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Sydney
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{{about|the Australian metropolis|the local government area|City of Sydney|other uses}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{short description|Metropolis in Australia }}{{use Australian English|date=March 2014}}{{use dmy dates|date=March 2019}}







factoids
| force_national_map = yes| pop = 5230330| pop_year = 2018WEBSITE = ABS.GOV.AU AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS >ACCESSDATE = 27 MARCH 2018, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018.| poprank = 1st| density = 423PUBLISHER = AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS ACCESSDATE = 27 MARCH 2019 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190518102422/HTTP://WWW.ABS.GOV.AU/AUSSTATS/ABS@.NSF/LATESTPRODUCTS/3218.0MAIN%20FEATURES12017-18?OPENDOCUMENT&TABNAME=SUMMARY&PRODNO=3218.0&ISSUE=2017-18&NUM=&VIEW=, 18 May 2019, Australia Day>26 January 1788| area = 12367.7PUBLISHER=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS DATE=28 MARCH 2013 ACCESSDATE=9 APRIL 2014, Australian Eastern Standard Time>AEST| utc = +10Australian Eastern Daylight Time>AEDT| utc-dst = +11| dist1 = 877| dir1 = NE| location1 = Melbourne| dist2 = 923| dir2 = S| location2 = Brisbane| dist3 = 287| dir3 = NE| location3 = Canberra| dist4 = 3936| dir4 = E| location4 = Perth| dist5 = 1404| dir5 = E| location5 = AdelaideSydney#Government>various (31)Cumberland County, New South Wales>Cumberland{{NSW GNRtitle=Cumberland County|accessdate=20 September 2017}}| division = Electoral districts of New South Wales>various (49)various) (24)| maxtemp = 21.8site_ref=cw_066062_Allaccessdate=15 December 2016}}| mintemp = 13.8| mintemp_footnotes = | rainfall = 1215.7| rainfall_footnotes = Coordinates:{{NSW GNR>id=TRlpoerXGHaccessdate=28 February 2015}}}}Sydney ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|ɪ|d|n|i|audio=En-au-Sydney.ogg}} {{respell|SID|nee}})BOOK, Macquarie ABC Dictionary, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, 2003, 1,000, 1-876429-37-2, is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.WEB, Blatant Independent Media, 2010,weblink The most populous cities in Oceania, 13 September 2014, Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about {{cvt|70|km|1}} on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west.BOOK, Mason, Herbert, 2012, Encyclopaedia of Ships and Shipping, 266, Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders".WEB, Walk Sydney Streets, 2014,weblink Complete official list of Sydney suburbs, 13 July 2014, As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330WEB,weblink 3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017–18, 27 March 2019, Australian Bureau of Statistics, yes, 27 March 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190518102422weblink">weblink 18 May 2019, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.WEB, 3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016–17: Main Features,weblink Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 24 April 2018, 13 October 2018, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017.Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, and thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area. In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.WEB,weblink Manly Council – Manly Heritage & History, www.manly.nsw.gov.au, 10 May 2016, Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the {{CensusAU|2011}}, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney.NEWS, The Sydney Morning Herald, 2014,weblink Sydney's melting pot of language, 13 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140923055934weblink">weblink 23 September 2014, In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home.WEB, NSW Government, 2017,weblink Greater Sydney Language spoken at home, 1 February 2019, Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively.WEB,weblink Census 2016: Migrants make a cosmopolitan country, The Australian, 15 July 2017, 16 July 2017, WEB,weblink 2016 Census QuickStats, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4 January 2019, Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,NEWS, Levy, Megan, 2014,weblink Sydney, Melbourne more expensive than New York, says Living Index, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 July 2014, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living,WEB,weblink Sydney retains #10 ranking in Mercer's global quality of living survey, www.mercer.com, 28 April 2018, 28 April 2018, making it one of the most livable cities.WEB, Mercer, 2018,weblink 2018 Quality of Living Index, 28 April 2018, It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2010, Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network, Loughborough University, 22 April 2012, JOURNAL, Global Power City Index 2010, Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, October 2010,weblink 10 August 2011, Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity,WEB, PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2012,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130210063130weblink">weblink 10 February 2013, Cities of opportunity, 21 July 2014, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism.NEWS, Wade, Matt, 18 February 2012,weblink Tough week for a Sydney success story, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 January 2016, dmy-all, {{dead link|date=September 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}NEWS, Irvine, Jessica, 2008,weblink Another shot at making city a finance hub, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 2014, There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Economic powerhouse, 21 July 2014, WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Economic profile, 20 July 2014, Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities.WEB, Quacquarelli Symonds, 2016,weblink QS world university rankings 2016, 19 September 2016, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Sydney is also home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826.WEB,weblink History of the Library, State Library of New South Wales, 7 February 2011, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics. The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world,NEWS, Dennis, Anthony, 2013,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20140925110947weblink">weblink yes, 25 September 2014, "Too expensive" Sydney slips from top 10 tourism list, The Sydney Morning Herald, In this year's World's Best Awards, announced in New York this week, Sydney came in as the world's number 12 ranked best city., 27 October 2016, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Our global city, 21 July 2014, Boasting over {{cvt|1,000,000|ha|acre}} of nature reserves and parks,Benson, D. H. and Howell J. (1990) Taken for Granted: the Bushland of Sydney and Its Suburbs, Sydney its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.WEB, Hyde Park: Plan of Management and Masterplan, 1, October 2006, Sydney City Council, 7 September 2012,weblink 7–11, Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports.WEB, Sydney Airport, 2014,weblink Overview, 10 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140905042717weblink">weblink 5 September 2014, Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network.WEB, Sydney Trains, 2014,weblink Central Station, 10 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140625093221weblink">weblink 25 June 2014,

History

First inhabitants

File:AboriginalSite0008.jpg|thumb|Charcoal drawing of kangaroos in Heathcote National ParkHeathcote National ParkThe first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago.NEWS, Macey, Richard, 2007,weblink Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 July 2014, However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.BOOK, Attenbrow, Val, 2010, Sydney's Aboriginal Past: Investigating the Archaeological and Historical Records, Sydney, UNSW Press, 978-1-74223-116-7, 152–153,weblink 11 November 2013, The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.NEWS, The Argus, 31 May 1919, Pages from the past, 20, NEWS, The Sydney Morning Herald, 2002,weblink Once were warriors, 5 July 2014, He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.WEB, Sydney Barani, 2013,weblink Aboriginal people and place, 5 July 2014, The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place".JOURNAL, Stockton, Eugene D., Nanson, Gerald C., April 2004, Cranebrook Terrace Revisited, Archaeology in Oceania, 39, 1, 59–60, 40387277, 10.1002/j.1834-4453.2004.tb00560.x, Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan. The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Cook's landing site, 5 July 2014,

Establishment of the colony

File:The Founding of Australia. By Capt. Arthur Phillip R.N. Sydney Cove, Jan. 26th 1788.jpg|thumb|The Founding of Australia, 26 January 1788, by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N., Sydney Cove. Painting by Algernon TalmageAlgernon TalmageBritain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier.Captain Philip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788.WEB, City of Sydney, 2013,weblink Sydney's history, 5 July 2014, WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Early European settlement, 17 August 2014, This was to be the location for the new colony. Phillip described Port Jackson as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world". The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after Albion, another name for Great Britain), but Phillip decided on "Sydney".WEB, State Library of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Arthur Phillip, 6 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130203035645weblink">weblink 3 February 2013, yes, The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning.BOOK, McGillick, Paul, Bingham-Hall, Patrick, 2005, Sydney architecture, 14 to 15, Between 1788 and 1792, 3,546 male and 766 female convicts were landed at Sydney—many "professional criminals" with few of the skills required for the establishment of a colony. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies.Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814) by B. H. FletcherThe colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.WEB, The Rocks, 2014,weblink History and heritage, 5 July 2014, Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life. Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and Toongabbie, but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily.WEB, Lambert, Tim, 2014,weblink A Brief History of Sydney, LocalHistories.org, 12 July 2014, File:Thomas Watling - A Direct North General View of Sydney Cove, 1794.jpg|thumb|Convict artist Thomas WatlingThomas WatlingOfficers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.WEB, History of Australia Online, 2007,weblink Early sufferings of the colony, 12 July 2014, The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.WEB, Mear, Craig, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110831054140weblink">weblink yes, 31 August 2011, The origin of the smallpox outbreak in Sydney in 1789, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 5 July 2014, Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers – most notably Watkin Tench – left behind journals and accounts which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement.WEB, Dictionary of Sydney, 2008,weblink Lachlan Macquarie, 14 September 2014, Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens. Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Parramatta Road was opened in 1811, which is one of Sydney's oldest roads and Australia's first highway between two cities – Sydney CBD and Parramatta.{{Citation|author1=Broomham, Rosemary|title=Vital connections: a history of NSW roads from 1788|date=2001|publisher=Hale & Iremonger in association with the Roads and Traffic Authority NSW|isbn=978-0-86806-703-2|page=25}}Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation. Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain. Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years.BOOK, Australian National University, 2014,weblink Arthur Phillip, 6 July 2014, Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814),

Conflicts

File:Battle of VinegarHill.jpg|thumb|Castle Hill convict rebellionCastle Hill convict rebellionBetween 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the Australian Frontier Wars, a series of conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the resisting Indigenous clans.BOOK, Connor, John, The Australian frontier wars, 1788–1838, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2002, 0-86840-756-9,weblink harv, In 1790, when the British established farms along the Hawkesbury River, an Aboriginal leader Pemulwuy resisted the Europeans by waging a guerrilla-style warfare on the settlers in a series of wars known as the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars which took place in western Sydney. He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.BOOK,weblink Pemulwuy (c. 1750 – 1802), Kohen, J. L., 2005, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Australian National University, 12 July 2009, Pemulwuy (1750–1802), NEWS, The Sun Herald, 16 February 2008,weblink WHO WE ARE: The man who nearly changed everything, David, Dale, In 1804, Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion, a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority in the Castle Hill area of the British colony of New South Wales. The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under martial law, the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia at Rouse Hill.WEB,weblink Catholic Australia - Home, 2 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120324111940weblink">weblink 24 March 2012, The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history, where the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was ousted by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, who led the rebellion. Conflicts arose between the governors and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as John Macarthur.

Modern development

19th century

(File:Sydney 1888.jpg|thumb|left|Aerial illustration of Sydney, 1888)Early Sydney was molded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps. Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales, from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society. He established public works, a bank, churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines.
missing image!
- Grand central coffee palace sydney.jpg -
upright=0.9|Grand Central Coffee Palace in the 1890s. At the height of the Victorian era in Australia, ornate temperance coffee palaces were constructed as a reflection of the wealth of the country.
Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. The year 1840 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000. Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking to make money.ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1926, Australian Encyclopaedia, 2, 524, Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871 and during this time the city entered a period of prosperity which was reflected in the construction of grand edifices. Temperance coffee palaces, hotels as well as other civic buildings such as libraries and museums were erected in the city.BOOK,weblink The Grand Central Coffee Palace visitors' guide to Sydney, and the various health and pleasure resorts in the vicinity., National Library of Australia, 15 May 2019, Sydney : Grand Central Coffee Palace Company, 1890, JOURNAL, Coffee Palaces in Australia: A Pub with No Beer, M/C Journal, 15, 2,weblink 15 May 2019, 2 May 2012, BOOK, The Food and Drink of Sydney: A History, Heather, Hunwick, 2018, Rowman & Littlefield, 153, 9-781-44225204-2,weblink Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and port systems throughout the 1850s and 1860s.WEB, Postcardz.com.au, 2014,weblink Sydney, 6 July 2014, After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne in the 1850s, which created a strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne that still exists to this day.NEWS, Emerald City rewatched – Melbourne-Sydney rivalry in a screwball dramedy,weblink The Guardian, 14 February 2016, 28 January 2017, WEB, History of the Art Gallery of NSW,weblink Art Gallery of New South Wales, 28 January 2017, WEB,weblink Melbourne vs Sydney, Special Broadcasting Service, SBS, 23 July 2017, 28 January 2017, Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Linking a nation, 4 October 2014, Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight sea bathing was considered indecent until the early 20th century.

20th century–present

File:(Looking north along George Street (with tram, T-model Ford and hansom cab) from Union Line Building (incorporating the Bjelke-Petersen School of Physical culture), corner Jamieson Street), n.d. by (5955844045).jpg|thumb|left|A tram car on George Street in 1920. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire.]]Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners was unemployed.WEB, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2010,weblink Surviving the Great Depression, 6 July 2014, Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.WEB, Commonwealth of Australia, 2014,weblink Sydney Harbour Bridge, 6 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120512054556weblink">weblink 12 May 2012, The population continued to boom despite the Depression, having reached 1 million in 1925. The city had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire until it was dismantled in 1961.(File:Sydney 1932.jpg|thumb|right|Sydney Harbour in 1932)When Britain declared war on Germany in 1939, Australia also entered. During the war Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some loss of life.WEB, Australian War Memorial, 2014,weblink Remembering 1942: Sydney under attack, 6 July 2014, Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills.Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 8 December 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100529122055weblink">weblink 29 May 2010, Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney at 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program.File:Fireworks, Sydney Harbour Bridge, 2000 Summer Olympics closing ceremony.jpg|thumb|right|Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics2000 Summer OlympicsNew industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts have risen. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. A new skyline of concrete and steel skyscrapers swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with Australia Square being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia.WEB,weblink Biography: Harry Seidler AC OBE LFRAIA, 2 May 2008, 6 May 2005, architecture.com.au, The Australian Institute of Architects, This prolific growth of contemporary high-rise architecture was put in check by heritage laws in the 1990s onwards, which prevent demolition of any structure deemed historically significant. Since the 1970s Sydney has undergone a rapid economic and social transformation. As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan melting pot.To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.NEWS, Longman, Jere, 2000,weblink Sydney 2000: Closing Ceremony; A Fond Farewell From Australia, The New York Times, 6 July 2014, Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. Following the Olympics, the city hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the APEC Australia 2007 and Catholic World Youth Day 2008, led by Pope Benedict XVI.{{clear}}

Geography

Topography

File:Sydney ASTER 2001 oct 12.jpg|thumb|Sydney lies on a submergent coastline where the ocean level has risen to flood deep riariaSydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures {{convert|25|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}}, the Greater Sydney region covers {{convert|12367|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}}, and the city's urban area is {{convert|1687|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} in size.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006,weblink Sydney inner city: region data summary, 12 July 2014, WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2014,weblink Greater Sydney: region data summary, 12 July 2014, WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003,weblink$File/20160_2001.pdf, Census of population and housing: selected characteristics for urban centres, Australia, 5 October 2014, Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. Seventy beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous.The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay.

Geology

File:Vaucluse_Sydney.png|thumb|Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are sandstonesandstoneSydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period. The sand that was to become the sandstone of today was washed there by rivers from the south and northwest, and laid down between 360 and 200 million years ago. The sandstone has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds.The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Sydney Basin, 12 July 2014, Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.WEB, Latta, David, 2006,weblink Showcase destinations Sydney, Australia: the harbour city, 12 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140409105144weblink">weblink 9 April 2014,

Ecology

{{further|Ecology of Sydney}}File:Eucalyptus signata (9622810704).jpg|thumb|right|A dry sclerophyll bushland in Sydney with eucalyptus trees (Royal National Park, Sutherland ShireSutherland ShireThe most prevalent plant communities in the Sydney region are Dry Sclerophyll Forests which consist of eucalyptus trees, casuarinas, melaleucas, sclerophyll shrubs (typically wattles and banksias) and a semi-continuous grass in the understory, mainly in an open woodland setting. These plants tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low soil fertility.WEB,weblink Dry sclerophyll forests (shrub/grass sub-formation), NSW Environment & Heritage, 15 October 2016, Wet sclerophyll forests are found in the damp, elevated areas of Sydney, such as in the northeast. They are defined by straight, tall tree canopies with an elaborate, moist understorey of soft-leaved shrubs, tree ferns and herbs.WEB,weblink Wet sclerophyll forests (grassy sub-formation), NSW Environment & Heritage, 16 March 2017, Sydney is home to dozens of bird species,Hindwood, K. A. and McCill, A. R., 1958. The Birds of Sydney (Cumberland Plain) New South Wales. Royal Zoological Society New South Wales. which commonly include the Australian raven, Australian magpie, crested pigeon, noisy miner and the pied currawong, among others. Introduced bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the common myna, common starling, house sparrow and the spotted dove.BOOK, Finding Australian Birds,weblink Dolby, Tim, Clarke, Rohan, CSIRO Publishing, 2014, 9780643097667, Reptile species are also numerous and predominantly include skinks.Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed New Holland.Green, D., 1973. -Re reptiles of the outer north-western suburbs of Sydney. Herpetofauna 6 (2): 2–5. Sydney has a few mammal and spider species, such as the grey-headed flying fox and the Sydney funnel-web, respectively.NEWS,weblink Sydney's flying foxes now Bundy's problem, North Queensland Register, 2 August 2012, 22 February 2014, BOOK, A Field Guide to Spiders of Australia, Whyte, Robert, Anderson, Greg, CSIRO Publishing, 2017, Clayton VIC,

Climate

{{climate chart| Sydney, New South Wales26.5| 96.026.5|136.625.4|109.423.3|137.020.6|117.618.0|117.817.4| 80.918.9| 91.821.2| 69.222.8| 82.223.8|104.825.5| 79.4|float=right|clear=none}}File:Thunderstorm in sydney 2000x1500.png|thumb|left|A summer thunderstorm over the city taken from Potts PointPotts PointUnder the Köppen–Geiger classification, Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa)WEB, Modelling and simulation of seasonal rainfall, Centre for Computer Assisted Research Mathematics and its Applications (CARMA), Brisbane and Sydney each have a humid sub-tropical or temperate climate with no pronounced dry season...the classification is Cfa, 20 May 2014,weblink 25 February 2016, with warm summers, cool winters and uniform rainfall throughout the year.WEB, Climate and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, Australian Government, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 24 September 2007,weblink 21 December 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080610031914weblink">weblink 10 June 2008, At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill, extreme temperatures have ranged from {{convert|45.8|C|1}} on 18 January 2013 to {{convert|2.1|C|1}} on 22 June 1932.{{BoM Aust stats|site_ref=cw_066062_All|site_name=Sydney (Observatory Hill)|accessdate=15 November 2013}}Bureau of Meteorology. 2006. Climate summary for Sydney, January 2006NEWS, Creagh, Sunanda, Sydney smashes temperature records but heatwave nearly over,weblink The Conversation, The Conversation Media Group, 21 January 2013, An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures at or above {{convert|30|C|0}} in the central business district (CBD). In contrast, the metropolitan area averages between 35 and 65 days, depending on the suburb.Torok, S. and Nicholls, N. 1996. A historical annual temperature dataset for Australia. Aust. Met. Mag., 45, 251–60. The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is {{convert|27.6|C|0}}, in February 2011 while the lowest maximum temperature is {{convert|7.7|C|0}}, recorded in July 1868.WEB, Climate statistics for Australian locations,weblink Bureau of Meteorology, 15 November 2013, The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from {{convert|18.5|C|F}} in September to {{convert|23.7|C|F}} in February.Sydney Sea Temperature – seatemperature.orgThe weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. Sydney experiences an urban heat island effect.WEB,weblink Sydney area an 'urban heat island' vulnerable to extreme temperatures, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 January 2016, 14 January 2016, This makes certain parts of the city more vulnerable to extreme heat, including coastal suburbs.JOURNAL, Urban Heat Island and Overheating Characteristics in Sydney, Australia. An Analysis of Multiyear Measurements, Sustainability, 9, 5, 712, 2017, University of New South Wales, Mat, Santamouris, Shamila, Haddad, Francesco, Fiorito, Paul, Osmond, Lan, Ding, Deo, Prasad, Xiaoqiang, Zhai, Ruzhu, Wang, 10.3390/su9050712, In late spring and summer, temperatures over {{convert|35|C|0}} are not uncommon,WEB, Special Climate Statement 43 – extreme heat in January 2013,weblink Bureau of Meteorology, 2 February 2013, 1 February 2013, though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a southerly buster,Batt, K, 1995: Sea breezes on the NSW coast, Offshore Yachting, Oct/Nov 1995, Jamieson Publishing. a powerful southerly that brings gale winds and rapid fall in temperature.NEWS,weblink "Southerly Buster" Relieves City., The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 December 1953, 27 March 2015, 1, National Library of Australia, The far-western suburbs, which border the Blue Mountains, experience a Föhn-like wind in the warm months that originates from the Central Tablelands, which raise temperatures.Sharples, J.J. Mills, G.A., McRae, R.H.D., Weber, R.O. (2010) Elevated fire danger conditions associated with foehn-like winds in southeastern Australia. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.Sharples, J.J., McRae, R.H.D., Weber, R.O., Mills, G.A. (2009) Foehn-like winds and fire danger anomalies in southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the 18th IMACS World Congress and MODSIM09. 13–17 July, Cairns. Due to the inland location, frost is recorded early in the morning in Western Sydney a few times in winter. Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn.MacDonnell, Freda. Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited, 1967. Before King's Cross File:Dust Storm - Sydney (15220403491).jpg|thumb|left|Dust storm over Sydney CBD with the Sydney TowerSydney TowerThe rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year.Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2005. Ellyard, D. 1994. Droughts and Flooding Rains. Angus & Robertson {{ISBN|0-207-18557-3}} From 1990 to 1999, Sydney received around 20 thunderstorms per year.WEB,weblink Average annual thunder-day map, 17 March 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170212164841weblink">weblink 12 February 2017, In late autumn and winter, east coast lows may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD.WEB, About East Coast Lows,weblink Bureau of Meteorology, 6 April 2013, In spring and summer, black nor'easters are usually the cause of heavy rain events, though other forms of low-pressure areas may also bring heavy deluge and afternoon thunderstorms.NEWS,weblink Black Nor-Easter., The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 October 1911, 27 March 2015, 7, National Library of Australia, Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and dewpoints than late spring/early summer. In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from cold fronts.Power, S., Tseitkin, F., Torok, S., Lavery, B., Dahni, R. and McAvaney, B. 1998. Australian temperature, Australian rainfall and the Southern Oscillation, 1910–1992: coherent variability and recent changes. Aust. Met. Mag., 47, 85–101 Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either.WEB, Sydney winter not snow, just hail,weblink Mr Zmijewski doubted the 1836 snow report, saying weather observers of the era lacked the expertise of today. "We are almost in the sub-tropics in Sydney", he said., Sydney Morning Herald, 15 November 2013, 27 July 2008, The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which produced massive hailstones up to {{cvt|9|cm}} in diameter.WEB,weblink The Sydney Hailstorm – 14 April 1999, Bureau of Meteorology, 5 October 2006, The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.Sydney has coldest June in 24 years in Sydney Monthly Climate Summary – NSW Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 21 October 2007. The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures.WEB,weblink Sydney – Greater Sydney in 2008, Bom.gov.au, 5 January 2009, 10 February 2012, In 2009, dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.WEB,weblink Sydney in 2009, Bom.gov.au, 4 January 2010, 10 February 2012, WEB,weblink Sydney in 2010, Bom.gov.au, 4 January 2011, 10 February 2012, In recent modern history the hottest day in Sydney registered 47.3 °C in 2018, the highest temperature since 1939.WEB,weblink Austrália enfrentou o mês de janeiro mais quente de sua história, VEJA.com, pt-BR, 4 February 2019, {{Sydney weatherbox}}

Regions

{{see also|Regions of Sydney}}{{wide image|Sydney Tower Panorama.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|View of Sydney from Sydney Tower}}{{wide image|Sydney Panorama.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|Sydney CBD panorama from Taronga Zoo, Mosman}}The regions of Sydney include the CBD or City of Sydney (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and Inner West, the Eastern Suburbs, Southern Sydney, Greater Western Sydney (including the South-west, Hills District and the Macarthur Region), and the Northern Suburbs (including the North Shore and Northern Beaches). The Greater Sydney Commission divides Sydney into five districts based on the 33 LGAs in the metropolitan area; the Western City, the Central City, the Eastern City, the North District, and the South District.WEB,weblink District Plans {{!, Greater Sydney Commission|website=www.greater.sydney|language=en|access-date=23 April 2018}}

Inner suburbs

File:Anzac Bridge East.jpg|thumb|Anzac BridgeAnzac BridgeThe CBD extends about {{convert|3|km|mi|1|abbr=off}} south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. Suburbs surrounding the CBD include Woolloomooloo and Potts Point to the east, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst to the south, Pyrmont and Ultimo to the west, and Millers Point and The Rocks to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than {{convert|1|km2|sqmi|1|abbr=off}} in area. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.NEWS, Sydney unprepared for terror attack, The Australian, 4 September 2007, 3 June 2017,weblink Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown, Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation. The Strand Arcade, which is located between Pitt Street Mall and George Street, is a historical Victorian-style shopping arcade. Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades.NEWS,weblink The Strand, The Sydney Morning Herald, 16,858, New South Wales, Australia, 2 April 1892, 27 October 2016, 5, National Library of Australia, Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney.There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing, tourist accommodation, and gambling.WEB, Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority, 2004,weblink Ultimo and Pyrmont: a decade of renewal, 13 July 2014, Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of a former gaol, manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as an area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Business-friendly boost for Oxford St lane way, 13 July 2014, NEWS, Dick, Tim, 2014,weblink At the crossroads, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 July 2014, WEB, Dunn, Mark, 1970,weblink Darlinghurst, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, File:King-Street-Newtown.jpg|thumb|King Street in Newtown is one of the most complete Victorian and Edwardian era commercial precincts in Australia.]]Green Square is a former industrial area of Waterloo which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge, the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Green Square, 13 July 2014, WEB, Barangaroo Delivery Authority, 2013,weblink Discover Barangaroo, 13 July 2014, The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.WEB, Wotherspoon, Garry, 2012,weblink Paddington, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014,

Inner West

The Inner West generally includes the Inner West Council, Municipality of Burwood, Municipality of Strathfield, and City of Canada Bay. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Major features in the area include the University of Sydney and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects Rozelle to Pyrmont and the City, forming part of the Western Distributor.The area is serviced by the T1, T2, and T3 railway lines, including the Main Suburban Line; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines. It was constructed in 1876,WEB,weblink Strathfield Station, and will be a future terminus of Parramatta Light Rail.WEB,weblink Parramatta light rail to connect communities, NSW, Transport for, 21 April 2017, www.transport.nsw.gov.au, en-AU, 23 April 2018, The area is also serviced by numerous bus routes and cycleways.WEB,weblink Newtown, www.marrickville.nsw.gov.au, English, 23 April 2018, Other shopping centres in the area include Westfield Burwood and DFO in Homebush.File:Sydneycityscape.jpg|thumb|Sydney skyline as viewed from Tasman Sea, overlooking the clifftop suburb of Vaucluse.]]

Eastern suburbs

File:Bondi Beach.jpg|thumb|Bondi BeachBondi BeachThe Eastern Suburbs encompass the Municipality of Woollahra, the City of Randwick, the Waverley Municipal Council, and parts of the Bayside Council. The Greater Sydney Commission envisions a resident population of 1,338,250 people by 2036 in its Eastern City District (including the City and Inner West).WEB,weblink Eastern City District Plan {{!, Greater Sydney Commission|website=www.greater.sydney|language=en|access-date=22 April 2018}}They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. Wolseley Road, in Point Piper, has a top price of $20,900 per square metre, making it the ninth-most expensive street in the world.WEB,weblink The 10 most expensive streets in the world, Badkar, Mamta, 2011, Business Insider, 13 July 2014, More than 75% of neighbourhoods in the Electoral District of Wentworth fall under the top decile of SEIFA advantage, making it the least disadvantaged area in the country.NEWS,weblink Labor, Greens, Howard's battlers: Explore the politics of disadvantage, 6 April 2018, ABC News, 21 April 2018, en-AU, Major landmarks include Bondi Beach, a major tourist site; which was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008;Sydney Morning Herald, 1 January 2009, p.18 and Bondi Junction, featuring a Westfield shopping centre and an estimated office work force of 6,400 by 2035weblink as well as a train station on the T4 Eastern Suburbs Line. The suburb of Randwick contains the Randwick Racecourse, the Royal Hospital for Women, the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney Children's Hospital, and the UNSW Kensington Campus. Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commissionweblink is underway for the CBD and South East Light Rail line. Although main construction was due to complete in 2018, completion has potentially been delayed to March 2020.NEWS,weblink Sydney's light rail one year behind schedule, 19 April 2018, ABC News, 21 April 2018, en-AU, The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East.Major shopping centres in the area include Westfield Bondi Junction and Westfield Eastgardens, although many residents shop in the City.

Southern Sydney

File:2007_0806klklk0054.JPG|thumb|Kurnell Sand DuneKurnell Sand DuneSouthern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire').The Kurnell peninsula, near Botany Bay, is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. (later Captain) James Cook in 1770. La Perouse, a historic suburb named after the French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at Bare Island and the Botany Bay National Park.The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.The Book of Sydney Suburbs, Compiled by Frances Pollon, Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990, Published in Australia {{ISBN|0-207-14495-8}}, page 149

Northern suburbs

File:North Sydney skyline.jpg|thumb|North Sydney commercial district.]]Because 'Northern Suburbs' is not a clearly defined region, 'Northern Suburbs' may also include the suburbs in the Upper North Shore, Lower North Shore and the Northern Beaches.The Northern Suburbs include several landmarks – Macquarie University, Gladesville Bridge, Ryde Bridge, Macquarie Centre and Curzon Hall in Marsfield. This area includes suburbs in the local government areas of Hornsby Shire, City of Ryde, the Municipality of Hunter's Hill and parts of the City of Parramatta.The North Shore, an informal geographic term referring to the northern metropolitan area of Sydney, consists of {{NSWcity|Artarmon}}, {{NSWcity|Chatswood}}, {{NSWcity|Roseville}}, {{NSWcity|Lindfield}}, Killara, {{NSWcity|Gordon}}, {{NSWcity|Pymble}}, {{NSWcity|Hornsby}} and many others.The Lower North Shore usually refers to the suburbs adjacent to the harbour such as {{NSWcity|Neutral Bay}}, {{NSWcity|Waverton}}, Mosman, {{NSWcity|Cremorne}}, Cremorne Point, {{NSWcity|Lavender Bay}}, Milsons Point, {{NSWcity|Cammeray}}, Northbridge, and North Sydney. {{NSWcity|Hunters Hill}} and {{NSWcity|Gladesville}} are often also considered as being part of the Lower North Shore.WEB, Liveable Sydney: The lower north shore's suburbs ranked by liveability,weblink 28 July 2016, The Lower North Shore's eastern boundary is Middle Harbour, or at the Roseville Bridge at {{NSWcity|Castle Cove}} and {{NSWcity|Roseville Chase}}. The Upper North Shore usually refers to the suburbs between {{NSWcity|Chatswood}} and {{NSWcity|Hornsby}}. It is made up of suburbs located within Ku-ring-gai and Hornsby Shire councils.The North Shore includes the commercial centres of North Sydney and Chatswood. North Sydney itself consists of a large commercial centre, with its own business centre, which contains the second largest concentration of high-rise buildings in Sydney, after the CBD. North Sydney is dominated by advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades, with many large corporations holding office in the region.The Northern Beaches area includes Manly, one of Sydney's most popular holiday destinations for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The region also features Sydney Heads, a series of headlands which form the {{cvt|2|km}} wide entrance to Sydney Harbour. The Northern Beaches area extends south to the entrance of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), west to Middle Harbour and north to the entrance of Broken Bay. The 2011 Australian census found the Northern Beaches to be the most white and mono-ethnic district in Australia, contrasting with its more-diverse neighbours, the North Shore and the Central Coast.National Regional Profile: Northern Beaches Sydney

Hills district

The Hills district generally refers to the suburbs in north-western Sydney including the local government areas of The Hills Shire, parts of the City of Parramatta Council and Hornsby Shire. Actual suburbs and localities that are considered to be in the Hills District can be somewhat amorphous and variable. For example, the Hills District Historical Society restricts its definition to the Hills Shire local government area, yet its study area extends from Parramatta to the Hawkesbury. The region is so named for its characteristically comparatively hilly topography as the Cumberland Plain lifts up, joining the Hornsby Plateau.Several of its suburbs also have "Hill" or "Hills" in their names, such as Baulkham Hills, Castle Hill, Seven Hills, Pendle Hill, Beaumont Hills, and Winston Hills, among others. Windsor and Old Windsor Roads are historic roads in Australia, as they are the second and third roads, respectively, laid in the colony.WEB,weblink Old Windsor and Windsor Road,

Western suburbs

{{further|Greater Western Sydney}}File:Southwestsydney.jpg|thumb|An aerial view of Greater Western Sydney: Smithfield (bottom) to Liverpool (top-right).]]The greater western suburbs encompasses the areas of Parramatta, the sixth largest business district in Australia, settled the same year as the harbour-side colony,WEB, Parramatta Chamber of Commerce, 2014,weblink Parramatta, 13 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140806000352weblink">weblink 6 August 2014, Bankstown, Liverpool, Penrith, and Fairfield. Covering {{convert|5800|km2}} and having an estimated resident population as at 2017 of 2,288,554, western Sydney has the most multicultural suburbs in the country. The population is predominantly of a working class background, with major employment in the heavy industries and vocational trade.WEB,weblink Home – WSROC Region, Profile.id.com.au, 10 January 2019, Toongabbie is noted for being the third mainland settlement (after Sydney and Parramatta) set up after the British colonisation of Australia began in 1788, although the site of the settlement is actually in the separate suburb of Old Toongabbie.WEB,weblink Old Toongabbie and Toongabbie, McClymont, John, Kass, Terry, 2010, Dictionary of Sydney, Dictionary of Sydney Trust, 30 Jul 2019, The western suburb of Prospect, in the City of Blacktown, is home to Wet'n'Wild, a water park operated by Village Roadshow Theme Parks.WEB, Water theme park planned for Sydney,weblink ABC News, 11 September 2010, 11 September 2010, Auburn Botanic Gardens, a botanical garden situated in Auburn, attracts thousands of visitors each year, including a significant number from outside Australia.WEB,weblink Auburn Botanical Gardens, chah.gov.au, 4 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091006140058weblink">weblink 6 October 2009, yes, Another prominent park and garden in the west is Central Gardens Nature Reserve in Merrylands West.WEB, Nature reserves: Central Gardens,weblink Your facilities, Holroyd City Council, 19 September 2014, The greater west also includes Sydney Olympic Park, a suburb created to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, and Sydney Motorsport Park, a motorsport circuit located in Eastern Creek.WEB,weblink Visitor Information – How to Get Here, Sydney Motorsport Park, 21 February 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130410070447weblink">weblink 10 April 2013, dmy-all, The Boothtown Aqueduct in Greystanes is a 19th-century water bridge that is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register as a site of State significance.NSW SHR, 1770036, Boothtown Aqueduct Aqueduct Valve House No 1 & 2, 27 March 2018, To the northwest, Featherdale Wildlife Park, an Australian zoo in Doonside, near Blacktown, is a major tourist attraction, not just for Western Sydney, but for NSW and Australia.WEB,weblink Featherdale beats Opera House to claim major tourism award, 23 November 2009, O'Maley, Christine, Blacktown Advocate, 18 March 2012, Westfield Parramatta in Parramatta is Australia's busiest Westfield shopping centre, having 28.7 million customer visits per annum.Westfield Group – Westfield Property Portfolio {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090912095506weblinkproperty-portfolio/australia/ |date=12 September 2009 }} Established in 1799, the Old Government House, a historic house museum and tourist spot in Parramatta, was included in the Australian National Heritage List on 1 August 2007 and World Heritage List in 2010 (as part of the 11 penal sites constituting the Australian Convict Sites), making it the only site in greater western Sydney to be featured in such lists.NEWS, http:www.couriermail.com.au/news/world-heritage-committee-approves-australian-convict-sites-as-places-of-importance/story-e6freon6-1225899640286, Chalmers, Emma, Martin, Saray, 1 August 2010, World Heritage Committee approves Australian Convict Sites as places of importance, The Courier–Mail, Australia, 17 April 2018, Moreover, the house is Australia's oldest surviving public building.WEB,weblink National Heritage Places – Old Government House and Government Domain, Parramatta, Department of the Environment and, Energy, 17 April 2018, www.environment.gov.au, Prospect Hill, a historically significant ridge in the west and the only area in Sydney with ancient volcanic activity,Jones, I., and Verdel, C. (2015). Basalt distribution and volume estimates of Cenozoicvolcanism in the Bowen Basin region of eastern Australia: Implications for a waning mantle plume. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 62(2), 255-263. is also listed on the NSW State Heritage Register.Prospect Hill | NSW Environment & HeritageFurther to the southwest is the region of Macarthur and the city of Campbelltown, a significant population centre until the 1990s considered a region separate to Sydney proper. Macarthur Square, a shopping complex in Campbelltown, become one of the largest shopping complexes in Sydney.Herron Todd White Property Advisors: The Month in Review {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060820135143weblink |date=20 August 2006 }} (PDF), 1 February 2004. The southwest also features Bankstown Reservoir, the oldest elevated reservoir constructed in reinforced concrete that is still in use and is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register.NSW SHR, 01316, Bankstown Reservoir (Elevated), 27 March 2018, The southwest is home to one of Sydney's oldest trees, the Bland Oak, which was planted in the 1840s by William Bland in the suburb of Carramar.WEB, Boulous, Chris, Nothing Bland about our Oak tree, Fairfield City Champion, FAIRFAX REGIONAL MEDIA, 20 April 2018,weblink 29 August 2018,

Urban structure

Architecture

{{See also|Architecture of Sydney|List of heritage houses in Sydney|List of tallest buildings in Sydney}}File:Martin Place and Castlereagh Street; Hotel Australia, Sydney, ca. 1935 - photographers Hall & Co. (7731559286).jpg|thumb|right|Commercial Travellers Club Building, demolished in the 1970s during a contemporary boom, was one of Sydney's tallest buildings until height restrictions were lifted in the 1960s.]]The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards. Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. The city now has a world heritage listed building, several national heritage listed buildings, and dozens of Commonwealth heritage listed buildings as evidence of the survival of Macquarie's ideals.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Australia's World Heritage List, 19 July 2014, WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Australia's National Heritage List, 19 July 2014, WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Australian Heritage Database, 19 July 2014, In 1814 the Governor called on a convict named Francis Greenway to design Macquarie Lighthouse.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Macquarie Lighthouse, 20 July 2014, The lighthouse and its Classical design earned Greenway a pardon from Macquarie in 1818 and introduced a culture of refined architecture that remains to this day.WEB, Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060209012719weblink">weblink 9 February 2006, Macquarie Lightstation, 20 July 2014, Greenway went on to design the Hyde Park Barracks in 1819 and the Georgian style St James's Church in 1824.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Hyde Park Barracks, 20 July 2014, BOOK, Judd, Stephen, Cable, Kenneth, 2000, Sydney Anglicans – a history of the diocese, 12, Gothic-inspired architecture became more popular from the 1830s. John Verge's Elizabeth Bay House and St Philip's Church of 1856 were built in Gothic Revival style along with Edward Blore's Government House of 1845.WEB, Sydney Architecture, 2014,weblink Chronology of styles in Australian architecture, 19 July 2014, WEB, Department of Premier and Cabinet, 2014,weblink Government House, 20 July 2014, Kirribilli House, completed in 1858, and St Andrew's Cathedral, Australia's oldest cathedral,NEWS, Changes not music to purists' ears, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 September 2008, 14 November 2016,weblink are rare examples of Victorian Gothic construction.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Kirribilli House, 20 July 2014, From the late 1850s there was a shift towards Classical architecture. Mortimer Lewis designed the Australian Museum in 1857.WEB, Australian Museum, 2014,weblink A short history of the Australian Museum, 20 July 2014, The General Post Office, completed in 1891 in Victorian Free Classical style, was designed by James Barnet.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink General Post Office, 20 July 2014, Barnet also oversaw the 1883 reconstruction of Greenway's Macquarie Lighthouse. Customs House was built in 1844 to the specifications of Lewis, with additions from Barnet in 1887 and W L Vernon in 1899.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Sydney Customs House, 20 July 2014, The neo-Classical and French Second Empire style Town Hall was completed in 1889.WEB, Sydney Town Hall, 2014,weblink Construction of Sydney Town Hall, 20 July 2014, WEB, Sydney Town Hall, 2014,weblink Features of Sydney Town Hall, 20 July 2014, Romanesque designs gained favour amongst Sydney's architects from the early 1890s. Sydney Technical College was completed in 1893 using both Romanesque Revival and Queen Anne approaches.WEB, Freyne, Catherine, 2010,weblink Sydney Technical College, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, The Queen Victoria Building was designed in Romanesque Revival fashion by George McRae and completed in 1898.WEB, Queen Victoria Building, 2014,weblink History of Queen Victoria Building, 20 July 2014, It was built on the site of the Sydney Central Markets and accommodates 200 shops across its three storeys.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Queen Victoria Building, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, File:York_Street,_Sydney.jpg|thumb|left|Many of Sydney's oldest buildings were built with materials sourced from Hawkesbury sandstoneHawkesbury sandstoneAs the wealth of the settlement increased, and as Sydney developed into a metropolis after Federation in 1901, its buildings became taller. Sydney's first tower was Culwulla Chambers on the corner of King Street and Castlereagh Street which topped out at {{convert|50|m|ft|abbr=off}} making 12 floors. The Commercial Traveller's Club, located in Martin Place and built in 1908, was of similar height at 10 floors. It was built in a brick stone veneer and demolished in 1972 to make way for Harry Seidler's MLC Centre.WEB,weblink Sydney Architecture Images, Commercial Travellers Club, 14 December 2018, This heralded a change in Sydney's cityscape and with the lifting of height restrictions in the 1960s there came a surge of high-rise construction.BOOK, Sydney architecture, Bingham-Hall, Patrick, 2005, 14 to 15, McGillick, Paul, Acclaimed architects such as Jean Nouvel, Harry Seidler, Richard Rogers, Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, and Frank Gehry have each made their own contribution to the city's skyline.The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture. New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the 1930s. The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by John Bradfield and completed in 1932. A total of 39,000 tonnes of structural steel span the {{convert|503|m|ft|0|abbr=off}} between Milsons Point and Dawes Point.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Sydney Harbour Bridge, 20 July 2014, File:One-Bligh Street Sydney.jpg|thumb|right|The atrium of 1 Bligh Street1 Bligh StreetModern and International architecture came to Sydney from the 1940s. Since its completion in 1973 the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design. It was conceived by Jørn Utzon with contributions from Peter Hall, Lionel Todd, and David Littlemore. Utzon was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2003 for his work on the Opera House.WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Sydney Opera House, 20 July 2014, Sydney is home to Australia's first building by renowned Canadian architect Frank Gehry, the Dr Chau Chak Wing Building (2015), based on the design of a tree house. An entrance from The Goods Line–a pedestrian pathway and former railway line–is located on the eastern border of the site.Contemporary buildings in the CBD include Citigroup Centre,WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink Citigroup Centre, 20 July 2014, Aurora Place,WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink Aurora Place, 20 July 2014, Chifley Tower,WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink Chifley Tower, 20 July 2014, WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Chifley Tower, Dictionary of Sydney, 8 August 2014, the Reserve Bank building,WEB, Department of the Environment, 2014,weblink Reserve Bank, 20 July 2014, Deutsche Bank Place,WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink Deutsche Bank Place, 20 July 2004, MLC Centre,WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink MLC Centre, 20 July 2014, and Capita Centre.WEB, Emporis, 2014,weblink Castlereagh Centre, 20 July 2014, The tallest structure is Sydney Tower, designed by Donald Crone and completed in 1981.WEB, Dunn, Mark, 2008,weblink Centrepoint Tower, Dictionary of Sydney, 8 August 2014, Regulations limit new buildings to a height of {{convert|235|m|ft|abbr=off}} due to the proximity of Sydney Airport, although strict restrictions employed in the early 2000s have slowly been relaxed in the past ten years. Green bans and heritage overlays have been in place since at least 1977 to protect Sydney's heritage after controversial demolitions in the 1970s led to an outcry from Sydneysiders to preserve the old and keep history intact, sufficiently balancing old and new architecture.WEB, Unlocked: Demolished Sydney,weblink SydneyLivingMuseums.com.au, 14 December 2018,

Housing

File:1TerracedHomes4.JPG|Castle Terrace in Paddington, Sydney|thumb|right|Victorian terraces in Kings Cross.]]Sydney real estate prices are some of the most expensive in the world, surpassing both New York City and Paris.WEB, Sydney houses are so 'severely unaffordable', it's cheaper to buy in New York, Business Insider (Australia),weblink 24 January 2017, 25 January 2017, WEB,weblink How Sydney house prices compare with other global cities, Domain Group, 25 July 2015, 25 January 2017, There were 1.76 million dwellings in Sydney in 2016 including 925,000 (57%) detached houses, 227,000 (14%) semi-detached terrace houses and 456,000 (28%) units and apartments.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016,weblink 2016 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney, 25 October 2018, Whilst terrace houses are common in the inner city areas, it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs.Due to environmental and economic pressures there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. There was a 30% increase in the number of apartments in Sydney between 1996 and 2006.WEB, Darcy, Michael, 2008,weblink Housing Sydney, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Public housing in Sydney is managed by the Government of New South Wales.WEB, Housing New South Wales, 2012,weblink Services offered, 19 October 2014, Suburbs with large concentrations of public housing include Claymore, Macquarie Fields, Waterloo, and Mount Druitt. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks.NEWS, Hasham, Nicole, 2014,weblink Sydney waterfront public housing properties to be sold off, The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 October 2014, Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. It is only second to Hong Kong with the average property costing 14 times the annual Sydney salary as of December 2016.WEB,weblink Sydney Housing Ratio 14 Times Annual Pre-Tax Salary, 2017, A range of heritage housing styles can be found throughout Sydney. Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain–many of which have been the subject of gentrification.BOOK, Terry, Irving, Terrence H., Irving, Rowan J., Cahill, Radical Sydney: Places, Portraits and Unruly Episodes, 2010, UNSW Press, 9781742230931, 306, NEWS, A public housing terrace in Sydney sold for a staggering $2.2 million above reserve, Business Insider, 10 December 2016,weblink 23 January 2017, These terraces, particularly those in suburbs such as The Rocks, were historically home to Sydney's miners and labourers. In the present day, terrace houses now make up some of the most valuable real estate in the city.NEWS, This $13 million Sydney property is the most expensive terrace in Australia, Business Insider, 15 April 2016, Sarah, Kimmorley,weblink 23 January 2017, Federation homes, constructed around the time of Federation in 1901, are located in Penshurst, Turramurra, and in Haberfield. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb" due to the extensive number of Federation homes. Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, Redfern, and Balmain. California bungalows are common in Ashfield, Concord, and Beecroft. Larger modern homes are predominantly found in the outer suburbs, such as Stanhope Gardens, Kellyville Ridge, Bella Vista to the northwest, Bossley Park, Abbotsbury, and Cecil Hills to the west, and Hoxton Park, Harrington Park, and Oran Park to the southwest.WEB, Charles Sturt University, 2014,weblink Sydney's culture of place, 26 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141025075259weblink">weblink 25 October 2014,

Parks and open spaces

File:Hyde Park Fountain, Sydney (6604859529).jpg|thumb|left|Archibald FountainArchibald FountainThe Royal Botanic Garden is the most important green space in the Sydney region, hosting both scientific and leisure activities.WEB,weblink Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney, There are 15 separate parks under the administration of the City of Sydney.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Major parks, 19 July 2014, Parks within the city centre include Hyde Park, The Domain and Prince Alfred Park.The outer suburbs include Centennial Park and Moore Park in the east, Sydney Park and Royal National Park in the south, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in the north, and Western Sydney Parklands in the west, which is one of the largest urban parks in the world. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April 1879 and with {{convert|13200|ha|sqmi|0|abbr=off}} is the second oldest national park in the world.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Royal National Park, 13 July 2014, The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan area is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in 1894 with an area of {{convert|15400|ha|sqmi|0|abbr=off}}.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park history, 19 July 2014, It is regarded for its well-preserved records of indigenous habitation and more than 800 rock engravings, cave drawings and middens have been located in the park.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park heritage, 19 July 2014, File:Park in Sydney.jpg|thumb|Royal Botanic Garden, which is the oldest scientific institutionscientific institutionThe area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788 as his private reserve.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Royal Botanic Gardens history, 19 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140708201747weblink">weblink 8 July 2014, Under the orders of Macquarie the land to the immediate north of The Domain became the Royal Botanic Garden in 1816. This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia. The Gardens are not just a place for exploration and relaxation, but also for scientific research with herbarium collections, a library and laboratories.WEB, Dictionary of Sydney, 2008,weblink Royal Botanic Gardens, 9 August 2014, The two parks have a total area of {{convert|64|ha|sqmi|1|abbr=off}} with 8,900 individual plant species and receive over 3.5 million annual visits.WEB, Office of Environment and Heritage, 2014,weblink Royal Botanic Gardens fast facts, 19 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140708170735weblink">weblink 8 July 2014, To the south of The Domain is Hyde Park, the oldest public parkland in Australia which measures {{convert|16.2|ha|sqmi|1|abbr=off}} in area.WEB, City of Sydney, 2006,weblink Hyde Park plan of management and masterplan, 19 July 2014, Its location was used for both relaxation and the grazing of animals from the earliest days of the colony.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Hyde Park, 19 July 2014, Macquarie dedicated it in 1810 for the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town" and named it in honour of the original Hyde Park in London.{{clear}}

Economy

File:SydneyCBDfromTower.jpg|thumb|right|The northwestern portion of the central business district of Sydney from Sydney TowerSydney TowerResearchers from Loughborough University have ranked Sydney amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy.WEB, Loughborough University, 2012,weblink The world according to GaWC 2012, 31 August 2014, The Global Economic Power Index ranks Sydney number eleven in the world.WEB, Florida, Richard, 2014,weblink The 25 most economically powerful cities in the world, CityLab, 20 July 2014, The Global Cities Index recognises it as number fourteen in the world based on global engagement.WEB, AT Kearney, 2014,weblink 2014 Global Cities Index, 20 July 2014, The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was mercantilism, as it was throughout most of Western Europe.WEB, Wotherspoon, Garry, 2008,weblink Economy, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, The economy struggled at first due to difficulties in cultivating the land and the lack of a stable monetary system. Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating two coins from every Spanish silver dollar in circulation. The economy was clearly capitalist in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the East India Company were curtailed.Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the 1800s. Significant capital began to flow into the city from the 1870s to finance roads, railways, bridges, docks, courthouses, schools and hospitals. Protectionist policies after federation allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the 1920s. These same policies helped to relieve the effects of the Great Depression during which the unemployment rate in New South Wales reached as high as 32%. From the 1960s onwards Parramatta gained recognition as the city's second CBD and finance and tourism became major industries and sources of employment.Sydney's nominal gross domestic product was AU$400.9 billion and AU$80,000 per capitweblink in 2015. Its gross domestic product was AU$337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia.WEB, SGS Economics and Planning, 2014,weblink Australian cities accounts, 31 August 2014, The Financial and Insurance Services industry accounts for 18.1% of gross product and is ahead of Professional Services with 9% and Manufacturing with 7.2%. In addition to Financial Services and Tourism, the Creative and Technology sectors are focus industries for the City of Sydney and represented 9% and 11% of its economic output in 2012.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Creative and digital, 22 July 2014, NEWS, Wade, Matt, 2014,weblink NSW dominates creative industries: report, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 2014,

Corporate citizens

There were 451,000 businesses based in Sydney in 2011, including 48% of the top 500 companies in Australia and two-thirds of the regional headquarters of multinational corporations.WEB, Regional Development Australia, 2010,weblink Economic profile, 26 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141016221054weblink">weblink 16 October 2014, Global companies are attracted to the city in part because its time zone spans the closing of business in North America and the opening of business in Europe. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.WEB, Australian Business Foundation, 2009,weblink Global connections: a study of multinational companies in Sydney, 26 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140826061145weblink">weblink 26 August 2014, There are 283 multinational companies with regional offices in Sydney.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2000,weblink Multinational companies regional headquarters, 26 July 2014,

Domestic economics

File:Pitt st sydney.jpg|thumb|right|Pitt Street, a major street in Sydney CBD, runs from Circular Quay in the north to (Waterloo, New South Wales|Waterloo]] in the south.City of Sydney, Street Names 22 May 2009)Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia.WEB, UBS, 2012,weblink Prices and earnings, 20 July 2014, Of the 15 categories only measured by UBS in 2012, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of 77 cities in the world. Working residents of Sydney work an average of 1,846 hours per annum with 15 days of leave.The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in 2016 was 2,272,722 with a participation rate of 61.6%.WEB,weblink Employment status, Greater Sydney, ID: The Population Experts,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161118100544weblink">weblink 18 November 2016, yes, 30 March 2018, It was made up of 61.2% full-time workers, 30.9% part-time workers, and 6.0% unemployed individuals.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink Employment status, 26 July 2014, The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians and trades workers, and community and personal service workers. The largest industries by employment across Greater Sydney are Health Care and Social Assistance with 11.6%, Professional Services with 9.8%, Retail Trade with 9.3%, Construction with 8.2%, Education and Training with 8.0%, Accommodation and Food Services 6.7%, and Financial and Insurance Services with 6.6%. The Professional Services and Financial and Insurance Services industries account for 25.4% of employment within the City of Sydney.WEB,weblink Industry sector of employment, 2016, City of Sydney,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121103143546weblink">weblink 3 November 2012, yes, 28 March 2018, In 2016, 57.6% of working age residents had a total weekly income of less than $1,000 and 14.4% had a total weekly income of $1,750 or more.WEB,weblink Individual income {{!, Greater Sydney {{!}} profile.id|website=profile.id.com.au|language=en|access-date=29 March 2018}} The median weekly income for the same period was $719 for individuals, $1,988 for families, and $1,750 for household.WEB,weblink 2016 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney, www.censusdata.abs.gov.au, en, 29 March 2018, Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.6% for the decade to 2013, much lower than the current rate of unemployment in Western Sydney of 7.3%.NEWS, Wade, Matt, 2014,weblink The daily exodus from western Sydney, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 2014, Western Sydney continues to struggle to create jobs to meet its population growth despite the development of commercial centres like Parramatta. Each day about 200,000 commuters travel from Western Sydney to the CBD and suburbs in the east and north of the city.Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed. Median house prices have increased by an average of 8.6% per annum since 1970.WEB, Abelson, Peter, Chung, Demi, 2004,weblink Housing prices in Australia: 1970 to 2003, Macquarie University, 26 July 2014, WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2014,weblink Residential property price indexes: eight capital cities, 26 July 2014, The median house price in Sydney in March 2014 was $630,000.WEB, RP Data, 2014,weblink Home value index results, 26 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140415214139weblink">weblink 15 April 2014, The primary cause for rising prices is the increasing cost of land which made up 32% of house prices in 1977 compared to 60% in 2002. 31.6% of dwellings in Sydney are rented, 30.4% are owned outright and 34.8% are owned with a mortgage. 11.8% of mortgagees in 2011 had monthly loan repayments of less than $1,000 and 82.9% had monthly repayments of $1,000 or more. 44.9% of renters for the same period had weekly rent of less than $350 whilst 51.7% had weekly rent of $350 or more. The median weekly rent in Sydney is $450.

Financial services

File:(1)Commonwealth Bank Martin Place.jpg|thumb|upright|right|State Savings Bank buildingState Savings Bank buildingMacquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the Bank of New South Wales.WEB, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1998,weblink Australia's banking history, 26 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140730142737weblink">weblink 30 July 2014, yes, New private banks opened throughout the 1800s but the financial system was unstable. Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in 1893 when 12 banks failed.The Bank of New South Wales exists to this day as Westpac.WEB, Dictionary of Sydney, 2008,weblink Bank of New South Wales, 8 August 2014, The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was formed in Sydney in 1911 and began to issue notes backed by the resources of the nation. It was replaced in this role in 1959 by the Reserve Bank of Australia which is also based in Sydney. The Australian Securities Exchange began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world.WEB, ASX, 2014,weblink History, 31 August 2014, The Financial and Insurance Services industry now constitutes 43% of the economic product of the City of Sydney. Sydney makes up half of Australia's finance sector and has been promoted by consecutive Commonwealth Governments as Asia Pacific's leading financial centre. Structured finance was pioneered in Sydney and the city is a leading hub for asset management firms.NEWS, Murray, Lisa, 2005,weblink Sydney's niche in global finance, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 2014, In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Sydney was ranked as having the eighth most competitive financial centre in the world.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170611000617weblink">weblink yes, 11 June 2017, The Global Financial Centres Index 21, March 2017, Long Finance, In 1985 the Federal Government granted 16 banking licences to foreign banks and now 40 of the 43 foreign banks operating in Australia are based in Sydney, including the People's Bank of China, Bank of America, Citigroup, UBS, Mizuho Bank, Bank of China, Banco Santander, Credit Suisse, State Street, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Barclays, Royal Bank of Canada, Société Générale, Royal Bank of Scotland, Sumitomo Mitsui, ING Group, BNP Paribas, and Investec.WEB, Department of Trade and Investment, 2014,weblink Financial services, 26 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140621101231weblink">weblink 21 June 2014, WEB, Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, 2014,weblink List of authorised deposit-taking institutions, 26 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140730182132weblink">weblink 30 July 2014, yes,

Manufacturing

Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the 1920s. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney.WEB, Fitzgerald, Shirley, 2011,weblink Sydney, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Its status has declined in more recent decades, making up 12.6% of employment in 2001 and 8.5% in 2011. Between 1970 and 1985 there was a loss of 180,000 manufacturing jobs. The city is still the largest manufacturing centre in Australia. Its manufacturing output of $21.7 billion in 2013 was greater than that of Melbourne with $18.9 billion.NEWS, Wade, Matt, 2014,weblink Sydney takes manufacturing capital crown from Melbourne, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 July 2014, Observers have noted Sydney's focus on the domestic market and high-tech manufacturing as reasons for its resilience against the high Australian dollar of the early 2010s. The Smithfield-Wetherill Park Industrial Estate in Western Sydney is the largest industrial estate in the southern hemisphere and is the centre of manufacturing and distribution in the region.Don’t forget the Southern Hemisphere’s Largest Industrial Zone by Marie Hogg and Simon Benson, The Daily Telegraph, November 13, 2015

Tourism and international education

File:Sydney Opera House, botanic gardens 1.jpg|thumb|The Sydney Opera HouseSydney Opera HouseSydney is a gateway to Australia for many international visitors. It has hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013, or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion. The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India.WEB, Destination New South Wales, 2014,weblink Travel to Sydney, 26 July 2014, The city also received 8.3 million domestic overnight visitors in 2013 who spent a total of $6 billion. 26,700 workers in the City of Sydney were directly employed by tourism in 2011.WEB, City of Sydney, 2013,weblink Tourism, 21 July 2014, There were 480,000 visitors and 27,500 people staying overnight each day in 2012. On average, the tourism industry contributes $36 million to the city's economy per day.Popular destinations include the Sydney Opera House, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Watsons Bay, The Rocks, Sydney Tower, Darling Harbour, the State Library of New South Wales, the Royal Botanic Garden, the Royal National Park, the Australian Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Queen Victoria Building, Sea Life Sydney Aquarium, Taronga Zoo, Bondi Beach, the Blue Mountains, and Sydney Olympic Park.WEB, Greenwood, Justine, White, Richard, 2011,weblink Tourism, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, Major developmental projects designed to increase Sydney's tourism sector include a casino and hotel at Barangaroo and the redevelopment of East Darling Harbour, which involves a new exhibition and convention centre, now Australia's largest.NEWS, For the good of Sydney, back this plan,weblink Sydney Morning Herald, WEB, Barangaroo timeline,weblink Barangaroo Delivery Authority, WEB,weblink BEA – Business Events Australia Newsletter – March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150610203820weblink">weblink 10 June 2015, Sydney is the highest ranking city in the world for international students. More than 50,000 international students study at the city's universities and a further 50,000 study at its vocational and English language schools.NEWS, Smith, Alexandra, 2014,weblink Sydney named top destination in the world for international students, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 2014, International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink International education, 23 July 2014,

Demographics

File:Chinese New Year Parade in Chinatown Sydney.jpg|thumb|left|Chinese New Year celebrations in Chinatown. Sydney is home to the nation's largest population of Chinese AustraliansChinese AustraliansThe population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000.WEB, Jupp, James, 2008,weblink Immigration, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, With convict transportation it almost tripled in ten years to 2,953.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006,weblink Australian historical population statistics, 2006, 27 July 2014, For each decade since 1961 the population has increased by more than 250,000.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008,weblink Australian historical population statistics, 2008, 27 July 2014, Sydney's population at the time of the 2011 census was 4,391,674. It has been forecast that the population will grow to between 8 and 8.9 million by 2061.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013,weblink Population projections, Australia, 2012 to 2101, 27 July 2014, Despite this increase, the Australian Bureau of Statistics predicts that Melbourne will replace Sydney as Australia's most populous city by 2053.NEWS, Wade, Matt, 2014,weblink Why Sydney is on course to lose its status as Australia's biggest city, The Sydney Morning Herald, 27 July 2014, The four most densely populated suburbs in Australia are located in Sydney with each having more than 13,000 residents per square kilometre (33,700 residents per square mile).WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013,weblink Regional population growth, Australia, 2011 to 2012, 18 October 2014, The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older. The married population accounts for 49.7% of Sydney whilst 34.7% of people have never been married. 48.9% of families are couples with children, 33.5% are couples without children, and 15.7% are single-parent families.{{Commons category|Demographic maps of Sydney}}

Ancestry and immigration{| class"infobox" style"float:right;"

Country of Birth (2016)weblink" title="quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/1GSYD?opendocumenweblink">weblink$File/GCP_1GSYD.zip?OpenElement! Birthplace{{refn|group="N"|In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately}} || PopulationAustralia >|2,752,119Mainland China >|224,685 England >|151,614 |130,573|86,526|81,045|75,480|55,979|49,508|40,577 |40,492|39,237|35,313|31,510|30,424|29,989|21,211Most immigrants to Sydney between 1840 and 1930 were British, Irish or Chinese. At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:{{refn|group="N"|As a percentage of 4,519,022 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.}} {{columns-list|colwidth=12em| }}At the 2016 census, there were 2,071,872 people living in Sydney that were born overseas, accounting for 42.9% of the population Sydneyweblink above Vancouver (42.5%), Los Angeles (37.7%), New York City (37.5%), Chicago (20.7%%), Paris (14.6%) and Berlin (13%). Only 33.1% of the population had both parents born in Australia. Sydney has the eighth-largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Foreign countries of birth with the greatest representation are Mainland China, England, India, New Zealand, Vietnam and the Philippines.1.5% of the population, or 70,135 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.{{refn|group="N"|Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.}}

Language

38.2% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with Mandarin (4.7%), Arabic (4.0%), Cantonese (2.9%), Vietnamese (2.1%) and Greek (1.6%) the most widely spoken.

Religion

File:Sydney StMaryCathedral perspective.JPG|thumb|St Mary's Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of SydneyRoman Catholic Archdiocese of SydneyThe indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as "dreamings". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's.WEB, Carey, Hilary, 2008,weblink Religion, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, In 2011, 28.3% of Sydney residents identified themselves as Catholic, whilst 17.6% practiced no religion. Additionally, 16.1% were Anglican, 4.7% were Muslim, 4.2% were Eastern Orthodox, 4.1% were Buddhist, 2.6% were Hindu, and 0.9% were Jewish. However, according to the 2016 census, 1,082,448 (25%) residents of Sydney's Urban Centre describe themselves as Catholic, while another 1,053,500 (24.4%) people consider themselves non-religiousweblink A further 10.9% of residents identified themselves as Anglicans and an additional 5.8% as Muslim. These and other religious institutions have significantly contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time, particularly through the building and management of schools and hospitals.

Culture

Science, art, and history

File:Art Gallery of New South Wales at night.jpg|thumb|The Art Gallery of New South Wales, located in The Domain, is the fourth largest public gallery in Australia]]File:ANZAC War Memorial, Hyde Park, Sydney.jpg|thumb|right|The Anzac War Memorial in Hyde Park is a public memorial dedicated to the achievement of the Australian Imperial Force of (World War I]]."ANZAC Memorial, Sydney {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150509035601weblink |date=9 May 2015 }}", ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee (Qld) Incorporated, 1998.)Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is rich in Indigenous Australian heritage, containing around 1,500 pieces of Aboriginal rock art – the largest cluster of Indigenous sites in Australia, surpassing Kakadu, which has around 5,000 sites but over a much greater land mass. The park's indigenous sites include petroglyphs, art sites, burial sites, caves, marriage areas, birthing areas, midden sites, and tool manufacturing locations, among others, which are dated to be around 5,000 years old. The inhabitants of the area were the Garigal people.WEB,weblink Aboriginal heritage, Office of Environment and Heritage, Government of New South Wales, 7 May 2011, BOOK, Discover Australia's National Parks, Hema Maps, 1997, Random House Australia, Milsons Point, New South Wales, 1-875992-47-2, 1167, Other rock art sites exist in the Sydney region, such as in Terrey Hills and Bondi, although the locations of most are not publicised to prevent damage by vandalism, and to retain their quality, as they are still regarded as sacred sites by Indigenous Australians.Basedow, H. 1914. "Aboriginal rock carvings of great antiquity in S.A." J. R. Anthropol. Inst., 44, 195–211.The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in 1857 with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Australian Museum, Dictionary of Sydney, 8 August 2014, It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. In 1995 the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House. It recounts the story of the city's development.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, Walden, Inara, 2011,weblink Museum of Sydney, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Other museums based in Sydney include the Powerhouse Museum and the Australian National Maritime Museum.WEB, Powerhouse Museum, 2014,weblink About the Powerhouse Museum, 11 October 2014, WEB, Australian National Maritime Museum, 2014,weblink Our Museum: history and vision, 11 October 2014, In 1866 then Queen Victoria gave her assent to the formation of the Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney.WEB, Tyler, Peter, 2010,weblink Royal Society of New South Wales, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, The Sydney Observatory building was constructed in 1859 and used for astronomy and meteorology research until 1982 before being converted into a museum.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Sydney Observatory building, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. Its collection was founded in the 1940s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Museum of Contemporary Art, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Sydney's other significant art institution is the Art Gallery of New South Wales which coordinates the coveted Archibald Prize for portraiture.WEB, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 2014,weblink About us, 11 October 2014, Contemporary art galleries are found in Waterloo, Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, Paddington, Chippendale, Newtown, and Woollahra.

Entertainment

File:Atrium of State Theatre IMG 4687a.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The State Theatre on Market Street was opened in 1929.]]Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. The live medium lost much of its popularity to cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II.WEB, McPherson, Ailsa, 2008,weblink Theatre, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, Prominent theatres in the city today include State Theatre, Theatre Royal, Sydney Theatre, The Wharf Theatre, and Capitol Theatre. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It occasionally features Australian theatre icons such as David Williamson, Hugo Weaving, and Geoffrey Rush. The city's other prominent theatre companies are New Theatre, Belvoir, and Griffin Theatre Company. Sydney is also home to Event Cinemas' first theatre, which opened on George St in 1913, under its former Greater Union brand; the theatre currently operates, and is regarded as one of Australia's busiest cinema locations.The Sydney Opera House is the home of Opera Australia and Sydney Symphony. It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973. Two other important performance venues in Sydney are Town Hall and the City Recital Hall. The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.WEB, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, 2014,weblink History, 11 October 2014, Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. Others have visited the city and commented on it. Some of them are commemorated in the Sydney Writers Walk at Circular Quay. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the Sydney Gazette.BOOK, Isaacs, Victor, Two hundred years of Sydney newspapers: a short history, 2003, Rural Press, North Richmond, 3–5,weblink Watkin Tench's A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales (1793) have remained the best-known accounts of life in early Sydney.WEB,weblink The Dictionary of Sydney, 3 March 2018, Since the infancy of the establishment, much of the literature set in Sydney were concerned with life in the city's slums and working-class communities, notably William Lane's The Working Man's Paradise (1892), Christina Stead's Seven Poor Men of Sydney (1934) and Ruth Park's The Harp in the South (1948).NEWS, Maunder, Patricia, Novelist shone a light on slums, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 December 2010,weblink 6 March 2018, The first Australian-born female novelist, Louisa Atkinson, set various of her novels in Sydney.Maguire, M., 'Atkinson, (Caroline) Louisa Waring', in R. Aitken and M. Looker (eds), Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens, South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 35. Contemporary writers, such as Elizabeth Harrower, were born in the city and thus set most of the work there–Harrower's debut novel Down in the City (1957) was mostly set in a King's Cross apartment.WEB, Rediscovering Elizabeth Harrower, The New Yorker, 20 October 2014, 6 March 2018,weblink BOOK, Text Publishing – Down in the City,weblink Text Publishing, 23 October 2013, 22 March 2018, 9781922147042, Harrower, Elizabeth, WEB, Review: Down in the City by Elizabeth Harrower, Readings.com.au, 25 October 2013, 22 March 2018,weblink Well known contemporary novels set in the city include Melina Marchetta's Looking for Alibrandi (1992), Peter Carey's 30 Days in Sydney: A Wildly Distorted Account (1999), J.M. Coetzee's Diary of a Bad Year (2007) and Kate Grenville's The Secret River (2010). The Sydney Writers' Festival is held every year between April and May.WEB, About Us,weblink Sydney Writers' Festival (SWF) Official Site, 25 March 2018, Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema.WEB, Balint, Ruth, Dolgopolov, Greg, 2008,weblink Film, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, The Australian New Wave of filmmaking saw a resurgence in film production in the city–with many notable features shot in the city between the 1970s and 80s, helmed by directors such as Bruce Beresford, Peter Weir and Gillian Armstrong.NEWS, Australian pride is its 'new wave' of films, The New York Times, 1981, 25 March 2018,weblink Fox Studios Australia commenced production in Sydney in 1998. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The Matrix, Lantana, (Mission: Impossible 2), Moulin Rouge!, (Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones), Australia, and The Great Gatsby. The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, Cate Blanchett, Hugo Weaving and Jacqueline Mckenzie.WEB, National Institute of Dramatic Art, 2014,weblink History, 11 October 2014, File:Sydney Harbour during Vivid Sydney 2015.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.3|The Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Opera House illuminated during the 2015 Vivid SydneyVivid SydneySydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia.WEB, Kaur, Jaskiran, 2013,weblink Where to party in Australia on New Year's Eve, International Business Times, 27 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140708231528weblink">weblink 8 July 2014, The Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival.WEB, Sydney Festival, 2014,weblink About us, 11 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140927103437weblink">weblink 27 September 2014, The travelling rock music festival Big Day Out originated in Sydney. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music.In 2015, Sydney was ranked 13th for being the top fashion capitals in the world.The Top Global Fashion Capitals for 2016 – The Global Language Monitor, 2016 It hosts the Australian Fashion Week in autumn. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since 1979. Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the 1850s. It moved from George Street to Campbell Street to its current setting in Dixon Street in 1980.WEB, Fitzgerald, Shirley, 2008,weblink Chinatown, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, The Spanish Quarter is based in Liverpool Street whilst Little Italy is located in Stanley Street. Popular nightspots are found at Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Circular Quay, and The Rocks. The Star is the city's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour.

Media

The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media, it has been published continuously since 1831.NEWS, Lagan, Bernard, 2012,weblink Breaking: news and hearts at the Herald, The Global Mail, 27 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120623194413weblink">weblink 23 June 2012, Its competitor is the News Corporation tabloid The Daily Telegraph which has been in print since 1879.JOURNAL, Clancy, Laurie, 2004, The media and cinema, Culture and Customs of Australia, 126, Both papers have Sunday tabloid editions called The Sun-Herald and The Sunday Telegraph respectively. The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in 1880 and became Australia's longest running magazine. It closed after 128 years of continuous publication.WEB, Wotherspoon, Garry, 2010,weblink The Bulletin, Dictionary of Sydney, 27 July 2014, Sydney heralded Australia's first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, published until 1842.Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. Nine's offices and news studios are based in Willoughby,WEB, Free TV, 2014,weblink Network contacts, 24 August 2014, Ten and Seven are based in Pyrmont, Seven has a news studio in the Sydney CBD in Martin PlaceWEB, Network Ten, 2014,weblink Contact us, 24 August 2014, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation is located in Ultimo,WEB, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2014,weblink ABC offices, 24 August 2014, and the Special Broadcasting Service is based in Artarmon.WEB, Special Broadcasting Service, 2014,weblink Contact, 24 August 2014, Multiple digital channels have been provided by all five networks since 2000. Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area.WEB, Foxtel, 2014,weblink Contact Foxtel, 24 August 2014, Sydney's first radio stations commenced broadcasting in the 1920s. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet.WEB, Griffen-Foley, Bridget, 2008,weblink Commercial radio, Dictionary of Sydney, 27 July 2014, 2UE was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting. Competing stations include the more popular 2GB, 702 ABC Sydney, KIIS 106.5, Triple M, Nova 96.9, and 2Day FM.NEWS, Bodey, Michael, 2010,weblink Major players maintain leading shares in second radio ratings survey of 2010, The Australian, 27 July 2014,

Sport and outdoor activities

File:Homebush, NSW, Australia.jpg|thumb|International Twenty20 cricket matches have been hosted annually at Stadium AustraliaStadium AustraliaSydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from 1810 in Hyde Park.WEB, Cashman, Richard, 2008,weblink Sport, Dictionary of Sydney, 27 July 2014, Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the Golden Slipper Stakes attract widespread attention. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s. Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the Sydney Cricket Ground since 1878. The New South Wales Blues compete in the Sheffield Shield league and the Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder contest the national Big Bash Twenty20 competition.First played in Sydney in 1865, rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the 1880s. One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907. Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908. The New South Wales Waratahs contest the Super Rugby competition, while the Sydney Rays represent the city in the National Rugby Championship. The national Wallabies rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the Bledisloe Cup, Rugby Championship, and World Cup. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. New South Wales contests the annual State of Origin series against Queensland.Sydney FC and the Western Sydney Wanderers compete in the A-League (men's) and W-League (women's) soccer competitions and Sydney frequently hosts matches for the Australian national men's team, the Socceroos. The Sydney Swans and Greater Western Sydney Giants are local Australian rules football clubs that play in the Australian Football League. The Giants also compete in AFL Women's. The Sydney Kings compete in the National Basketball League. The Sydney Uni Flames play in the Women's National Basketball League. The Sydney Blue Sox contest the Australian Baseball League. The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League. The Sydney Bears and Sydney Ice Dogs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league.File:Sydney harbour and sailboats.jpg|thumb|right|Sailing on Sydney Harbour ]]Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the 1830s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach.JOURNAL, Fenner, Peter, 2005, Surf Life Saving Australia, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal, 33 to 43, Disputes about appropriate clothing for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. The City2Surf is an annual {{convert|14|km|mi|1|abbr=off|adj=on}} running race from the CBD to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world.WEB, City2Surf, 2014,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222180620weblink">weblink yes, 22 February 2014, Timeline, 27 July 2014, Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since 1827.WEB, de Montfort, Carlin, 2010,weblink Sailing, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron was founded in 1862. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is a {{convert|1170|km|mi|0|abbr=off|adj=on}} event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day.WEB, About.com, 2014,weblink Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, 27 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140712074730weblink">weblink 12 July 2014, Since its inception in 1945 it has been recognised as one of the most difficult yacht races in the world.NEWS, British Broadcasting Corporation, 2001,weblink Tough legacy of a Sydney classic, 27 July 2014, Six sailors died and 71 vessels of the fleet of 115 failed to finish in the 1998 edition.WEB, Dictionary of Sydney, 2008,weblink Sydney to Hobart yacht race, 10 August 2014, The Royal Sydney Golf Club is based in Rose Bay and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the Australian Open on 13 occasions. Royal Randwick Racecourse opened in 1833 and holds several major cups throughout the year.WEB, Royal Randwick Racecourse, 2014,weblink Randwick Race Course, 30 August 2014, Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the 2000 Summer Olympics. Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures.A tennis tournament is held here at the beginning of each year as the warm-up for the Grand Slam in Melbourne. Two of the most successful tennis players in history: Ken Rosewall and Todd Woodbridge were born in and live in the city.

Government

{{See also|Local government areas of New South Wales}}

Historical governance

File:Supreme Court, Sydney.jpg|thumb|The Old Registry Office, now part of the Supreme Court of New South WalesSupreme Court of New South WalesFile:Flag of Sydney.jpg|right|thumb|The City of Sydney's flag, which was designed in 1908.WEB, Sydney's flag and flower,weblink City of Sydney, 26 June 2015, ]]During early colonial times the presiding Governor and his military shared absolute control over the population. This lack of democracy eventually became unacceptable for the colony's growing number of free settlers. The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in 1814. It established three new courts, including the Supreme Court, and dictated that English law was to be followed.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Governor Lachlan Macquarie, 17 August 2014, In 1823 the British Parliament passed an act to create the Legislative Council in New South Wales and give the Supreme Court the right of review over new legislation.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink The first Legislature, 17 August 2014, From 1828 all of the common laws in force in England were to be applied in New South Wales wherever it was appropriate. Another act from the British Parliament in 1842 provided for members of the Council to be elected for the first time.The Constitution Act of 1855 gave New South Wales a bicameral government. The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the Legislative Assembly was formed to be the lower house.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Towards responsible government, 17 August 2014, An Executive Council was introduced and constituted five members of the Legislative Assembly and the Governor.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Responsible government and colonial development, 17 August 2014, It became responsible for advising the ruling Governor on matters related to the administration of the state. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. Tasmania separated in 1825, Victoria did so in 1850, and Queensland followed in 1859. With the proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 the status of local governments across Sydney was formalised and they became separate institutions from the state of New South Wales.WEB, Parliament of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Towards federation, 17 August 2014,

Government in the present

Sydney is divided into local government areas (also known as councils or shires) which are comparable in nature to London's boroughs.WEB, Urban consolidation vs urban sprawl in Sydney: the debate rages on, Tim, Brooker, Megan, Gee, 3,weblink Australasian Transport Research Forum – ATRF, 2009, 17 February 2017, These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government. The 31 local government areas making up Sydney according to the New South Wales Division of Local Government are:{{col-begin}}{{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-end}}(File:Sydney councils.png|thumb|Sydney's local government areas)Sydney is the location of the secondary official residences of the Governor-General of Australia and the Prime Minister of Australia, Admiralty House and Kirribilli House respectively.WEB,weblink Official Residences, Governor-General of Australia, 1 June 2017, The Parliament of New South Wales sits in Parliament House on Macquarie Street. This building was completed in 1816 and first served as a hospital. The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in 1829 and by 1852 had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters. Several additions have been made to the building as the Parliament has expanded, but it retains its original Georgian façade.WEB, Ellmoos, Laila, 2008,weblink Parliament House, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Government House was completed in 1845 and has served as the home of 25 Governors and 5 Governors-General.WEB, Sydney Living Museums, 2014,weblink Behold a palace, 23 August 2014, The Cabinet of Australia also meets in Sydney when needed.The highest court in the state is the Supreme Court of New South Wales which is located in Queen's Square in Sydney.WEB, Supreme Court of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Court locations, 17 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141125221814weblink">weblink 25 November 2014, The city is also the home of numerous branches of the intermediate District Court of New South Wales and the lower Local Court of New South Wales.WEB, New South Wales Courts, 2014,weblink Find a court, 17 August 2014, Public activities such as main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure projects are controlled by the New South Wales Government.WEB, Australian Electoral Commission, 2014,weblink Three levels of government, 27 July 2014, It has tended to resist attempts to amalgamate Sydney's more populated local government areas as merged councils could pose a threat to its governmental power.BOOK, Golder, Hilary, 2004, Sacked: removing and remaking the Sydney City Council, Established in 1842, the City of Sydney is one such local government area and includes the CBD and some adjoining inner suburbs.WEB, City of Sydney, 2005,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050709222141weblink">weblink 9 July 2005, History of Sydney City Council, 13 July 2014, It is responsible for fostering development in the local area, providing local services (waste collection and recycling, libraries, parks, sporting facilities), representing and promoting the interests of residents, supporting organisations that target the local community, and attracting and providing infrastructure for commerce, tourism, and industry.WEB, City of Sydney, 2014,weblink About Council, 17 August 2014, The City of Sydney is led by an elected Council and Lord Mayor who has in the past been treated as a representative of the entire city.WEB, State Records, 2014,weblink Organisation detail, 12 October 2014, In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a possibility for Australia's capital city; the newly created city of Canberra ultimately filled this role.BOOK, The Oxford Companion to Australian History, Davison, Graeme, Hirst, John, Macintyre, Stuart, 1998, Oxford University Press, 464–465, 662–663, 9780195535976, harv, Six Australian Prime Ministers have been born in Sydney, more than any other city, including first Prime Minister Edmund Barton and Malcolm Turnbull.

Infrastructure

Education

File:SydneyUniversity MainBuilding Panorama.jpg|thumb|right|The University of SydneyUniversity of SydneyEducation became a proper focus for the colony from the 1870s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory.WEB, Campbell, Craig, Sherington, Geoffrey, 2008,weblink Education, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, The population of Sydney is now highly educated. 90% of working age residents have completed some schooling and 57% have completed the highest level of school. 1,390,703 people were enrolled in an educational institution in 2011 with 45.1% of these attending school and 16.5% studying at a university. Undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications are held by 22.5% of working age Sydney residents and 40.2% of working age residents of the City of Sydney.WEB, .id, 2014,weblink Educational qualifications, 27 July 2014, The most common fields of tertiary qualification are commerce (22.8%), engineering (13.4%), society and culture (10.8%), health (7.8%), and education (6.6%).There are six public universities based in Sydney: The University of Sydney, University of New South Wales, University of Technology Sydney, Macquarie University, Western Sydney University, and Australian Catholic University. Four public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city: the University of Notre Dame Australia, University of Wollongong, Curtin University of Technology, and University of Newcastle. 5.2% of residents of Sydney are attending a university.WEB, .id, 2014,weblink Education institution attending, 27 July 2014, The University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney are ranked top 50 in the world, the University of Technology Sydney is ranked 193, while Macquarie University ranks 237, and Western Sydney University below 500.Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools. 7.8% of Sydney residents are attending primary school and 6.4% are enrolled in secondary school. There are 935 public preschool, primary, and secondary schools in Sydney that are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education.WEB, Department of Education and Communities, 2014,weblink School locator, 27 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140709210937weblink">weblink 9 July 2014, yes, 14 of the 17 selective secondary schools in New South Wales are based in Sydney.WEB, Department of Education and Communities, 2014,weblink List of selective and agricultural high schools, 27 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140613233227weblink">weblink 13 June 2014, yes, Public vocational education and training in Sydney is run by TAFE New South Wales and began with the opening of the Sydney Technical College in 1878. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar. The college became the Sydney Institute in 1992 and now operates alongside its sister TAFE facilities across the Sydney metropolitan area, namely the Northern Sydney Institute, the Western Sydney Institute, and the South Western Sydney Institute. At the 2011 census, 2.4% of Sydney residents are enrolled in a TAFE course.

Health

File:Florence Nightingale Wing, Sydney Hospital.jpg|thumb|The Nightingale Wing of the Sydney HospitalSydney HospitalThe first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at The Rocks. Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery, smallpox, scurvy, and typhoid. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor, and Liverpool in the 1790s.WEB, Godden, Judith, 2008,weblink Hospitals, Dictionary of Sydney, 9 August 2014, Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in 1816. Parts of the facility have been repurposed for use as Parliament House but the hospital itself still operates to this day. The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in 1870. Demand for emergency medical care increased from 1895 with the introduction of an ambulance service. The Sydney Hospital also housed Australia's first teaching facility for nurses, the Nightingale Wing, established with the input of Florence Nightingale in 1868.Judith Godden, Lucy Osburn, A Lady Displaced, Sydney: Sydney University Press, 2006Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early 1900s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales. The administration of healthcare across Sydney is handled by eight local health districts: Central Coast, Illawarra Shoalhaven, Sydney, Nepean Blue Mountains, Northern Sydney, South Eastern Sydney, South Western Sydney, and Western Sydney.WEB, Government of New South Wales, 2014,weblink Local health districts, 23 August 2014, The Prince of Wales Hospital was established in 1852 and became the first of several major hospitals to be opened in the coming decades.WEB, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink Prince of Wales Hospital, 23 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019082609weblink">weblink 19 October 2014, yes, St Vincent's Hospital was founded in 1857, followed by Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in 1880,WEB, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, 2014,weblink Our history, 23 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140621081851weblink">weblink 21 June 2014, the Prince Henry Hospital in 1881,WEB, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink Prince Henry Hospital, 23 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019082311weblink">weblink 19 October 2014, yes, the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in 1882,WEB, Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 23 August 2014, the Royal North Shore Hospital in 1885,WEB, Northern Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink About us, 23 August 2014, the St George Hospital in 1894,WEB, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink About us, 23 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140816045336weblink">weblink 16 August 2014, yes, and the Nepean Hospital in 1895.WEB, Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health District, 2014,weblink About Nepean Hospital, 23 August 2014, Westmead Hospital in 1978 was the last major facility to open.WEB, Western Sydney Local Health District, 2014,weblink Our history, 23 August 2014,

Transport

Roads

File:Sydney Harbour Bridge Bradfield Highway.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Sydney Harbour BridgeSydney Harbour BridgeThe motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II.WEB, Wotherspoon, Garry, 2008,weblink Transport, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, The growth of low density housing in the city's outer suburbs has made car ownership necessary for hundreds of thousands of households. The percentage of trips taken by car has increased from 13% in 1947 to 50% in 1960 and to 70% in 1971. The most important roads in Sydney were the nine Metroads, including the {{convert|110|km|mi|0|abbr=off|adj=on}} Sydney Orbital Network. Widespread criticism over Sydney's reliance on sprawling road networks, as well as the motor vehicle, have stemmed largely from proponents of mass public transport and high density housing.WEB, Australian Social Trends, July 2013,weblink Australian Bureau of Statistics, 21 August 2016, 5 March 2014, NEWS, Sydney is Australia's most valuable location, but public transport is its weakness, The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 April 2015, Matt, Wade,weblink 21 August 2016, WEB,weblink Sydney not yet a true global city, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 April 2014, 21 August 2016, There can be up to 350,000 cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion. 84.9% of Sydney households own a motor vehicle and 46.5% own two or more. Car dependency is an ongoing issue in Sydney–of people that travel to work, 58.4% use a car, 9.1% catch a train, 5.2% take a bus, and 4.1% walk. In contrast, only 25.2% of working residents in the City of Sydney use a car, whilst 15.8% take a train, 13.3% use a bus, and 25.3% walk.WEB, .id, 2014,weblink Method of travel to work, 27 July 2014, With a rate of 26.3%, Sydney has the highest utilisation of public transport for travel to work of any Australian capital city.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008,weblink Australian social trends, 10 August 2014,

Trams and light rail

File:2119 passing Market City (27807206220).jpg|thumb|The Inner West Light Rail connects Sydney's CBD with the Inner West via Pyrmont]]Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire after London.WEB,weblink Sydney Living Museums, Shooting Through: Sydney by Tram, 31 May 2019, 12 May 2014, It served routes covering {{convert|291|km|mi|0|abbr=off}}. The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in 1961. From 1930 there were 612 buses across Sydney carrying 90 million passengers per annum.WEB, Wotherspoon, Garry, 2008,weblink Buses, Dictionary of Sydney, 8 August 2014, In 1997, the Inner West Light Rail (also known as the Dulwich Hill Line) opened between Central station and Wentworth Park. It was extended to Lilyfield in 2000 and then Dulwich Hill in 2014. It links the Inner West and Darling Harbour with Central station and facilitated 9.1 million journeys in the 2016–17 financial year.WEB,weblink Light Rail Patronage – Monthly Comparison, 8 June 2017, www.transport.nsw.gov.au, en-AU, 25 August 2017, A second, the CBD and South East Light Rail {{cvt|12|km|1}} line serving the CBD and south-eastern suburbs is planned to open in early 2019.WEB, CBD and South East Light Rail contract awarded with earlier delivery date,weblink Sydney Light Rail, Transport for NSW, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150513081808weblink">weblink 13 May 2015, When the light rail project is completed, it would cover a total distance of 12 km with 19 different stops. A light rail line serving Western Sydney has also been announced, due to open in 2023.

Buses

Bus services today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators. In areas previously serviced by trams the government State Transit Authority operates, in other areas, there are private (albeit part funded by the state government) operators. Integrated tickets called Opal cards operate on both government and private bus routes. State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2,169 buses and serviced over 160 million passengers during 2014. In total, nearly 225 million boardings were recorded across the bus networkREPORT, Transport for NSW, Transport for NSW, 2014, TfNSW 2013–2014 Annual Report,weblink 35, 36, 29 April 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529174646weblink">weblink 29 May 2015, NightRide is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period.

Trains

File:Cityrail-millennium-M32-ext.jpg|thumb|Central station is the hub of the Sydney rail network ]]Rail services are operated by Sydney Trains and Sydney Metro. Sydney Trains serves 175 stations across greater Sydney and had an annual ridership of 359 million passenger journeys in 2017–18.WEB, Sydney Trains, 2014,weblink Facts and stats, 10 August 2014, Sydney's railway was first constructed in 1854 with progressive extension to the network to serve both freight and passengers across the city, suburbs, and beyond to country NSW. In the 1850s and 1860s the railway reached Parramatta, Campbelltown, Liverpool, Blacktown, Penrith, and Richmond. In 2019, 91.6% of trains arrived on time.WEB,weblink Sydney Trains Annual Report 2017-18, Sydney Trains, 28, 13 July 2019, Sydney Metro, an automated rapid transit system separate from the suburban network, commenced operation in 2019, with plans in place to extend the system through the CBD by 2024.WEB,weblink Transport minister Andrew Constance says new Sydney Metro train line a 'massive city shaping project', The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 June 2015, 20 June 2015, WEB,weblink New metro train stations in Sydney could be built in Crows Nest or St Leonards and Artarmon by 2024, The Daily Telegraph, 11 June 2015, 20 June 2015,

Ferries

At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in 1932, the city's ferry service was the largest in the world.WEB, Transport for New South Wales, 2014,weblink Sydney Ferries, 10 August 2014, Patronage declined from 37 million passengers in 1945 to 11 million in 1963 but has recovered somewhat in recent years. From its hub at Circular Quay the ferry network extends from Manly to Parramatta.

Airports

Sydney Airport, officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of Mascot with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations. As the busiest airport in Australia it handled 37.9 million passengers in 2013 and 530,000 tonnes of freight in 2011.It has been announced that a new facility named Western Sydney Airport will be constructed at Badgerys Creek from 2016 at a cost of $2.5 billion.NEWS, Cox, Lisa, Massola, James, 2014,weblink Tony Abbott confirms Badgerys Creek as site of second Sydney airport, The Age, 24 August 2014, Bankstown Airport is Sydney's second busiest airport, and serves general aviation, charter and some scheduled cargo flights. Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by number of aircraft movements.WEB,weblink Movements at Australian Airports, 17 February 2012, Airservices Australia, Airservices Australia, 6 November 2016, Port Botany has surpassed Port Jackson as the city's major shipping port. Cruise ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay.

Environmental issues and pollution reduction

{{Further|Climate change in Australia|Renewable energy in Australia}}As climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality.WEB,weblink Look who's polluting: Sydney Water's shame, 23 October 2011, 3 February 2015, Since 1995, there have been significant developments in the analysis of air pollution in the Sydney metropolitan region. The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme (MAQS), which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution.WEB,weblink$File/11-98.pdf, Air Pollution in Sydney: An Update Briefing Paper, August 1998, 3 February 2015, Australian cities are some of the most car dependent cities in the world.WEB,weblink Car dependence in Australian cities: a discussion of causes, environmental impact and possible solutions, Flinders University study, 3 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110301005900weblink">weblink 1 March 2011, Sydney in particular has a very high level of car dependency,WEB,weblink Off the rails: the suburbs where the car rules, 30 May 2005, 3 February 2015, The Sydney Morning Herald, especially by world city standards. It also has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant urban sprawl, thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency.WEB,weblink Sydney not yet a true global city, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 April 2014, 3 February 2015, WEB,weblink CBDs turning into no-car zones as the great divide grows, The Australian, 11 October 2015, 3 February 2015, Strategies have been implemented to reduce private vehicle pollution by encouraging mass and public transit,WEB,weblink Buses and the Environment, statetransit.info, 3 February 2015, initiating the development of high density housing and introducing a fleet of 10 new Nissan LEAF electric cars, the largest order of the pollution-free vehicle in Australia.WEB,weblink City clears the way on pollution-free car fleet, sydneymedia.com.au, 13 February 2013, 3 February 2015, Electric cars do not produce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, gases which contribute to climate change.WEB,weblink Causes of Climate Change, epa.gov, 10 February 2015, {{citation | author = IPCC | title = Detection and Attribution of Climate Change | chapter = Summary for Policymakers | chapter-url =weblink | quote = «It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century» (page 15) and «In this Summary for Policymakers, the following terms have been used to indicate the assessed likelihood of an outcome or a result: (...) extremely likely: 95–100%» (page 2). }}, in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}. Cycling trips have increased by 113% across Sydney's inner-city since March 2010, with about 2,000 bikes passing through top peak-hour intersections on an average weekday. Transport developments in the north-west and east of the city have been designed to encourage the use of Sydney's expanding public transportation system.The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as carbon-neutral in 2008.WEB,weblink Sydney Water to become carbon neutral, The Age, 19 July 2007, 3 February 2015, WEB,weblink Sydney Becomes Australia's First Carbon-Neutral Government Body, treehugger.com, 5 September 2008, 3 February 2015, The city has reduced its 2007 carbon emissions by 6% and since 2006 has reduced carbon emissions from city buildings by up to 20%.WEB,weblink Achievements: City of Sydney, cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au, 3 February 2015, WEB,weblink It's official, Sydney is first carbon neutral council, 9 November 2011, SydneyMedia.com.au, 3 February 2015, The City of Sydney introduced a Sustainable Sydney 2030 program, with various targets planned and a comprehensive guide on how to reduce energy in homes and offices within Sydney by 30%.WEB,weblink Building owners applaud city's ambitious master plan, 25 February 2015, climatecontrolnews.com.au, 18 March 2015, Reductions in energy consumption have slashed energy bills by $30 million a year.WEB,weblink Sydney businesses cotton on: climate change action is good for the bottom line, The Guardian (UK), 18 March 2015, 19 March 2015, Solar panels have been established on many CBD buildings in an effort to minimise carbon pollution by around 3,000 tonnes a year.WEB,weblink City of Sydney extends solar roll out to historic Rocks, 16 June 2014, 3 February 2015, RenewEconomy.com, The city also has an "urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the tree coverage in the city by frequently planting trees with strong leaf density and vegetation to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.WEB,weblink Urban Forest Strategy, 6 May 2015, Sydney has also become a leader in the development of green office buildings and enforcing the requirement of all building proposals to be energy-efficient. The One Central Park development, completed in 2013, is an example of this implementation and design.WEB,weblink 'Greenest' Sydney building using rainforest timber, Sydney Morning Herald, 27 July 2011, 3 February 2015, WEB,weblink One Central Park Gardens, Frasers Property, 3 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130923041440weblink">weblink 23 September 2013, WEB,weblink Central Park Sydney – Architecture, Frasers Property, 3 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131005163802weblink">weblink 5 October 2013, WEB,weblink Sydney Central Park project shows sustainable living, The Australian Financial Review, Financial Review, 28 November 2013, 3 February 2015,

Utilities

File:Warragamba Dam.jpg|thumb|Warragamba DamWarragamba DamObtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times. A catchment called the Tank Stream sourced water from what is now the CBD but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the 1700s.WEB, North, MacLaren, 2011,weblink Water, Dictionary of Sydney, 10 August 2014, The Botany Swamps Scheme was one of several ventures during the mid 1800s that saw the construction of wells, tunnels, steam pumping stations, and small dams to service Sydney's growing population.The first genuine solution to Sydney's water demands was the Upper Nepean Scheme which came into operation in 1886 and cost over £2 million. It transports water {{convert|100|km|mi|0|abbr=off}} from the Nepean, Cataract, and Cordeaux rivers and continues to service about 15% of Sydney's total water needs. Dams were built on these three rivers between 1907 and 1935. In 1977 the Shoalhaven Scheme brought several more dams into service.WEB, Sydney Water, 2014,weblink Sydney Water timeline, 10 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140630004351weblink">weblink 30 June 2014, The WaterNSW now manages eleven major dams: Warragamba one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world,WEB, Sydney's Largest Water Supply Dam,weblink Water NSW, 15 February 2016, Woronora, Cataract, Cordeaux, Nepean, Avon, Wingecarribee Reservoir, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, Tallowa, the Blue Mountains Dams, and Prospect Reservoir.WEB, Sydney Catchment Authority, 2014,weblink Dams and reservoirs, 10 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140926021711weblink">weblink 26 September 2014, Water is collected from five catchment areas covering {{convert|16000|km2|mi2|0|abbr=off}} and total storage amounts to {{convert|2.6|TL|mi3|1|abbr=off}}. The Sydney Desalination Plant came into operation in 2010.The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are Ausgrid and Endeavour Energy.WEB, Ausgrid, 2014,weblink About Ausgrid, 12 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019073329weblink">weblink 19 October 2014, WEB, Endeavour Energy, 2014,weblink About us, 12 October 2014, Their combined networks include over 815,000 power poles and {{convert|83000|km|mi|abbr=off}} of electricity cables.

See also

Notes

{{reflist|group=N}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

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