  • Baird, J. A.  and C. Taylor, eds. 2011, Ancient Graffiti in Context. New York: Routledge.

External links

{{wiktionary|graffiti}}{{commons|Graffiti}}
  • NIE, Graffiti, 1905, x,
{{Street Art}}{{hiphop}}{{Media culture}}{{Authority control}}

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