Vatican Library

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Vatican Library
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{{Use DMY dates|date=July 2014}}

| type = Research library| scope = 41171216type:landmark_region:VA|display=inline,title}}| branch_of = | num_branches = | items_collected =
  • 75,000 codices
  • 1.1 million printed books
}}| criteria = | legal_deposit = | req_to_access = | annual_circulation = | pop_served = | members = | budget = | director = Archbishop José Tolentino Mendonça| num_employees =}}| references = | location_map = Vatican | map_caption = Location on a map of Vatican City}}{{Vatican City sidebar}}The Vatican Apostolic Library (, ), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat,NEWS, 0028-792X, 86, 42, 24, Mendelsohn, Daniel, God's Librarians, The New Yorker, 3 August 2014, 3 January 2011,weblink is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history,Vatican Film Library informational pamphlet{{Full citation needed|date=July 2014}} as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula.The Vatican Library is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology. The Vatican Library is open to anyone who can document their qualifications and research needs. Photocopies for private study of pages from books published between 1801 and 1990 can be requested in person or by mail.Pope Nicholas V (1447–1455) envisioned a new Rome with extensive public works to lure pilgrims and scholars alike to the city to begin its transformation. Nicolas decided that he wanted to create a 'public library' for Rome that was meant to be seen as an institution for humanist scholarship. His death prevented him from carrying out his plan of a public library, but his idea lived on with his successor Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484) who established what is now known as the Vatican Library.In March 2014, the Vatican Library began an initial four-year project of digitising its collection of manuscripts, to be made available online.The Vatican Secret Archives were separated from the library at the beginning of the 17th century; they contain another 150,000 items.

Historical periods

Scholars have traditionally divided the history of the library into five periods, Pre-Lateran, Lateran, Avignon, Pre-Vatican and Vatican.BOOK, Joseph Strayer, Strayer, Joseph, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, 1989, Scribner, 0684190737,


The Pre-Lateran period, comprising the initial days of the library, dated from the earliest days of the Church. Only a handful of volumes survive from this period, though some are very significant.


The Lateran era began when the library moved to the Lateran Palace and lasted until the end of the 13th century and the reign of Pope Boniface VIII, who died in 1303, by which time he possessed one of the most notable collections of illuminated manuscripts in Europe. However, in that year, the Lateran Palace was burnt and the collection plundered by Philip IV of France.BOOK, Wiegand, Wayne A., Davis, Donald G., Encyclopedia of Library History, 1994, Garland, New York, 0824057872, 653,


The Avignon period was during the Avignon Papacy, when seven successive popes resided in Avignon, France. This period saw a great growth in book collection and record keeping by the popes in Avignon, between the death of Boniface and the 1370s when the Papacy returned to Rome.


The Pre-Vatican period ranged from about 1370 to 1446. The library was scattered during this time, with parts in Rome, Avignon and elsewhere.


In 1451, bibliophile Pope Nicholas V sought to establish a public library at the Vatican, in part to re-establish Rome as a destination for scholarship.WEB, Meert, Deborah, A History of the Vatican Library,weblink, University of Alberta, 31 July 2014, Nicholas combined some 350 Greek, Latin and Hebrew codices inherited from his predecessors with his own collection and extensive acquisitions, among them manuscripts from the imperial Library of Constantinople. Pope Nicholas also expanded his collection by employing Italian and Byzantine scholars to translate the Greek classics into Latin for his library. The knowledgeable Pope already encouraged the inclusion of pagan classics. Nicolas was important in saving many of the Greek works and writings during this time period that he had collected while traveling and acquired from others.In 1455, the collection had grown to 1200 books, of which 400 were in Greek language.WEB, The Library of Congress: Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture - The Vatican Library - The City Reborn: How the City Came Back to Life, 2 August 2014,weblink Nicholas' death in 1455 prevented the completion of his vision of a public library, but it was finished in 1475 by his successor Pope Sixtus IV, and named the Palatine Library. During the papacy of Sixtus IV, acquisitions were made in "theology, philosophy and atristic literature". The number of manuscripts is variously counted as 3,500 in 1475 or 2,527 in 1481, when librarian Bartolomeo Platina produced a signed listing.BOOK, Clark, John Willis, On the Vatican Library of Sixtus IV., 1899, At the time it was the largest collection of books in the Western world.During his reign, Pope Julius II commissioned the expansion of the building. Around 1587, Pope Sixtus V commissioned the architect Domenico Fontana to construct a new building for the library, which is still used today. It was after this the library became known as the Vatican Library.During the Counter-Reformation, access to the library's collections was limited following the introduction of the Index of banned books. Scholars' access to the library was restricted, particularly Protestant scholars. Restrictions were lifted during the course of the 17th century, and Pope Leo XIII formally reopened the library to scholars in 1883.WEB, Bloom, Ocker, The Vatican Library and its History,weblink Ibiblio, 1 August 2014, In 1756, Abbot Piaggio conserver of ancient manuscripts in the Vatican Library used a machine he also invented,WEB,weblink Giacomo Castrucci, 1856, Tesoro letterario di Ercolano, ossia, La reale officina dei papiri ercolanesi, to unroll the first Herculaneum papyri, which took him months.WEB,weblink 2015, Herculaneum Papyri in the National Library in Naples, The Phraser, In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte arrested Pope Pius VII, and removed the contents of the library to Paris. The contents were returned in 1817, three years after the defeat of Napoleon.In 1992 the library had almost 2 million catalogued items.In 1995 art history teacher Anthony Melnikas from Ohio State University stole three leaves from a medieval manuscript once owned by Francesco Petrarch.WEB, HONAN, WILLIAM H., William H. Honan, Teacher Tied to Stolen Manuscript Pages Faced Prior Ethics Questions, Colleagues Say,weblink NYTimes, 1 August 2014, WEB, MONTALBANO, WILLIAM D., U.S. Scholar Suspected in Theft of Manuscript Pages,weblink Los Angeles Times, 1 August 2014, One of the stolen leaves contains an exquisite miniature of a farmer threshing grain. A fourth leaf from an unknown source was also discovered in his possession by the U.S. Customs agents. Melnikas was trying to sell the pages to an art dealer, who then alerted Father Leonard E. Boyle, the librarian director.

Location and building

File:HippolytusStatue.JPG|thumb|left|180px|Ancient Roman sculpture, maybe of Saint HippolytusSaint HippolytusThe Library is located inside the Vatican Palace, and the entrance is through the Belvedere Courtyard.WEB,weblink Vatican Apostolic Library,, 28 July 2014, When Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) commissioned the expansion and the new building of the Vatican Library, he had a three-story wing built right across Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere, thus bisecting it and changing Bramante's work significantly. At the bottom of a grand staircase a large statue of Hippolytus decorates the La Galea entrance hall.The Pope’s Visit to the Vatican Library 19 December 2010 In: L'Osservatore Romano. Retrieved 2 August 2014In the first semi-basement there is a papyrus room and a storage area for manuscripts. The first floor houses the restoration laboratory, and the photographic archives are on the second floor.The Library has {{convert|42|km}} of shelving.WEB, Del Nibletto, Paolo, The Vatican Library CIO’s sacred mission: To digitize everything,weblink, IT World Canada, 28 July 2014, The Library closed for renovations on 17 July 2007NEWS
, Willey
, David
, Vatican Library closure irks scholars
, BBC News
, 17 July 2007
, 17 July 2007, and reopened 20 September 2010.WEB,weblink Vatican Library Homepage, 13 September 2010, The three year, 9 million euro renovation involved the complete shut down of the library to install climate controlled rooms.NEWS, Winfield, Nicole, Vatican library reopens after 3-year restoration,weblink 28 July 2014, NBC News, 15 November 2010,

Architecture and art

In the Sala di Consultazione or main reference room of the Vatican Library looms a statue of St Thomas Aquinas (c. 1910), sculpted by Cesare Aureli. A second version of this statue (c. 1930) stands under the entrance portico of the Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.{{efn|This sculpture is described in the following words: "S. Tommaso seduto, nella sinistra tiene il libro della Summa theologica, mentre stende la destra in atto di proteggere la scienza cristiana. Quindi non siede sulla cattedra di dottore, ma sul trono di sovrano protettore; stende il braccio a rassicurare, non a dimostrare. Ha in testa il dottorale berretto, e conservando il suo tipo tradizionale, rivela nel volto e nell'atteggiamento l'uomo profondamente dotto. L'autore non ha avuto da ispirarsi in altr'opera che esistesse sul soggetto, quindi ha dovuto, può dirsi, creare questo tipo, ed è riuscito originale e felice nella sua creazione."BOOK,weblink History and culture in Italy, John, Hendrix, University Press of America, 9 September 2012, 9780761826286, 2003, }}BOOK,weblink Nel giubileo episcopale di Leone XIII. omaggio della Biblioteca vaticana XIX febbraio anno MDCCCXCIII, 9 September 2012, Vaticana, Biblioteca Apostolica, 1893, File:The Sistine Hall of the Vatican Library (2994335291).jpg|The Sistine Hall of the Vatican Library.File:Golden rose Biblioteca apostolica.jpg|Golden Rose stored in the Vatican Library.File:Plafond_Sale_Sistine_-_Salle_des_Archives_pontificales_(2).jpg|Ceiling fresco of the sistine hall, photograph by Jean-Pol Grandmont

Library organization


The collection was originally organized through notebooks used to index the manuscripts. As the collection grew to more than a few thousand, shelf lists were used. The first modern catalogue system was put in place under Father Franz Ehrle between 1927 and 1939, using the Library of Congress card catalogue system. Ehrle also set up the first program to take photographs of important works or rare works. The library catalogue was further updated by Rev. Leonard E. Boyle when it was computerized in the early 1990s.

Reading and lending

File:Milkau Biblioteca Vaticana - Bücherschrank 279-2.jpg|thumb|BookcaseBookcaseHistorically, during the Renaissance era, most books were not shelved but stored in wooden benches, which had tables attached to them. Each bench was dedicated to a specific topic. The books were chained to these benches, and if a reader took out a book, the chain remained attached to it. Until the early 17th century, academics were also allowed to borrow books. For important books, the pope himself would issue a reminder slip. Privileges to use the library could be withdrawn for breaking the house rules, for instance by climbing over the tables. Most famously Pico della Mirandola lost the right to use the library when he published a book on theology that the Papal curia did not approve of.WEB, The Library of Congress: Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture - The Vatican Library - A Library Takes Shape: Books, Benches, and Borrowers, 2 August 2014,weblink In the 1760s, a bill issued by Clement XIII heavily restricted access to the library's holdings.The Vatican Library can only be accessed by 200 scholars at a time,NEWS, Taylor, Lesley Ciarula, Digitizing history: 82,000-manuscript collection Vatican Library goes online,weblink 28 July 2014, Toronto Star, 2 May 2013, and it sees 4,000 to 5,000 scholars a year, mostly academics doing post-graduate research.


File:Fortymartyrs.jpg|thumb|A miniature from the Syriac Gospel Lectionary (Vat. Syr. 559), created ca. 1220 near MosulMosulWhile the Vatican Library has always included Bibles, canon law texts and theological works, it specialized in secular books from the beginning. Its collection of Greek and Latin classics was at the center of the revival of classical culture during the Renaissance age.The oldest documents in the library date back to the first century.The library was founded primarily as a manuscript library, a fact reflected in the comparatively high ratio of manuscripts to printed works in its collection. Such printed books as have made their way into the collection are intended solely to facilitate the study of the much larger collection of manuscripts.WEB, The Vatican Palace, as a Scientific Institute,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent, 2 August 2014, The collection also includes 330,000 Greek, Roman, and papal coins and medals.Every year about 6,000 new books are acquired.The library was enriched by several bequests and acquisitions over the centuries.In 1623, the hereditary Palatine Library of Heidelberg containing about 3,500 manuscripts was given to the Vatican by Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria (who had just acquired it as booty in the Thirty Years' War) in thanks for the adroit political maneuvers of Pope Gregory XV that had sustained him in his contests with Protestant candidates for the electoral seat. A token 39 of the Heidelberg manuscripts were sent to Paris in 1797 and were returned to Heidelberg at the Peace of Paris in 1815, and a gift from Pope Pius VII of 852 others was made in 1816 to the University of Heidelberg, including the Codex Manesse. Aside from that, the Palatine Library remains in the Vatican Library to this day.In 1657, the manuscripts of the Dukes of Urbino were acquired. In 1661, the Greek scholar Leo Allatius was made librarian.Queen Christina of Sweden's important library (mostly amassed by her generals as booty from Habsburg Prague and German cities during the Thirty Years War) was bought by Pope Alexander VIII on her death in 1689. It represented, for all practical purposes, the entire royal library of Sweden at the time. If it had remained where it was in Stockholm, it would all have been lost in the destruction of the royal palace by fire in 1697.Among the most famous holdings of the library is the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, the oldest known nearly complete manuscript of the Bible. The Secret History of Procopius was discovered in the library and published in 1623.Pope Clement XI sent scholars into the Orient to bring back manuscripts, and is generally accepted as the founder of the Oriental section.A School of library science is associated with the Vatican Library.In 1959, a Film Library was established.WEB, Statute of the Vatican Film Library,weblink, 28 July 2014, This is not to be confused with the Vatican Film Library, which was established in 1953 at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri.The Library has a large collection of texts related to Hinduism, with the oldest editions dating to 1819.NEWS, Vatican Library carries extensive collection of ancient Hindu scriptures,weblink 28 July 2014, eurasia review, 29 June 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2014, dead, dmy-all, During the library's restoration between 2007 and 2010, all of the 70,000 volumes in the library were tagged with electronic chips to prevent theft.


File:Sandro Botticelli - The Abyss of Hell - WGA02853.jpg|thumb|The Abyss of Hell, coloured drawing on parchment by Sandro BotticelliSandro Botticelli(File:Wandalbert von Prüm, July, Martyrologium.jpg|thumb|Wandalbert von Prüm, July, Martyrologium (c860))Notable manuscripts in the Library include:Illuminated manuscripts:

Manuscripts relating to Christianity

Classic Greek and Latin texts


  • Codex Borgia, an extensive mesoamerican manuscript that depicts mythology and foundational rituals in the hieroglyphic texts and iconography made of animal skins.
  • Codex Vat. Arabo 368, the sole manuscript of the Hadith Bayad wa Riyad, an Arabic love storyJOURNAL, D’Ottone, Arianna, 2010, Il manoscritto Vaticano arabo 368: Hadith Bayad wa Riyad. Il codice, il testo, le immagini,weblink Rivista di Storia della Miniatura, Centro Di, 14, 55, 25 July 2014, Italian,
  • Codex Vaticanus 3738, the Codex Ríos,WEB,weblink FAMSI - Akademische Druck - u. Verlagsanstalt - Graz - Codex Vaticanus 3738, Akademische Druck - u. Verlagsanstalt - Graz CODICES, FAMSI, 29 July 2014, an accordion folded Italian translation of a Spanish colonial-era manuscript, with copies of the Aztec paintings from the original Codex Telleriano-Remensis, believed to be written by the Dominican friar Ríos in 1566.
  • De arte venandi cum avibus, a Latin treatise on falconry in the format of a two-column parchment codex of 111 folios written in the 1240s.
  • Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3256, four leaves of the Vergilius AugusteusWEB,weblink Vergilius Augusteus : vollst. Faks.-Ausg. im Originalformat : Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3256 d. Biblioteca apostolica vaticana u. Codex Latinus fol. 416 d. Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Catalog - UW-Madison Libraries, University of Wisconsin Madison Libraries, 29 July 2014,
  • Codex Vaticano Rossi 215, fragments of the Rossi CodexBOOK, Christopher Kleinhenz, Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia,weblink 8 January 2004, Routledge, 978-1-135-94880-1, 136,
  • Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, one of the oldest extant Bibles in Greek language
  • Libri Carolini
  • Vaticanus Graecus 1001, the original manuscript of the Secret HistoryWEB,weblink Vatican Mysteries: What’s So Secret about Procopius’ "Secret History?", Charney, Noah, Noah Charney, Blouinartinfo, Louise Blouin Media, 16 November 2011, 28 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2014, dead, dmy-all,
  • One fragment of Heliand and three fragments of the Old Saxon Genesis comprise the Palatinus Latinus 1447.BOOK, John M. Jeep, Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia,weblink 2001, Psychology Press, 978-0-8240-7644-3, 57,

Digitization projects

In 2012, plans were announced to digitize, in collaboration with the Bodleian Library, a million pages of material from the Vatican Library. On 20 March 2014, the Holy See announced that NTT Data Corporation and the Library concluded an agreement to digitize approximately 3,000 of the Library's manuscripts within four years.NEWS, McKenna, Josephine,weblink Vatican library plans to digitise 82,000 of its most valuable manuscripts, The Daily Telegraph, 20 March 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2014, 23 March 2014, NTT is donating the equipment and technicians, estimated to be worth 18 million Euros.WEB,weblink Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online, Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online, Reuters, 20 March 2014, 28 July 2014, Denti, Antonio, It noted that there is the possibility of subsequently digitizing another 79,000 of the Library's holdings. These will be high-definition images available on the Library's Internet site. Storage for the holdings will be on a three petabyte server provided by EMC.WEB,weblink Storage giant EMC looks to ease concerns about Flash technology, Storage giant EMC looks to ease concerns about Flash technology, Financial, 23 July 2014, 28 July 2014, Greiner, Lynn, It is expected that the initial phase will take 4 years.NEWS, Denti, Antonio, Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online,weblink 1 August 2014, Reuters, 20 March 2014, DigiVatLib is the name of the Vatican Library's digital library service. It provides free access to the Vatican Library’s digitized collections of manuscripts and incunabula.WEB,weblink DigiVatLib,, 2017-01-17, The scanning of documents is impacted by the material used to produce the texts. Books using gold and silver in the illuminations require special scanning equipment. Digital copies are being stored in the CIFS file format.

Gallery of holdings

File:Bible Persian Manuscript (14th century).jpg|Gospel of Matthew in Persian, the first Persian manuscript to enter the Vatican LibraryFile:Barbireau illum.jpg|Manuscript page with the five-voice "Kyrie" of the Missa Virgo Parens Christi by Jacques BarbireauFile:Tavola di Velletri.jpg|Mappamondo Borgiano, also known as "Tavola di Velletri", consisting of two copper tablets (1430)File:Chronography of 354 Mensis Maius.png|Month of May from in the Chronography of 354 by the 4th century kalligrapher FilocalusFile:Anton Raphael Mengs, The Triumph of History over Time (Allegory of the Museum Clementinum), ceiling fresco in the Camera dei Papiri, Vatican Library, 1772 - M0tty.jpg|Anton Raphael Mengs, The Triumph of History over Time (Allegory of the Museum Clementinum), ceiling fresco in the Camera dei Papiri, Vatican LibraryFile:Szent Imre legenda02.jpg|Illumination from the legend of Sain Emerich of Hungary's, c. 1335File:DavidGoliathBAVVatGr752Fol448v.jpg|Battle between David and Goliath, Book of Psalms, c. 1059File:Codexaureus 02.jpg |The ivory panels from the back cover of Codex Aureus of Lorsch

Related libraries

Vatican Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives, located in Vatican City, is the central archive for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See, as well as the state papers, correspondence, papal account books,BOOK, von Pastor, Ludwig Freiherr, The History of the Popes: From the Close of the Middle Ages. Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and Other Original Sources, Volume 3, 1906, Trübner & Company Ltd., 31,weblink 28 July 2014, and many other documents which the church has accumulated over the centuries. In the 17th century, under the orders of Pope Paul V, the Secret Archives were separated from the Vatican Library, where scholars had some very limited access to them, and remained absolutely closed to outsiders until 1881, when Pope Leo XIII opened them to researchers, more than a thousand of whom now examine its documents each year.WEB,weblink Table of Admittances to the Vatican Secret Archives in the Last Years,weblink" title="">weblink 6 May 2011,

Vatican Film Library

The Vatican Film Library in St. Louis, Missouri is the only collection, outside the Vatican itself, of microfilms of more than 37,000 works from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, the Vatican Library in Europe. It is located in the Pius XII Library on the campus of Saint Louis University.WEB,weblink Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library - Home Page,, 13 November 2007,
The Library was created by Lowrie J. Daly (1914–2000), with funding from the Knights of Columbus.WEB, LOWRIE J. DALY, S.J., MEMORIAL LECTURE ON MANUSCRIPT STUDIES,weblink Libraries at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis University, 29 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2014, dead, dmy-all, The goal was to make Vatican and other documents more available to researchers in North America.BOOK, C. Krohn, Ernst, Notes Second Series, Vol. 14, No. 3, June 1957, Music Library Association, 317, 891821,
Microfilming of Vatican manuscripts began in 1951, and according to the Library's website, was the largest microfilming project that had been undertaken up to that date.NEWS, Kentucky New Era - Aug 14, 1954,weblink 30 July 2014, Kentucky New Era, 14 August 1954, The Library opened in 1953, and moved to the St. Louis University campus, in the Pius XII Memorial Library, in 1959. The first librarian was Charles J. Ermatinger, who served until 2000. {{As of|2007}}, the Library has microfilmed versions of over 37,000 manuscripts, with material in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Hebrew and Ethiopic, as well as several more common Western European languages. There are reproductions of many works from the Biblioteca Palatina and Biblioteca Cicognara at the Vatican, as well as Papal letter registers from the Archivio Segreto Vaticano (Vatican Secret Archives) from the 9th to 16th centuries, in the series Registra Vaticana and Registra Supplicationium.


Originally the director of the library was appointed a Cardinal, and given the title Cardinal Librarian. Individual library staff were called "Custodians". After the reopening of the library in 1883, Pope Leo XIII declared that the Librarian be regarded as a Prefect.The Cardinal Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church is assisted by two prelates, who are the Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library (the everyday manager of the Library), and the Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives (who handles the daily affairs of the Archives). They are each assisted by a Vice-Prefect.The office of Librarian of Vatican Library has been held at the same time as that of Archivist of Vatican Secret Archives since 1957.The current Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library is Monsignor Cesare Pasini (who is also the Director of the Vatican School of Library Science). The Vice Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library is Doctor Ambrogio M. Piazzoni. The Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives is a Barnabite Bishop by the name of Sergio Pagano. The Vice Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives is Father Marcel Chappin, S.J. The Archives also is responsible for the Vatican School of Paleography.WEB,weblink Government | Sito ufficiale dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano – Città del Vaticano,, 7 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2014, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink BAV - Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana,, 7 October 2013, The library currently has 80 staff who work in five departments: manuscripts and archival collections, printed books/drawings, acquisitions/cataloguing, coin collections/museums and restoration/photography.

List of librarians

(P) Indicates time spent as Pro-Librarian. This is the role of acting librarian, often a librarian who is not a Cardinal.WEB, Guruge, Anura, Replacement For Cardinal Farina As The Archivist; Cardinal Antonelli’s Replacement, Vincenzo Paglia, Immediately A Cardinalabili,weblink Popes and Papacy, 2 August 2014, {| class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:200px;"| Name! style="width:100px;"| Lifetime! style="width:200px;"| Title! style="width:100px;"| Duration as LibrarianWEB,weblink Vatican Library History,, 7 October 2013, WEB,weblink Vatican Apostolic Library - Institute Connected with the Holy See,, 7 October 2013, |Marcello Cervini|1501–1555|Bibliothecarius Iformat=dmy5format=dmy4|9}}|Roberto de' Nobili|1541–1559|Bibliothecarius IIformat=dmy1|18}}|Alfonso Carafa|1540–1565|Bibliothecarius IIIformat=dmy08|29}}|Marcantonio da Mula|1506–1572|Bibliothecarius IVformat=dmy3DATE=5 AUGUST 2006, 2013-07-10, |Guglielmo Sirleto|1514–1585|Bibliothecarius Vformat=dmy3format=dmy10|16}}|Antonio Carafa|1538–1591|Bibliothecarius VIformat=dmy10format=dmy1|13}}|Marco Antonio Colonna|1523 ca.–1597|Bibliothecarius VIIformat=dmy3|13}}|Cesare Baronio|1538–1607|Bibliothecarius VIIIformat=dmy5}}–{{dts160730}}HTTP://WWW2.FIU.EDU/~MIRANDAS/BIOS1596.HTM >TITLE=CARDINALS OF THE HOLY ROMAN CHURCH - CONSISTORY OF SEPTEMBER JUNE 5, 1596 (II) ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013, Ludovico de Torres (cardinal)>Ludovico de Torres|1552–1609|Bibliothecarius IXformat=dmy7format=dmy7|8}}Scipione Borghese>Scipione Borghese Caffarelli|1576–1633|Bibliothecarius Xformat=dmy6format=dmy2ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=23 MAY 2017 DF=DMY-ALL, |Scipione Cobelluzzi|1564–1626|Bibliothecarius XIformat=dmy2format=dmy6|29}}Francesco Barberini (1597–1679)>Francesco Barberini|1597–1679|Bibliothecarius XIIformat=dmy7format=dmy12|13}}Antonio Marcello Barberini>Antonio Barberini|1569–1646|Bibliothecarius XIIIformat=dmy12format=dmy9|11}}|Orazio Giustiniani|1580–1649|Bibliothecarius XIVformat=dmy9format=dmy7|25}}|Luigi Capponi|1583–1659|Bibliothecarius XVformat=dmy8format=dmy4|6}}Flavio Chigi (1631-1693)>Flavio Chigi|1631–1693|Bibliothecarius XVIformat=dmy6format=dmy9ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013, Francesco Lorenzo Brancati di Lauria>Lorenzo Brancati|1612–1693|Bibliothecarius XVIIformat=dmy9format=dmy11|30}}|Girolamo Casanate|1620–1700|Bibliothecarius XVIIIformat=dmy12format=dmy3|3}}Henry Noris>Enrico Noris|1631–1704|Bibliothecarius XIXformat=dmy3format=dmy2|23}}|Benedetto Pamphili|1653–1730|Bibliothecarius XXformat=dmy2format=dmy3|22}}|Angelo Maria Querini|1680–1755|Bibliothecarius XXIformat=dmy9format=dmy1|6}}|Domenico Passionei|1682–1761|Bibliothecarius XXIIformat=dmy7format=dmy1format=dmy1format=dmy7|5}}|Alessandro Albani|1692–1779|Bibliothecarius XXIIIformat=dmy8format=dmy12|11}}|Francesco Saverio de Zelada|1717–1801|Bibliothecarius XXIVformat=dmy12format=dmy12|29}}|Luigi Valenti Gonzaga|1725–1808|Bibliothecarius XXVformat=dmy1format=dmy12|29}}|Giulio Maria della Somaglia|1744–1830|Bibliothecarius XXVIformat=dmy1format=dmy4|2}}|Giuseppe Albani|1750–1834|Bibliothecarius XXVIIformat=dmy4format=dmy12|3}}|Luigi Lambruschini|1776–1854|Bibliothecarius XXVIIIformat=dmy12format=dmy6|27}}|Angelo Mai|1782–1854|Bibliothecarius XXIXformat=dmy6format=dmy9|9}}|Antonio Tosti|1776–1866|Bibliothecarius XXXformat=dmy1format=dmy3|20}}|Jean-Baptiste Pitra|1812–1889|Bibliothecarius XXXIformat=dmy1format=dmy2ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013, Placido Maria Schiaffino|it}}|1829–1889|Bibliothecarius XXXIIformat=dmy2format=dmy9|23}}|Alfonso Capecelatro|1824–1912|Bibliothecarius XXXIIIformat=dmy8format=dmy11ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013, |Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro|1843–1913|Bibliothecarius XXXIVformat=dmy11format=dmy12|16}}|Francesco di Paola Cassetta|1841–1919|Bibliothecarius XXXVformat=dmy1format=dmy3|23}}Francis Aidan Gasquet>Aidan [Francis Neil] Gasquet|1845–1929|Bibliothecarius XXXVIformat=dmy5format=dmy4|5}}|Franz Ehrle|1845–1934|Bibliothecarius XXXVIIformat=dmy4format=dmy3|31}}|Giovanni Mercati|1866–1957|Bibliothecarius XXXVIIIformat=dmy6format=dmy8|23}}|Eugène Tisserant|1884–1972|Bibliothecarius XXXIXformat=dmy9format=dmy3|27}}|Antonio Samoré|1905–1983|Bibliothecarius XLformat=dmy1format=dmy2|3}}|Alfons Maria Stickler|1910–2007|Bibliothecarius XLIformat=dmy9format=dmy5format=dmy5format=dmy7|1}}|Antonio María Javierre Ortas|1921–2007|Bibliothecarius XLIIformat=dmy7format=dmy1|24}}|Luigi PoggiACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2013, |Bibliothecarius XLIIIformat=dmy4format=dmy11format=dmy11format=dmy11|25}}|Jorge María Mejía|1923-2014|Bibliothecarius XLIVformat=dmy3format=dmy11|24}}|Jean-Louis Tauran|1943-2018|Bibliothecarius XLVformat=dmy11format=dmy6|25}}|Raffaele Farina|1933-|Bibliothecarius XLVIformat=dmy6format=dmy6|9}}|Jean-Louis Bruguès|1943-|Bibliothecarius XLVIIformat=dmy6format=dmy9|1}}|José Tolentino Mendonça|1965-|Bibliothecarius XLVIII format=dmy9|1}}-

See also





Works cited

  • Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - WEB, Miranda, Salvador, The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church,weblink Florida International University Libraries,

Further reading

External links

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott