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{{short description|Poem by Hesiod}}{{italic title}}File:Hesiod, Theogony, Venice, Gr. 464.jpg|thumb|Fourteenth-century Greek manuscript of Hesiod's Theogony with scholiascholiaThe Theogony (, Theogonía, {{IPA-el|tʰeoɡoníaː|att}}, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods"{{LSJ|qeogoni/a|θεογονία|ref}}) is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC. It is written in the Epic dialect of Ancient Greek.

Descriptions

Hesiod's Theogony is a large-scale synthesis of a vast variety of local Greek traditions concerning the gods, organized as a narrative that tells how they came to be and how they established permanent control over the cosmos. It is the first known Greek mythical cosmogony. The initial state of the universe is chaos, a dark indefinite void considered a divine primordial condition from which everything else appeared. Theogonies are a part of Greek mythology which embodies the desire to articulate reality as a whole; this universalizing impulse was fundamental for the first later projects of speculative theorizing.BOOK, Sandwell, Barry, Presocratic Philosophy vol.3, New York, Routledge, 1996,weblink 9780415101707, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} p. 28Further, in the "Kings and Singers" passage (80–103)JOURNAL, Stoddard, Kathryn B., The Programmatic Message of the 'Kings and Singers' Passage: Hesiod, Theogony 80-103, Transactions of the American Philological Association, 133, 1, 2003, 1–16, 10.1353/apa.2003.0010, 20054073, harv, Hesiod appropriates to himself the authority usually reserved to sacred kingship. The poet declares that it is he, where we might have expected some king instead, upon whom the Muses have bestowed the two gifts of a scepter and an authoritative voice (Hesiod, Theogony 30–3), which are the visible signs of kingship. It is not that this gesture is meant to make Hesiod a king. Rather, the point is that the authority of kingship now belongs to the poetic voice, the voice that is declaiming the Theogony.File:Muses sarcophagus Louvre MR880.jpg|thumb|upright=2.3|right|The nine muses on a Roman sarcophagus (second century AD)—LouvreLouvreAlthough it is often used as a sourcebook for Greek mythology,Herodotus (II.53) cited it simply as an authoritative list of divine names, attributes and functions. the Theogony is both more and less than that. In formal terms it is a hymn invoking Zeus and the Muses: parallel passages between it and the much shorter Homeric Hymn to the Muses make it clear that the Theogony developed out of a tradition of hymnic preludes with which an ancient Greek rhapsode would begin his performance at poetic competitions. It is necessary to see the Theogony not as the definitive source of Greek mythology, but rather as a snapshot of a dynamic tradition that happened to crystallize when Hesiod formulated the myths he knew—and to remember that the traditions have continued evolving since that time.The written form of the Theogony was established in the 6th century BC. Even some conservative editors have concluded that the Typhon episode (820–68) is an interpolation.F. Solmsen, Hesiod and Aeschylus (Ithaca: Cornell Studies in Classical Philology 30) 1949:53 and note 179 with citations; "if an interpolation," Joseph Eddy Fontenrose observes (Python: a study of Delphic myth and its origins: 71, note 3), "it was made early enough."
Hesiod was probably influenced by some Near-Eastern traditions, such as the Babylonian Dynasty of Dunnum,JOURNAL, Lambert, Wilfred G., Walcot, Peter, A New Babylonian Theogony and Hesiod, Kadmos, 4, 1, 1965, 64–72, 10.1515/kadm.1965.4.1.64, harv, which were mixed with local traditions, but they are more likely to be lingering traces from the Mycenaean tradition than the result of oriental contacts in Hesiod's own time.
The decipherment of Hittite mythical texts, notably the Kingship in Heaven text first presented in 1946, with its castration mytheme, offers in the figure of Kumarbi an Anatolian parallel to Hesiod's Uranus–Cronus conflict.Walter Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age (Harvard University Press) 192, offers discussion and bibliography of related questions.

The Succession Myth

File:The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn.jpg|thumb|300px|The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn: fresco by Giorgio Vasari and Cristofano Gherardi, c. 1560 (Sala di Cosimo I, Palazzo VecchioPalazzo VecchioOne of the principal components of the Theogony is the presentation of the "Succession Myth".Hard, pp. 65–69; West 1966, pp. 18–19. It tells how Cronus overthrew Uranus, and how in turn Zeus overthrew Cronus and his fellow Titans, and how Zeus was eventually established as the final and permanent ruler of the cosmos.Uranus (Sky) initially produced eighteen children with Gaia (Earth): the twelve Titans, the three Cyclopes, and the three Hecatoncheires (Hundred-Handers),Theogony 132–153. but hating them,Theogony 154–155. Exactly which of these eighteen children Hesiod meant that Uranus hated is not entirely clear, all eighteen, or perhaps just the Cyclopes and the Hundred-Handers. Hard,p. 67; West 1988, p. 7, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160, make it all eighteen; while Gantz, p. 10, says "likely all eighteen"; and Most, p. 15 n. 8, says "apparently only the ... Cyclopes and Hundred-Handers are meant" and not the twelve Titans. See also West 1966, p. 206 on lines 139–53, p. 213 line 154 γὰρ. Why Uranus hated his children is also not clear. Gantz, p. 10 says: "The reason for [Uranus'] hatred may be [his children's] horrible appearance, though Hesiod does not quite say this"; while Hard, p. 67 says: "Although Hesiod is vague about the cause of his hatred, it would seem that he took a dislike to them because they were terrible to behold". However, West 1966, p. 213 on line 155, says that Uranus hated his children because of their "fearsome nature". he hid them away somewhere inside Gaia.Theogony 156–158. The hiding place inside Gaia is presumably her womb, see West 1966, p. 214 on line 158; Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160; Gantz, p. 10. This place seems also to be the same place as Tartarus, see West 1966, p. 338 on line 618, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160. Angry and in distress, Gaia fashioned a sickle made of adamant and urged her children to punish their father. Only her son Cronus, the youngest Titan, was willing to do so.Theogony 159–172. So Gaia hid Cronus in "ambush" gave him the adamantine sickle, and when Uranus came to lie with Gaia, Cronus reached out and castrated his father.Theogony 173–182; according to Gantz, p. 10, Cronus waited in ambush, and reached out to castrate Uranus, from "inside [Gaia's] body, we will understand, if he too is a prisoner". This enabled the Titans to be born and Cronus to assume supreme command of the cosmos.Hard, p. 67; West 1966, p. 19. As Hard notes, in the Theogony apparently, although the Titans were freed as a result of Uranus' castration, the Cyclopes and Hundred-Handers remain imprisoned (see below), see also West 1966, p. 214 on line 158.Cronus, having now taken over control of the cosmos from Uranus, wanted to ensure that he maintained control. Uranus and Gaia had prophesied to Cronus that one of Cronus' own children would overthrow him, so when Cronus married Rhea, he made sure to swallow each of the children she birthed: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus (in that order), to Rhea's great sorrow.Theogony 453–467. However, when Rhea was pregnant with Zeus, Rhea begged her parents Gaia and Uranus to help her save Zeus. So they sent Rhea to Lyctus on Crete to bear Zeus, and Gaia took the newborn Zeus to raise, hiding him deep in a cave beneath Mount Aigaion.Theogony 468–484. Mount Aigaion is otherwise unknown, and Lyctus is nowhere else associated with Zeus' birth, later tradition located the cave on Mount Ida, or sometimes Mount Dikte, see Hard, pp. 74–75; West 1966, pp. 297–298 on line 477, p. 300 on line 484. Meanwhile, Rhea gave Cronus a huge stone wrapped in baby's clothes which he swallowed thinking that it was another of Rhea's children.Theogony 485–491.File:Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem - The Fall of the Titans - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|300px|The Fall of the Titans by Cornelis Cornelisz van HaarlemCornelis Cornelisz van HaarlemZeus, now grown, forced Cronus (using some unspecified trickery of Gaia) to disgorge his other five children.Theogony 492–500. Zeus then released his uncles the Cyclopes (apparently still imprisoned beneath the earth, along with the Hundred-Handers, where Uranus had originally confined them) who then provide Zeus with his great weapon, the thunderbolt, which had been hidden by Gaia.Theogony 501–506; Hard, pp. 68–69; West 1966, p. 206 on lines 139–153, pp. 303–305 on lines 501–506. According to Apollodorus, 1.1.4-5, after the overthrow of Uranus, the Cyclopes (as well as the Hundred-Handers) were rescued from Tartarus by the Titans, but reimprisoned by Cronus. A great war was begun, the Titanomachy, between the new gods, Zeus and his siblings, and the old gods, Cronus and the Titans, for control of the cosmos. In the tenth year of that war, following Gaia's counsel, Zeus released the Hundred-Handers, who joined the war against the Titans, helping Zeus to gain the upper hand. Zeus cast the fury of his thunderbolt at the Titans, defeating them and throwing them into Tartarus.Theogony 624–721. This is the sequence of events understood to be implied in the Theogony by, for example, Hard, p. 68; Caldwell, p. 65 on line 636; and West 1966, p. 19. However according to Gantz, p. 45, "Hesiod's account does not quite say whether the Hundred-Handers were freed before the conflict or only in the tenth year. ... Eventually, if not at the beginning, the Hundred-Handers are fighting".A final threat to Zeus' power was to come in the form of the monster Typhon, son of Gaia and Tartarus. Zeus with his thunderbolt was quickly victorious, and Typhon was also imprisoned in Tartarus.Theogony 820–868.Zeus, by Gaia's advice, was elected king of the gods, and he apportioned various honors among the gods.Theogony 881–885. Zeus then married his first wife Metis, but when he learned that Metis was fated to produce a son which might usurp his rule, by the advice of Gaia and Uranus, Zeus swallowed Metis (while still pregnant with Athena). And so Zeus managed to end the cycle of succession and secure his eternal rule over the cosmos.Theogony 886–900.

The genealogies

The first gods

The world began with the spontaneous generation of four beings: first arose Chaos (Chasm); then came Gaia (Earth), "the ever-sure foundation of all"; "dim" Tartarus, in the depths of the Earth; and Eros (Desire) "fairest among the deathless gods".Theogony 116–122. West 1966, p. 192 line 116 Χάος, "best translated Chasm"; Most, p. 13, translates Χάος as "Chasm", and notes: (n. 7): "Usually translated as 'Chaos'; but that suggests to us, misleadingly, a jumble of disordered matter, whereas Hesiod's term indicates instead a gap or opening". Other translations given in this section follow those given by Caldwell, pp. 5–6.From Chaos came Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx (Night). And Nyx "from union in love" with Erebus produced Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day).Theogony 123–125. From Gaia came Uranus (Sky), the Ourea (Mountains), and Pontus (Sea).Theogony 126–132.{{chart top|The first godsTheogony 116–132; Caldwell, p. 5, table 3; Hard, p. 694; Gantz, p. xxvi.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | |CHA | | | | | | | |GAI | | | | |TAR | |ERO |CHA=Chaos|GAI = Gaia|TAR=Tartarus|ERO=Eros}}{{chart| | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | |ERE |y|NYX | |URA | |OUR | |PON |NYX=Nyx|ERE=Erebus|URA=Uranus|OUR=The Ourea|PON=Pontus}}{{chart| | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | AET | | HEM |AET=Aether|HEM=Hemera}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Children of Gaia and Uranus

Uranus mated with Gaia, and she gave birth to the twelve Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys and Cronus;Theogony 132–138. the Cyclopes: Brontes, Steropes and Arges;Theogony 139–146. and the Hecatoncheires ("Hundred-Handers"): Cottus, Briareos, and Gyges.Theogony 147–153.{{chart top|Children of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Sky)Theogony 132–153; Caldwell, p. 5, table 3.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |GAI | y |URA |GAI = Gaia|URA=Uranus}}{{chart| | | |,|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|+|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|-|.}}{{chart| | |OCE |!|CRI |!|IAP |!|RHE |!|MNE |!|TET |!|| |!|OCE=Oceanus|CRI=Crius|IAP=Iapetus|RHE=Rhea|MNE=Mnemosyne|TET=Tethys}}{{chart| | | | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | |!}}{{chart| | | | |COE | |HYP | |THE | |THEM | |PHO | |CRO | |!|COE=Coeus|HYP=Hyperion|THE=Theia|THEM=Themis|PHO=Phoebe|CRO=Cronus}}{{chart|border=0| |L|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|TIT |~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J|!|TIT=The Titans}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|(}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | |BRO | |STE | |ARG | | | | | | | |!|BRO=Brontes|STE=Steropes|ARG=Arges}}{{chart|border=0| | | | | | | | | |L|~|~|~|~|CYC|~|~|~|~|J| | | | | | |!|CYC=The Cyclopes}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | |COT | |BRI | |GYG |COT=Cottus|BRI=Briareos|GYG =Gyges}}{{chart|border=0| | | | | | | | | |L|~|~|~|~|HUN|~|~|~|~|J|HUN=The Hundred-Handers}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Children of Gaia and Uranus' blood, and Uranus' genitals

File:The Birth of Venus by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1879).jpg|thumb|250px|The Birth of Venus by William-Adolphe BouguereauWilliam-Adolphe BouguereauWhen Cronus castrated Uranus, from Uranus' blood which splattered onto the earth, came the Erinyes (Furies), the Giants, and the Meliai. Cronus threw the severed genitals into the sea, around which foam developed and transformed into the goddess Aphrodite.Theogony 173–206.{{chart top|Children of Gaia and Uranus' blood, and Uranus' genitalsTheogony 183–200; Caldwell, p. 6, table 4.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | |GAI | y |URAB | | | | |URAG |GAI = Gaia|URAB=Uranus' blood|URAG=Uranus' genitals}}{{chart| | | | | | |,|-|-|+|-|-|.| | | | | |!|}}{{chart| | | | | ERI| |GIA | |MEL | | |APH |ERI=The Erinyes|GIA=The Giants|MEL=The Meliae|APH=Aphrodite}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Descendants of Nyx

Meanwhile, Nyx (Night) alone produced children: Moros (Doom), Ker (Destiny), Thanatos (Death), Hypnos (Sleep), the Oneiroi (Dreams), Momus (Blame), Oizys (Pain), Hesperides (Daughters of Night), the Moirai (Fates),At 904 the Moirai are the daughters of Zeus and Themis. the Keres (Destinies), Nemesis (Retribution), Apate (Deceit), Philotes (Love), Geras (Old Age), and Eris (Discord).Theogony 211–225. The translations of the names used in this section are those given by Caldwell, p. 6, table 5.And from Eris alone, came Ponos (Hardship), Lethe (Forgetfulness), Limos (Starvation), the Algea (Pains), the Hysminai (Battles), the Makhai (Wars), the Phonoi (Murders), the Androktasiai (Manslaughters), the Neikea (Quarrels), the Pseudea (Lies), the Logoi (Stories), the Amphillogiai (Disputes), Dysnomia (Anarchy), Ate (Ruin), and Horkos (Oath).Theogony 226–232.{{chart top| Children of Nyx (Night) and Eris (Discord)Theogony 211–232; Caldwell, pp. 6–7, table 5.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |NYX|NYX=Nyx}}{{chart| |,|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|+|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|.}}{{chart|MOR |!|THA |!|ONE |!|OIZ |!|MOI |!|NEM |!|PHI |!| |!|MOR=Moros|THA=Thanatos|ONE=The Oneiroi|OIZ=Oizys|MOI=The Moirai At 904 the Moirai are the daughters of Zeus and Themis.|NEM=Nemesis|PHI=Philotes}}{{chart| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| |!}}{{chart| | |KER | |HYP | |MOM | |HES | |KERE | |APA | |GER |!|KER=Ker|HYP=Hypnos|MOM=Momus|HES=The Hesperides|KERE=The Keres|APA=Apate|GER=Geras}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ERI |ERI=Eris}}{{chart| |,|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|+|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|.}}{{chart|PON |!|LIM |!|HYS |!|PHO |!|NEI |!|LOG |!|DYS |!|HOR|PON=Ponos|LIM=Limos|HYS=The Hysminai|PHO=The Phonoi|NEI=The Neikea|LOG=The Logoi|DYS=Dysnomia|HOR=Horkos}}{{chart| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!}}{{chart| | |LET | |ALG | |MAK | |AND | |PSE | |AMP | |ATE |LET=Lethe|ALG=The Algea|MAK=The Makhai|AND=The Androktasiai|PSE=The Pseudea|AMP=The Amphillogiai|ATE=Ate}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Descendants of Gaia and Pontus

After Uranus's castration, Gaia mated with her son Pontus (Sea) producing a descendent line consisting primarily of sea deities, sea nymphs, and hybrid monsters. Their first child Nereus (Old Man of the Sea) married Doris, one of the Oceanid daughters of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys, and they produced the Nereids, fifty sea nymphs, which included Amphitrite, Thetis, and Psamathe. Their second child Thaumas, married Electra, another Oceanid, and their offspring were Iris (Rainbow) and the two Harpies: Aello and Ocypete.Theogony 233–269.Gaia and Pontus' third and fourth children, Phorcys and Ceto, married each other and produced the two Graiae: Pemphredo and Enyo, and the three Gorgons: Sthenno, Euryale, and Medusa. Poseidon mated with Medusa and two offspring, the winged horse Pegasus and the warrior Chrysaor, were born when the hero Perseus cut off Medusa's head. Chrysaor married Callirhoe, another Oceanid, and they produced the three-headed Geryon.Theogony 270–294. Next comes the half-nymph half-snake EchidnaTheogony 295–305. (her mother is unclear, probably Ceto, or possibly Callirhoe).The "she" at 295 is ambiguous. While some have read this "she" as referring to Callirhoe, according to Clay, p. 159 n. 32, "the modern scholarly consensus" reads Ceto, see for example Gantz, p. 22; Caldwell, pp. 7, 46 295–303. The last offspring of Ceto and Phorcys was a serpent (unnamed in the Theogony, later called Ladon, by Apollodorus) who guards the golden apples.Theogony 333–336.
{{chart top|Descendants of Gaia and Pontus (Sea), and Phocys and CetoTheogony 233–297, 333–335 (Ladon); Caldwell, p. 7, tables 6–9; Hard, p. 696.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | |GAI |y|PON |GAI = Gaia|PON=Pontus}}{{chart| |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|^|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.}}{{chart|NER |y|DOR | |THA |y|ELE| |PHO |y|CET | |EUR |NER=Nereus|DOR=Doris One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 350. |THA=Thaumas|ELE=Electra One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 349. |PHO=Phorcys|CET=Ceto|EUR=Eurybia}} {{chart| | | |!| | | | |,|-|-|+|-|-|.| | | | |!}}{{chart| | |NER| |IRI | |AEL | |OCY | | |!|NER=The Nereids The fifty sea nymphs, including: Amphitrite ( 243), Thetis ( 244), Galatea ( 250), and Psamathe ( 260).|IRI=Iris|AEL=Aello|OCY=Ocypete}}{{chart|border=0 | | | | | | | | | |L|~|~|HAR |~|~|J| |!|HAR=The Harpies}}{{chart| | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|^|v|-|-|.}}{{chart| |PEM | |ENY | |!| | | |!| | | |!| |ECH | |LAD |PEM=Pemphredo|ENY=Enyo|ECH=Echidna? Who Echidna's mother is supposed to be, is unclear, she is probably Ceto, but possibly Callirhoe. The "she" at 295 is ambiguous. While some have read this "she" as referring to Callirhoe, according to Clay, p. 159 n. 32, "the modern scholarly consensus" reads Ceto, see for example Gantz, p. 22; Caldwell, pp. 7, 46 295–303.|LAD= (Ladon) Unnamed by Hesiod, but described at 334–335 as a terrible serpent who guards the golden apples.}}{{chart|border=0 |L|~|~|GRA |~|~|J|!| | | |!| | | |!| | |GRA=The Graiai}}{{chart| | | | | | | | |STH | |EUR | |MED |~|y|POS |STH=Sthenno|EUR=Euryale|MED=Medusa|POS=Poseidon Son of Cronus and Rhea at 456, where he is called "Earth-Shaker".}}{{chart|border=0 | | | | | | | |L|~|~|~|~|GOR |~|~|~|~|J|! | | | | | | | | |GOR=The Gorgons}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |PEG | |CHR |y|CAL|PEG=Pegasus|CHR=Chrysaor|CAL=Callirhoe One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 351.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |GER|GER=Geryon}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Descendants of Echidna and Typhon

Gaia also mated with Tartarus to produce Typhon,Theogony 821–822. whom Echidna married, producing several monstrous descendants.Theogony 304–332. Their first three offspring were Orthus, Cerberus, and the Hydra. Next comes the Chimera (whose mother is unclear, either Echidna or the Hydra).The "she" at 319 is ambiguous, see Clay, p. 159, with n. 34, but probably refers to Echidna, according to Gantz, p. 22; Most, p. 29 n.18; Caldwell, p. 47 on lines 319-325; but possibly the Hydra, or less likely Ceto. Finally Orthus (his mate is unclear, either the Chimera or Echidna) produced two offspring the Sphinx and the Nemean Lion.The "she" at 326 is ambiguous, see Clay, p. 159, with n. 34, but probably refers to the Chimera according to Gantz, p. 23; Most, p. 29 n. 20; West 1988, p. 67 n. 326; but possibly to Echidna or less likely to Ceto.{{chart top|Descendants of Echidna and TyphonTheogony 304-327, 821–822 (Typhon); Caldwell, p. 8, table 10; Hard, p. 696.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | |GAI |y|TAR |GAI = Gaia|TAR=Tartarus}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | |ECH|y|TYP | | |QUE |ECH=Echidna|TYP=Typhon|QUE=Echidna (or Hydra?) Who the Chimera's mother is supposed to be, is unclear, she is probably Echidna, but possibly the Hydra.}}{{chart| | | | | |,|-|-|-|^|v|-|-|.| | |!}}{{chart| | | | |ORT|7|CER| |HYD | |CHI|ORT=Orthus|CER=Cerberus|HYD=Hydra |CHI=Chimera}}{{chart| | | | | | | |:}}{{chart| | | | | | | |L|y|~|CHI | | |CHI=Chimera (or Echidna?) Who Orthrus mates with is unclear, probably the Chimera, but possibly Echidna.}}{{chart| | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.|}}{{chart| | | | | |SPH | |NEM |SPH=Sphinx|NEM=Nemean lion}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Descendants of the Titans

The Titans, Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, and Cronus married their sisters Tethys, Theia, Phoebe and Rhea, and Crius married his half-sister Eurybia, the daughter of Gaia and Pontus. From Oceanus and Tethys came the three thousand river gods (including Nilus (Nile), Alpheus, and Scamander) and three thousand Oceanid nymphs (including Doris, Electra, Callirhoe, Styx, Clymene, Metis, Eurynome, Perseis, and Idyia). From Hyperion and Theia came Helios (Sun), Selene (Moon), and Eos (Dawn), and from Crius and Eurybia came Astraios, Pallas, and Perses. From Eos and Astraios came the winds: Zephyrus, Boreas and Notos, Eosphoros (Dawn-bringer, i.e. Venus, the Morning Star), and the Stars. From Pallas and the Oceanid Styx came Zelus (Envy), Nike (Victory), Cratos (Power), and Bia (Force).Theogony 337–388. The translations of the names used here follow Caldwell, p. 8.From Coeus and Phoebe came Leto and Asteria, who married Perses, producing Hekate,Theogony 404–411. and from Cronus and Rhea came Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, and Zeus.Theogony 453–458. The Titan Iapetos married the Oceanid Clymene and produced Atlas, Menoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus.Theogony 507–511.{{chart top|Descendants of the TitansTheogony 337–411, 453–520; Caldwell, pp. 8–9, tables 11–13; Hard, p. 695.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |URA |y|GAI |~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|y|PON|URA=Uranus|GAI=Gaia|PON=Pontus}}{{chart|,|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|.| | | | |!|}}{{chart|!|OCE |y|TET | | | |HYP |y|THE | | | | |CRI |y|EUR|OCE=Oceanus|TET=Tethys|HYP=Hyperion|THE=Theia|CRI=Crius|EUR=Eurybia}}{{chart|!|,|-|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|.| | | |,|-|-|^|v|-|-|.}}{{chart|!|RIV | |OCE | |HEL | |SEL | |EOS |y|AST |F|PAL |F|PER |RIV=The Rivers The 3,000 river gods, of which 25 are named: Nilus, Alpheus, Eridanos, Strymon, Maiandros, Istros, Phasis, Rhesus, Achelous, Nessos, Rhodius, Haliacmon, Heptaporus, Granicus, Aesepus, Simoeis, Peneus, Hermus, Caicus, Sangarius, Ladon, Parthenius, Evenus, Aldeskos, Scamander.|OCE=The Oceanids The 3,000 daughters, of which 41 are named: Peitho, Admete, Ianthe, Electra, Doris, Prymno, Urania, Hippo, Clymene, Rhodea, Callirhoe, Zeuxo, Clytie, Idyia, Pasithoe, Plexaura, Galaxaura, Dione, Melobosis, Thoe, Polydora, Cerceis, Plouto, Perseis, Ianeira, Acaste, Xanthe, Petraea, Menestho, Europa, Metis, Eurynome, Telesto, Chryseis, Asia, Calypso, Eudora, Tyche, Amphirho, Ocyrhoe, and Styx.|HEL=Helios|SEL=Selene|EOS=Eos|AST=Astraeus|PAL=Pallas|PER=Perses}}{{chart|!| | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|.| |:| | | |:}}{{chart|!| | | | |ZEP| |BOR | |NOT | |EOS | |STA|:| | | |:|ZEP=Zephyrus|BOR=Boreas|NOT=Notos|EOS=Eosphoros|STA=Stars}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |:| | | |:}}{{chart|! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |STY |~|y|~|J| | | |:|STY=Styx One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 361.}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|.| |:}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | |ZEL| |NIK | |KRA | |BIA |:|ZEL=Zelus|NIK=Nike|KRA=Kratos|BIA=Bia}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |:}}{{chart|)|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | | | | | | | | | |:}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | |COE |y|PHO | | | | | | | | | | |:|COE=Coeus|PHO=Phoebe}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | | | | | | | | | |:}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | |LET | |AST |~|y|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J|LET=Leto|AST=Asteria}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |HEC|HEC=Hecate}}{{chart|)|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.}}{{chart|!| | | | | | | | | | |CRO |y|RHE |CRO=Cronus|RHE=Rhea}}{{chart|!| | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.}}{{chart|!| | |HES | |DEM | |HER | |HAD | |POS | |ZEU |HES=Hestia|DEM=Demeter|HER=Hera|HAD=Hades|POS=Poseidon|ZEU=Zeus}}{{chart|!}}{{chart|`|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |IAP |y|CLY |IAP=Iapetus|CLY=Clymene One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 351.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | |ATL | |MEN | |PRO | |EPI |ATL=Atlas|MEN=Menoetius|PRO=Prometheus|EPI=Epimetheus}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Children of Zeus and his seven wives

File:René-Antoine Houasse - Minerva.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|The Birth of Minerva by René-Antoine HouasseRené-Antoine HouasseZeus married seven wives. His first wife was the Oceanid Metis, whom he impregnated with Athena, then, on the advice of Gaia and Uranus, swallowed Metis so that no son of his by Metis would overthrow him, as had been foretold.Theogony 886–900. Zeus' second wife was his aunt the Titan Themis, who bore the three Horae (Seasons): Eunomia (Order), DikÄ“ (Justice), Eirene (Peace); and the three Moirai (Fates):At 217 the Moirai are the daughters of Nyx. Clotho (Spinner), Lachesis (Allotter), and Atropos (Unbending). Zeus then married his third wife, another Oceanid, Eurynome, who bore the three Charites (Graces): Aglaea (Splendor), whom Hephaestus married, Euphrosyne (Joy), and Thalia (Good Cheer).Theogony 901–911. The translations of the names used here, follow Caldwell, p. 11, except for the translations of Aglaea, Euphrosyne and Thalia, which use those given by Most, p. 75.Zeus' fourth wife was his sister, Demeter, who bore Persephone. The fifth wife of Zeus was another aunt, the Titan Mnemosyne, from whom came the nine Muses: Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania, and Calliope. His sixth wife was a third aunt, the Titan Leto, who gave birth to Apollo and Artemis. Zeus' seventh and final wife was his sister Hera, the mother by Zeus of Hebe, Ares, and Eileithyia.Theogony 912–923.Zeus finally "gave birth" himself to Athena, from his head, which angered Hera so much that she produced, by herself, her own son Hephaestus, god of fire and blacksmiths.Theogony 924–929.{{chart top|Children of Zeus and his seven wivesTheogony 886–929; Caldwell, p. 11, table 14.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart}}{{chart|ZEU|7|ZEU=Zeus}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|y|~|~|~|MET|MET=Metis One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 358.}}{{chart| | | |:| |ATH|ATH=Athena Of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived (889), but the last to be born. Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head" (924).}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|~|y|~|~|THE|THE=Themis}}{{chart| | | |:| | |,|^|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | |:| |EUN| |DIK | |EIR | | |CLO | |LAC | |ATR | |EUN=Eunomia|DIK=Dike|EIR=Eirene|CLO=Clotho|LAC=Lachesis|ATR=Atropos}}{{chart|border=0| | | |:|L|~|~|~|~|HOR |~|~|~|~|J|L|~|~|~|~|MOI|~|~|~|~|J|HOR=The Horae|MOI=The Moirai At 217 the Moirai are the daughters of Nyx.}}{{chart| | | |:}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|~|y|~|~|EUR | | | | | |F|~|~|y|DEM |EUR=Eurynome One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 358.|DEM=Demeter}}{{chart| | | |:| | |,|^|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | |:| | |!|}}{{chart| | | |:| |AGL| |EUP | |THA | | |:| |PER|AGL=Aglaea|EUP=Euphrosyne|THA=Thalia|PER=Persephone}}{{chart|border=0| | | |:|L|~|~|~|~|CHA |~|~|~|~|J| |:|CHA=The Charites}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|~|y|~|~|MNE|MNE=Mnemosyne}}{{chart| | | |:| | |,|^|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|v|-|.}}{{chart| | | |:| |CLI|!|THA |!|TER |!|POL |!|CAL |CLI=Clio|THA=Thaleia|TER=Terpsichore|POL=Polyhymnia|CAL=Calliope}}{{chart| | | |:| | | | |!| | | |!| | | |!| | | |!}}{{chart| | | |:| | | |EUT| |MEL| |ERA | |URA |EUT=Euterpe|MEL=Melpomene|ERA=Erato|URA=Urania|}}{{chart|border=0| | | |:|L|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|MUS |~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J|MUS=The Muses}}{{chart| | | |:}}{{chart| | | |D|~|~|~|y|~|~|LET |F|~|~|~|~|y|~|~|~|HER |LET=Leto|HER=Hera}}{{chart| | | |:| | |,|^|-|-|.| | |:| |,|-|-|^|v|-|-|.|`|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | |:| |APO | |ART | |:|HEB | |ARE | |EIL | |HEP |APO=Apollo|ART=Artemis|HEB=Hebe|ARE=Ares|EIL=Eileithyia|HEP=Hephaestus Hephaestus is produced by Hera alone, with no father at 927–929. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, Hephaestus is apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.}}{{chart| | | |L|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Other descendants of divine fathers

From Poseidon and the Nereid Amphitrite was born Triton, and from Ares and Aphrodite came Phobos (Fear), Deimos (Terror), and Harmonia (Harmony). Zeus, with Atlas's daughter Maia, produced Hermes, and with the mortal Alcmene, produced the hero Heracles, who married Hebe. Zeus and the mortal Semele, daughter of Harmonia and Cadmus, the founder and first king of Thebes, produced Dionysus, who married Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of Crete. Helios and the Oceanid Perseis produced Circe, Aeetes, who became king of Colchis and married the Oceanid Idyia, producing Medea.Theogony 930–962.{{chart top|Other descendants of divine fathersTheogony 930–962, 975–976; Caldwell, p. 12, table 15.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| |POS |y|AMP | | | |ARE |y|APH |POS=Poseidon|AMP=Amphitrite One of the Nereid daughters of Nereus and Doris, at 243.|ARE=Ares|APH=Aphrodite Called by her title "Cytherea" ("of the Island Cythera") at 934.}}{{chart| | | | |!| | | | | |,|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | |TRI | | | |PHO | |DEI | |HAR |y|CAD |TRI=Triton|PHO=Phobos|DEI=Deimos|HAR=Harmonia|CAD=Cadmus Cadmus was the mortal founder and first king of Thebes; no parentage is given in the Theogony.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| |ZEU|V|~|~|~|~|V|~|~|~|~|~|~|7| | | |!|ZEU=Zeus}}{{chart| | | | |L|y|MAI |L|y|ALC | | |L|~|y|SEM |MAI=Maia At 938 called the "Atlantid" i.e. daughter of Atlas, according to Apollodorus, 3.10.1, she was one of the seven Pleiades, daughters of Atlas and the Oceanid Pleione. |ALC=Alcmene Alcmene was the granddaughter of Perseus, and hence the great-granddaughter of Zeus.|SEM=Semele}}{{chart| | | | | |!| | | | |!| | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | |HER | | |HERA |~|HEB| |DIO |~|ARI |HER=Hermes|HERA=Heracles|HEB=Hebe|DIO=Dionysus|ARI=Ariadne The daughter of Minos, king of Crete.}}{{chart|}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | |HEL |y|PER |HEL=Helios|PER=Perseis One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 356.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | |CIR | |AIE |y|IDY|CIR=Circe|AIE=Aeetes|IDY=Idyia One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 352.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |MED|MED=Medea}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Children of divine mothers with mortal fathers

File:William Blake Richmond - Venus and Anchises - Google Art Project.jpg|Venus and Anchises by thumb|350pxThe goddess Demeter joined with the mortal Iasion to produce Plutus. In addition to Semele, the goddess Harmonia and the mortal Cadmus also produced Ino, Agave, Autonoe and Polydorus. Eos (Dawn) with the mortal Tithonus, produced the hero Memnon, and Emathion, and with Cephalus, produced Phaethon. Medea with the mortal Jason, produced Medius, the Nereid Psamathe with the mortal Aeacus, produced the hero Phocus, the Nereid Thetis, with Peleus produced the great warrior Achilles, and the goddess Aphrodite with the mortal Anchises produced the Trojan hero Aeneas. With the hero Odysseus, Circe would give birth to Agrius and Latinus, and Atlas' daughter Calypso would also bear Odysseus two sons, Nausithoos and Nausinous.Theogony 963–1018.{{chart top|Children of goddesses with mortalsTheogony 969–1018; Caldwell, p. 12, table 15.|collapsed=yes}}{{chart/start}}{{chart|}}{{chart| |DEM |y|IAS | | | | | | | |HAR |y|CAD |DEM=Demeter|IAS=Iasion According to Apollodorus, 3.12.1, Iasion was the son of Zeus and Electra, one of the seven Pleiades, daughters of Atlas and the Oceanid Pleione.|HAR=Harmonia|CAD=Cadmus}}{{chart| | | | |!| | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|^|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|.}}{{Chart| | | | PLU | | |INO | |SEM | |AGA | |AUT |~|ARI | |POL |PLU=Plutus|INO=Ino|SEM=Semele|AGA=Agave|AUT=Autonoe|ARI=Aristaeus The son of Apollo and Cyrene, Diodorus Siculus, 4.81.1–2, Pausanias, 10.17.3.|POL=Polydorus}}{{chart|}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | |TIT |y|~|EOS |~|y|CEP | | |MED |y|JAS |TIT=Tithonus|EOS=Eos|CEP=Cephalus|MED=Medea|JAS=Jason}}{{chart| | | | | |,|-|-|^|.| | | | |!| | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | |MEM| |EMA | | |PHA | | | | | | |MED |MEM=Memnon|EMA=Emathion|PHA=Phaethon|MED=Medeius}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | |PSA |y|AIA | |THE |y|PEL | |APH |y|ANC |PSA=Psamathe One of the Nereid daughters of Nereus and Doris, at 260.|AIA=Aeacus|THE=Thetis One of the Nereid daughters of Nereus and Doris, at 245.|PEL=Peleus|APH=Aphrodite|ANC=Anchises}}{{chart| | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | |! | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | |PHO | | | | | |ACH | | | | | |AEN|PHO=Phocus|ACH=Achilles|AEN=Aeneas}}{{chart|}}{{chart|}}{{chart| | | | | | | |CIR|y|~|~|ODY |~|~|y|CAL |CIR=Circe|ODY=Odysseus|CAL=Calypso According to Caldwell, p. 49 on line 359, this Calypso, elsewhere the daughter of Atlas, is "probably not" the same Calypso named at 359 as one of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys; see also West 1966, p. 267 359. καὶ ἱμερόεσσα Καλυψώ; Hard, p. 41.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | |AGR | |LAT | |NAU1 | |NAU2 |AGR=Agrios|LAT=Latinus|NAU1=Nausithous|NAU2=Nausinous}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

Prometheus

File:Atlas Typhoeus Prometheus.png|thumb|Laconic bowl depicting Prometheus and Atlas enduring their respective punishments, circa 550 B.C.]]The Theogony, after listing the offspring of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Clymene, as Atlas, Menoitios, Prometheus, and Epimetheus, and telling briefly what happened to each, tells the story of Prometheus.Theogony 507–616. When the gods and men met at Mekone to decide how sacrifices should be distributed, Prometheus sought to trick Zeus. Slaughtering an ox, he took the valuable fat and meat, and covered it with the ox's stomach. Prometheus then took the bones and hid them with a thin glistening layer of fat. Prometheus asked Zeus' opinion on which offering pile he found more desirable, hoping to trick the god into selecting the less desirable portion. Though Zeus saw through the trick, he chose the fat covered bones, and so it was established that ever after men would burn the bones as sacrifice to the gods, keeping the choice meat and fat for themselves. But in punishment for this trick, an angry Zeus decided to deny mankind the use of fire. But Prometheus stole fire inside a fennel stalk, and gave it to humanity. Zeus then ordered the creation of the first woman Pandora as a new punishment for mankind. And Prometheus was chained to a cliff, where an eagle fed on his ever-regenerating liver every day, until eventually Zeus' son Heracles came to free him.

Influence on earliest Greek philosophy

File:Anaximander Mosaic (cropped, with sundial).jpg|thumb|Ancient Roman mosaic from Johannisstraße, Trier, dating to the early third century AD, showing the Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximander of Miletus holding a sundialWEB, Zühmer, T. H., Roman Mosaic Depicting Anaximander with Sundial,weblink Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University, harv, ]]The heritage of Greek mythology already embodied the desire to articulate reality as a whole, and this universalizing impulse was fundamental for the first projects of speculative theorizing. It appears that the order of being was first imaginatively visualized before it was abstractly thought. Hesiod, impressed by necessity governing the ordering of things, discloses a definite pattern in the genesis and appearance of the gods. These ideas made something like cosmological speculation possible. The earliest rhetoric of reflection all centers about two interrelated things: the experience of wonder as a living involvement with the divine order of things; and the absolute conviction that, beyond the totality of things, reality forms a beautiful and harmonious whole.BOOK, Presocratic Philosophy vol.3, Barry Sandywell, 1996, Rootledge New York,weblink {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} p. 28, 42In the Theogony, the origin (arche) is Chaos, a divine primordial condition, and there are the roots and the ends of the earth, sky, sea, and Tartarus. Pherecydes of Syros (6th century BC), believed that there were three pre-existent divine principles and called the water also Chaos.DK B1a In the language of the archaic period (8th – 6th century BC), arche (or archai) designates the source, origin, or root of things that exist. If a thing is to be well established or founded, its arche or static point must be secure, and the most secure foundations are those provided by the gods: the indestructible, immutable, and eternal ordering of things.BOOK, Presocratic philosophy vol.3, Barry Sandwell, 1996, Rootledge New York,weblink 9780415101707, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} p.142In ancient Greek philosophy, arche is the element or first principle of all things, a permanent nature or substance which is conserved in the generation of the rest of it. From this, all things come to be, and into it they are resolved in a final state.Aristotle, Metaph. Α983.b6ff It is the divine horizon of substance that encompasses and rules all things. Thales (7th – 6th century BC), the first Greek philosopher, claimed that the first principle of all things is water. Anaximander (6th century BC) was the first philosopher who used the term arche for that which writers from Aristotle on call the "substratum".Hippolytus of Rome I.6.I DK B2 Anaximander claimed that the beginning or first principle is an endless mass (Apeiron) subject to neither age nor decay, from which all things are being born and then they are destroyed there. A fragment from Xenophanes (6th century BC) shows the transition from Chaos to Apeiron: "The upper limit of earth borders on air. The lower limit of earth reaches down to the unlimited (i.e the Apeiron)."BOOK, The World of Parmenides, Karl Popper, 1998, Rootledge New York,weblink 9780415173018, p. 39

Other cosmogonies in ancient literature

{{See also|Comparative mythology}}File:Tiamat.JPG|upright=1.3|thumb|Ancient cylinder seal impression possibly showing a scene from the Enûma Eliš in which the Babylonian god Marduk slays TiamatTiamatIn the Theogony the initial state of the universe, or the origin (arche) is Chaos, a gaping void (abyss) considered as a divine primordial condition, from which appeared everything that exists. Then came Gaia (Earth), Tartarus (the cave-like space under the earth; the later-born Erebus is the darkness in this space), and Eros (representing sexual desire - the urge to reproduce - instead of the emotion of love as is the common misconception). Hesiod made an abstraction because his original chaos is something completely indefinite.O.Gigon. Der Ursprung der griechischen Philosophie.Von Hesiod bis Parmenides.Bale.Stuttgart.Schwabe & Co. p. 29By contrast, in the Orphic cosmogony the unaging Chronos produced Aether and Chaos and made a silvery egg in divine Aether. From it appeared the androgynous god Phanes, identified by the Orphics as Eros, who becomes the creator of the world.BOOK, The Presocratic Philosophers, G. S. Kirk, J. E. Raven and M. Schofield, 2003, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521274555, {{dead link|date=January 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} p. 24Some similar ideas appear in the Vedic and Hindu cosmologies. In the Vedic cosmology the universe is created from nothing by the great heat. Kāma (Desire) the primal seed of spirit, is the link which connected the existent with the non-existent"Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the primal seed and germ of Spirit,Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent." Rig Veda X.129: The Hymns of the Rig Veda, Book X, Hymn CXXIX, Verse 4, p. 575 In the Hindu cosmology, in the beginning there was nothing in the universe but only darkness and the divine essence who removed the darkness and created the primordial waters. His seed produced the universal germ (Hiranyagarbha), from which everything else appeared.Matsya Purana (2.25.30) – online: "The creation"In the Babylonian creation story Enûma Eliš the universe was in a formless state and is described as a watery chaos. From it emerged two primary gods, the male Apsu and female Tiamat, and a third deity who is the maker Mummu and his power for the progression of cosmogonic births to begin.The Babylonian creation story (Enûma Eliš) –onlineNorse mythology also describes Ginnungagap as the primordial abyss from which sprang the first living creatures, including the giant Ymir whose body eventually became the world, whose blood became the seas, and so on; another version describes the origin of the world as a result of the fiery and cold parts of Hel colliding.

See also

Notes

{{reflist}}

References

  • Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Brown, Norman O. Introduction to Hesiod: Theogony (New York: Liberal Arts Press) 1953.
  • Caldwell, Richard, Hesiod's Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company (June 1, 1987). {{ISBN|978-0-941051-00-2}}.
  • Clay, Jenny Strauss, Hesiod's Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003. {{ISBN|978-0-521-82392-0}}.
  • BOOK, Cingano, E., The Hesiodic Corpus, {{harvtxt, Montanari, Rengakos, Tsagalis, 2009, | year=2009| pages=91–130| ref=harv| postscript={{inconsistent citations}}}}.
  • Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: {{ISBN|978-0-8018-5360-9}} (Vol. 1), {{ISBN|978-0-8018-5362-3}} (Vol. 2).
  • Hard, Robin, The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology: Based on H.J. Rose's "Handbook of Greek Mythology", Psychology Press, 2004, {{ISBN|9780415186360}}.
  • Lamberton, Robert, Hesiod, New Haven : Yale University Press, 1988. {{ISBN|0-300-04068-7}}. Cf. Chapter II, "The Theogony", pp. 38–104.
  • BOOK, Montanari, F., Rengakos, A., Tsagalis, C., Brill's Companion to Hesiod, Leiden, 2009, 978-90-04-17840-3, harv, {{inconsistent citations, }}.
  • Most, G.W., Hesiod, Theogony, Works and Days, Testimonia, Edited and translated by Glenn W. Most. Loeb Classical Library No. 57. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2018. {{ISBN|978-0-674-99720-2}}. Online version at Harvard University Press.
  • BOOK, Rutherford, I., Hesiod and the Literary Traditions of the Near East, {{harvtxt, Montanari, Rengakos, Tsagalis, 2009, | year=2009| pages=9–35| ref=harv| postscript={{inconsistent citations}}}}.
  • Tandy, David W., and Neale, Walter C. [translators], Works and Days: a translation and commentary for the social sciences, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. {{ISBN|0-520-20383-6}}
  • West, M. L. (1966), Hesiod: Theogony, Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-814169-6}}.
  • West, M. L. (1988), Hesiod: Theogony and Works and Days, Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-19-953831-7}}.
  • Verdenius, Willem Jacob, A Commentary on Hesiod Works and Days vv 1-382 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985). {{ISBN|90-04-07465-1}}

Selected translations

  • Athanassakis, Apostolos N., Theogony ; Works and days ; Shield / Hesiod ; introduction, translation, and notes, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. {{ISBN|0-8018-2998-4}}
  • Cook, Thomas, "The Works of Hesiod," 1728.
  • Evelyn-White, Hugh G., "Works and days, Theogony, and the shield of Heracles", Dover Publications: Mineola, New York
  • Frazer, R.M. (Richard McIlwaine), The Poems of Hesiod, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1983. {{ISBN|0-8061-1837-7}}
  • Most, Glenn, translator, Hesiod, 2 vols., Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006-07.
  • Schlegel, Catherine M., and Henry Weinfield, translators, Theogony and Works and Days, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2006
  • Johnson, Kimberly, Theogony and Works and Days: A New Critical Edition, Northwestern University Press, 2017. {{ISBN|081013487X}}.

External links

  • {{Wikisourcelang-inline|el|Θεογονία}}
  • {{wikisource-inline|Theogony|Theogony}}
  • Hesiod, Theogony: text in English translation.
  • Hesiod, Theogony e-text in Ancient Greek (from Perseus)
  • Hesiod, Theogony e-text in English (from Perseus)
  • {{Librivox book |title=Theogony |author=Hesiod}}
{{Hesiod}}{{Timelines of religion}}{{Authority control}}

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