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Etruscan civilization
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{{short description|Pre-Roman civilization of ancient Italy}}







factoids
|conventional_long_name = Etruscans|common_name = Etruscan civilisation|era = Iron Age, Ancient history|status = City-states|year_start = 900 BCE|year_end = 100 BCE|event_start = Villanovan culture|event_end = The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome. |p1 = Proto-Villanovan culture|flag_p1 = Italy-Villanovan-Culture-900BC.png|s1 = Roman Kingdom20pxalt=)Etruscan coins>Etruscan coinage (5th century BC onward)|image_map = Etruscan civilization map.png|image_map_caption = Extent of Etruscan civilisation and the twelve Etruscan League cities.|capital =Etruscan language>EtruscanEtruscan mythology>Etruscan|leader1 = |leader2 = |year_leader1 = Unknown|year_leader2 = Unknown|title_leader = |legislature = Etruscan League
  • {{flag|Italy{edih}
  • {{VAT}}
  • {{flag|France}}}}|government_type = Chiefdom
}}{{History of Italy}}The Etruscan civilization ({{IPAc-en|áµ»|ˈ|t|r|ÊŒ|s|k|É™n}}) is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, south of the Arno river, western Umbria, northern and central Lazio, WEB,weblink The Etruscans, an introduction, Laurel Taylor, Khan Academy, with offshoots also to the north in the Po Valley, in the current Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy and southern Veneto, and to the south, in some areas of Campania. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions ({{circa}} 700 BCE)BOOK, Helmut Rix, Etruscan, The Ancient Languages of Europe, Roger D. Woodard, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 141–64, until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars.Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 900 BCE, approximately with the Iron Age Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization.BOOK, Gli etruschi tra VIII e VII secolo a.C. nel territorio di Castelfranco Emilia (MO), Diana Neri, All'Insegna del Giglio, Firenze, 2012, it, 1.1 Il periodo villanoviano nell’Emilia occidentale, 9, 978-8878145337, Il termine “Villanoviano” è entrato nella letteratura archeologica quando, a metà dell ’800, il conte Gozzadini mise in luce le prime tombe ad incinerazione nella sua proprietà di Villanova di Castenaso, in località Caselle (BO). La cultura villanoviana coincide con il periodo più antico della civiltà etrusca, in particolare durante i secoli IX e VIII a.C. e i termini di Villanoviano I, II e III, utilizzati dagli archeologi per scandire le fasi evolutive, costituiscono partizioni convenzionali della prima età del Ferro, BOOK, La cultura villanoviana. All'inizio della storia etrusca, Gilda Bartoloni, Carocci editore, Roma, 2012, it, BOOK, Gi Etruschi, Giovanni Colonna, Giovanni Colonna (archaeologist), Mario Torelli, Bompiani, Milano, 2000, it, I caratteri originali della civiltà Etrusca, 25–41, BOOK, Gi Etruschi, Dominique Briquel, Dominique Briquel, Mario Torelli, Bompiani, Milano, 2000, it, Le origini degli Etruschi: una questione dibattuta fin dall'antichità, 43–51, BOOK, Gi Etruschi, Gilda Bartoloni, Mario Torelli, Bompiani, Milano, 2000, it, Le origini e la diffusione della cultura villanoviana, 53–71, The latter gave way in the 7th century BCE to a culture that was influenced by Ancient Greek culture, during the Archaic (Orientalizing period) and the Hellenistic period. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria (Tuscany, Latium and Umbria), of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, and of Campania.WEB, A good map of the Italian range and cities of the culture at the beginning of its history,weblink mysteriousetruscans.com, The topic of the "League of Etruria" is covered in Freeman, pp. 562–65. The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy.BOOK, Titus Livius, Livy, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, The History of Rome, Book V, Section 33, The passage identifies the Raetia, Raetii as a remnant of the 12 cities "beyond the Apennine Mountains, Apennines"., WEB, Polybius, Polybius, Campanian Etruscans mentioned,weblink II.17, The entire subject with complete ancient sources in footnotes was worked up by George Dennis in his Introduction. In the LacusCurtius transcription, the references in Dennis's footnotes link to the texts in English or Latin; the reader may also find the English of some of them on WikiSource or other Internet sites. As the work has already been done by Dennis and Thayer, the complete work-up is not repeated here. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BCE the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands.BOOK, M. Cary, H.H. Scullard, A History of Rome, 3rd, 1979, 28, 0-312-38395-9, The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BCE.Although the Etruscans developed a system of writing, the Etruscan language remains only partly understood, and only a handful of texts of any length survive, making modern understanding of their society and culture heavily dependent on much later and generally disapproving Roman and Greek sources. Politics was based on the small city and probably the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew very rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south and filled their large family tombs with imported luxuries. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, and Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them.

Legend and history

Origins

File:Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols Bolsena Italy 700 BCE to 650 BCE.jpg|thumb|248px|Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols from Bolsena, Italy, 700–650 BC. LouvreLouvreFile:Etruscan riders BM 3-2.jpg|thumb|248px|Etruscan riders, Silver panel 540–520 BCE, from Castel San Marino, near PerugiaPerugiaFile:British Museum Etruscan 8-2.jpg|thumb|248px|Painted terracotta Sarcophagus of Seianti Hanunia TlesnasaSarcophagus of Seianti Hanunia TlesnasaThe Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or RaÅ›na,Rasenna comes from BOOK, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, I.30.3, The syncopated form, Rasna, is inscriptional and is inflected.The topic is covered in Pallottino, p. 133.Some inscriptions, such as the cippus of Cortona, feature the RaÅ›na (pronounced Rashna) alternative, as is described at WEB, Gabor Z. Bodroghy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080303221757weblink">weblink Etruscan, Origins, The Palaeolinguistic Connection,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080416143745weblink">weblink 2008-04-16, dmy-all, while the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the TuscÄ« or EtruscÄ« (singular Tuscus).According to Félix Gaffiot's Dictionnaire Illustré Latin Français, the major authors of the Roman Republic (Livy, Cicero, Horace, and others) used the term Tusci. Cognate words developed, including Tuscia and Tusculanensis. TuscÄ« was clearly the principal term used to designate things Etruscan; EtruscÄ« and Etrusia/EtrÅ«ria were used less often, mainly by Cicero and Horace, and they lack cognates.According to the WEB,weblink Online Etymological Dictionary, the English use of Etruscan dates from 1706. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms "Toscana", which refers to their heartland, and "Etruria", which can refer to their wider region. In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians (, TurrhÄ“noi, earlier TursÄ“noi), from which the Romans derived the names TyrrhÄ“nÄ«, TyrrhÄ“nia (Etruria), and Mare TyrrhÄ“num (Tyrrhenian Sea),Gaffiot's. prompting some to associate them with the Teresh (Sea Peoples).The origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians (TurrhÄ“noi/Τυρρηνοί, TursÄ“noi/Τυρσηνοί) with Pelasgians, which could both be broad descriptive terms. StraboStrabo, 6.2 and the Homeric Hymn to DionysusHomeric Hymn to Dionysus, 7.7–8 make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates.John Pairman Brown, Israel and Hellas, Vol.2 (2000) p. 211 Thucydides,4.109 Herodotus6.137 and Strabo5.2, citing Anticlides all denote Lemnos as settled by Pelasgians, whom Thucydides identifies as "belonging to the Tyrrhenians" (τὸ δὲ πλεῖστον Πελασγικόν, τῶν καὶ Λῆμνόν ποτε καὶ Ἀθήνας Τυρσηνῶν). Although both Strabo and Herodotus1.94 agree that Tyrrhenus / Tyrsenos, son of Atys, king of Lydia, led the migration, Strabo specifies that it was the Pelasgians of Lemnos and Imbros who followed Tyrrhenus to the Italian Peninsula. A link between Lemnos and the Tyrrhenians was further manifested by the discovery of the Lemnos Stele, whose inscriptions were written in a language which shows strong structural resemblances to the language of the Etruscans.BOOK, Robert D. Morritt, Stones that Speak, 2010, 272, This has led to the suggestion of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan, Lemnian, and the Raetic spoken in the Alps.Hellanicus of Lesbos records a Pelasgian migration from Thessaly to the Italian peninsula, noting that "the Pelasgi made themselves masters of some of the lands belonging to the Umbri".BOOK, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.17–19, By contrast, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek writer living in Rome, dismisses many of the ancient theories of the other Greek historians and postulates that the Etruscans were indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria.BOOK, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, Book I, Chapters 30 1, {{bquote|For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians. And I do not believe, either, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians; for they do not use the same language as the latter, nor can it be alleged that, though they no longer speak a similar tongue, they still retain some other indications of their mother country. For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these very respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians. Indeed, those probably come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a very ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.}}Furthermore, Dionysius of Halicarnassus is the first ancient writer who reports the endonym of the Etruscans: Rasenna.{{bquote|The Romans, however, give them other names: from the country they once inhabited, named Etruria, they call them Etruscans, and from their knowledge of the ceremonies relating to divine worship, in which they excel others, they now call them, rather inaccurately, Tusci, but formerly, with the same accuracy as the Greeks, they called them Thyoscoï.Thyoscoï, earlier form of Tusci. Their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of their leaders, Rasenna.}}Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita Libri says the Rhaetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, and asserts that the inhabitants of Raetia were of Etruscan origin.BOOK, Titus Livius, Livy, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, The History of Rome, Book 5, {{bquote|The Alpine tribes have also, no doubt, the same origin (of the Etruscans), especially the Raetians; who have been rendered so savage by the very nature of the country as to retain nothing of their ancient character save the sound of their speech, and even that is corrupted.}} Pliny the Elder also put the Etruscans in the context of the Rhaetian people to the north and wrote in his Natural History (CE 79):WEB,weblink Etruscan origins in a prehistoric European context, Observations that transcend law and politics, 2013-05-30, dmy-all, {{bquote|Adjoining these the (Alpine) Noricans are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states. The Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus.}}

Genetic research

Historians have no literature and no original Etruscan texts of religion or philosophy; therefore, much of what is known about this civilization derives from tomb findings.Bonfante (2006): 9. A mtDNA study in 2004 stated that the Etruscans had no significant heterogeneity, and that all mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscan samples appear typically European or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were shared with modern populations. Allele sharing between the Etruscans and modern populations is highest among Germans (seven haplotypes in common), the Cornish from South West England (five haplotypes in common), the Turks (four haplotypes in common), and the Tuscans (two haplotypes in common).JOURNAL, C. Vernesi e Altri, The Etruscans: A population-genetic study, American Journal of Human Genetics, March 2004, A mitochondrial DNA study (2013) also suggests that the Etruscans were probably an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture, and that genetic links between Tuscany and Western Anatolia date back at least 5,000 years during the Neolithic, and the "most likely separation time between Tuscany andWestern Anatolia falls around 7,600 years ago".JOURNAL,weblink Origins and evolution of the Etruscans' mtDNA, PLoS One, Silvia Ghirotto, Francesca Tassi, Erica Fumagalli, Vincenza Colonna, Anna Sandionigi, Martina Lari, Stefania Vai, Emmanuele Petiti, Giorgio Corti, Ermanno Rizzi, Gianluca De Bellis, David Caramelli, Guido Barbujani, 6 February 2013, 2015-04-25, 10.1371/journal.pone.0055519, 8, e55519, dmy-all, The ancient Etruscan samples had mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (mtDNA) JT (predominantly J) and U5, with a minority of mtDNA H1b. According to British archeologist Phil Perkins, "there are indications that the evidence of DNA can support the theory that Etruscan people are autochthonous in central Italy".BOOK, Perkins, Phil, Naso, Alessandro, Etruscology, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2017, 109–18, Chapter 8: DNA and Etruscan identity, 978-1934078495, BOOK, Perkins, Phil, Perkins, Phil, Swaddling, Judith, Etruscan by Definition: Papers in Honour of Sybille Haynes, The British Museum Research Publications, 173, London, 2009, 95–111, DNA and Etruscan identity, 978-0861591732,

Expansion

(File:Map of Europe with indication of the directions of the traffic of Etruscan and Greek products - (English language version).svg|thumb|300px|right|Etruscan territories and major spread pathways of Etruscan products)Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania. Some small towns in the sixth century BCE disappeared during this time, ostensibly subsumed by greater, more powerful neighbours. However, it is certain that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar to, albeit more aristocratic than, Magna Graecia in the south. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean Sea. Here, their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the sixth century BCE, when Phocaeans of Italy founded colonies along the coast of Sardinia, Spain and Corsica. This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage, whose interests also collided with the Greeks.BOOK, Larissa Bonfante,weblink Etruscan life and afterlife, Google Books, 2009-04-22, 978-0-8143-1813-3, BOOK, John Franklin Hall,weblink Etruscan Italy, Google Books, 2009-04-22, 978-0-8425-2334-9, dmy-all, Around 540 BCE, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica. From the first half of the 5th century BCE, the new political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline after losing their southern provinces. In 480 BCE, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse, Sicily. A few years later, in 474 BCE, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and the area was taken over by Romans and Samnites.In the 4th century BCE, Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po Valley and the Adriatic coast. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. This led to the loss of the northern Etruscan provinces. During the Roman–Etruscan Wars, Etruria was conquered by Rome in the 3rd century BCE.

Etruscan League

File:0 Mars de Todi - Museo Gregoriano Etruscano (1).JPG|thumb|200px|The Mars of Todi, an Etruscan bronze sculpturebronze sculptureAccording to legend,Livy VII.21 there was a period between 600 BCE and 500 BCE in which an alliance was formed among twelve Etruscan settlements, known today as the Etruscan League, Etruscan Federation, or Dodecapolis (in Greek Δωδεκάπολις). The Etruscan League of twelve cities was founded by Tarchon and his brother Tyrrhenus. Tarchon lent his name to the city of Tarchna, or Tarquinnii, as it was known by the Romans. Tyrrhenus gave his name to the Tyrrhenians, the alternative name for the Etruscans. Although there is no consensus on which cities were in the league, the following list may be close to the mark: Arretium, Caisra, Clevsin, Curtun, Perusna, Pupluna, Veii, Tarchna, Vetluna, Volterra, Velzna, and Velch. Some modern authors include Rusellae.WEB,weblink Etruschi, 29 March 2016, it, Etruscans, Treccani, Dizionario di storia, The league was mostly an economic and religious league, or a loose confederation, similar to the Greek states. During the later imperial times, when Etruria was just one of many regions controlled by Rome, the number of cities in the league increased by three. This is noted on many later grave stones from the 2nd century BCE onwards. According to Livy, the twelve city-states met once a year at the Fanum Voltumnae at Volsinii, where a leader was chosen to represent the league.WEB,weblink The Etruscan League of 12, mysteriousetruscans.com, 2 April 2009, 2015-04-25, dmy-all, There were two other Etruscan leagues ("Lega dei popoli"): that of Campania, the main city of which was Capua, and the Po Valley city-states in the North, which included Bologna, Spina and Adria.

Possible founding of Rome

File:20090414-Cività-di-Bagnoregio.jpg|thumb|200px|right|A former Etruscan walled town, Civita di BagnoregioCivita di BagnoregioFile:Capitoline she-wolf Musei Capitolini MC1181.jpg|200px|thumb|The Capitoline Wolf, long considered an Etruscan bronze, feeding the twins Romulus and RemusRomulus and RemusThose who subscribe to a Latin foundation of Rome followed by an Etruscan invasion typically speak of an Etruscan "influence" on Roman culture – that is, cultural objects which were adopted by Rome from neighbouring Etruria. The prevailing view is that Rome was founded by Latins who later merged with Etruscans. In this interpretation, Etruscan cultural objects are considered influences rather than part of a heritage.NEWS,weblink Routleg, The Shakespeare Name Dictionary, 2004, 2011-09-14, Madison, Davis, Daniel, Frankforter, Rome was probably a small settlement until the arrival of the Etruscans, who constructed the first elements of its urban infrastructure such as the drainage system.BOOK, Cunningham, Reich, Cultures and Values: A survey of the humanities, 2006,weblink 92, The later Romans' own grandiose picture of the early days of their city was intended to glamorize its origins, but only with the arrival of the Etruscans did anything like an urban center begin to develop., BOOK, Hughes, Rome: A cultural, visual, and personal history, 2012, 24, Some Roman technical achievements began in Etruscan expertise. Though the Etruscans never came up with an aqueduct, they were good at drainage, and hence they were the ancestors of Rome's monumental sewer systems., The main criterion for deciding whether an object originated at Rome and traveled by influence to the Etruscans, or descended to the Romans from the Etruscans, is date. Many, if not most, of the Etruscan cities were older than Rome. If one finds that a given feature was there first, it cannot have originated at Rome. A second criterion is the opinion of the ancient sources. These would indicate that certain institutions and customs came directly from the Etruscans. Rome is located on the edge of what was Etruscan territory. When Etruscan settlements turned up south of the border, it was presumed that the Etruscans spread there after the foundation of Rome, but the settlements are now known to have preceded Rome.Etruscan settlements were frequently built on hills – the steeper the better – and surrounded by thick walls. According to Roman mythology, when Romulus and Remus founded Rome, they did so on the Palatine Hill according to Etruscan ritual; that is, they began with a pomerium or sacred ditch. Then, they proceeded to the walls. Romulus was required to kill Remus when the latter jumped over the wall, breaking its magic spell (see also under Pons Sublicius). The name of Rome is attested in Etruscan in the form Ruma-χ meaning 'Roman', a form that mirrors other attested ethnonyms in that language with the same suffix -χ: Velzna-χ '(someone) from Volsinii' and Sveama-χ '(someone) from Sovana'. This in itself, however, is not enough to prove Etruscan origin conclusively. If Tiberius is from θefarie, then Ruma would have been placed on the Thefar (Tiber) river. A heavily discussed topic among scholars is who was the founding population of Rome. In 390 BCE, the city of Rome was attacked by the Gauls, and as a result may have lost many – though not all – of its earlier records. Certainly, the history of Rome before that date is not as secure as it later becomes, but enough material remains to give a good picture of the development of the city and its institutions.Later history relates that some Etruscans lived in the Vicus Tuscus,Tacitus, Cornelius. The Annals & The Histories. Trans. Alfred Church and William Brodribb. New York, 2003. the "Etruscan quarter", and that there was an Etruscan line of kings (albeit ones descended from a Greek, Demaratus of Corinth) that succeeded kings of Latin and Sabine origin. Etruscophile historians would argue that this, together with evidence for institutions, religious elements and other cultural elements, proves that Rome was founded by Italics. The true picture is rather more complicated, not least because the Etruscan cities were separate entities which never came together to form a single Etruscan state. Furthermore, there were strong Latin and Italic elements to Roman culture, and later Romans proudly celebrated these multiple, 'multicultural' influences on the city.Under Romulus and Numa Pompilius, the people were said to have been divided into thirty curiae and three tribes. Few Etruscan words entered Latin, but the names of at least two of the tribes – Ramnes and Luceres – seem to be Etruscan. The last kings may have borne the Etruscan title lucumo, while the regalia were traditionally considered of Etruscan origin – the golden crown, the sceptre, the toga palmata (a special robe), the sella curulis (curule chair), and above all the primary symbol of state power: The fasces. The latter was a bundle of whipping rods surrounding a double-bladed axe, carried by the king's lictors. An example of the fasces are the remains of bronze rods and the axe from a tomb in Etruscan Vetulonia. This allowed archaeologists to identify the depiction of a fasces on the grave stele of Avele Feluske, who is shown as a warrior wielding the fasces. The most telling Etruscan feature is the word populus, which appears as an Etruscan deity, Fufluns. Populus seems to mean the people assembled in a military body, rather than the general populace.

Society

Government

(File:Etruscan mother and child 500 to 450 BCE.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Etruscan mother and child, 500–450 BCE)The historical Etruscans had achieved a state system of society, with remnants of the chiefdom and tribal forms. In this, they were different from the surrounding Italics, who had chiefs and tribes. Rome was in a sense the first Italic state, but it began as an Etruscan one. It is believed that the Etruscan government style changed from total monarchy to oligarchic republic (as the Roman Republic) in the 6th century BCE, although it is important to note this did not happen to all the city-states.The government was viewed as being a central authority, ruling over all tribal and clan organizations. It retained the power of life and death; in fact, the gorgon, an ancient symbol of that power, appears as a motif in Etruscan decoration. The adherents to this state power were united by a common religion. Political unity in Etruscan society was the city-state, which was probably the referent of methlum, "district". Etruscan texts name quite a number of magistrates, without much of a hint as to their function: The camthi, the parnich, the purth, the tamera, the macstrev, and so on. The people were the mech. The chief ruler of a methlum was perhaps a zilach.

Family

File:Paris - Louvre - Sarcophage.jpg|250px|thumb|right|Etruscan couple (LouvreLouvreThe princely tombs were not of individuals. The inscription evidence shows that families were interred there over long periods, marking the growth of the aristocratic family as a fixed institution, parallel to the gens at Rome and perhaps even its model. The Etruscans could have used any model of the eastern Mediterranean. That the growth of this class is related to the new acquisition of wealth through trade is unquestioned. The wealthiest cities were located near the coast. At the centre of the society was the married couple, tusurthir. The Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing.Similarly, the behaviour of some wealthy women is not uniquely Etruscan. The apparent promiscuous revelry has a spiritual explanation. Swaddling and Bonfante (among others) explain that depictions of the nude embrace, or symplegma, "had the power to ward off evil", as did baring the breast, which was adopted by western culture as an apotropaic device, appearing finally on the figureheads of sailing ships as a nude female upper torso. It is also possible that Greek and Roman attitudes to the Etruscans were based on a misunderstanding of the place of women within their society. In both Greece and Republican Rome, respectable women were confined to the house and mixed-sex socialising did not occur. Thus, the freedom of women within Etruscan society could have been misunderstood as implying their sexual availability.{{or|date=September 2018}} It is worth noting that a number of Etruscan tombs carry funerary inscriptions in the form "X son of (father) and (mother)", indicating the importance of the mother's side of the family.{{cn|date=September 2018}}

Military

{{See also|Padanian Etruria}}File:Etruscan warrior near Viterbe Italy circa 500 BCE.jpg|thumb|200px|Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, ItalyItalyThe Etruscans, like the contemporary cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, had a significant military tradition. In addition to marking the rank and power of certain individuals, warfare was a considerable economic advantage to Etruscan civilization. Like many ancient societies, the Etruscans conducted campaigns during summer months, raiding neighboring areas, attempting to gain territory and combating piracy as a means of acquiring valuable resources, such as land, prestige, goods, and slaves. It is likely that individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families and clans at high cost. Prisoners could also potentially be sacrificed on tombs as an honor to fallen leaders of Etruscan society, not unlike the sacrifices made by Achilles for Patrocles.BOOK, Mario Torelli, The Etruscans, Rizzoli International Publications, dmy-all, BOOK, Trevor Dupey, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, Rizzoli Harper Collins Publisher, dmy-all, BOOK, Dora Jane Hamblin, The Etruscans, Time Life Books,

Cities

The range of Etruscan civilization is marked by its cities. They were entirely assimilated by Italic, Celtic, or Roman ethnic groups, but the names survive from inscriptions and their ruins are of aesthetic and historic interest in most of the cities of central Italy. Etruscan cities flourished over most of Italy during the Roman Iron Age, marking the farthest extent of Etruscan civilization. They were gradually assimilated first by Italics in the south, then by Celts in the north and finally in Etruria itself by the growing Roman Republic.That many Roman cities were formerly Etruscan was well known to all the Roman authors. Some cities were founded by Etruscans in prehistoric times, and bore entirely Etruscan names. Others were colonized by Etruscans who Etruscanized the name, usually Italic.

Culture

Religion

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| caption1 = Chimera of Arezzo
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| caption2 = Inscription of Tinia on the Chimera's leg
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The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favour of human affairs. How to understand the will of deities, and how to behave, had been revealed to the Etruscans by two initiators, Tages, a childlike figure born from tilled land and immediately gifted with prescience, and Vegoia, a female figure. Their teachings were kept in a series of sacred books. Three layers of deities are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs. One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil, the sun; Tivr, the moon; Selvans, a civil god; Turan, the goddess of love; Laran, the god of war; Leinth, the goddess of death; Maris; Thalna; Turms; and the ever-popular Fufluns, whose name is related in some way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus, possibly, the god of the people.BOOK, De Grummond, Nancy Thomson, 2006, Etruscan Mythology, Sacred History and Legend: An Introduction, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, dmy-all, BOOK, Erika Simon,weblink The religion of the Etruscans, Google Books, 978-0-292-70687-3, dmy-all, Ruling over this pantheon of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife (Juno), and Cel, the earth goddess. In addition, some Greek and Roman gods were taken into the Etruscan system: Aritimi (Artemis), Menrva (Minerva), Pacha (Dionysus). The Greek heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in art motifs.

Architecture

File:Hypogeum cyark 1.jpg|thumb|right|200px|3D view, facing west, of the Etruscan Hypogeum of the Volumnis, Perugia, Italy, cut from a laser scan ]]Relatively little is known about the architecture of the ancient Etruscans. They adapted the native Italic styles with influence from the external appearance of Greek architecture. In turn, Ancient Roman architecture began with Etruscan styles, and then accepted still further Greek influence. Roman temples show many of the same differences in form to Greek ones that Etruscan temples do, but like the Greeks, use stone, in which they closely copy Greek conventions. The houses of the wealthy were evidently often large and comfortable, but the burial chambers of tombs, often filled with grave-goods, are the nearest approach to them to survive. In the southern Etruscan area, tombs have large rock-cut chambers under a tumulus in large necropoleis, and these, together with some city walls, are the only Etruscan constructions to survive. Etruscan architecture is not generally considered as part of the body of Greco-Roman classical architecture.BOOK, Axel Boëthius, Roger Ling, Tom Rasmussen, 1994, Etruscan and early Roman architecture, Yale University Press, dmy-all,

Art and music

File:Danseurs et musiciens, tombe des léopards.jpg|thumb|250px|5th century BCE fresco of dancers and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, Monterozzi necropolisMonterozzi necropolisFile:A dancing man from the painted walls of the tomb of the Augurs at Tarquinia, 525-500 BCE, Etruscan.jpg|thumb|200px|A dancer in the Tomb of the AugursTomb of the Augurs(File:Head of a Man Wearing a Laurel-Wreath LACMA M.82.77.13.jpg|thumb|200px|Terracotta head of a Man Wearing a Laurel-Wreath, 2nd century BCE)Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization between the 9th and 2nd centuries BCE. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta (particularly lifesize on sarcophagi or temples), wall-painting and metalworking (especially engraved bronze mirrors). Etruscan sculpture in cast bronze was famous and widely exported, but few large examples have survived (the material was too valuable, and recycled later). In contrast to terracotta and bronze, there was apparently little Etruscan sculpture in stone, despite the Etruscans controlling fine sources of marble, including Carrara marble, which seems not to have been exploited until the Romans. Most surviving Etruscan art comes from tombs, including all the fresco wall-paintings, which show scenes of feasting and some narrative mythological subjects.Bucchero wares in black were the early and native styles of fine Etruscan pottery. There was also a tradition of elaborate Etruscan vase painting, which sprung from its Greek equivalent; the Etruscans were the main export market for Greek vases. Etruscan temples were heavily decorated with colourfully painted terracotta antefixes and other fittings, which survive in large numbers where the wooden superstructure has vanished. Etruscan art was strongly connected to religion; the afterlife was of major importance in Etruscan art.BOOK, Etruscan Art, Nigel, Spivey, 1997, Thames and Hudson, London, The Etruscan musical instruments seen in frescoes and bas-reliefs are different types of pipes, such as the plagiaulos (the pipes of Pan or Syrinx), the alabaster pipe and the famous double pipes, accompanied on percussion instruments such as the tintinnabulum, tympanum and crotales, and later by stringed instruments like the lyre and kithara.

Language and etymology

File:Perugia, Museo archeologico Nazionale dell'Umbria, cippo di Perugia.jpg|thumb|right|170px|Cippus Perusinus. 3rd–2nd century BCE, San Marco near PerugiaPerugiaKnowledge of the Etruscan language is still far from complete. The Etruscans are believed to have spoken a non-Indo-European language; the majority consensus is that Etruscan is related only to other members of what is called the Tyrsenian language family, which in itself is an isolate family, that is, unrelated directly to other known language groups. Since Rix (1998), it is widely accepted that the Tyrsenian family groups Raetic and Lemnian are related to Etruscan.No etymology exists for Rasna, the Etruscans' name for themselves. The etymology of Tusci is based on a beneficiary phrase in the third Iguvine tablet, which is a major source for the Umbrian language.WEB, 'Cui bono?' The beneficiary phrases of the third Iguvine table, Michael Weiss, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University,weblink The phrase is turskum ... nomen, "the Tuscan name", from which a root *Tursci can be reconstructed.BOOK, Carl Darling Buck, Carl Darling Buck, 1904, Introduction: A Grammar of Oscan and Umbian, Boston, Gibb & Company,weblink the forumromanum.org, A metathesis and a word-initial epenthesis produce E-trus-ci.BOOK, Eric Partridge, 1983, Origins, Greenwich House, New York, under "tower", A common hypothesis is that *Turs- along with Latin turris, "tower", come from Greek , "tower."The Bonfantes (2003), p. 51. The Tusci were therefore the "people who build towers" or "the tower builders."Partridge (1983) This venerable etymology is at least as old as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who said "And there is no reason that the Greeks should not have called them by this name, both from their living in towers and from the name of one of their rulers."Book I, Section 30.Giuliano and Larissa Bonfante (Bonfante, 2002) speculate that Etruscan houses seemed like towers to the simple Latins. It is true that the Etruscans preferred to build hill towns on high precipices enhanced by walls.

Literature

File:Lanena_knjiga_(Liber_linteus_Zagrebiensis).jpg|thumb|right|220px|Samples of Etruscan script, from the Liber linteusLiber linteusEtruscan texts, written in a space of seven centuries, use a form of the Greek alphabet due to close contact between the Etruscans and the Greek colonies at Pithecusae and Cumae in the 8th century BCE (until it was no longer used, at the beginning of the 1st century CE). Etruscan inscriptions disappeared from Chiusi, Perugia and Arezzo around this time. Only a few fragments survive, religious and especially funeral texts most of which are late (from the 4th century BCE). In addition to the original texts that have survived to this day, we have a large number of quotations and allusions from classical authors. In the 1st century BCE, Diodorus Siculus wrote that literary culture was one of the great achievements of the Etruscans. Little is known of it and even what is known of their language is due to the repetition of the same few words in the many inscriptions found (by way of the modern epitaphs) contrasted in bilingual or trilingual texts with Latin and Punic. Out of the aforementioned genres, is just one such Vorrio (Vorrius) cited in classical sources mention.{{clarify|date=January 2017}}{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} With a few exceptions, such as the Liber Linteus, the only written records in the Etruscan language that remain are inscriptions, mainly funerary. The language is written in the Etruscan alphabet, a script related to the early Euboean Greek alphabet.WEB,weblink Etrusca, The Culture Traveler.com, 2009-04-22, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090922180308weblink">weblink 2009-09-22, dmy-all, Many thousand inscriptions in Etruscan are known, mostly epitaphs, and a few very short texts have survived, which are mainly religious. Etruscan imaginative literature is evidenced only in references by later Roman authors, but it is evident from their visual art that the Greek myths were well-known.{{Citation needed|date=May 2015}}

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • Bell S. and Carpino A. A Companion to the Etruscans, Oxford; Chichester; Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.
  • Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante Larissa. The Etruscan Language: An Introduction. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.
  • Bonfante, Larissa. Out of Etruria: Etruscan Influence North and South. Oxford: B.A.R., 1981.
  • Bonfante, Larissa. Etruscan Life and Afterlife: A Handbook of Etruscan Studies. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986.
  • Bonfante, Larissa. Etruscan Myths. London: British Museum Press, 2006.
  • Haynes, Sybille. Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2000.
  • Izzet, Vedia. The Archaeology of Etruscan Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Naso, A. Etruscology, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017.
  • Smith, C. The Etruscans: a very short introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Spivey, Nigel. Etruscan Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  • Swaddling, Judith and Philip Perkins. Etruscan by Definition: The Culture, Regional, and Personal Identity of the Etruscans: Papers in Honor of Sybille Haynes. London: British Museum, 2009.
  • Turfa, Jean MacIntosh. The Etruscan World. London: Routledge, 2013.

Cities and sites

External links

{{Library resources box |by=no |onlinebooks=yes |others=yes |about=yes |label=Etruscan civilization}}
  • WEB,weblink Etruscan weapons and warfare,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160130043903weblink">weblink 30 January 2016, 3 November 2017, yes, dmy-all,
  • WEB,weblink Etruscan Lion Plaque Pendant,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170509232347weblink">weblink 9 May 2017, 2 February 2002, no, dmy-all,
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