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{{short description|Italian city}}{{redirect|Milano|other uses|Milano (disambiguation)|and|Milan (disambiguation)}}{{EngvarB|date=November 2016}}{{use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}

· {{native name>lmo|Milan}}| settlement_type = Comune| image_skyline = Milan.Proper.Wikipedia.Image.pngPorta Nuova (Milan)>Porta Nuova, Sforza Castle, La Scala, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Milano Centrale railway station, Arch of Peace and Milan Cathedral.| image_map = | pushpin_label_position = rightList of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = ItalyRegions of Italy>Region| subdivision_name2 = LombardyMetropolitan Cities of Italy>MetroMetropolitan City of Milan>Milan (MI)| government_footnotes = City Council of Milan>Milan City CouncilMayor of Milan>MayorGiuseppe Sala (Democratic Party (Italy)>PD)| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 120| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 181.76PUBLISHER=COMUNE DI MILANO, | population_as_of = 31 December 2018| population_total = 1395274| pop_density_footnotes = Meneghino>the homonimous mask.| telephone = | postalcode = | website =| footnotes = 45010924display=inline,title}}| imagesize = | image_alt = | image_flag = Flag of Milan.svg| image_shield = CoA Città di Milano.svg| map_alt = | map_caption = | pushpin_map = Italy Lombardy#Italy#Europe| pushpin_map_alt = | coordinates_footnotes = | twin1 = | twin1_country = | postal_code = 20121–20162| area_code = 0039 02| population_metro = 8,173,176| area_metro_footnotes = | population_metro_footnotes = }}Milan ({{IPAc-en|m|áµ»|ˈ|l|æ|n}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|m|áµ»|ˈ|l|ɑː|n}},WEB,weblink Milan, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, February 28, 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Milan, February 28, 2019, Milanese: {{IPA-lmo|miˈlãː|}};BOOK, Dizionario di toponomastica. Storia e significato dei nomi geografici italiani, 1990, UTET, Torino, it, WEB,weblink Milan map, 2017,, {{IPA-it|miˈlaːno||It-Milano.ogg}}) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,395,274 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,257,535.WEB,weblink Public Data,, Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over {{convert|1891|km2|abbr=off}}. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in ItalyWEB, Le aree metropolitane in Italia occupano il 9 per cento del territorio – Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca,weblink, it-IT, 6 December 2013, {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • WEB, OECD Territorial Reviews: Milan, Italy,weblink OECD, 13 October 2017,
  • BOOK, Campagna, etal, Michele, Planning Support Tools: Policy Analysis, Implementation and Evaluation. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Informatics and Urban and Regional Planning INPUT2012, 2012, FrancoAngeli, Milan, 9788856875973, 1853–1856,
  • WEB, Osservatorio sulla città metropolitana di Milano. Rapporto 2016,weblink Polytechnic University of Milan, 13 October 2017,
  • BOOK, Salet, Willem, Thornley, Andy, Kreukels, Anton, Metropolitan governance and spatial planning: comparative case studies of European city-regions, 2003, Spon Press, New York, 978-0415274494, 265, and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.
Milan is considered a leading alpha global city,WEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2010,, 14 September 2011, 10 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2013, with strengths in the field of the art, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research and tourism. Its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange (), and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies. In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, and is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities.WEB, Gert-Jan Hospers, 2002, Beyond the Blue Banana? Structural Change in Europe's Geo-Economy, PDF, 42nd EUROPEAN CONGRESS of the Regional Science Association Young Scientist Session – Submission for EPAINOS Award 27–31 August 2002 – Dortmund, Germany,weblink 27 September 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2007, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 6 January 2013, Global city GDP 2013–2014, Brookings Institution, 8 May 2015, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe".The city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitalsNEWS, Shaw, Catherine, Milan, the 'world's design capital', takes steps to attract visitors year-round,weblink 15 October 2017, South China Morning Post, 17 July 2016, en, thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are currently among the world's biggest in terms of revenue, visitors and growth.WEB,weblink Fashion, The Global Language Monitor, 1 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2011, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Milan, Italy | frog,, 1 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, WEB,weblink Milan Furniture Fair,, 30 April 2009, 10 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2012, dmy-all, It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students.WEB,weblink University and research in Milan, Province of Milan, 4 November 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that include some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci. The city is served by many luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.WEB,weblink Guida Michelin 2016: ristoranti stellati in Lombardia, 7 May 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2016, dmy-all, The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale, and one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano. Milan, along with the ski resort of Cortina d'Ampezzo, will host the 2026 Winter Olympics.


{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = Ruins-imperial-complex-milan-.jpg| width1 = 210| alt1 = | caption1 = Ruins of the Emperor's palace in Mediolanum.| image2 = Scrofa semilanuta.jpg| width2 = 188| alt2 = | caption2 = Bas relief representing the scrofa semilanuta on the walls of Palazzo della Ragione.| footer = }}The etymology of the name Milan (Lombard: Milan {{IPA-lmo|miˈlãː|}}) remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio (in the middle) and planus (plain).BOOK, Ambrogio, Renzo, Nomi d'Italia : origine e significato dei nomi geografici e di tutti i comuni, 2009, Istituto geografico De Agostini, Novara, 8851114129, 385, However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory (source of the Welsh word llan, meaning "a sanctuary or church", ultimately cognate to English/German Land) in which Celtic communities used to build shrines.BOOK, Wise, Hilary, The vocabulary of modern French origins, structure and function, 1997, Routledge, London, 0-203-42979-6, 39, Hence Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes (Mediolanum Santonum) and Évreux (Mediolanum Aulercorum).BOOK, Michell, John, The sacred center: the ancient art of locating sanctuaries, 2009, Inner Traditions, Rochester, Vt., 978-1-59477-284-9, 32, In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow (the Scrofa semilanuta) an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata (1584), beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, and the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool",medius + lanum; Alciato's "etymology" is intentionally far-fetched. explained in Latin and in French.The foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar;Bituricis vervex, Heduis dat sucula signum. therefore "The city's symbol is a wool-bearing boar, an animal of double form, here with sharp bristles, there with sleek wool."Laniger huic signum sus est, animálque biforme, Acribus hinc setis, lanitio inde levi. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account.WEB,weblink Alciato, Emblemata, Emblema II accessdate= 13 March 2009,


Prehistory and Roman times

File:Colonne di san lorenzo 01.jpg|thumb| Roman ruins in Milan: the Columns of San Lorenzo ]]File:Solidus-Arcadius-RIC 1205.jpg|thumb|250px| Arcadius solidus, from the Mediolanum mint, {{circa}} 395–408]]The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy (writing between 27 and 9 BC), the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; this Bellovesus allegedly founded Mediolanum in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, who traditionally reigned from 616 to 579 BC, according to this legend.Livius, Ab Urbe condita 5.34–35.3.The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC; the chief of the Insubres submitted to Rome, giving the Romans control of the city.Polybius, Histories They eventually conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" () – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon (Latinized as Mediolānum) meant "(settlement) in the midst of the plain".BOOK, Delamarre, Xavier, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, 2nd, 2003, Errance, Paris, 2-87772-237-6, 221–222, fr, Compare G. Quintela and V. Marco '"Celtic Elements in Northwestern Spain in Pre-Roman times" e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, 2005, referring to "a toponym, clearly in the second part of the composite Medio-lanum (=Milan), meaning 'plain' or flat area..."In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum.Video of Roman MilanDiocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus (470 × 85 metres), the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall (about 4.5 km long) encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers; one included in the convent of San Maurizio Maggiore remains 16.6 m high.From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, and thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. In 402 the Visigoths besieged the city and the Emperor Honorius moved the Imperial residence to Ravenna.Compare:BOOK
, Doyle
, Chris
, The move to Ravenna
, Honorius: The Fight for the Roman West AD 395–423
, Roman Imperial Biographies
, Abingdon, Oxfordshire
, Routledge
, 2018
, 9781317278078
, 2019-01-20
, A subject that has often been debated is Honorius' transfer of his court to Ravenna. Consensus holds that this occurred in 402 as a result of Alaric's siege of Milan, although no Honorian-era written primary source attests to this as the year or the reason [...].
, In 452 Attila in his turn besieged Mediolanum, but the real break with the city's Imperial past came in 539, during the Gothic War, when Uraia (a nephew of Witiges, formerly King of the Italian Ostrogoths), laid Mediolanum to waste with great loss of life.According to Procopius, the losses at Milan amounted to 300,000 men.The Lombards took Ticinum as their capital in 572 (renaming it Papia – the modern Pavia), and left early-medieval Milan to the governance of its archbishops.

Middle Ages

File:Atrium of the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio.jpg|thumb|left|The Basilica di Sant'AmbrogioBasilica di Sant'AmbrogioAfter the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. An age of decline began which worsened when Attila, King of the Huns, sacked and devastated the city in 452 AD. In 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569 the Lombards (from which the name of the Italian region Lombardy derives), conquered Milan, overpowering the small Byzantine garrison left for its defence. Some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule.See the Laudes Mediolanensis civitatis. Milan surrendered to Charlemagne and the Franks in 774.File:IMG 3734 - Milano - Stemma visconteo- sull'Arcivescovado - Foto di Giovanni Dall'Orto - 15-jan-2007.jpg|thumb|upright=0.65|The biscione eating a child on the Visconti coat of arms.]]The 11th century saw a reaction against the control of the German emperors. The city-state was born, an expression of the new political power of the city and its will to fight against all feudal powers. Milan was no exception. It did not take long, however, for the City States to begin fighting each other to try to limit neighbouring powers.WEB,weblink Milan: a history of greatness, from its origins to the twentieth century, Portale per il Turismo del Comune di Milano, en, 15 May 2017, The Milanese destroyed Lodi and continuously warred with Pavia, Cremona and Como, who in turn asked the Emperor of Germany, Frederick I Barbarossa for help. This brought the destruction of much of Milan in 1162. A fire destroyed the storehouses containing the entire food supply, and within just a few days Milan was forced to surrender.A period of peace followed and Milan prospered as a centre of trade due to its position. As a result of the independence that the Lombard cities gained in the Peace of Constance in 1183, Milan became a duchy. In 1447 Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, died without a male heir; following the end of the Visconti line, the Ambrosian Republic was established; it took its name from St. Ambrose, the popular patron saint of the city.Henry S. Lucas, The Renaissance and the Reformation p. 268. Both the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions worked together to bring about the Ambrosian Republic in Milan. Nonetheless, the Republic collapsed when, in 1450, Milan was conquered by Francesco I of the House of Sforza, which made Milan one of the leading cities of the Italian Renaissance.WEB,weblink The History of Milan – Relazioni Internazionali – Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,, 14 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2009,

Early modern

File:Braun Milano HAAB.jpg|thumb|left|The late 16th-century city encircled by the Spanish walls.]](File:Melchiorre Gherardini, Piazza di S. Babila durante la peste del 1630.jpg|thumb|Milan during the plague of 1630: plague carts carry the dead for burial.)Milan's last independent ruler, Lodovico il Moro, called French king Charles VIII into Italy in the expectation that France might be an ally against other Italian statelets. The future king of France, Louis of Orléans, took part in the expedition and realised Italy was virtually defenceless. This prompted him to come back a few years later in 1500, and claim the Duchy of Milan for himself, his grandmother having been a member of the ruling Visconti family. At that time, Milan was also defended by Swiss mercenaries. After the victory of Louis's successor François I over the Swiss at the Battle of Marignan, the duchy was promised to the French king François I. When the Spanish Habsburg Emperor Charles V defeated François I at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, northern Italy, including Milan, passed to Habsburg Spain.John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic Vol. II (Harper Bros.: New York, 1855) p. 2.In 1556, Charles V abdicated in favour of his son Philip II and his brother Ferdinand I. Charles's Italian possessions, including Milan, passed to Philip II and remained with the Spanish line of Habsburgs, while Ferdinand's Austrian line of Habsburgs ruled the Holy Roman Empire.The Great Plague of Milan in 1629–31 killed an estimated 60,000 people out of a population of 130,000. This episode is considered one of the last outbreaks of the centuries-long pandemic of plague that began with the Black Death.Cipolla, Carlo M. Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.In 1700 the Spanish line of Habsburgs was extinguished with the death of Charles II. After his death, the War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 with the occupation of all Spanish possessions by French troops backing the claim of the French Philippe of Anjou to the Spanish throne. In 1706, the French were defeated in Ramillies and Turin and were forced to yield northern Italy to the Austrian Habsburgs. In 1713–1714 the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt formally confirmed Austrian sovereignty over most of Habsburg Spain's Italian possessions including Lombardy and its capital, Milan.

Late modern and contemporary

File:Cinque giornate di Milano.jpg|thumb|left|Popular print depicting the "Five Days" uprising against Austrian rule.]]File:Milano, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II (bombardata) 02.jpg|thumb|Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II destroyed by Allied bombings, 1943.]]File:Milano Italy Torre-Velasca-from-Duomo-01.jpg|thumb|left|Torre VelascaTorre Velasca(File:CityLife (Milan) - artist's impression 2.jpg|thumb|CityLife district, part of the city's radical renewal of the early 21st century.)On 18 March 1848, the Milanese rebelled against Austrian rule, during the so-called "Five Days" (), and Field Marshal Radetzky was forced to withdraw from the city temporarily. The Kingdom of Sardinia stepped in to help the insurgents; a plebiscite held in Lombardy decided in favour of unification with Sardinia. However, after defeating the Sardinian forces at Custoza on 24 July, Radetzky was able to reassert Austrian control over Milan and northern Italy. A few years on, however, Italian nationalists again called for the removal of Austria and Italian unification. Sardinia and France formed an alliance and defeated Austria at the Battle of Solferino in 1859.WEB, Solferino, Graham J. Morris,weblink 9 June 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2009, Following this battle, Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia, which soon gained control of most of Italy and in 1861 was rechristened as the Kingdom of Italy.The political unification of Italy cemented Milan's commercial dominance over northern Italy. It also led to a flurry of railway construction that had started under Austrian patronage (Venice–Milan; Milan–Monza) that made Milan the rail hub of northern Italy. Thereafter with the opening of the Gotthard (1881) and Simplon (1906) railway tunnels, Milan became the major South European rail focus for business and passenger movements e.g. the Simplon Orient Express. Rapid industrialization and market expansion put Milan at the centre of Italy's leading industrial region, including extensive stone quarries that have led to much of the air pollution we see today in the region. In the 1890s Milan was shaken by the Bava-Beccaris massacre, a riot related to a high inflation rate. Meanwhile, as Milanese banks dominated Italy's financial sphere, the city became the country's leading financial centre.In 1919, Benito Mussolini's Blackshirts rallied for the first time in Piazza San Sepolcro and later began their March on Rome in Milan. During the Second World War Milan suffered extensive damage from Allied bombings.BOOK, Morgan, Philip, The fall of Mussolini: Italy, the Italians, and the Second World War, 2008, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0199219346, 67, Reprint., When Italy surrendered in 1943, German forces occupied most of Northern Italy until 1945. As a result, resistance groups formed.BOOK, Cooke, Philip, Italian resistance writing: an anthology, 1997, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-5172-X, 20, As the war came to an end, the American 1st Armored Division advanced on Milan—but before they arrived, the resistance seized control of the city and executed Mussolini along with several members of his government. On 29 April 1945, the corpses of Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci and other Fascist leaders were hanged in Piazzale Loreto.During the post-war economic boom, a large wave of internal migration (especially from rural areas of Southern Italy) moved to Milan. The population grew from 1.3 million in 1951 to 1.7 million in 1967.BOOK, Ginsborg, Paul, A history of contemporary Italy: society and politics, 1943 – 1988, 2003, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 1-4039-6153-0, 220, During this period, Milan was largely reconstructed, with the building of several innovative and modernist skyscrapers, such as the Torre Velasca and the Pirelli Tower.BOOK, John Foot, Milan since the miracle: city, culture, and identity, Berg, 2001, New York, Years of Lead, when Milan witnessed an unprecedented wave of street violence, labour strikes and political terrorism. The apex of this period of turmoil occurred on 12 December 1969, when Piazza Fontana bombing>a bomb exploded at the National Agrarian Bank in Piazza Fontana, killing seventeen people and injuring eighty-eight.In the 1980s, with the international success of Milanese houses (like Armani, Versace and Dolce & Gabbana), Milan became one of the world's fashion capitals. The city saw also a marked rise in international tourism, notably from America and Japan, while the stock exchange increased its market capitalisation more than five-fold.WEB, Italian Stock Exchange – Main Indicators 1975–2012,weblink 16 October 2012, This period led the mass media to nickname the metropolis "Milano da bere", literally "Milan to drink".WEB,weblink L'uomo che inventò la Milano da bere, Lastampa.It, 4 January 2008, 25 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2009, However, in the 1990s, Milan was badly affected by Tangentopoli, a political scandal in which many politicians and businessmen were tried for corruption. The city was also affected by a severe financial crisis and a steady decline in textiles, automobile and steel production.In the early 21st century, Milan underwent a series of sweeping redevelopments. Its exhibition centre moved to a much larger site in Rho.WEB,weblink New Milan Exhibition System official website, 29 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2011, New business districts such as Porta Nuova and CityLifeWEB, Milano Porta Nuova official website,weblink 29 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2013, were constructed. With the decline in manufacturing, the city has sought to develop on its other sources of revenue, including publishing, finance, banking, fashion design, information technology, logistics, transport and tourism.BOOK, Ni, Pengfei, The global urban competitiveness report 2011, 2012, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 9780857934215, 127, In addition, the city's decades-long population decline seems to have come to an end in recent years, with signs of recovery as it grew by seven percent since the last census.



(File:Skyline Milano - 05.JPG|thumb|Aerial view of the city)(File:Darsena di Milano - 2015.jpg|left|thumb|The Darsena)Milan is located in the north-western section of the Po Valley, approximately halfway between the river Po to the south and the foothills of the Alps with the great lakes (Lake Como, Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano) to the north, the Ticino river to the west and the Adda to the east. The city's land is flat, the highest point being at {{convert|122|m|2|abbr=on}} above sea level.The administrative commune covers an area of about {{convert|181|km2|sqmi}}, with a population, in 2013, of 1,324,169 and a population density of {{convert|7315|PD/km2}}. The Metropolitan City of Milan covers {{convert|1575|km2}} and in 2015 had a population estimated at 3,196,825, with a resulting density of {{convert|2029|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}}.WEB, Metropoli Milano 2016,weblink Statistical Service of the Metropolitan City of Mialn, 26 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 August 2016, dmy-all, A larger urban area, comprising parts of the provinces of Milan, Monza e Brianza, Como, Lecco and Varese is {{convert|1891|km2}} wide and has a population of 5,270,000 with a density of {{convert|2783|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}}.Demographia: World Urban Areas. Retrieved 6 September 2015.The concentric layout of the city centre reflects the Navigli, an ancient system of navigable and interconnected canals, now mostly covered.BOOK, Raffaele Pugliese, Marco Lucchini, Milano città d'acqua: nuovi paesaggi urbani per la tutela dei navigli, 2009, Alinea, Florence, 978-88-6055-469-7, 32, The suburbs of the city have expanded mainly to the north, swallowing up many communes to reach Varese, Como, Lecco and Bergamo.BOOK, King, Russell, The industrial geography of Italy, 1985, Croom Helm, London, 0-7099-1501-2, 250–254,


File:The Naviglio Grande in Milan - 01 - during fiera NavigaMi boat Show - salone nautico NavigaMi.JPG|thumb|Summer along Naviglio GrandeNaviglio GrandeMilan has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to the Köppen climate classification. Milan's climate is similar to much of Northern Italy's inland plains, with hot, humid summers and cold, foggy winters. The Alps and Apennine Mountains form a natural barrier that protects the city from the major circulations coming from northern Europe and the sea.WEB, The ENVIBASE-Project – Climate of Milan,weblink 14 August 2012, During winter, daily average temperatures can fall below freezing ({{convert|0|C|disp=sqbr}}) and accumulations of snow can occur: the historic average of Milan's area is {{convert|25|cm|in|0}} in the period between 1961 and 1990, with a record of {{convert|90|cm|in|0}} in January 1985. In the suburbs the average can reach {{convert|36|cm|in|0}}weblink (weblink" title="">archive) The city receives on average seven days of snow per year.WEB, Weather Overview for Milan,weblink, 14 August 2012, The city is often shrouded in heavy fog, although the removal of rice paddies from the southern neighbourhoods and the urban heat island effect have reduced this occurrence in recent decades. Occasionally, the Foehn winds cause the temperatures to rise unexpectedly: on 22 January 2012 the daily high reached {{convert|16|C|4=0}} while on 22 February 2012 it reached {{convert|21|C|4=0}}.WEB, Recorded temperatures, Milan,weblink Accuweather, 14 August 2012, Air pollution levels rise significantly in wintertime when cold air clings to the soil, causing Milan to be one of Europe's most polluted cities.WEB, Smog in Northern Italy,weblink NASA, In summer, humidity levels are high and peak temperatures can reach temperatures above {{convert|35|C}}.WEB, Historical temperatures, Milan,weblink Accuweather, 14 August 2012, Usually this season enjoys clearer skies with an average of more than 13 hours of daylight:WEB, Average weather in Milan,weblink WeatherSpark, 14 August 2012, when precipitations occur though, there is a higher likelihood of them being thunderstorms and hailstorms. Springs and autumns are generally pleasant, with temperatures ranging between {{convert|10|and|20|C|6=0}}; these seasons are characterized by higher rainfall, especially in April and May.WEB, Average monthly precipitation over the year (rainfall, snow),weblink World weather and climate information, 14 August 2012, Relative humidity typically ranges between 45% (comfortable) and 95% (very humid) throughout the year, rarely dropping below 27% (dry) and reaching as high as 100% Wind is generally absent: over the course of the year typical wind speeds vary from {{convert|0|to|9|mph|km/h|0|abbr=on|order=flip}} (calm to gentle breeze), rarely exceeding {{convert|18|mph|km/h|0|abbr=on|order=flip}} (fresh breeze), except during summer thunderstorms when winds can blow strong. In the spring, gale-force windstorms may happen, generated either by Tramontane blowing from the Alps or by Bora-like winds from the north. {{Clear}}{{Milan weatherbox}}


Municipal government

{{See also|Mayor of Milan|City Council of Milan|Elections in Milan|Boroughs of Milan}}File:Milano - Palazzo Marino.JPG|left|thumb|Palazzo MarinoPalazzo MarinoFile:Giuseppe Sala.jpeg|thumb|upright=0.7|Giuseppe SalaGiuseppe Sala(File:Milan, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored.svg|thumb|upright=0.7|The city's nine boroughs)The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council (Consiglio Comunale), which in cities with more than one million population is composed by 48 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), composed by 12 assessors, that is nominated and presided over by a directly elected Mayor. The current mayor of Milan is Giuseppe Sala, a left-wing independent leading a progressive alliance composed by Democratic Party and Italian Left.The municipality of Milan is subdivided into nine administrative Borough Councils (Consigli di Municipio), down from the former twenty districts before the 1999 administrative reform.WEB, The Borough Councils of Milan,weblink Municipality of Milan, 18 October 2012, Each Borough Council is governed by a Council (Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organisation is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114), the Municipal StatuteWEB, The Municipal Statute of Milan,weblink Municipality of Milan, 18 October 2012, and several laws, notably the Legislative Decree 267/2000 or Unified Text on Local Administration (Testo Unico degli Enti Locali).WEB, Local self-government authority system under the Italian legislation,weblink Italian Ministry of Internal Affairs, 18 October 2012, After the 2016 administrative reform, the Borough Councils have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection, roads, parks, libraries and local commerce; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous funding in order to finance local activities.

Metropolitan city and regional government

File:Piazza Lombardia della Regione Lombardia 1.jpg|left|thumb|Palazzo LombardiaPalazzo LombardiaMilan is the capital of the eponymous Metropolitan city and of Lombardy, one of the twenty regions of Italy. While the Metropolitan city of Milan has a population of 3,277,524, making it the second-most populated metropolitan city of Italy after Rome, Lombardy is by far the most populated region of Italy, with more than ten million inhabitants, almost one sixth of the national total. The seat of the regional government is Palazzo Lombardia that, standing at {{convert|161.3|m|abbr=off}},WEB, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat,weblink 18 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2012, dead, is the fifth-tallest building in Milan.According to the last governmental dispositions concerning administrative reorganisation, the urban area of Milan is one of the 15 Metropolitan municipalities (città metropolitane), new administrative bodies fully operative since 1 January 2015.WEB, Spending Review Act,weblink Italian Government, 18 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2012, The new Metro municipalities, giving large urban areas the administrative powers of a province, are conceived for improving the performance of local administrations and to slash local spending by better co-ordinating the municipalities in providing basic services (including transport, school and social programs) and environment protection.JOURNAL,weblink Metropolitan cities in Italy. An institution of federalism, University of Milan-Bicocca, Vittorio Ferri, 2009, 23 May 2011, {{Dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} In this policy framework, the Mayor of Milan is designated to exercise the functions of Metropolitan mayor (Sindaco metropolitano), presiding over a Metropolitan Council formed by 24 mayors of municipalities within the Metro municipality. Milan is divided into 9 boroughs.The Metropolitan City of Milan is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor (Sindaco metropolitano) and by the Metropolitan Council (Consiglio metropolitano). Since 21 June 2016 Giuseppe Sala, as mayor of the capital city, has been the mayor of the Metropolitan City.



{{wide image|Wide angle Milan skyline from Duomo roof.jpg|900px|align-cap=center| Skyline of Porta Nuova from the roof of the Duomo}}There are two main areas which dominate Milan's skyline: the Porta Nuova area in the north-east (boroughs n° 9 and 2) and the CityLife area (borough n° 8). The tallest buildings include the Unicredit Tower at 231 m (though only 162 m without the tower), and the 209 m Allianz Tower, which has 50 floors.


{{see also|List of buildings in Milan|Villas and palaces in Milan}}File:Milan Cathedral from Piazza del Duomo.jpg|thumb|left|Milan Cathedral is the largest Gothic cathedral in the world.]]File:Front gate of Sforza Castle, Milan, Italy (9474291474).jpg|thumb|Torre del Filarete of Sforza CastleSforza CastleFile:Palazzo Reale di Milano.jpg|thumb|left|The Royal Palace of MilanRoyal Palace of MilanFile:Milano, villa reale, prospetto sul parco.jpg|thumb|left|Villa Belgiojoso Bonaparte, one of the finest examples of Neoclassical architectureNeoclassical architectureFile:Front portico of Stazione Centrale, Milan.jpg|thumb|The huge Central railway station inaugurated in 1931.]]File:Monumentale di Milano ingresso.jpg|thumb|left|The Cimitero Monumentale, it is noted for the abundance of artistic tombs and monuments.]]There are only few remains of the ancient Roman colony, notably the well-preserved Colonne di San Lorenzo. During the second half of the 4th century, Saint Ambrose, as bishop of Milan, had a strong influence on the layout of the city, reshaping the centre (although the cathedral and baptistery built in Roman times are now lost) and building the great basilicas at the city gates: Sant'Ambrogio, San Nazaro in Brolo, San Simpliciano and Sant'Eustorgio, which still stand, refurbished over the centuries, as some of the finest and most important churches in Milan. Milan's Cathedral, built between 1386 and 1577, is the fifth-largest cathedral in the worldBOOK, Ferrari-Bravo, Anna, Milano., 1985, Touring club italiano, Milano, 88-365-0004-8, 130, 9a, and the most important example of Gothic architecture in Italy. The gilt bronze statue of the Virgin Mary, placed in 1774 on the highest pinnacle of the Duomo, soon became one of the most enduring symbols of Milan.BOOK, Wilson, Sharon, A perfect trip to Italy in the golden years., 2011, iUniverse Inc., Bloomington, IN, 978-1-4502-8443-1, 93, In the 15th century, when the Sforza ruled the city, an old Viscontean fortress was enlarged and embellished to become the Castello Sforzesco, the seat of an elegant Renaissance court surrounded by a walled hunting park. Notable architects involved in the project included the Florentine Filarete, who was commissioned to build the high central entrance tower, and the military specialist Bartolomeo Gadio.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2003-08-30, The Castle Reconstructed by the Sforza, Castello Sforzesco website, The alliance between Francesco Sforza and Florence's Cosimo de' Medici bore to Milan Tuscan models of Renaissance architecture, apparent in the Ospedale Maggiore and Bramante's work in the city, which includes Santa Maria presso San Satiro (a reconstruction of a small 9th-century church), the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie and three cloisters for Sant'Ambrogio. The Counter-Reformation in the 16th to 17th centuries was also the period of Spanish domination and was marked by two powerful figures: Saint Charles Borromeo and his cousin, Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Not only did they impose themselves as moral guides to the people of Milan, but they also gave a great impulse to culture, with the creation of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, in a building designed by Francesco Maria Ricchino, and the nearby Pinacoteca Ambrosiana. Many notable churches and Baroque mansions were built in the city during this period by the architects, Pellegrino Tibaldi, Galeazzo Alessi and Ricchino himself.Empress Maria Theresa of Austria was responsible for the significant renovations carried out in Milan during the 18th century.BOOK, ed, Ellen Judy Wilson, principal author. Peter Hanns Reill, consulting, Encyclopedia of the enlightenment, 2004, Facts on File, New York, NY, 0-8160-5335-9, 392, Rev., This urban and artistic renewal included the establishment of Teatro alla Scala, inaugurated in 1778, and the renovation of the Royal Palace. The late 1700s Palazzo Belgioioso by Giuseppe Piermarini and Royal Villa of Milan by Leopoldo Pollack, later the official residence of Austrian viceroys, are often regarded among the best examples of Neoclassical architecture in Lombardy.BOOK, Mazzocca, Fernando, La Galleria d'Arte Moderna e la Villa Reale di Milano, 2007, Silvana, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano), 9788836610037, 21, The Napoleonic rule of the city in 1805–1814, having established Milan as the capital of a satellite Kingdom of Italy, took steps in order to reshape it accordingly to its new status, with the construction of large boulevards, new squares (Porta Ticinese by Luigi Cagnola and Foro Bonaparte by Giovanni Antonio Antolini) and cultural institutions (Art Gallery and the Academy of Fine Arts).BOOK, De Finetti, Giuseppe, Milano : costruzione di una città, 2002, U. Hoepli, Milano, 88-203-3092-X, 324, The massive Arch of Peace, situated at the bottom of Corso Sempione, is often compared to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. In the second half of the 19th century, Milan quickly became the main industrial centre of the new Italian nation, drawing inspiration from the great European capitals that were hubs of the Second Industrial Revolution. The great Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, realised by Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877 to celebrate Vittorio Emanuele II, is a covered passage with a glass and cast iron roof, inspired by the Burlington Arcade in London. Another late-19th-century eclectic monument in the city is the Cimitero Monumentale graveyard, built in a Neo-Romanesque style between 1863 and 1866.The tumultuous period of early 20th century brought several, radical innovations in Milanese architecture. Art Nouveau, also known as Liberty in Italy, is recognisable in Palazzo Castiglioni, built by architect Giuseppe Sommaruga between 1901 and 1903. Other examples include Hotel Corso, Casa Guazzoni with its wrought iron and staircase, and Berri-Meregalli house, the latter built in a traditional Milanese Art Nouveau style combined with elements of neo-Romanesque and Gothic revival architecture, regarded as one of the last such types of architecture in the city.WEB,weblink Verso Una Conclusione: Casa Berri Meregalli,, 10 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2012, A new, more eclectic form of architecture can be seen in buildings such as Castello Cova, built the 1910s in a distinctly neo-medieval style, evoking the architectural trends of the past.WEB,weblink Castello Cova – info2015expo,, 10 July 2012, An important example of Art Deco, which blended such styles with Fascist architecture, is the huge Central railway station inaugurated in 1931.BOOK,weblink DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Milan & the Lakes, Birmingham, Brenda, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2011, 9781405367479, London, en, 828734755, The post–World War II period saw rapid reconstruction and fast economic growth, accompanied by a nearly two-fold increase in population. In the 1950s and 1960s, a strong demand for new residential and commercial areas drove to extreme urban expansion, that has produced some of the major milestones in the city's architectural history, including Gio Ponti's Pirelli Tower (1956–60), Velasca Tower (1956–58), and the creation of brand new residential satellite towns, as well as huge amounts of low quality public housings. In recent years, de-industrialization, urban decay and gentrification led to a vast urban renewal of former industrial areas, that have been transformed into modern residential and financial districts, notably Porta Nuova in downtown Milan and FieraMilano in the suburb of Rho. In addition, the old exhibition area is being completely reshaped according to the Citylife regeneration project, featuring residencial areas, museums, an urban park and three skyscrapers designed by international architects, and after whom they are named: the {{convert|202|m|adj=mid|abbr=off}} Isozaki Arata—when completed, the tallest building in Italy, the twisted Hadid Tower, and the curved Libeskind Tower.

Parks and gardens

File:Parco Sempione Milano.jpg|thumb|250px|View through the Sempione Park to the Arch of Peace.]]File:Milano, Palazzo Dugnani, 2016-06 CN-01.jpg|thumb|250px|The Montanelli Gardens.]]The largest parks in the central area of Milan are Sempione Park, at the north-western edge, and Montanelli Gardens, situated northeast of the city. English-style Sempione Park, built in 1890, contains a Napoleonic Arena, the Milan City Aquarium, a steel lattice panoramic tower, an art exhibition centre, a Japanese garden and a public library.WEB, Sempione Park,weblink 13 June 2013, The Montanelli gardens, created in the 18th century, hosts the Natural History Museum of Milan and a planetarium.WEB, Indro Montanelli Gardens,weblink 13 June 2013, Slightly away from the city centre, heading east, Forlanini Park is characterised by a large pond and a few preserved shacks which remind of the area's agricultural past.WEB, Forlanini Park,weblink 13 June 2013, In addition, even though Milan is located in one of the most urbanised regions of Italy, it's surrounded by a belt of green areas and features numerous gardens even in its very centre. Since 1990, the farmlands and woodlands north (Parco Nord Milano) and south (Parco Agricolo Sud Milano) of the urban area have been protected as regional parks. West of the city, the Parco delle Cave (Sand pit park) has been established on a neglected site where gravel and sand used to be extracted, featuring artificial lakes and woods.


With rapid industrialisation in post-war years, the population of Milan peaked at 1,743,427 in 1973.BOOK, Malfreda, Germano, Pizzorni, Geoffry John, Ricciardi, Ferruccio, Romano, Roberto, Lavoro e società nella Milano del Novecento, 2006, Angeli, Milano, 9788846480316, 331, Thereafter, during the following thirty years, almost one third of the population moved to the outer belt of new suburbs and satellite settlements that grew around the city proper. There were an estimated 1,368,590 official residents in the municipality of Milan at the end of 2016WEB, Popolazione residente al 31 dicembre 2016,weblink Municipality of Milan, 3 November 2017, and 3,218,201 in its province-level municipality.WEB, Popolazione residente Italia, Lombardia e Città metropolitana di Milano,weblink Metropolitan City of Milan, 3 November 2017, However, Milan's urban area extends well beyond the limits of its administrative comune and was home to 5,270,000 people in 2015, while its wider, polycentric metropolitan area is estimated to have a population exceeding 8 million.{{Historical populations| title= Population census| percentages = pagr| align = none| cols = 4Istituto Nazionale di Statistica>Istat historical data 1861–2011HISTORICAL POPULATION, 1861–2014>URL=HTTP://SERIESTORICHE.ISTAT.IT/INDEX.PHP?ID=1&NO_CACHE=1&TX_USERCENTO_CENTOFE%5BCATEGORIA%5D=2&TX_USERCENTO_CENTOFE%5BACTION%5D=SHOW&TX_USERCENTO_CENTOFE%5BCONTROLLER%5D=CATEGORIA&CHASH=5DC94093F50E10C9E55A034D4C6BA123ISTAT>ACCESSDATE=14 OCTOBER 2017, 2016 Estimates Antiquity{{Google books page=9 id=FBSGziQyjGsC title=European Cities and Towns: 400–2000}}{{Google books page=182 id=Jx2Q4hxT5HAC title=The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change}}{{Google books page=356 id=obEJAQAAIAAJ id=FHN0VdgwFcAC title=The City-State in Europe, 1000–1600: Hinterland, Territory, Region}}4000090000100000267618290514354041538478701401818148960660111576812741541582421173200016047731369231125621112421231368590}}

Foreign residents {|class"infobox float-right mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"

! Country of foreign nationality ||Population at 1 January 2019Philippines}} 40,530 (-409 units)Egypt}} 38,923 (+1,360 units)China}} 30,363 (+1,362 units)Peru}} 17,928 (−304 units)Sri Lanka}} 16,809 (+66 units)Romania}} 14,933 (+128 units)Ecuador}} 11,965 (−353 units)Bangladesh}} 9,267 (+756 units)Ukraine}} 8,570 (+76 units)Morocco}} 7,993 (+70 units)El Salvador}} 5,158 (+215 units)Albania}} 4,930 (+48 units)France}} 3,454 (+72 units)Brazil}} 3,169 (+89 units)Moldova}} 2,763 (−104 units)Senegal}} 2,676 (+50 units)Russia}} 2,255 (+162 units)Bolivia}} 2,214 (-23 units)Spain}} 2,171 (+116 units)Pakistan}} 1,840 (+222 units)Japan}} 1,772 (+29 units)United Kingdom}} 1,727 (+70 units)Iran}} 1,723 (+145 units)Germany}} 1,662 (+42 units)Bulgaria}} 1,542 (+17 units)Eritrea}} 1,522 (−13 units)Turkey}} 1,505 (+102 units)Tunisia}} 1,427 (+10 units)India}} 1,313 (+69 units)Nigeria}} 1,142 (+188 units)Poland}} 1,103 (+13 units)United States}} 1,088 (+81 units)Dominican Republic}} 1,077 (-13 units)| each

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