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UNESCO
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{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2017}}{{Short description|Specialised agency of the United Nations}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=December 2018}}







factoids
Audrey Azoulay | status = ActiveParis, France| website = www.unesco.org| parent = United Nations Economic and Social Council| subsidiaries = United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO;WEB, UNESCO,weblink UNESCO, 25 September 2015, ) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.WEB,weblink UNESCO history, UNESCO, 23 April 2010, It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members.WEB,weblink List of UNESCO members and associates, UNESCO, 11 March 2019, Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.WEB,weblink UNDG Members, United Nations Development Group, 8 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511144047weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dmy-all, UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".WEB,weblink Introducing UNESCO, UNESCO, 8 August 2011, Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.WEB,weblink UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007, PDF, 8 August 2011, The broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.{{TOC limit|3}}

History

File:Flag of UNESCO.svg|thumb|Flag of UNESCOFlag of UNESCOUNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility.{{Citation | publisher = League of Nations | series = Records of the Second Assembly | title = Plenary Meetings | date = 5 September – 5 October 1921 | place = Geneva}}.{{Citation | quote = The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC | title = A Chronology of UNESCO: 1945–1987|url =weblink | place = Paris | date = December 1987 | id = LAD.85/WS/4 Rev | series = UNESDOC database |format= PDF | ref = {{Harvid | UNESCO |1987}}}}. On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.{{Sfn | UNESCO | 1987}} However, the onset of World War II largely interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations.After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. The idea of UNESCO was largely developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. The work of U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Millbank systems. Retrieved 12 July 2013. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.WEB, {{Harvid, Unesco, 1945, |url=weblink |title= United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation | place = The Institute of Civil Engineers, London | date = 1–16 November 1945 | id = ECO/Conf./29 | series = UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate= 8 June 2012}} The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.{{Sfn | Unesco | 1945}}The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General.WEB,weblink UNESCO, 1947, General Conference, First Session, UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions] Item 14, p. 73, UNESDOC database, PDF, 1 July 2012, The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.WEB,weblink Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, unesdoc.unesco.org, This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950WEB,weblink UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.WEB,weblink UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems."UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3. South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.WEB,weblink Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.WEB,weblink UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database, 8 June 2012, In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.WEB,weblink UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.WEB,weblink UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, UNESCO's early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.WEB,weblink UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece).The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.WEB,weblink Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.WEB,weblink UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural HeritageWEB,weblink Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, ) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural ExpressionsWEB,weblink Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, ).An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)WEB,weblink UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution 7.2.2.1, p. 9. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, in 1954.Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.WEB,weblink UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.WEB,weblink "Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, In the field of communication, the "free flow of ideas by word and image" has been in UNESCO's constitution from its beginnings, following the experience of the Second World War when control of information was a factor in indoctrinating populations for aggression.WEB,weblink Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.WEB,weblink UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,WEB,weblink UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).WEB,weblink MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database, PDF, 8 June 2012, The same year, UNESCO created the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), a multilateral forum designed to promote media development in developing countries.WEB,weblink About IPDC {{!, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization|website=www.unesco.org|access-date=2016-12-15}}WEB,weblink International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) {{!, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization|website=www.unesco.org|access-date=2016-12-19}} In 1991, UNESCO's General Conference endorsed the Windhoek Declaration on media independence and pluralism, which led the UN General Assembly to declare the date of its adoption, 3 May, as World Press Freedom Day.WEB,weblink World Press Freedom Day 2016, UNESCO, 2016-12-19, 2016-02-02, Since 1997, UNESCO has awarded the UNESCO / Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize every 3 May. In the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis), UNESCO introduced the Information for All Programme.UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member in 2011.WEB,weblink General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member, 31 October 2011, 11 December 2011, NEWS,weblink US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership, Adrian, Blomfield, The Telegraph, 31 October 2011, 31 October 2011, Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member.WEB,weblink Limitation on Contributions to the United Nations and Affiliated Organizations, The New York Times, PDF, 12 October 2017, As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.NEWS,weblink Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians, Steven, Erlanger, Scott, Sayare, The New York Times, 31 October 2011, 31 October 2011, Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,NEWS,weblink After UNESCO vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S., Haaretz, 4 November 2011, 11 December 2011, stating that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".NEWS,weblink CNN, Israel freezes UNESCO funds, 3 December 2011, 11 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111106053150weblink">weblink 6 November 2011, dmy-all, Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel lost UNESCO voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected; thus, the US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016–19.NEWS,weblink U.S., Israel lose voting rights at UNESCO over Palestine row, Reuters, 8 November 2013, 29 June 2014,

Activities

File:UNESCO Brasília Office.jpg|thumb|UNESCO offices in BrasíliaBrasíliaUNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.
  • Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the
UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.Because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO accreditation, UNESCO itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation. See Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150513185433weblink |date=13 May 2015 }}, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and weblink" title="arquivo.pt/wayback/20090521152755weblink">UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions" The UNESCO transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard.There have been proposals to establish two new UNESCO lists. The first proposed list will focus on movable cultural heritage such as artifacts, paintings, and biofacts. The list may include cultural objects, such as the Jōmon Venus of Japan, the Mona Lisa of France, the Gebel el-Arak Knife of Egypt, The Ninth Wave of Russia, the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük of Turkey, the David (Michelangelo) of Italy, the Mathura Herakles of India, the Manunggul Jar of the Philippines, the Crown of Baekje of South Korea, The Hay Wain of the United Kingdom and the Benin Bronzes of Nigeria. The second proposed list will focus on the world's living species, such as the Komodo Dragon of Indonesia, the Panda of China, the Bald eagle of North American countries, the Aye-aye of Madagascar, the Asiatic Lion of India, the Kakapo of New Zealand, and the Mountain tapir of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.WEB,weblink Tangible Cultural Heritage - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org, WEB,weblink UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Document - Discovered artifacts under preservation, Archaeological Site, 18 Hoang Dieu street, UNESCO World Heritage, Centre, whc.unesco.org,

Media

UNESCO and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines.The UNESCO Courier magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO's ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate." Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. There was a hiatus in publishing between 2012 and 2017.WEB,weblink Archives, The UNESCO Courier, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 14 November 2018, 2017-04-20, In 1950, UNESCO initiated the quarterly review Impact of Science on Society (also known as Impact) to discuss the influence of science on society. The journal ceased publication in 1992.WEB,weblink Science and Technology Education, UNESCO, 1998, UNESCO also published museum international quarterly from the year 1948.

Official UNESCO NGOs

UNESCO has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).WEB,weblink Quoted on UNESCO official site, Ngo-db.unesco.org, 1 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120625221827weblink">weblink 25 June 2012, dmy-all, Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational"; a select few are "formal".WEB,weblink Full list of NGOs that have official relations with UNESCO, UNESCO, 1 July 2012, The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOsWEB,weblink UNESCO Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009, Ngo-db.unesco.org, 1 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120625221827weblink">weblink 25 June 2012, dmy-all, with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:{| class="sortable wikitable"! Abbr! Organization| International BaccalaureateCCIVS>Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service| Education International| International Association of Universities| International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual CommunicationInternational Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies which publishes Diogenes (journal)>Diogenes| International Council for Science| International Council of Museums| International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education| International Council on Archives| International Council on Monuments and Sites| International Federation of Journalists| International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions| International Federation of Poetry Associations| International Music Council| International Police Association| International Scientific Council for Island Development| International Social Science Council| International Theatre InstituteInternational Union for Conservation of Nature>International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources| International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations| Union of International Associations| World Association of Newspapers| World Federation of Engineering Organizations| World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and AssociationsFile:Unesco-IHE.JPG|thumb|UNESCO Institute for Water Education in DelftDelft

Institutes and centres

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.{| class="sortable wikitable"! Abbr! Name! Location| IBE| International Bureau of EducationGenevaHTTP://WWW.IBE.UNESCO.ORG/ENFIRST=DATE=ACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, | UIL| UNESCO Institute for Lifelong LearningHamburgHTTP://UIL.UNESCO.ORG/UNESCO-INSTITUTEPUBLISHER= ACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, 2015-10-29, | IIEP| UNESCO International Institute for Educational PlanningBuenos Aires and Dakar (regional offices)HTTP://WWW.IIEP.UNESCO.ORG/PUBLISHER=, 14 November 2018, | IITE| UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in EducationPUBLISHER=ACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, | IICBA| UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in AfricaAddis AbabaHTTP://WWW.IICBA.UNESCO.ORG/?Q=NODE/146PUBLISHER=UNESCOACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, | IESALC| UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the CaribbeanCaracasHTTP://WWW.IESALC.UNESCO.ORG.VE/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&VIEW=ARTICLE&ID=2030&ITEMID=1411&LANG=EN PUBLISHER=UNESCOLANGUAGE = SPANISH, | UNESCO-UNEVOCUNESCO-UNEVOC>UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and TrainingBonnHTTPS://UNEVOC.UNESCO.ORG/GO.PHP?Q=PAGE_CONTACTPUBLISHER=, 14 November 2018, | UNESCO-IHEUNESCO-IHE>UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water EducationDelftHTTPS://WWW.UN-IHE.ORG/WEBSITE = IHE DELFT INSTITUTE FOR WATER EDUCATIONACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, | ICTP| International Centre for Theoretical PhysicsTriesteHTTPS://WWW.ICTP.IT/ABOUT-ICTP/MISSION-HISTORY.ASPXPUBLISHER=UNESCOACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, | UIS| UNESCO Institute for StatisticsMontrealHTTP://UIS.UNESCO.ORG/EN/CONTACT-USWEBSITE = UNESCO INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS ACCESSDATE = 14 NOVEMBER 2018, 2016-11-21,

Prizes

UNESCO awards 22 prizesUNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010 in education, science, culture and peace:

Inactive prizes

International Days observed at UNESCO

International Days observed at UNESCO is provided in the table given belowInternational Days | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.{| class="sortable wikitable"! Date! NameDay| 27 January| International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust| 13 February| World Radio Day| 21 February| International Mother Language Day| 8 March| International Women's Day| 20 March| International Francophonie Day| 21 March| International Day of Nowruz| 21 March| World Poetry Day| 21 March| International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination| 22 March| World Day for Water| 23 April| World Book and Copyright Day| 30 April| International Jazz Day| 3 May| World Press Freedom Day18 may world museum day| 21 May| World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development| 22 May| International Day for Biological Diversity| 25 May| Africa Day / Africa Week| 5 June| World Environment Day| 8 June| World Oceans Day| 17 June|World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought| 9 August| International Day of the World's Indigenous People| 12 August| International Youth Day| 23 August| International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition| 8 September| International Literacy Day| 15 September| International Day of Democracy| 21 September| International Day of Peace| 28 SeptemberAccess to Information Day>International Day for the Universal Access to Information| 2nd October| International Day of Non-Violence| 5th October| World Teachers' Day| 2nd Wednesday in October| International Day for Disaster Reduction| 17 October| International Day for the Eradication of Poverty| 20 October| World Statistics Day| 27 October| World Day for Audiovisual Heritage| 2 NovemberInternational Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists'''HTTP://EN.UNESCO.ORG/DAY/ENDIMPUNITYWEBSITE=UNESCO, 2016-12-19, | 10 November| World Science Day for Peace and Development| 3rd Thursday in November| World Philosophy Day| 16 November| International Day for Tolerance| 19 November| International Men's Day| 25 November| International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women| 29 November| International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People| 1 December| World AIDS Day| 10 December| Human Rights Day| 18 December| International Migrants Day

Member states

As of January 2019, UNESCO has 195 member states and 11 associate members.WEB,weblink List of UNESCO members and associates, UNESCO, 3 November 2011, Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.WEB, Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport,weblink WADA, 2, PDF, 28 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116165411weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, UNESCO state parties are the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein, United States{{Citation|last=UNESCO|title=Statement by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO, on the occasion of the Withdrawal by the United States of America from UNESCO|date=12 October 2017|url=https://en.unesco.org/news/statement-irina-bokova-director-general-unesco-occasion-withdrawal-united-states-america-unesco|type=Press release.|access-date=2019-02-21|author-link=UNESCO}} and Israel{{Citation|last=UNESCO|title=Declaration by UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay on the withdrawal of Israel from the Organization|date=29 December 2017|url=https://en.unesco.org/news/declaration-unesco-director-general-audrey-azoulay-withdrawal-israel-organization|type=Press release.|access-date=2019-02-21|author-link=UNESCO}}), as well as Cook Islands, Niue and Palestine.WEB,weblink State Parties, UNESCO, 31 October 2011, WEB,weblink Member States of the United Nations, United Nations, 31 October 2011, The United States and Israel left UNESCO on 31 December 2018.NEWS, TOVAH LAZAROFF, ISRAEL, U.S. SLATED TO LEAVE UNESCO TODAY TO PROTEST ANTI-ISRAEL BIAS,weblink JPost, 2018-12-31, 2018-12-31,

Governing bodies

Director-General

There has been no elected UNESCO Director-General from Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central and North Asia, Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, South Africa, Australia-Oceania, and South America since inception.The Directors-General of UNESCO came from West Europe (5), Central America (1), North America (2), West Africa (1), East Asia (1), and East Europe (1). Out of the 11 Directors-General since inception, women have held the position only twice. Qatar, the Philippines, and Iran are proposing for a Director-General bid by 2021 or 2025. There have never been a Middle Eastern or Southeast Asian UNESCO Director-General since inception. The ASEAN bloc and some Pacific and Latin American nations support the possible bid of the Philippines, which is culturally Asian, Oceanic, and Latin. Qatar and Iran, on the other hand, have fragmented support in the Middle East. Egypt, Israel, and Madagascar are also vying for the position but have yet to express a direct or indirect proposal. Both Qatar and Egypt lost in the 2017 bid against France.The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:UNESCO official site: Directors-General{| class="wikitable"Audrey Azoulay >FRA}} 2017–presentIrina Bokova >BUL}} 2009–2017Koïchiro Matsuura >JPN}} 1999–2009Federico Mayor Zaragoza >ESP}} 1987–99Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow >SEN}} 1974–87René Maheu >FRA}} 1961–74; acting 1961Vittorino Veronese >ITA}} 1958–61Luther Evans >USA}} 1953–58John Wilkinson Taylor (educator)>John Wilkinson Taylor {{flagcountryacting (law)>acting 1952–53Jaime Torres Bodet >MEX}} 1948–52Julian Huxley >UK}} 1946–48

General Conference

This is the list of the sessions of the UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:UNESCO official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference{| class="sortable wikitable"! Session! Location! Year! Chaired by! from PUBLISHER=UNESCO DATE=2017-10-05, {{flagcountry|Morocco}} PUBLISHER=UNESCO Namibia}}weblink>website = www.unesco.orgHao Ping >CHN}}Katalin Bogyay >HUN}}BHS}}GRC}}Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan >OMN}}Michael Omolewa >NGA}}Ahmad Jalali >IRN}}Jaroslava Moserová >CZE}}Eduardo Portella >BRA}}DNK}}YEM}}Bethwell Allan Ogot >KEN}}Anwar Ibrahim >MYS}}GTM}}Sofia >Nikolai Todorov >BGR}}JOR}}|Belgrade >YUG}}CAN}}Nairobi >KEN}}HUN}}|JPN}}ARG}}William Eteki Mboumoua >CMR}}TUR}}Norair Sisakian >USSR}}BRA}}ETH}}Jean Berthoin >FRA}}Abul Kalam Azad >IND}}Montevideo >URY}}|Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan >IND}}Howland H. Sargeant >USA}}Florence >Stefano Jacini >ITA}}Edward Ronald Walker >AUS}}|Beirut >LBN}}Mexico City >Manuel Gual Vidal >MEX}}Léon Blum >FRA}}

Executive Board

{| class="wikitable"style="border-top: 2px solid;"! Term! Group I (9 seats)! Group II (7 seats)! Group III (10 seats)! Group IV (12 seats)! Group V(a) (13 seats)! Group V(b) (7 seats) style="background:#eeffee;border-top: 2px solid;"|2017–19Executive Board – Results of elections. UNESCO General Conference, November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.|{{flagcountry|France}} {{flagcountry|Greece}} {{flagcountry|Italy}} {{flagcountry|Spain}} {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}|{{flagcountry|Lithuania}} {{flagcountry|Russian Federation}} {{flagcountry|Serbia}} {{flagcountry|Slovenia}}|{{flagcountry|Brazil}} {{flagcountry|Haiti}} {{flagcountry|Mexico}} {{flagcountry|Nicaragua}} {{flagcountry|Paraguay}}|{{flagcountry|India}}{{flagcountry|Iran}} {{flagcountry|Malaysia}} {{flagcountry|Pakistan}} {{flagcountry|Republic of Korea}} {{flagcountry|Sri Lanka}} {{flagcountry|Vietnam}}|{{flagcountry|Cameroon}} {{flagcountry|Cote d'Ivoire}} {{flagcountry|Ghana}} {{flagcountry|Kenya}} {{flagcountry|Nigeria}} {{flagcountry|Senegal}} {{flagcountry|South Africa}}|{{flagcountry|Lebanon}} {{flagcountry|Oman}} {{flagcountry|Qatar}} {{flagcountry|Sudan}} style="background:#f7f7c7;border-top: 2px solid;"| 2014–17Table_2013-2015.pdf UNESCO Membership by Electoral Groups. Retrieved 12 November 2015.|{{flagcountry|Germany}} {{flagcountry|Netherlands}} {{flagcountry|Sweden}}|{{flagcountry|Albania}} {{flagcountry|Estonia}} {{flagcountry|Ukraine}}|{{flagcountry|Argentina}} {{flagcountry|Belize}} {{flagcountry|Dominican Republic}} {{flagcountry|El Salvador}} {{flagcountry|Saint Kitts and Nevis}} {{flagcountry|Trinidad and Tobago}}|{{flagcountry|Bangladesh}} {{flagcountry|China}} {{flagcountry|India}} {{flagcountry|Japan}} {{flagcountry|Nepal}} {{flagcountry|Turkmenistan}}|{{flagcountry|Chad}} {{flagcountry|Guinea}} {{flagcountry|Mauritius}} {{flagcountry|Mozambique}} {{flagcountry|Togo}} {{flagcountry|Uganda}}|{{flagcountry|Algeria}} {{flagcountry|Egypt}} {{flagcountry|Kuwait}} {{flagcountry|Morocco}} style="border-top: 2px solid;"| 2012–15|{{flagcountry|Austria}} {{flagcountry|France}} {{flagcountry|Italy}} {{flagcountry|India}} {{flagcountry|Spain}} {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}} {{flagcountry|United States of America}}|{{flagcountry|Czech Republic}} {{flagcountry|Montenegro}} {{flagcountry|Russian Federation}} {{flagcountry|Macedonia}}|{{flagcountry|Brazil}} {{flagcountry|Cuba}} {{flagcountry|Ecuador}} {{flagcountry|Mexico}}|{{flagcountry|Afghanistan}} {{flagcountry|Indonesia}} {{flagcountry|Pakistan}} {{flagcountry|Papua New Guinea}} {{flagcountry|Republic of Korea}} {{flagcountry|Thailand}}|{{flagcountry|Angola}} {{flagcountry|Ethiopia}} {{flagcountry|Gabon}} {{flagcountry|Gambia}} {{flagcountry|Malawi}} {{flagcountry|Mali}} {{flagcountry|Namibia}} {{flagcountry|Nigeria}}|{{flagcountry|Jordan}} {{flagcountry|Tunisia}}{{flagcountry|United Arab Emirates}}

Offices and Headquarters

File:April 2010, UNESCO Headquarters in Paris - The Garden of Peace (or Japanese Garden) in Spring.jpg|thumb|The Garden of Peace, UNESCO headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu NoguchiIsamu NoguchiUNESCO headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France.UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.

Field offices by region

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.WEB,weblink List of All UNESCO Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage, UNESCO,

Africa

Arab States

Asia and Pacific

{{see also|UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards}}

Europe and North America

Latin America and the Caribbean

File:Carondolete en el cambio de guardia.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador, is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.WEB,weblink City of Quito – UNESCO World Heritage, UNESCO, 30 April 2010, This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage Site

Controversies

New World Information and Communication order

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, in contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.JOURNAL, Grahm, S. E., April 2006, The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954, Diplomatic History, 30, 2, 231–51, 10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x, In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = UNESCO asks states considering withdrawal to 'reconsider their position' | journal = UN Chronicle | date = January 1986}} Singapore withdrew also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Singapore to withdraw from UNESCO | newspaper = The Telegraph | date = 28 December 1984}}. Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = UNESCO | website = Encyclopedia Britannica | date = 14 February 2018}}

Israel

Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel has maintained its membership since 1949.In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the Obama administration and protests from Palestinians.NEWS, Hebron clashes over Israel's West Bank heritage list,weblink 26 February 2010, BBC News, In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.WEB,weblink Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories, 21 October 2010, UNESCO, UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.NEWS, THE TWO PALESTINIAN SITES OF AL-HARAM AL-IBRAHIMI/TOMB OF THE PATRIARCHS IN AL-KHALIL/HEBRON AND THE BILAL BIN RABAH MOSQUE/RACHEL'S TOMB IN BETHLEHEM,weblink Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.WEB,weblink UNESCO Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb Protocol, 1 November 2010, Arutz Sheva, Hillel Fendel, The Rabbi of the Western Wall said that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.WEB,weblink UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb is a Mosque, 29 October 2010, Arutz Sheva, Maayana Miskin, Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation".Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.WEB,weblink Ayalon: Israel will no longer cooperate with UNESCO, 3 November 2010, The Jerusalem Post, WEB, Shalom, Rabbi,weblink Cooperation with UNESCO only partially suspended, The Jerusalem Post, 8 August 2011, On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured{{clarify|date=October 2016}} Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.WEB,weblink UNESCO censures Israel over Mughrabi Bridge – Israel News, Ynetnews, Ynetnews, 20 June 1995, 8 August 2011, In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".NEWS, Berman, Lazar, UNESCO cancels event on Jewish ties to Land of Israel,weblink 21 January 2014, The Times of Israel, 17 January 2014, The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history." UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.NEWS, Ahren, Raphael, Author of UNESCO's nixed Israel exhibit decries 'appalling betrayal',weblink 21 January 2014, The Times of Israel, 21 January 2014, On January 1 2019, Israel formally left UNESCO in pursuance of the US withdrawal over the perceived continuous anti-Israel bias.

Occupied Palestine Resolution

On 13 October 2016, UNESCO passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision.NEWS, UNESCO adopts anti-Israel resolution on al-Aqsa Mosque,weblink aljazeera.com, While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" or "Har HaBayit," stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site.WEB,weblink Commission report, unesdoc.unesco.org, After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked, Israel froze all ties with the organization.WEB,weblink UNESCO fails to acknowledge Jewish ties to Temple Mount, 2016-10-13, WEB,weblink Netanyahu leads angry denunciations of 'absurd' UNESCO decision, The resolution was condemned by Ban Ki-moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site.WEB, UNESCO chief 'received death threats' for opposing Jerusalem motion,weblink 17 October 2016, Times of Israel, WEB,weblink Statement by the Director-General of UNESCO on the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls on the occasion of the 40th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO in Istanbul - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Al-Aqsa Mosque is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism."NEWS,weblink UNESCO Director Criticizes Resolution: Temple Mount Sacred to Both Jews, Muslims, Haaretz, 14 October 2016, 2016-10-14, It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment",WEB,weblink Czech MPs slam 'hateful' UNESCO Jerusalem resolution, and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy's abstention. On 26 October, UNESCO approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status."NEWS, UNESCO approves new Jerusalem resolution,weblink www.aljazeera.com, Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel continued to denounce the text.NEWS, Beaumont, Peter, Unesco adopts controversial resolution on Jerusalem holy sites,weblink The Guardian, 26 October 2016, The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount, or Har HaBayit in Hebrew, only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board, triggering condemnation from Israel and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO."NEWS, UNESCO resolution on Jerusalem holy sites draws criticism from U.S., Israel,weblink CBC/Radio-Canada, 26 October 2016, In October 2017, the United States and Israel announced they would withdraw from the organization, citing in-part anti-Israel bias.NEWS,weblink The United States Withdraws From UNESCO, U.S. Department of State, 2017-10-12, en-US, NEWS, Harris, Gardiner, Erlangeroct, Steven, U.S. Will Withdraw From Unesco, Citing Its ‘Anti-Israel Bias’,weblink 8 April 2018, The New York Times, 2017-10-12,

Palestine

Palestinian youth magazine controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.NEWS,weblink Unesco cuts funding for Palestinian youth magazine over Hitler praise, The Daily Telegraph, 23 December 2011, 12 January 2012,

Islamic University of Gaza controversy

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,WEB,weblink UNESCO Chair in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences (964), established in 2012 at The Islamic University of Gaza (Palestine)., UNESCO, 15 July 2012, fueling controversy and criticism. Israel bombed the school in 2008 stating that they develop and store weapons there, which Israel restated in criticizing UNESCO's move.The Goldstone Report: The Legacy of the Landmark Investigation of the Gaza Conflict By Adam Horowitz, Lizzy Ratner and Philip Weiss (2011). Google Books.PRESS_RELEASE,weblink Israel shocked by UNESCO Chair at Gaza Islamic University, Israel ministry of foreign affairs, 12 July 2012, 15 July 2012, The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".NEWS,weblink UNESCO establishes chair at Gaza university accused of housing Hamas bomb labs, Higgins, Michael, National Post, 12 July 2012, 15 July 2012, WEB,weblink Fatah: Shalit was held at Gaza Islamic University, Yedioth Ahronot, 6 February 2007, 15 July 2012, NEWS,weblink Hamas University, Cambanis, Thanassis, Boston Globe, 28 February 2010, 15 July 2012, Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with.NEWS,weblink Israel furious at UNESCO decision to back science chair at Islamic University of Gaza, Ravid, Barak, Haaretz, 12 July 2012, 15 July 2012, The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well.NEWS,weblink B'nai Brith slams UNESCO affiliation with Gaza University, Yaakov, Yifa, The Times of Israel, 14 July 2012, 15 July 2012,

Wikileaks

On 16 and 17 February 2012, UNESCO held a conference entitled "The Media World after WikiLeaks and News of the World."WEB,weblink News journalism in a digital world, UNESCO, 10 February 2012, 15 February 2012, Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks staff was invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson, UNESCO invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels.WEB,weblink UNESCO-leaks to refute wikileaks accusation, UNESCO, 16 February 2012, 16 February 2012, The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke, had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange in the past.WEB,weblink The Guardian's hatchet job on Julian Assange, World Socialist Web Site, 10 March 2011, 15 February 2012, WikiLeaks released a press statement on 15 February 2012 denouncing UNESCO which stated, "UNESCO has made itself an international human rights joke. To use 'freedom of expression' to censor WikiLeaks from a conference about WikiLeaks is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words."WEB,weblink WikiLeaks denounces UNESCO after WikiLeaks banned from UNESCO conference on WikiLeaks, WikiLeaks, 15 February 2012, 15 February 2012,

Che Guevara

In 2013, UNESCO announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World Register. US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:{{Citation | url =weblink | type = press release | title = UNESCO Once Again Makes a Mockery of its Own Ideals by Glorifying Mass Murderer Che Guevara, Says Ros-Lehtinen | publisher = House of representatives | date = 22 July 2013}}.UN Watch also condemned this selection by UNESCO. UNESCO honors executioner Che Guevara, UN Watch, 21 July 2013 (retrieved 11 July 2016)

Listing Nanjing Massacre documents

In 2015, Japan threatened to halt funding for UNESCO over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program.WEB,weblink Japan furious at UNESCO listing Nanjing Massacre documents - Asia - DW.COM - 19.10.2015, Deutsche Welle, (www.dw.com), In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.NEWS, Japan halts Unesco funding following Nanjing massacre row,weblink 30 October 2016, Agence France-Presse, The Guardian, 14 October 2016,

US withdrawals

After withdrawing from UNESCO in 1984, the United States rejoined January 10, 2003.WEB,weblink United States of America - United Nations Educational Scientific Cooperation Organization, UNESCO, 2018-05-26, Former U.S. Congressman Jim Leach stated before a Congressional subcommittee:WEB, Library of Congress, Congressional subcommittee on International operations, September 19, 1989, Expert Witness Statement transcript, .He concluded that the record showed Israel bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms control policy to be the impetus behind the withdrawal; he asserted that before the UNESCO withdrawal, a withdrawal from the IAEAWEB,weblink United States & UNESCO Part 1, Sep 19 1989 - Video - C-SPAN.org, C-SPAN.org, had been pushed on him. The United States rejoined UNESCO shortly thereafter.On 12 October 2017, the United States notified UNESCO that it will again withdraw from the organization on 31 December 2018 and will seek to establish a permanent observer mission beginning in 2019. The Department of State cited "mounting arrears at UNESCO, the need for fundamental reform in the organization, and continuing anti-Israel bias at UNESCO."NEWS,weblink The United States Withdraws From UNESCO, U.S. Department of State, 2017-10-12, The United States has not paid over $600 million in dueweblink since stopping to pay its $80 million annual UNESCO dues when Palestine became a full member in 2011. Israel and the US were among only 14 votes against the membership, of 194 member countries.NEWS, U.S., Israel quit UNESCO over alleged bias, John Irish, Globe and Mail, October 13, 2017, A12,

Turkish–Kurdish conflict

On May 25, 2016, the noted Turkish poet and human rights activist Zülfü Livaneli resigned as Turkey's only UNESCO goodwill ambassador. He highlighted human rights situation in Turkey and destruction of historical Sur district of Diyarbakir, the largest city in Kurdish-majority southeast Turkey, during fighting between the Turkish army and Kurdish militants as the main reasons for his resignation. Livaneli said: "To pontificate on peace while remaining silent against such violations is a contradiction of the fundamental ideals of UNESCO.""Turkish writer quits UNESCO to protest damage to heritage, rights abuse". Reuters. May 26, 2016.

Atatürk

In 1981, UNESCO and the UN have celebrated Atatürk Centennial, ignoring the fact that he has direct relation to the mass murders of civilians (women and children - including), genocide and racial discrimination against different peoples.

Products or services

  • UNESDOCWEB,weblink UNESDOC Database - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org, – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO Library and documentation centres in field offices and institutes.

Information processing tools

UNESCO develops, maintains and disseminates, free of charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS [not to be confused with UK police software package ISIS]) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 2015-01-08, Information Processing Tools, Unesco,
  • CDS/ISIS – a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications.
  • OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO has initiated a project to provide it as open-source.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 2015-01-13, OpenIDAMS, Unesco,
  • IDIS – a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{United Nations}}{{ECOSOC}}{{UN Charter}}{{Supranationalism/World government topics |state = autocollapse}}{{Authority control}}

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