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{{About|the Japanese prefecture and its city}}{{short description|Capital of Japan}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=December 2018}}

| official_name = Tokyo Metropolis0.1em}}}}Prefectures of Japan>Metropolis| image_skyline = Tokyo Montage 2015.jpgNishi-Shinjuku business district, Rainbow Bridge (Tokyo)>Rainbow Bridge, National Diet Building, Shibuya, Tokyo Skytree| image_flag = Flag of Tokyo Prefecture.svg| image_seal = Emblem of Tokyo Metropolis.svg| seal_size = 100px| seal_link = Insignias of Tokyo| image_shield = | image_blank_emblem = PrefSymbol-Tokyo.svgInsignias of Tokyo>Symbol| blank_emblem_size = 115pxTokyo Metropolitan SongTōkyō-to Ka}}JA >SCRIPT-TITLE= JA:東京都歌・市歌 PUBLISHER= TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE= SEPTEMBER 11, 2011, frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000frame-lat=35.68|frame-long=139.41}}| image_map1 = Tokyo in Japan.svg| map_caption1 = Location within Japan352313932type:adm1st_region:JP-13|display=it}}| subdivision_type = Country {{JPN}}}}List of regions of Japan>Region| subdivision_type2 = IslandKantō region>Kantō| subdivision_name2 = Honshu| established_title = | established_date = | parts_type = DivisionsSpecial wards of Tokyo>23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefecturesPrefectures of Japan>MetropolisList of prefectural governors in Japan>GovernorYuriko Koike (Tomin First no Kai>TF)List of capitals in Japan>CapitalSpecial wards of Tokyo>TokyoHTTP://WWW.CHIJIHON.METRO.TOKYO.JP/SONOTA/SYOZAITI.HTM >SCRIPT-TITLE=JA:都庁は長野市 TITLE=ARCHIVED COPY ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140419085331/HTTP://WWW.CHIJIHON.METRO.TOKYO.JP/SONOTA/SYOZAITI.HTM URL-STATUS=DEAD, mdy-all, Shinjuku is the location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office. But Tokyo is not a "municipality". Therefore, for the sake of convenience, the notation of prefectural is "Tokyo".House of Representatives (Japan)>RepresentativesTokyo's Diet electoral districts#House of Representatives>42House of Councillors (Japan)>CouncillorsTokyo's Diet electoral districts#House of Councillors>11| area_total_km2 = 2193.96| area_land_km2 = 406.58| area_water_km2 = | area_water_percent =| area_metro_km2 = 13572| area_rank = 45th| elevation_m = 40| population_total = 13,929,286| population_as_of = June 2019| population_density_km2 = 6349| population_metro = 38,140,000 – Greater Tokyo AreaLAST=UNITED NATIONSWEBSITE=UNITED NATIONSARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170112211410/HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/DEVELOPMENT/DESA/POPULATION/PUBLICATIONS/PDF/URBANIZATION/THE_WORLDS_CITIES_IN_2016_DATA_BOOKLET.PDFURL-STATUS=LIVE, mdy-all, | population_density_metro_km2 = 2662| population_blank1_title = 23 Wards| population_blank1 = 9,630,254weblink ja:都民経済計算(都内総生産等)平成27年度年報,, Archived copy, August 21, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2018, live, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Yearly Average Rates, OFX, dead,weblink March 16, 2015, WEB,weblink 2015 Japan Population, August 21, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink April 3, 2018, live, mdy-all, | demographics1_title1 = TotalISO 3166-2)| postal_code = JP-13| area_code = | blank_name_sec2 = FlowerPrunus × yedoensis>Somei-Yoshino cherry blossom| blank1_name_sec2 = TreeGinkgo biloba>Ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba)weblink}}| footnotes = | timezone = Japan Standard Time| utc_offset = +9| blank2_name_sec2 = Bird| blank2_info_sec2 = Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)| blank3_name_sec2 = | blank3_info_sec2 = | demographics1_info1 = US$869 billion| demographics1_title2 = Per capita| demographics1_info2 = US$64,269}}

{{nihongo|Tokyo,|東京|Tōkyō|extra={{IPAc-en|lang|ˈ|t|oʊ|k|i|oʊ}},DICTIONARY,weblink Tokyo definition and meaning, June 15, 2018, Collins English Dictionary, n.d.,weblink June 16, 2018, live, mdy-all, {{IPA-ja|toːkʲoː|lang|ja-Tokyo.ogg}}}} officially {{Nihongo4|Tokyo Metropolis|東京都|Tōkyō-to}}, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. It has served as the Japanese capital since 1869.WEB,weblink "There is no laws to define where Japan's capital is. Because Tokyo was built to stabilize East and North." the Legislative Bureau House of Councillors, June 9, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2018, live, mdy-all, WEB, Japan's Local Government System,weblink Tokyo Metropolitan Government, August 5, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2013, {{As of | 2018}}, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tōkyō" in {{Google books|p2QnPijAEmEC|Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 981–982}}; in {{Google books|p2QnPijAEmEC| "Kantō" p. 479}} Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo.WEB, Edo was renamed Tokyo,weblink August 18, 2019,weblink August 18, 2019, live, The Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former {{Nihongo|Tokyo Prefecture|東京府|Tōkyō-fu}} and the {{Nihongo|city of Tokyo|東京市|Tōkyō-shi}}. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.The 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were formerly Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo. As of October 1, 2015, the population of Tokyo is estimated to be over 13.4 million, or about 11% of Japan's total population.WEB,weblink Population of Tokyo - Tokyo Metropolitan Government,, 2019-06-04,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2019, live, The latest estimate in 2019 shows the growing population of Tokyo with 13.9 million people, with the special wards 9.6 million, the Tama area 4.2 million, and the Islands 25,147.WEB,weblink ja:東京都の人口(推計)– Population of Tokyo (estimate), Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Statistics Department, October 22, 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 2018, The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 40 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. {{As of|2011}}, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time.NEWS,weblink Global Fortune 500 by countries: Japan, Fortune, July 22, 2011, CNN,weblink" title="">weblink July 18, 2011, live, mdy-all, Fortune (magazine), Tokyo ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development Index.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}} The city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.Tokyo ranks first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city WEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2018,, April 13, 2018, March 22, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2017, live, mdy-all, – and {{as of|2014|lc=on}} TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets").WEB, Tokyo Tops Among Global Travelers, According To TripAdvisor World City Survey,weblink TripAdvisor, September 1, 2014, May 20, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2014, live, mdy-all, {{As of|2018}} Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm.WEB, 2018 Cost of Living Rankings,weblink Mercer, Mercer LLC, March 22, 2019, June 26, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink June 19, 2015, live, mdy-all, and also the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.NEWS, Uptown top ranking,weblink The Economist, October 17, 2015, June 17, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2015, live, mdy-all, In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle.WEB,weblink The Monocle Quality of Life Survey 2015 – Film, August 11, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2015, live, mdy-all, The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.WEB,weblink ja:「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に, Michelin Japan, November 24, 2010, Archived copy, February 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink November 29, 2010, live, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Tokyo is Michelin's biggest star, The Times, November 20, 2007, February 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2011, live, mdy-all, Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index.WEB,weblink Safe Cities Index 2015 Infographic – NEC: Safe Cities, January 7, 2015, September 16, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2015, live, mdy-all, It was also ranked the first in the 2019 safe cities index.NEWS,weblink Tokyo named world's safest city, Amsterdam tops Europe ranking, 2019-08-29, Reuters, 2019-09-03, en,weblink September 3, 2019, live, The QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016WEB,weblink QS Best Student Cities 2016, Top Universities, December 14, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, live, mdy-all, and 2nd in 2018.NEWS,weblink QS Best Student Cities 2018, April 30, 2018, Top Universities, July 12, 2018, en,weblink July 4, 2018df=mdy-all, Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 5th G7 summit, the 12th G7 summit>1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.{{TOC limit|3}}


{{anchor|idEtymology}} Tokyo was originally known as {{Nihongo4|Edo|江戸}}, which means "estuary".Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company (1996), p. 360 {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 1, 2016 }}. {{ISBN|0-7864-1814-1}}. Its name was changed to {{Nihongo|Tokyo|東京|Tōkyō|extra= tō "east", and kyō "capital"}} when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868,US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Volume 5, p. 759 {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 1, 2016}}; excerpt, "The Mikado, on assuming the exercise of power at Yedo, changed the name of the city to Tokio". in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital () in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto (), Beijing () and Nanjing ()). During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";BOOK, Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Fiévé, Nicolas, Paul Waley, yes, 2003, 253, however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.WEB,weblink ja:明治東京異聞~トウケイかトウキョウか~東京の読み方, Tokyo Metropolitan Archives, 2004, September 13, 2008, ja, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2008, live, mdy-all,


Pre-1869 (Edo period)

File:Commodore Perry expedition LOC LC-USZ62-3319.jpg|thumb|left|A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew PerryCommodore Matthew PerryTokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province (his lifelong base) to Kantō region. When he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.BOOK, Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era, McClain, James, James, 1994, 13, etal, But Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. (That was caused by the Meiji Restoration in 1868.)BOOK, The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty-First Century, Sorensen, Andre, 2004, 16, The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.BOOK, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History, Naitō, Akira, 2003, 33, 55, The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.BOOK, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History, Naitō, Akira, 2003, 182–183, Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.BOOK, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History, Naitō, Akira, 2003, 186, Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun, Yoshinobu, in 1867.BOOK, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History, Naitō, Akira, 2003, 188, After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end. {{wide image|'Kidai Shoran', Japanese handscroll c. 1805.jpg|4000px|{{Nihongo|Kidai Shōran|熈代勝覧}}, 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo. |dir=rtl}}


(File:Ginza in 1933.JPG|thumb|left|Ginza area in 1933)In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo, and in accordance, the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center,WEB,weblink History of Tokyo, October 17, 2007, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2007, and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889.Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.WEB,weblink Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake of 1923, Encyclopædia Britannica, October 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2015, live, mdy-all,


(File:Firebombing of Tokyo.jpg|thumb|left|Tokyo burning in 1945)In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.BOOK, Modern Japan: A Social and Political History, Tipton, Elise K., Routledge, 2002, 141, 978-0-585-45322-4, The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid;WEB,weblink 9 March 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy, March 9, 2011, Wired, Condé Nast Digital, August 8, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2014, live, mdy-all, as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.WEB,weblink 1945 Tokyo Firebombing Left Legacy of Terror, Pain, Common Dreams, January 2, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 3, 2015, live, mdy-all, BOOK, Cybriwsky, Roman, Historical Dictionary of Tokyo, 1997, Scarecrow, Lanham, MD, 22, Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".JOURNAL, Hewitt, Kenneth, Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 1983, 73, 2, 257–284, 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1983.tb01412.x, {{multiple image| width =| header =| footer =| image1 = Tokyo Tower and around Skyscrapers.jpg| width1 = 238| alt1 =| caption1 = The Tokyo Tower, built in 1958| image2 = 2011 Japan Earthquake Tokyo Tower.jpg| width2 = 150| alt2 =| caption2 = The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower.}}After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversialWEB,weblink Tokyo Narita International Airport (NRT) Airport Information (Tokyo, Japan), October 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 17, 2014, live, mdy-all, airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the worldWEB,weblink Rail Transport in The World's Major Cities, Japan Railway and Transport Review, October 17, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2007, dead, mdy-all, as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",BOOK, Saxonhouse, Gary R. (ed.), Robert M. Stern (ed.), Japan's Lost Decade: Origins, Consequences and Prospects for Recovery, Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2004, 978-1-4051-1917-7, from which it is now slowly recovering.Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennōzu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance have been demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.WEB,weblink The view from the Hills: Minoru Mori defends the Omotesando Hills development and reveals big plans for Tokyo, Worrall, Julian, Metropolis,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-11-19, Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposedWEB,weblink Shift of Capital from Tokyo Committee, October 14, 2007, Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Developmentweblink >archivedate=August 25, 2007 df=, for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversialHTTP://WWW.METRO.TOKYO.JP/ENGLISH/GOVERNOR/SPEECH/2003/0301/2.HTM >TITLE=POLICY SPEECH BY GOVERNOR OF TOKYO, SHINTARO ISHIHARA AT THE FIRST REGULAR SESSION OF THE METROPOLITAN ASSEMBLY, 2003 PUBLISHER=TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20071103052926/HTTP://WWW.METRO.TOKYO.JP/ENGLISH/GOVERNOR/SPEECH/2003/0301/2.HTM, November 3, 2007, within Japan and have yet to be realized.The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,WEB, Despite Major Earthquake Zero Tokyo Buildings Collapsed Thanks to Stringent Building Codes,weblink October 11, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2011, live, mdy-all, although activity in the city was largely halted.NEWS, Williams, Carol J., Japan earthquake disrupts Tokyo, leaves capital only lightly damaged,weblink Los Angeles Times, October 11, 2011, March 11, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink December 13, 2011, live, mdy-all, The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.WEB, Tokyo Radiation Levels, Metropolis Magazine,weblink April 25, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink May 20, 2012, dead, mdy-all, WEB, Tokyo radiation levels – daily updates – April,weblink October 11, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 19, 2011, On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.WEB,weblink IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games, October 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2014, live, mdy-all,


File:Tokyo Landsat.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite photo of Tokyo's 23 Special wards taken by NASA's Landsat 7Landsat 7File:TokyoMetropolitanGovernmentOffice.jpg|thumb|right|Tokyo Metropolitan Government BuildingTokyo Metropolitan Government BuildingThe mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about {{convert|90|km|abbr=on}} east to west and {{convert|25|km|abbr=on}} north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is {{convert|40|m|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, Population of Tokyo, Japan,weblink mongabay, February 10, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 21, 2012, mdy-all, Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area () stretching westwards.Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than {{convert|1000|km|abbr=on}} away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a {{Nihongo|to|(wikt:都|都)}}, translated as metropolis.WEB,weblink Local Government in Japan, September 14, 2008, Council of Local Authorities for International Relations, 8, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2008, Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The 23 special wards ( tokubetsu-ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities ({{Nihongo2|}} -shi), five towns ( -chō or machi), and eight villages ( -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters is located in Shinjuku Ward.{{Tokyo Metropolis Labelled Map}}

Special wards

(File:Tokyo special wards map.svg|thumb|right|A map of Tokyo's 23 special wards)The {{Nihongo|special wards|特別区|tokubetsu-ku}} of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with {{Nihongo|Tokyo Prefecture|東京府|Tōkyō-fu}} forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.The Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government {{Webarchive|url= |date=December 8, 2014 }} (Tokyo government webpage)The special wards of Tokyo are:{{colbegin|colwidth=10em}} {{colend}}The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population.The Population of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government {{webarchive|url= |date=December 23, 2008}} (Retrieved on July 4, 2009) Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 20, 2014, Pray For Tokyo: Chiyoda, Karis Japan, April 20, 2015, Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda.

Tama Area (Western Tokyo)

(File:Western Tokyo map.svg|thumb|right|A map of cities in the western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above.)To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns, and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base, such as Tachikawa. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo.


{{See also|List of cities in Tokyo Metropolis by population}}Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:{{colbegin|colwidth=10em}} {{colend}}The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area,WEB,weblink Development of the Metropolitan Centre, Subcentres and New Base, October 14, 2007, Bureau of Urban Development, Tokyo Metropolitan Government,weblink" title="">weblink October 23, 2007, live, mdy-all, as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.

Nishi-Tama District

(File:Tokyo Nishitama District Area Map.svg|thumb|Map of Nishi-Tama District in green)The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is {{convert|2,017|m|ft|abbr=on}} high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takanosu ({{convert|1,737|m|ft|abbr=on}}), Odake ({{convert|1,266|m|ft|abbr=on}}), and Mitake ({{convert|929|m|ft|abbr=on}}). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara).{||File:多摩ニュータウンの全景(2013年10月12日撮影).jpg|TamaFile:Takao-san HachiojiUrbanDistrict.JPG|HachiojiFile:Musashino in the afternoon.jpg|Musashino


(File:Map of Izu Islands.png|thumb|Map of the Izu Islands in black labels)(File:Ogasawara islands.png|thumb|Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels)Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as {{convert|1850|km|abbr=on}} from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them.The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village.The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at {{convert|1850|km|abbr=on}} the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan.WEB,weblink Ogasawara Islands: World Natural Heritage, Adobe Flash, Ogasawara Village Industry and Tourist Board, June 29, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2017, live, mdy-all, Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ.JOURNAL, Yukie, Yoshikawa, 2005,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2013,weblink Okinotorishima: Just the Tip of the Iceberg, Harvard Asian Quarterly, 9, 4, dead, The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but hosts Japan Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-Jima and Haha-Jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.{| class="wikitable plainlinks" cellpadding="5"! style="background:#ccf;"| Subprefecture! style="background:#ccf;"| Municipality! style="background:#ccf;"| Type Hachijō Subprefecture >Hachijō, Tokyo>Hachijō Town Aogashima, Tokyo >| Village Miyake Subprefecture >Miyake, Tokyo>Miyake Village Mikurajima, Tokyo >| Village Ōshima Subprefecture (Tokyo) >Ōshima, Tokyo>Ōshima Town Toshima, Tokyo (village) >| Village Niijima, Tokyo >| Village Kōzushima, Tokyo >| Village Ogasawara Subprefecture >Ogasawara, Tokyo>Ogasawara Village

National parks

(File:Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo, Japan.jpg|thumb|right|Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site)As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.WEB,weblink General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture, Ministry of the Environment (Japan), Ministry of the Environment, February 8, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink April 21, 2012, live, mdy-all, A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also artworks and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.


Common seismicity

(File:Temporarygatheringplace.jpg|thumbnail|A bilingual sign with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake (Shibuya))Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's 2,000 km–long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety not only for foreign visitors but for Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.JOURNAL, A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present, Ritsuko S., Matsu’ura, January 28, 2017, Geoscience Letters, 4, 1, 3, BioMed Central, 10.1186/s40562-017-0069-4, 2017GSL.....4....3M,

Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011;JOURNAL,weblink A New 1649–1884 Catalog of Destructive Earthquakes near Tokyo and Implications for the Long-term Seismic Process, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 111, B12, B12306, October 14, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2007, 2006JGRB..11112306G, Grunewald, Elliot D., Stein, Ross S., 2006, 10.1029/2005JB004059, WEB,weblink A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo, October 14, 2007, U.S. Geological Survey,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2007, live, mdy-all, the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of kilometers away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area.


The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 10, 2017 }}, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007. with hot, humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages {{convert|26.4|C|1}}, and the coolest month being January, averaging {{convert|5.2|C|1}}. The record low temperature is {{convert|-9.2|°C|1|abbr=on}} on January 13, 1876, while the record high is {{convert|39.5|°C|1|abbr=on}} on July 20, 2004.The record highest low temperature is {{convert|30.3|°C|1|abbr=on}} on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over {{convert|30|°C|1|abbr=on}}. Annual rainfall averages nearly {{convert|1530|mm|in|1}}, with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.NEWS,weblink Tokyo observes latest ever 1st snowfall, June 9, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 19, 2007, dead, Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with {{convert|780|mm|in|-1}} of rain,WEB, Japan Meteorological Agency,weblink ja:観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値), December 4, 2011, including {{convert|270.5|mm|abbr=on}} on the ninth of that month;WEB, Japan Meteorological Agency,weblink ja:観測史上1~10位の値(10月としての値), December 4, 2011, the last of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995. Annual precipitation has ranged from {{convert|879.5|mm|abbr=on}} in 1984 to {{convert|2229.6|mm|abbr=on}} in 1938.{{Clear}}{{Tokyo weatherbox}}The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa).{{Ogouchi weatherbox}}Tokyo's offshore territories' climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichijima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000  km south of the Greater Tokyo Area resulting in different climatic conditions.{{Chichijima weatherbox}}Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.WEB,weblink ja:気象統計情報 / 天気予報・台風 / 過去の台風資料 / 台風の統計資料 / 台風の平年値, Japan Meteorological Agency, Archived copy, August 8, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2012, live, mdy-all,


Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.Hidenobu Jinnai. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press (1995), pp. 1-3 {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 1, 2016 }}. {{ISBN|0-520-07135-2}}. Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower, and the new Tokyo Skytree, which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.WEB, Tokyo – GoJapanGo,weblink Tokyo Attractions – Japanese Lifestyle, Mi Marketing Pty Ltd, April 18, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink April 26, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Mori Building Co started work on Tokyo's new tallest building which is set to be finished on March 2023. The project will cost 580 billion yen ($5.5 billion).NEWS,weblink Tokyo skyline reaches for new heights with $5.5 billion Mori project, 2019-08-22, Reuters, 2019-08-22, en,weblink August 22, 2019, live, Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.{{wide image|Tokyo from the top of the SkyTree (cropped).JPG|1500px|Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree}}


Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.WEB,weblink World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD),, October 18, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2009, Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge (2003), p. 344 {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 1, 2016 }}. {{ISBN|0-415-27170-3}}.Toshiaki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Shimodozono, and Keisuke Hanaki. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999): 3897–3909. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government,WEB,weblink Heat Island Control Measures,, January 6, 2007, October 29, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2008, the annual mean temperature has increased by about {{convert|3|C-change|F-change|1|abbr=on}} over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."BOOK, Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Roger Graham, Barry, Richard J., Chorley, Richard Chorley, Methuen Publishing, London, 344, 978-0-416-07152-8, 1987, In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill.WEB,weblink Archived copy, July 11, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2013, From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.WEB,weblink 2012 Action Program for Tokyo Vision 2020 – Tokyo Metropolitan Government,, December 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2012, {{Clear}}


As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.WEB,weblink ja:東京都の人口(推計), Tokyo Metropolitan Government, January 17, 2015, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 2018, live, mdy-all, During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.WEB,weblink January 1, 2009, Population of Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 23, 2008, In 1889, the Home Ministry recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu.BOOK, 東京府 ç·¨, ja:東京府統計書. 明治22å¹´, Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889), 1890, 1, 東京府, 40–41, Japanese, (National Diet Library Digital Archive) {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 6, 2014 }} (digital page number 32) In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American nationals (182) and Chinese nationals (137).BOOK, 東京府 ç·¨, ja:東京府統計書. 明治22å¹´, Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889), 1890, 1, 東京府, 66–67, Japanese, (National Diet Library Digital Archive) {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 6, 2014 }} (digital page number 46){| style="width:100%"|(File:Tokyo historical population.gif|thumb|upright=2.95|center|Tokyo historical population since 1920)|{| class="infobox" style="float:right;" Registered foreign nationalsHTTP://WWW.TOUKEI.METRO.TOKYO.JP/GAIKOKU/2018/GA18EA0100.XLS>FORMAT=EXCEL 97PUBLISHER=BUREAU OF GENERAL AFFAIRS, TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180905175715/HTTP://WWW.TOUKEI.METRO.TOKYO.JP/GAIKOKU/2018/GA18EA0100.XLSURL-STATUS=LIVE, mdy-all, ! Nationality || Population (2018)Mainland China}} 199,949South Korea}} 90,438Vietnam}} 32,334Philippines}} 32,089Nepal}} 26,157Taiwan}} 18,568United States}} 17,578India}} 11,153Myanmar}} 9,719Thailand}} 7,958|75,557|(File:Growth rate map of municipalities of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.svg|thumb|upright=1.8|center|This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.{{colbegin}}Increase{{legend|#225500|10.0% and over}}{{legend|#44AA00|7.5–9.9%}}{{legend|#66FF00|5.0–7.4%}}{{legend|#99FF55|2.5–4.9%}}{{legend|#CCFFAA|0.0–2.4%}}Decrease{{legend|#FFAAAA|0.0–2.4%}}{{legend|#FF5555|2.5–4.9%}}{{legend|#FF0000|5.0–7.4%}}{{legend|#AA0000|7.5–9.9%}}{{legend|#550000|10.0% and over}}{{colend}})|{| class="toccolours" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="1" style="float:right; margin:0 0 2em 2em; font-size:95%;"|+ Population of Tokyo! By area1|TokyoSpecial wardsTama AreaIslands|12.79 million8.653 million4.109 million28,000! By age2|Juveniles (age 0–14)Working (age 15–64)Retired (age 65+)|1.461 million (11.8%)8.546 million (69.3%)2.332 million (18.9%)! By hours3|DayNight|14.978 million12.416 million! By nationality|Foreign residents|364,6534 (2.9% of total){| style="vertical-align:top;"| 1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.2 as of January 1, 2007.2005|lc=y}} National Census.4 as of January 1, 2006.


File:Tokyo Skytree 2014 â…¢.jpg|thumb|left|Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world]]File:The_Tokyo_Stock_Exchange_-_main_room_3.jpg|thumb|upright|Tokyo Stock ExchangeTokyo Stock ExchangeFile:Ginza Wako Clock.jpg|thumb|Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo as one of the most luxurious{{Vague|date=June 2017}} shopping districtsshopping districtsFile:Bank of Japan headquarters in Tokyo, Japan.jpg|thumb|right|Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo]](File:Tokyo Tower at night 8.JPG|thumb|left|Tokyo Tower at night)File:Shibuya crossing.jpg|thumb|Shibuya attracts many tourists.]]Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Greater Tokyo Area (Tokyo-Yokohama) of 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list.Tokyo is a major international finance center;NEWS,weblink Financial Centres, All shapes and sizes, October 14, 2007, The Economist, September 13, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2007, live, mdy-all,
it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.
Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.NEWS,weblink Top 3 Things to See & Do in Shibuya – Tokyo's Busiest District, Apr 13, 2017, June 9, 2017,weblink February 5, 2019, live, mdy-all, {{Failed verification|date=May 2019|reason=While the cited source supports 14 years, it does not support that they ended in 2006.}}Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London.BOOK, Sassen, Saskia, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, 2001, Princeton University Press, 2nd, 978-0-691-07063-6, Saskia Sassen, In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore and Hong Kong).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 11, 2017, The Global Financial Centres Index 21, March 2017, Long Finance, The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.WEB, Ito, Takatoshi, Melvin, Michael, NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES - JAPAN'S BIG BANG AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS,weblink, February 11, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2018, live, mdy-all, Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.WEB,weblink Tokyo Stock Exchange,, October 29, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2008, Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,WEB,weblink Statistics on Cultivated Land Area, Horticulture Statistics Team, Production Statistics Division, Statistics and Information Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, July 15, 2003, October 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2008, dead, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, ÅŒme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu ÅŒshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly for school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233).The Tsukiji Fish Market in Tokyo is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world, and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihonbashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.JOURNAL, Hannerz, Ulf, The Fish Market at the Center of the World (Review), The Journal of Japanese Studies, 2005, 31, 2, 428–431, 10.1353/jjs.2005.0044, It moved to the new Toyosu Market in October 2018.NEWS,weblink October 4, 2018, As Tokyo's historic Tsukiji market closes, fishmongers mourn, Issei, Kato, September 29, 2018, Reuters, live,weblink October 3, 2018,


File:Tokyo station from marunouchi oazo.JPG|thumb|left|Tokyo StationTokyo StationFile:HND control tower.jpg|thumb|Haneda AirportHaneda AirportFile:10000x6300 01.jpg|thumb|Tokyo Metro and Toei SubwayToei SubwayFile:Shuto expressway shibaura jct ii.jpg|thumb|Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto ExpresswayShuto ExpresswayTokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground. However, its airspace has been under the US military's exclusive rights after World War II and some flight routes are returned to Japan.Japan gets approval for new flight routes over Haneda airport using U.S. airspace {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 12, 2018 }} Japan Times Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficientWEB,weblink A Country Study: Japan, October 24, 2007, Chapter 2, Neighbourhoods, The Library of Congress,weblink May 26, 2012, live, mdy-all, trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.WEB,weblink Orientation – Tokyo Travel Guide {{!, Planetyze|website=Planetyze|language=en|access-date=July 18, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=September 10, 2017|url-status=live|df=mdy-all}}As a result of World War II, Japanese planes are forbidden to fly over Tokyo.U.S. military's Yokota Rapcon airspace is set in six different levels at altitudes between 2,450 and 7,000 meters, stretching over Tokyo and eight other prefectures. {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 12, 2018}} Japan Times Therefore, Japan constructed airports outside Tokyo. Narita International Airport in Chiba Prefecture is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well All Nippon Airways, have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport on the reclaimed land at Ōta, offers domestic and international flights.Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo,{{citation needed|date=May 2018}} which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, November 2, 2012, Revamping Tokyo's expressways could give capital a boost, October 8, 2012, Yomiuri Shimbun, Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.


{{See also|List of universities in Tokyo}}Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, Sophia University, and Keio University.WEB,weblink QS University Rankings: Asia 2016, June 13, 2016, Quacquarelli Symonds, QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2016, live, mdy-all, Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:{{Div col}} {{Div col end}}There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language, including the Globis University Graduate School of Management, International Christian University, Sophia University, and Waseda UniversityTokyo is also the headquarters of the United Nations University.Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school: File:YasudaAuditorium.jpg|Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo in BunkyōFile:Okuma lecture hall Waseda University 2007-01.jpg|Okuma Auditorium at Waseda University in ShinjukuFile:Hibiya-Highschool-00.jpg|Hibiya High School in Chiyoda


File:Nihon-Kagaku-Miraikan,Koto-ward,Tokyo,Japan.JPG|thumb|The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan"]]File:Takeshita street 2012.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Takeshita Street in HarajukuHarajukuTokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.Tokyo has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for Kabuki.Milner, Rebecca (2013). "Pocket Tokyo." 4th Edition. Lonely Planet Publications. {{ISBN|978-1-74220-581-6}} Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan.File:View of mikoshi from sensoji Sanja Matsuri 2006-3.jpg|thumb|The Sanja Festival in AsakusaAsakusaMany different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashionJOURNAL, Chris, Perry, Self-published (Scribd), Rebels on the Bridge: Subversion, Style, and the New Subculture, April 25, 2007, December 4, 2007,weblink Flash,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2007, live, mdy-all, and cosplay.Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.NEWS,weblink Tokyo 'top city for good eating', BBC News, November 20, 2007, October 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2008, live, mdy-all,


File:Tokyo Dome night.jpg|thumb|Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri GiantsYomiuri GiantsFile:Ryogoku Kokugikan Tsuriyane 05212006.jpg|thumb|left|Ryōgoku KokugikanRyōgoku KokugikanTokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence.Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami.WEB,weblinkarticles/view.aspx?pv=xqv&id=37022, Tokyo Keeps Gymnastics Worlds, Bolsters Olympics Ambitions,, May 23, 2011, December 23, 2012, dead, June 1, 2012, Tokyo also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013.

In popular culture

File:Akihabara Night.jpg|thumb|left|AkihabaraAkihabaraFile:Fuji TV headquarters and Aqua City Odaiba - 2006-05-03 edit.jpg|thumb|Fuji TVFuji TVAs the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, video games, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, (The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift), Lost in Translation, Babel, Inception, and (Avengers: Endgame).Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces.{{citation |title=BBC World Service: World Update. 'Carl Randall – Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'. |publisher=BBC World Service |year=2016 |url= |access-date=December 21, 2016 |archive-url= |archive-date=December 27, 2016 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all}}{{citation |title=BBC News. 'Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'. |publisher=BBC News – Arts & Entertainment |year=2016 |url= |access-date=July 21, 2018 |archive-url= |archive-date=February 22, 2017 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all}}{{citation |title='Tokyo Portraits by Carl Randall'. |publisher=The Daiwa Anglo Japanese Foundation, London |year=2014 |url= |access-date=December 21, 2016 |archive-url= |archive-date=December 21, 2016 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all }}{{citation |title='The BP Portrait Awards 2013'. |publisher=The National Portrait Gallery, London |year=2012 |url= |access-date=December 21, 2016 |archive-url= |archive-date=February 6, 2017 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all }}{{citation |title='Japan Portraits'. |publisher=Carl Randall – artist website |year=2016 |url= |access-date=December 21, 2016 |archive-url= |archive-date=December 21, 2016 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all}}

International relations

Tokyo is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan}}{{As of|2016}}, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:WEB,weblink Sister Cities (States) of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government, May 30, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2016, live, mdy-all, {{Div col}}
  • {{flagdeco|US}} New York City, United States (since February 1960)
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Beijing, China (since March 1979)
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Paris, France ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1982)WEB,weblink Friendship and cooperation agreements, Marie de Paris, Paris, September 10, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2016,
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984)
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988)
  • {{flagdeco|IDN}} Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989)
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990)
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Moscow, Russia (since July 1991)
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Berlin, Germany (since May 1994)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Rome, Italy ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1996)
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} London, United Kingdom (since October 2015)
{{Div col end}}

See also

{{div col}} {{div col end}}




  • Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: RoutledgeCurzon. {{ISBN|978-0-7007-1409-4}}; {{OCLC|51527561}}
  • McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-8014-2987-3}}; {{OCLC|30157716}}
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-674-01753-5}}; {{OCLC|58053128}}
  • Sorensen, Andre. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century. London: RoutledgeCurzon. {{ISBN|978-0-415-22651-6}}; {{OCLC|48517502}}

Further reading


  • Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo (City Travel Guide) (2010)
  • Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo (2013)
  • Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp
  • Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter (2012)


  • Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp.
  • Bestor, Theodore. Neighbourhood Tokyo (1989). online edition
  • Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition
  • Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) {{ISBN|0-8014-8570-3}}.
  • Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp.
  • Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp.
  • Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 553 (1996) pp. 38+.
  • Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp.
  • Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000)
  • Taira, J. [reTOKYO. (2018). San Francisco: ORO Editions.] {{ISBN|978-1-940743-66-0}}
  • Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. {{ISSN|0042-0980}} Fulltext: Ebsco

External links

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