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Dubrovnik
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{{About|a city in Croatia}}{{EngvarB|date=November 2016}}







factoids
Counties of Croatia>CountyborderDubrovnik-Neretva County>Dubrovnik-NeretvaMayor–council government>Mayor-Council|leader_title = MayorMato Franković (Croatian Democratic Union>HDZ)|leader_title1 = City Council|leader_name1 = {hide}Collapsible list|title = 25 members|frame_style= border: none; padding: 0;
|list_style=text-align:left;display:none;
|1 =• HDZ (10)
|2 =• Dustra (3)
|3 =• DDS (3)
|4 =• SDP (2)
|5 =• MOST (2)
|6 =• HNS (1)
|7 =• HSS (1)
|8 =• Independents (3)
{edih}|established_title=|established_date =|established_title2=|established_date2 =|established_title3=|established_date3 =|area_magnitude =|unit_pref = metric|area_footnotes =|area_total_km2 = 21.35|area_land_km2 = |area_water_km2 =|area_water_percent =|area_urban_km2 =|population_as_of = 2011S0981}}|population_total = 42615|population_density_km2 = auto|population_urban = 28434|population_metro = 65808|population_density_urban_km2 =Central European Time>CET|utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST|utc_offset_DST = +242251830region:HR|display=inline,title}}|elevation_footnotes= |elevation_m = 3|postal_code_type = Postal code|postal_code = HR-20 000|area_code = +385 20Vehicle registration plates of Croatia>DUweblink}}| footnotes =







factoids
(i)(iii)(iv)| ID = 95| year = 197996.7acre|abbr=on}}}}}}File:Main street-Dubrovnik-2.jpg|right|thumb|upright|Stradun, Dubrovnik's main street]](File:Dubrovnik as seen from Srđ - Detail - September 2017.jpg|right|thumb|upright|The Old Town from above)File:Casco viejo de Dubrovnik, Croacia, 2014-04-13, DD 08.JPG|thumb|right|upright|Rector's PalaceRector's PalaceFile:Casco viejo de Dubrovnik, Croacia, 2014-04-13, DD 18.JPG|thumb|right|Minčeta Tower ]](File:Casco viejo de Dubrovnik, Croacia, 2014-04-14, DD 10.JPG|thumbnail|View of the old city)Dubrovnik ({{IPA-hr|dǔbroːʋniːk|langhr|Dubrovnikpronun.ogg}};WEB,weblink Dùbrōvnīk, Hrvatski jezični portal, Croatian, 6 March 2017, historically ) is a city on the Adriatic Sea in southern Croatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites.The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling.WEB,weblink Charges over Dubrovnik bombing, Wood, Paul, 2 March 2001, bbc.co.uk, 1 March 2017, WEB,weblink Anniversary Of Attack On Dubrovnik – Just Dubrovnik, 1 October 2013, justdubrovnik.com, B.Anzulovic: Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide, NYU Press, 1999K. Morrison: Montenegro: A Modern History, I. B. Tauris, 2009Dr. Katheleen Wilkes devoted her life to the victory of Croatiaweblinkweblink Business – Serbs Retreat, Release Their Grip On Dubrovnik – But Sarajevo Attack Continues; 20 Killed – Seattle Times Newspaper, nwsource.com, New York Times, November 1991, Serbia's Spiteful War,weblink York Times, November 1992, As Siege Ends, Croats Return to Ruined City,weblink After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean.WEB,weblink Dubrovnik voted second best cruise destination in the Mediterranean – Dubrovnik VIDI Travel Guide, vidiworld.com, WEB,weblink The Most Visited Tourist Destination in Croatia in 2015 is…, WEB,weblink Top 10 Mediterranean Destinations, WEB,weblink Dubrovnik and around Guide – Croatia Travel, Rough Guides,

Names

The names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, and of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.Oleh Havrylyshyn, Nora Srzentiæ, Institutions Always 'Mattered': Explaining Prosperity in Mediaeval Ragusa (Dubrovnik), Palgrave Macmillan, 10 Dec 2014, p. 59The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin (1189).WEB,weblink Bosna, Leksikon Marina Držića, 2017, Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography and House of Marin Drzic, hr, 2 March 2017, It is mostly explained as "dubron", a Celtic name for water (Gaulish dubron, Irish dobar, Welsh dubr/dwfr, Cornish dofer), akin to the toponyms Douvres, Dover, and Tauber{{citation| editor=August Fick | author1=Whitley Stokes | author2=Adalbert Bezzenberger | title=Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen: Wortschatz der Keltischen Spracheinheit | volume=2 | entry=dubron | edition=4th | year=1894 | publisher=Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht | pages=153–154 | url=https://archive.org/details/vergleichendeswr02fick}}; or originating from a Paleo-Slavic word "dub" meaning oak. The term "dubrovnik" means the oak forest / oak woodland, just like in all other Slavic languages the word "dub" ,"dàb", means "oak" and "dubrova", "dàmbrowa"means the "oak woodland/ oak forest". This ancient Slavic name of oak/ dub/ dab we can find in every single country of the Slavic speaking world. The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν (Rhaousin, Latinized ) in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape"; from Greek ῥώξ, ῥωγός "narrow passage"; Greek ῥωγάς "ragged (of rocks)", ῥαγή (ῥαγάς) "fissure"; from the name of the Epirote tribe of the Rhogoi, from an unidentified Illyrian substrate. A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has also been proposed. Putanec (1993) gives a review of etymological suggestion, and favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek ("Pelasgian"), from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa also found in the Greek name of Brač, Elaphousa.JOURNAL, Valentin, Putanec,weblink Naziv Labusedum iz 11. st. za grad Dubrovnik, Rasprave, Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics, June 1993, 19, hr, 289–301, PDF, 2 March 2017, The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio (10th century). According to this account, Ragusa (Ῥαούσιν) is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia), a Greek city situated some {{cvt|15|km|0}} to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century. The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built (connected by Constantine to Greek λᾶας "rock, stone").

History

Origins

According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio ({{circa}} 950), Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, named after a "rocky island" called Lausa, by refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia), a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions.BOOK,weblink Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic; or Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria, Volume 1, Andrew Archibald Paton, 1862, Trübner and Co., London, Chapter 9: Ragusa, 218, 2016-02-10, Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls.The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time.There is also evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era.ZBORNIK.indd (2009) {{page needed|date=February 2017}}Antun Ničetić, in his 1996 book (), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors,{{citation needed|date=March 2017}} as a station halfway between the two Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, {{convert|95|nmi|km mi}} apart from each other.

Republic of Ragusa

File:Dubrovnik - Croatia.jpg|thumb| left | Medieval fortresses, LovrijenacLovrijenac(File:Dubrovnik 1667.jpg|thumb|Dubrovnik before the earthquake in 1667)After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population.WEB,weblink Picasa Web Albums – Dick ⁶– Dubrovnik, Cr..., 31 March 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100331180610weblink">weblink 31 March 2010, In 12th and 13th centuries Dubrovnik became a truly oligarchic republic, and benefited greatly by becoming a commercial outpost for the rising and prosperous Serbian state, especially after the signing of a treaty with Stefan the First-Crowned.The Birth of Yugoslavia by Henry Baerlein After the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice (1205–1358), which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. In 1240, Ragusa purchased the island of Lastovo from Stefan Uroš I king of Serbia who had rights over the island as ruler of parts of Hum.Dubrovnik:A History by Robin Harris, chapter "Territorial expansion" After a fire destroyed most of the city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed.Dubrovnik: A History, page 289, Robin Harris, Saqi Books, 2006. {{ISBN|978-0-86356-959-3}}Dubrovnik, 2nd: The Bradt City Guide, page 7, Piers Letcher, Robin McKelvie, Jenny McKelvie, Bradt Travel Guides, 2007. {{ISBN|978-1-84162-191-3}}Dubrovnik, page 25, Volume 581 of Variorum collected studies series, Bariša Krekić, Variorum, 1997. {{ISBN|978-0-86078-631-3}} By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ragusa experienced further expansion when, in 1333, Serbian emperor Stefan Dušan, sold Pelješac and Ston in exchange for cash and an annual tributeThe Late Medieval Balkans by John V. A. Fine and John Van Antwerp Fine, page 268 at the moment when her connection with the rest of Europe, especially Italy, brought her into the full current of the Western Renaissance.Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina on Foot During the Insurrection by Sir Arthur Evans, pages 416 and 417Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a tributary from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan.Pitcher, Donald Edgar. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire, Leiden: Brill, 1968, p. 70 The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was itself the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic. This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria-Germany): starting in Dubrovnik it went on to Ancona, through Florence and ended in Flanders [//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Repubbliche_marinare_-_fondachi_anconitani.png as seen on this map].The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs. The Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine (for sanitary reasons).BOOK, Naprijed, Naklada, Zagreb, The Croatian Adriatic Tourist Guide, 354, July 1999, Radovinovic, Radovan, 953-178-097-8, The Republic was an early adopter of what are now regarded as modern laws and institutions: a medical service was introduced in 1301, with the first pharmacy, still operating to this day, being opened in 1317. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital (Lazarete) was established in 1377. Slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} water supply system, instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava. He completed the aqueduct with two public fountains. He also built a number of mills along one of its branches.The city was ruled by the local aristocracy which was of Latin-Dalmatian extraction and formed two city councils. As usual for the time, they maintained a strict system of social classes. The republic abolished the slave trade early in the 15th century and valued liberty highly. The city successfully balanced its sovereignty between the interests of Venice and the Ottoman Empire for centuries.The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and common Croatian. The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little from the 11th century among the common inhabitants of the city. Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in Dubrovnik. At the same time, Dubrovnik became a cradle of Croatian literature.(File:Onofrio's Fountain, Dubrovnik, Croatia.JPG|thumb|right|Big Onofrio's fountain (1438))The economic wealth of the Republic was partially the result of the land it developed, but especially of seafaring trade. With the help of skilled diplomacy, Dubrovnik merchants travelled lands freely and the city had a huge fleet of merchant ships ((wiktionary:argosy|argosy)) that travelled all over the world. From these travels they founded some settlements, from India to America, and brought parts of their culture and flora home with them. One of its keys to success was not conquering, but trading and sailing under a white flag with the word (freedom) prominently featured on it. The flag was adopted when slave trading was abolished in 1418.Many Conversos, Jews from Spain and Portugal, were attracted to the city. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. During this time there worked in the city one of the most famous cannon and bell founders of his time: Ivan Rabljanin (Magister Johannes Baptista Arbensis de la Tolle). Already in 1571 Dubrovnik sold its protectorate over some Christian settlements in other parts of the Ottoman Empire to France and Venice. At that time there was also a colony of Dubrovnik in Fes in Morocco. The bishop of Dubrovnik was a Cardinal protector in 1571. At that time there were only 16 other countries which had Cardinal protectors; those being France, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Poland, England, Scotland, Ireland, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, Lucca, Greece, Illyria, Armenia and Lebanon.(File:Ragusa.png|thumb|left|Territory of the Republic before 1808)The Republic gradually declined due to a combination of a Mediterranean shipping crisis and the catastrophic earthquake of 1667Husebye, Eystein Sverre. Earthquake Monitoring and Seismic Hazard Mitigation in Balkan Countries which killed over 5,000 citizens, levelled most of the public buildings and, consequently, negatively impacted the whole well-being of the Republic. In 1699, the Republic was forced to sell two mainland patches of its territory to the Ottomans in order to avoid being caught in the clash with advancing Venetian forces. Today this strip of land belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina and is that country's only direct access to the Adriatic. A highlight of Dubrovnik's diplomacy was the involvement in the American Revolution.Dubrovnik and the American Revolution: Francesco Favi's Letters, Francesco Favi, ed. by Wayne S. Vucinich, Ragusan Press, 1977.On 27 May 1806, the forces of the Empire of France occupied the neutral Republic of Ragusa. Upon entering Ragusan territory without permission and approaching the capital, the French General Jacques Lauriston demanded that his troops be allowed to rest and be provided with food and drink in the city before continuing on to take possession of their holdings in the Bay of Kotor. However, this was a deception because as soon as they entered the city, they proceeded to occupy it in the name of Napoleon.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=187-189}} Almost immediately after the beginning of the French occupation, Russian and Montenegrin troops entered Ragusan territory and began fighting the French army, raiding and pillaging everything along the way and culminating in a siege of the occupied city (during which 3,000 cannonballs fell on the city).{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=240-241,247}} In 1808 Marshal Marmont issued a proclamation abolishing the Republic of Ragusa and amalgamating its territory into the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. Marmont claimed the newly created title of "Duke of Ragusa" (Duc de Raguse) and in 1810 Ragusa, together with Istria and Dalmatia, went to the newly created French Illyrian Provinces.After seven years of French occupation, encouraged by the desertion of French soldiers after the failed invasion of Russia and the reentry of Austria in the war, all the social classes of the Ragusan people rose up in a general insurrection, led by the patricians, against the Napoleonic invaders.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=147}} On 18 June 1813, together with British forces they forced the surrender of the French garrison of the island of Šipan, soon also the heavily fortified town of Ston and the island of Lopud, after which the insurrection spread throughout the mainland, starting with Konavle.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=150-154}} They then laid siege to the occupied city, helped by the British Royal Navy, who had enjoyed unopposed domination over the Adriatic sea, under the command of Captain William Hoste, with his ships HMS Bacchante and {{HMS|Saracen|1812|6}}. Soon the population inside the city joined the insurrection.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=191}} The Austrian Empire sent a force under General Todor Milutinović offering to help their Ragusan allies.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=172-173}} However, as was soon shown, their intention was to in fact replace the French occupation of Ragusa with their own. Seducing one of the temporary governors of the Republic, Biagio Bernardo Caboga, with promises of power and influence (which were later cut short and who died in ignominy, branded as a traitor by his people), they managed to convince him to keep the gate to the east closed to the Ragusan forces and to let Austrian forces enter the City from the west, once the French garrison of 500 troops under General Joseph de Montrichard had surrendered.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=194}}After this, the Flag of Saint Blaise was flown alongside the Austrian and British colors, but only for two days because, on 30 January, General Milutinović ordered Mayor Sabo Giorgi to lower it. Overwhelmed by a feeling of deep patriotic pride, Giorgi, the last Rector of the Republic, refused to do so "for the masses had hoisted it". Subsequent events proved that Austria took every possible opportunity to invade the entire coast of the eastern Adriatic, from Venice to Kotor. The Austrians did everything in their power to eliminate the Ragusa issue at the Congress of Vienna. Ragusan representative Miho Bona, elected at the last meeting of the Major Council, was denied participation in the Congress, while Milutinović, prior to the final agreement of the allies, assumed complete control of the city.JOURNAL, Dubrovnik Under French Rule (1810–1814), Stjepan, Ćosić,weblink PDF, Dubrovnik Annals, 2000, 4, 103–142, 11 September 2009, {{rp|141–142}}Regardless of the fact that the government of the Ragusan Republic never signed any capitulation nor relinquished its sovereignty, which according to the rules of Klemens von Metternich that Austria adopted for the Vienna Congress should have meant that the Republic would be restored, the Austrian Empire managed to convince the other allies to allow it to keep the territory of the Republic.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=208-210}} While many smaller and less significant cities and former countries were permitted an audience, that right was refused to the representative of the Ragusan Republic.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=270-272}} All of this was in blatant contradiction to the solemn treaties that the Austrian Emperors signed with the Republic: the first on 20 August 1684, in which Leopold I promises and guarantees inviolate liberty ("inviolatam libertatem") to the Republic, and the second in 1772, in which the Empress Maria Theresa promises protection and respect of the inviolability of the freedom and territory of the Republic.{{sfn|Vojnović|2009|p=217-218}}.

Languages

The official language until 1472 was Latin. The language spoken by much of the population was Croatian, typically referred to in Dubrovnik's historical documents simply as "Slavic" and often written in Cyrillic in official chancellory documents, owing to the cultural influence of neighboring Serbian states.BOOK, J. Fine, When Ethnicity Didn't Matter,weblink 155-156, Archeologists have also discovered medieval Glagolitic tablets near Dubrovnik, such as the Inscription of Župa Dubrovačka, indicating that the Glagolitic script was also likely once used in the city. The Italian language as spoken in the republic was heavily influenced by the Venetian language and the Tuscan dialect. Italian took root among the Dalmatian-speaking merchant upper classes, as a result of Venetian influence.WEB,weblink La presenza italiana in Dalmazia, 1866–1943, 1996, Tesi di Laurea, Facoltà di Scienze politiche – Università degli studi di Milano, Marzio, Scaglioni, 2010-09-14,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100914232053weblink">weblink 2010-02-17, it, yes,

Austrian rule

When the Habsburg Empire annexed these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the new authorities implemented a bureaucratic administration, established the Kingdom of Dalmatia, which had its own Sabor (Diet) or Parliament, based in the city of Zadar, and political parties such as the Autonomist Party and the People's Party. They introduced a series of modifications intended to slowly centralise the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structure. These steps largely failed, despite the intention of wanting to stimulate the economy. Once the personal, political and economic damage of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganisation of the Adriatic along national lines. {{Citation needed|date=November 2008}}The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movement claiming ethnicity as the founding block toward a community—posed a particularly perplexing problem: Dalmatia was a province ruled by the German-speaking Habsburg monarchy, with bilingual (Serbo-Croatian- and Italian-speaking) elites that dominated the general population consisting of a Slavic Catholic majority, as well as a Slavic Orthodox minority. Further complicating matters was the reality that increased emphases on ethnic identification in the nineteenth century did not break down along religious lines, as evident in the Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik. (File:Libertas.svg|thumb|right|The "Libertas" Flag of Dubrovnik)In 1815, the former Dubrovnik Government (its noble assembly) met for the last time in Ljetnikovac in Mokošica. Once again, extreme measures were taken to re-establish the Republic, but it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy was recognised by the Austrian Empire.In 1832, Baron Šišmundo Getaldić-Gundulić (Sigismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola) (1795–1860) was elected Mayor of Dubrovnik, serving for 13 years; the Austrian government granted him the title of "Baron".Count Rafael Pucić (Raffaele Pozza), (1828–1890) was elected for first time Podestà of Dubrovnik in the year 1869 after this was re-elected in 1872, 1875, 1882, 1884) and elected twice into the Dalmatian Council, 1870, 1876. The victory of the Nationalists in Split in 1882 strongly affected in the areas of Korčula and Dubrovnik. It was greeted by the mayor (podestà) of Dubrovnik Rafael Pucić, the National Reading Club of Dubrovnik, the Workers Association of Dubrovnik and the review "Slovinac"; by the communities of Kuna and Orebić, the latter one getting the nationalist government even before Split.File:Fran Gundulic2.JPG|thumb|right|Unveiling of the Gundulić monumentUnveiling of the Gundulić monumentIn 1889, the Serb-Catholics circle supported Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, the candidate of the Autonomous Party, vs the candidate of Popular Party Vlaho de Giulli, in the 1890 election to the Dalmatian Diet.BOOK, Trudna tożsamość: problemy narodowościowe i religijne w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej w XIX i XX wieku,weblink 1996, Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodnej, 978-83-85854-17-3, The following year, during the local government election, the Autonomous Party won the municipal re-election with Francesco Gondola, who died in power in 1899. The alliance won the election again on 27 May 1894. Frano Getaldić-Gundulić founded the Società Philately on 4 December 1890.In 1905, the Committee for establishing electric tram service, headed by Luko Bunić – certainly one of the most deserving persons who contributed to the realisation of the project – was established. Other members of the Committee were Ivo Papi, Miho Papi, Artur Saraka, Mato Šarić, Antun Pugliesi, Mato Gracić, Ivo Degiulli, Ernest Katić and Antun Milić.WEB, Tramway in Dubrovnik, Croatian Post,weblink posta.hr, 2017-03-02,weblink 2017-03-03, yes, The tram service in Dubrovnik existed from 1910 to 1970.Pero Čingrija (1837–1921), one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia,WEB,weblink Dvije pobjede don Ive Prodana na izborima za Carevinsko vijeće u Beču, played the main role in the merger of the People's Party and the Party of Right into a single Croatian Party in 1905.

1918–1991

With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Dubrovnik became one of the 33 oblasts of the Kingdom. When in 1929 Yugoslavia was divided among 9 Banovina, the city became part of the Zeta Banovina. In 1939 Dubrovnik became part of the newly created Banovina of Croatia.During World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Yugoslav Partisans occupied Dubrovnik, arresting more than 300 citizens and executing 53 without trial; this event came to be known, after the small island on which it occurred, as the Daksa Massacre.Pleasance, Chris, "Would You Pay £1.7m for the Island of Death?", Mail Online; accessed 4 December 2015."6 Uninhabited and Mysterious Islands with Bizarre Pasts", The Daily Star, 28 October 2015. Communist leadership during the next several years continued political prosecutions, which culminated on 12 April 1947 with the capture and imprisonment of more than 90 citizens of Dubrovnik.Politički zatvorenik WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-02-06, yes,weblink 2012-03-07, Retrieved 16 January 2012Under communism Dubrovnik became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1979, the city joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

Since 1991: Breakup of Yugoslavia and its aftermath

(File:Dubrovnik shelling.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Dubrovnik shelling (black dots) 1991 to 1992)In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed Republic of Croatia.Despite demilitarisation of the old town in early 1970s in an attempt to prevent it from ever becoming a casualty of war, following Croatia's independence in 1991 Yugoslavia's Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), by then composed primarily of Serbs, attacked the city. The new Croatian government set up military outpost in the city itself. Montenegro, led by president Momir Bulatović, and prime minister Milo Đukanović, coming to power in the Anti-bureaucratic revolution and allied to Slobodan Milošević in Serbia, declared that Dubrovnik should not remain in Croatia because they claimed it historically had never been part of an independent Croatia, but rather more historically aligned with the coastal history of Montenegro.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} Be that as it may, at the time most residents of Dubrovnik had come to identify as Croatian, with self-identified Serbs accounting for 6.8 percent of the population.WEB,weblink Reckoning: The 1991 Siege of Dubrovnik and the Consequences of the “War for Peace”, Yorku.ca, York University, Srđa Pavlović, 2017-03-02, On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik was attacked by JNA with a siege of Dubrovnik that lasted for seven months. The heaviest artillery attack was on December 6 with 19 people killed and 60 wounded. The number of casualties in the conflict, according to Croatian Red Cross, was 114 killed civilians, among them poet Milan Milišić. Foreign newspapers were criticised for placing heavier attention on the damage suffered by the old town than on human casualties.JOURNAL, Joseph, Pearson, Dubrovnik's Artistic Patrimony, and its Role in War Reporting (1991), European History Quarterly, 40, 2, 197–216, 2010,weblink Nonetheless, the artillery attacks on Dubrovnik damaged 56% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, a UNESCO world heritage site, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds.WEB, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,weblink Chronology for Serbs in Croatia, 2004, January 5, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120324123228weblink">weblink March 24, 2012, The Croatian Army lifted the siege in May 1992, and liberated Dubrovnik's surroundings by the end of October, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Dubrovnik Finds Hint of Deja Vu in Serbian Artillery, Raymond Bonner, August 17, 1995, December 18, 2010, Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Adhering to UNESCO guidelines, repairs were performed in the original style. Most of the reconstruction work was done between 1995 and 1999.WEB,weblink Pregled obnovljenih objekata, zod.hr, Institute for the Restoration of Dubrovnik, Croatian, 13 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150508013337weblink">weblink May 8, 2015, The inflicted damage can be seen on a chart near the city gate, showing all artillery hits during the siege, and is clearly visible from high points around the city in the form of the more brightly coloured new roofs. ICTY indictments were issued for JNA generals and officers involved in the bombing.General Pavle Strugar, who coordinated the attack on the city, was sentenced to a seven-and-a-half-year prison term by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for his role in the attack.WEB,weblink Case information sheet: "DUBROVNIK" (IT-01-42) Pavle Strugar, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, 27 March 2015, The 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash, near Dubrovnik Airport, killed everyone on a United States Air Force jet with United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown, The New York Times Frankfurt Bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash and 33 other people.

Geography

Climate

{{climate chart|Dubrovnik (Dubrovnik, City of Dubrovnik)|6.6|12.3|98.3|6.8|12.6|97.9|8.5|14.5|93.1|11.0|17.0|91.4|15.3|21.5|70.1|18.9|25.3|44.0|21.4|28.2|28.3|21.6|28.5|72.5|18.4|25.1|86.1|14.9|21.1|120.1|10.7|16.6|142.3|7.8|13.4|119.8|float=right|source=Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service}}Dubrovnik has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than {{convert|40|mm|1|abbr=on}} of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. Dubrovnik has hot, muggy, moderately dry summers and mild to cool wet winters. The bora wind blows cold gusts down the Adriatic coast between October and April, and thundery conditions are common all the year round, even in summer, when they interrupt the warm, sunny days. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Typically, in July and August daytime maximum temperatures reach {{convert|28|°C}}, and at night drop to around {{convert|23|°C}}. In Spring and Autumn maximum temperatures are typically between {{convert|20|°C}} and {{convert|28|°C|0}}. Winters are among the mildest of any Croatian city, with daytime temperatures around {{convert|13|°C}} in the coldest months. Snow in Dubrovnik is very rare.
  • Air temperature
    • average annual: {{convert|16.4|°C|°F|abbr=on}}
    • average of coldest period: January, {{convert|10|°C|°F|abbr=on}}
    • average of warmest period: August, {{convert|25.8|°C|°F|abbr=on}}
  • Sea temperature
    • average May–September: {{convert|18.7|-|25.5|C|F}}
  • Salinity
    • approximately 3.8%
  • Precipitation
    • average annual: {{cvt|1,020.8|mm|in|2}}
    • average annual rain days: 109.2
  • Sunshine
    • average annual: 2629 hours
    • average daily hours: 7.2 hours
{{Weather box|location=Dubrovnik (1971–2000, extremes 1961–2019)|metric first=yes|single line=yes| Jan record high C = 18.4| Feb record high C = 24.1| Mar record high C = 26.8| Apr record high C = 30.2| May record high C = 32.9| Jun record high C = 37.3| Jul record high C = 37.9| Aug record high C = 38.4| Sep record high C = 33.5| Oct record high C = 30.5| Nov record high C = 25.4| Dec record high C = 20.3|year record high C = 38.4| Jan high C = 12.3| Feb high C = 12.6| Mar high C = 14.4| Apr high C = 16.9| May high C = 21.5| Jun high C = 25.3| Jul high C = 28.2| Aug high C = 28.5| Sep high C = 25.1| Oct high C = 21.1| Nov high C = 16.6| Dec high C = 13.4|year high C = 19.7| Jan mean C = 9.2| Feb mean C = 9.4| Mar mean C = 11.1| Apr mean C = 13.8| May mean C = 18.3| Jun mean C = 22.0| Jul mean C = 24.6| Aug mean C = 24.8| Sep mean C = 21.4| Oct mean C = 17.6| Nov mean C = 13.3| Dec mean C = 10.3|year mean C = 16.3| Jan low C = 6.6| Feb low C = 6.8| Mar low C = 8.4| Apr low C = 11.0| May low C = 15.3| Jun low C = 18.9| Jul low C = 21.4| Aug low C = 21.6| Sep low C = 18.4| Oct low C = 14.9| Nov low C = 10.7| Dec low C = 7.8|year low C = 13.5| Jan record low C = -7.0| Feb record low C = -5.2| Mar record low C = -4.2| Apr record low C = 1.6| May record low C = 5.2| Jun record low C = 10.0| Jul record low C = 14.1| Aug record low C = 14.1| Sep record low C = 8.5| Oct record low C = 4.5| Nov record low C = -1.0| Dec record low C = -6.0|year record low C = -7.0|precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 98.3| Feb precipitation mm = 97.9| Mar precipitation mm = 93.1| Apr precipitation mm = 91.4| May precipitation mm = 70.1| Jun precipitation mm = 44.0| Jul precipitation mm = 28.3| Aug precipitation mm = 72.5| Sep precipitation mm = 86.1| Oct precipitation mm = 120.1| Nov precipitation mm = 142.3| Dec precipitation mm = 119.8|year precipitation mm = 1064.0|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm| Jan precipitation days = 11.2| Feb precipitation days = 11.2| Mar precipitation days = 11.2| Apr precipitation days = 12.0| May precipitation days = 9.4| Jun precipitation days = 6.4| Jul precipitation days = 4.7| Aug precipitation days = 5.1| Sep precipitation days = 7.2| Oct precipitation days = 10.8| Nov precipitation days = 12.4| Dec precipitation days = 12.0|year precipitation days = 113.6| Jan humidity = 59.9| Feb humidity = 58.4| Mar humidity = 61.2| Apr humidity = 64.2| May humidity = 66.7| Jun humidity = 63.8| Jul humidity = 58.2| Aug humidity = 59.2| Sep humidity = 61.9| Oct humidity = 62.2| Nov humidity = 62.4| Dec humidity = 60.3|year humidity = 61.5| Jan sun = 130.2| Feb sun = 144.1| Mar sun = 179.8| Apr sun = 207.0| May sun = 266.6| Jun sun = 312.0| Jul sun = 347.2| Aug sun = 325.5| Sep sun = 309.0| Oct sun = 189.1| Nov sun = 135.0| Dec sun = 124.0| source 1 = Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological ServiceWEB,weblink Dubrovnik Climate Normals, 14 January 2016, Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190111041622weblink">weblink 11 January 2019,weblink Monthly values and extremes: Values for Dubrovnik in 1961–2017 period, Croatian, 10 January 2019, Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, }}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Dubrovnik!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average sea temperature °C (°F)14.1(57.4)14.2(57.6)14.4(57.9)15.6(60.1)18.7(65.7)23.1(73.6)25.5(77.9)25.4(77.7)24.3(75.7)20.7(69.3)18.2(64.8)15.7(60.3)19.2(66.5)!Mean daily daylight hours9.011.012.013.015.015.015.014.012.011.010.09.012.2!Average Ultraviolet index1245789864214.8!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather AtlasWEB,weblink Dubrovnik, Croatia – Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, 3 February 2019,

Heritage









factoids
The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a 45-day-long cultural event with live plays, concerts, and games. It has been awarded a Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade Leaders Club.The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice. One of the larger churches in city is named after Saint Blaise.February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days.WEB,weblink DUBROVNIK news, 21 October 2007, archive.org, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071021141211weblink">weblink 2007-10-21, (File:Lapad - poluotok.JPG|thumb|left|Lapad peninsula)(File:Banje beach, Dubrovnik, Croatia.JPG|thumb|left|Banje beach, Dubrovnik)The Old Town of Dubrovnik is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.WEB,weblink 50 kuna, 31 January 2015, hnb.hr, Croatian National Bank, 6 March 2017, The city boasts many old buildings, such as the Arboretum Trsteno, the oldest arboretum in the world, which dates back to before 1492. Also, the third-oldest European pharmacy and the oldest still in operation, having been founded in 1317, is in Dubrovnik, at the Little Brothers monastery.WEB,weblink Monuments (1 to 5),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100714090903weblink">weblink 2010-07-14, 2010-02-16, Dubrovnik Online, yes, In history, many Conversos (Marranos) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. Another admirer of Dubrovnik, George Bernard Shaw, visited the city in 1929 and said: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."WEB,weblink TZ Seget – Dubrovnik, tz-seget.hr, WEB,weblink Eastern Europe: Where Is Eastern Europe?, aventalearning.com, In the bay of Dubrovnik is the {{convert|72|ha|adj=on}} wooded island of Lokrum, where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart, King of England, was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden, monastery and naturist beach.Among the many tourist destinations are a few beaches. Banje, Dubrovnik's main public beach, is home to the Eastwest Beach Club. There is also Copacabana Beach, a stony beach on the Lapad peninsula,BOOK,weblink Frommer's Croatia, Karen Tormé Olson, Sanja Bazulic Olson, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, 57–58, 0-7645-9898-8, 27 October 2009, named after the popular beach in Rio de Janeiro.By 2018, the city had to take steps to reduce the excessive number of tourists, especially in the Old Town. One method to moderate the overcrowding was to stagger the arrival/departure times of cruise ships to spread the number of visitors more evenly during the week.WEB,weblink Has Dubrovnik solved the problem of overcrowding from cruise ships?, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph,

Old City Gallery

File:Dubrovnik D81 4031 (37941839474).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4033 (24787187028).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4034 (37941824154).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4070 (38659653661).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4072 (24787085488).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4074 (24787079488).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4075 (38627409632).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4076 (37941725314).jpg|(File:Mediterranes Panorama Altstadt von Dubrovnik Ansicht von Osten Hrvatska Kroatien - Foto Wolfgang Pehlemann DSC05194.jpg|thumb|center|1000px|Mediterranean panorama of the complete old city of Dubrovnik including city walls and fortifications (photo view from the east))

Important monuments

File:Dubrovnik - roofs.JPG|thumb|right|Rooftops in Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage Site(File:Old City of Dubrovnik-108792.jpg|thumb|right|Remote view of Dubrovnik Cathedral)(File:Bokar.jpg|thumb|right|Bokar fortress)(File:Dalmatia IMG 9840 dubrovnik.JPG|thumb|Aerial view of Dubrovnik from the southwest)Few of Dubrovnik's Renaissance buildings survived the earthquake of 1667 but enough remained to give an idea of the city's architectural heritage.WEB,weblink Dubrovnik Sights, Croatia Traveller,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100227091537weblink">weblink 2010-02-27, 2010-02-16, Oliver, Jeanne, yes, The finest Renaissance highlight is the Sponza Palace which dates from the 16th century and is currently used to house the National Archives.WEB,weblink Sponza Palace, DubrovnikCity.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100414012417weblink">weblink 2010-04-14, 2010-02-16, yes, The Rector's Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure that displays finely carved capitals and an ornate staircase. It now houses a museum.WEB,weblink The Rector's Palace,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090527112425weblink">weblink 2009-05-27, 2010-02-16, DubrovnikCity.com, yes, WEB,weblink The Rector's Palace,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611210820weblink">weblink Dubrovnik Guide, 2010-06-11, 2010-02-16, yes, Its façade is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002. The St. Saviour Church is another remnant of the Renaissance period, next to the much-visited Franciscan Church and Monastery.WEB,weblink Franciscan monastery,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611210754weblink">weblink Dubrovnik Guide, 2010-06-11, 2010-02-16, yes, WEB,weblink Franciscan Friary, Dubrovnik,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100117091038weblink">weblink 2010-01-17, 2010-02-16, Sacred Destinations, yes, The Franciscan monastery's library possesses 30,000 volumes, 216 incunabula, 1,500 valuable handwritten documents. Exhibits include a 15th-century silver-gilt cross and silver thurible, and an 18th-century crucifix from Jerusalem, a martyrology (1541) by Bemardin Gucetic and illuminated psalters.Dubrovnik's most beloved church is St Blaise's church, built in the 18th century in honour of Dubrovnik's patron saint. Dubrovnik's Baroque Cathedral was built in the 18th century and houses an impressive Treasury with relics of Saint Blaise. The city's Dominican Monastery resembles a fortress on the outside but the interior contains an art museum and a Gothic-Romanesque church.WEB,weblink Church of St. Blaise, Dubrovnik,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100120024503weblink">weblink 2010-01-20, 2010-02-16, Sacred Destinations, yes, WEB,weblink Monuments (16 to 20),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100714093315weblink">weblink 2010-07-14, 2010-02-16, Dubrovnik Online, yes, A special treasure of the Dominican monastery is its library with 216 incunabula, numerous illustrated manuscripts, a rich archive with precious manuscripts and documents and an extensive art collection.WEB,weblink Dominican Friary, Dubrovnik,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100102080947weblink">weblink 2010-01-02, 2010-02-16, Sacred Destinations, yes, WEB,weblink Dominican Monastery,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100104014716weblink">weblink Croatia Traveller, Oliver, Jeanne, 2010-01-04, 2010-02-16, yes, WEB,weblink Monuments (21 To 22),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090725060316weblink">weblink Dubrovnik Online, 2009-07-25, 2010-02-16, yes, The Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava completed the aqueduct with two public fountains, both built in 1438. Close to the Pile Gate stands the Big Onofrio's Fountain in the middle of a small square. It may have been inspired by the former Romanesque baptistry of the former cathedral in Bunić Square. The sculptural elements were lost in the earthquake of 1667. Water jets gush out of the mouth of the sixteen mascarons. The Little Onofrio's Fountain stands at the eastern side of the Placa, supplying water the market place in the Luža Square. The sculptures ware made by the Milanese artist Pietro di Martino (who also sculpted the ornaments in the Rector's Palace and made a statue – now lost – for the Franciscan church).The {{convert|31|m|ft|adj=mid|-high}} bell tower, built in 1444, is one of the symbols of the free city state of Ragusa. It was built by the local architects Grubačević, Utišenović and Radončić. It was rebuilt in 1929 as it had lost its stability through an earthquake and was in danger of falling. The brass face of the clock shows the phases of the moon. Two human figures strike the bell every hour. The tower stands next to the House of the Main Guard, also built in Gothic style. It was the residence of the admiral, commander-in-chief of the army. The Baroque portal was built between 1706 and 1708 by the Venetian architect Marino Gropelli (who also built St Blaise's church).In 1418, the Republic of Ragusa, as Dubrovnik was then named, erected a statue of Roland (Ital. Orlando) as a symbol of loyalty to Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368–1437), King of Hungary and Croatia (as of 1387), Prince-Elector of Brandenburg (between 1378 and 1388 and again between 1411 and 1415), German King (as of 1411), King of Bohemia (as of 1419) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (as of 1433), who helped by a successful war alliance against Venice to retain Ragusa's independence. It stands in the middle of Luža Square. Roland statues were typical symbols of city autonomy or independence, often erected under Sigismund in his Electorate of Brandenburg. In 1419 the sculptor Bonino of Milano, with the help of local craftsmen, replaced the first Roland with the present Gothic statue. Its forearm was for a long time the unit of measure in Dubrovnik: one ell of Dubrovnik is equal to {{convert|51.2|cm|1|abbr=on}}.

Monuments Gallery

File:Dubrovnik D81 3977 (38603495616).jpg|Big Onofrio's fountainFile:Dubrovnik D81 4017 (37941866864).jpg|Main street DubrovnikFile:Dubrovnik D81 4021 (38659772061).jpg|Old city of DubrovnikFile:Saint Blaise's Church, Dubrovnik - September 2017.jpg|Saint Blaise's ChurchFile:Saint Ignatius Church, Dubrovnik - September 2017.jpg|Saint Ignatius ChurchFile:Main street-Dubrovnik-1.jpg|Main street-DubrovnikFile:2011 Dubrownik, Mury miejskie.jpg|Mury miejskieFile:2011 Dubrownik, Fasada kościoła (02).jpg|Fasada kościołaFile:2011 Dubrownik, Brama Pile (02).jpg|Brama Pile

Walls of Dubrovnik

A feature of Dubrovnik is its walls (1.3 million visitors in 2018), which run almost {{convert|2|km|mi|abbr=off}} around the city. The walls are {{convert|4|to(-)|6|m|ft|0|abbr=off}} thick on the landward side but are much thinner on the seaward side. The system of turrets and towers were intended to protect the vulnerable city. The walls of Dubrovnik have also been a popular filming location for the fictional city of King's Landing in the HBO television series, Game of Thrones.WEB,weblink Dubrovnik's Walls,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100104014840weblink">weblink 2010-01-04, 2010-02-16, Croatia Traveller, Oliver, Jeanne, yes,

Walls of Dubrovnik Gallery

File:Dubrovnik D81 4047 (26883590299).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4053 (38603397226).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4055 (38627453362).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4060 (37941777074).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4071 (38627424862).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4082 (37941710004).jpg|

Demographics

{{Historical populations|title = Historical populations of Dubrovnik|shading = off|source = Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 20051566615329173841839616719204202177824296277933562846025515974377042615}}File:Dubrovnik-F.Tudjman-Bridge.jpg|thumb|right|Franjo Tuđman Bridge (Dubrovnik)Franjo Tuđman Bridge (Dubrovnik)The total population of the city is 42,615 (census 2011), in the following settlements:{{Croatian Census 2011|S|19|0981}}{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}The population was 42,615 in 2011, down from 49,728 in 1991WEB
,weblink
, Encyclopedia, Dubrovnik
, A&E Television Networks, History.com
, Funk & Wagnalls' New Encyclopedia. World Almanac Education Group
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071024083306weblink">weblink
, 2007-10-24
, 2010-02-14
, yes
,
, In the 2011 census, 90.34% of the population identified as Croat.{{Croatian Census 2011|E|19}}

Transport

File:Croatia dbv 3.JPG|thumb|right|(Dubrovnik Airport]] is the third busiest airport in Croatia.WEB,weblink Dubrovnik Airport: providing essential tourism support for a region. Croatia Airlines' 3rd base, 22 August 2016, centreforaviation.com, 15 March 2017, )Dubrovnik has its own international airport, located approximately {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} southeast of Dubrovnik city centre, near ÄŒilipi. Buses connect the airport with the Dubrovnik old main bus station in Gruž. In addition, a network of modern, local buses connects all Dubrovnik neighbourhoods running frequently from dawn to midnight. However, Dubrovnik, unlike Croatia's other major centres, is not accessible by rail;WEB,weblink Transportation Rail, 20 June 2009, Dubrovnik Online, until 1975 Dubrovnik was connected to Mostar and Sarajevo by a narrow gauge railway (760 mm)WEB,weblink Dubrovnik to Sarajevo 1965, 27 September 2011, Charlie Lewis, WEB,weblink Dubrovnik to Capljina in 1972, 27 September 2011, Jim Horsford, built during the Austro-Hungarian rule of Bosnia.The A1 highway, in use between Zagreb and Ploče, is planned to be extended all the way to Dubrovnik. Because the area around the city is disconnected from the rest of Croatian territory, the highway will either cross the PeljeÅ¡ac Bridge whose construction is in preparation as of 2018,WEB,weblink The examination of the seabed started, China Road and Bridge Corporation, 23 August 2018, 19 November 2018, or run through Neum in Bosnia and Herzegovina and continue to Dubrovnik.

Harbor Gallery

File:Dubrovnik D81 4063 (37941768604).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4064 (37941760574).jpg|File:Dubrovnik D81 4069 (37772024035).jpg|

Education

Dubrovnik has a number of higher educational institutions. These include the University of Dubrovnik, the Libertas University (Dubrovnik International University), Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia (former American College of Management and Technology), a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb, and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

Notable people

Sister cities

{{Refimprove section|date=April 2017}}{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia}}Dubrovnik is twinned with:{|class="wikitable" valign="top"|
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Ravenna, Italy (since 1967)WEB,weblink Dubrovnik Sister Cities, thedubrovniktimes.com, 2017-03-06,
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Vukovar, Croatia (since 1993)WEB,weblink Gradovi prijatelji, Grad Vukovar, vukovar.hr, 2011, 28 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008063907weblink">weblink October 8, 2011,
  • {{flagicon|AUT}} Graz, Austria (since 1994)WEB,weblink Twin Towns – Graz Online – English Version, www.graz.at, 2010-01-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091108153010weblink">weblink November 8, 2009,
  • {{flagicon|SWE}} Helsingborg, Sweden (since 1996)
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Ragusa, Italy (since 2000)
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Bad Homburg, Germany (since 2002)
  • {{flagicon|BIH}} Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 2007)'
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Monterey, California, United States (since 2007)
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Rueil-Malmaison, France since (2011)WEB, 29.01.2011. 20:45,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721100409weblink">weblink yes, 2011-07-21, Dubrovnik se pobratimio s francuskim Rueil-Malmaisonom – Grad Dubrovnik — Dubrovački vjesnik, Dubrovacki.hr, 2011-01-29, 2011-06-02,

In popular culture

The HBO series Game of Thrones used Dubrovnik as a filming location, representing the cities of King's Landing and Qarth.Dubrovnik in the spotlight {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130311124626weblink |date=2013-03-11 }}, jaywaytravel.com. Parts of (Star Wars: The Last Jedi) were filmed in Dubrovnik in March 2016, in which Dubrovnik was used as the setting for the casino city of Canto Bight.NEWS,weblink [VIDEO] Star Wars Episode VIII Starts Shooting in Dubrovnik this Week, Croatia Week, 8 March 2016, 20 March 2016, NEWS,weblink Star Wars Adds Shine to Croatian 'Pearl' Dubrovnik, Sven, Milekic, Balkan Insight, 15 February 2016, 20 March 2016, Dubrovnik was one of the European sites used in the Bollywood movie Fan (2016), starring Shah Rukh Khan. In early 2017, Robin Hood was filmed on locations in Dubrovnik.WEB,weblink Take a look around the set of the new Robin Hood movie being filmed in Dubrovnik, 29 December 2016, Nottingham Post, 6 March 2017, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}In Kander and Ebb's song "Ring Them Bells," the protagonist, Shirley Devore, goes to Dubrovnik to look for a husband and meets her neighbor from New York.WEB, Ring Them Bells Lyrics,weblink MetroLyrics, 24 October 2017, The text-based video game Quarantine CircularWEB,weblink Mike Bithell follows up Subsurface Circular with Quarantine Circular, Eurogamer, Wesley, Yin-Poole, 2018-05-22, 2018-05-22, is set aboard a ship off the coast of Dubrovnik, and a few references to the city are made throughout the course of the game.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Peterjon Cresswell, Ismay Atkins, Lily Dunn, yes, Time Out Croatia,weblink 10 March 2010, 2006, Time Out Group Ltd. & Ebury Publishing, Random House, Random House Ltd., First, London, Berkeley & Toronto, 978-1-904978-70-1,
  • BOOK, Robin Harris, Dubrovnik, A History, London, Saqi Books, 2003, 0-86356-332-5,
  • BOOK, Adriana KremenjaÅ¡-Daničić, Roland's European Paths, Dubrovnik, Europski dom Dubrovnik, 2006, 953-95338-0-5,
  • NEWS,weblink Dubrovnik's Heritage Under Threat, Marko Kovac, BBC News Online, February 4, 2003,
  • NEWS,weblink The 'Pearl' loses its lustre, Frank McDonald, The Irish Times, July 18, 2008, March 2, 2017,
  • NEWS,weblink Will greed tarnish Croatia's gem?, Joshua Wright, The New York Times, June 7, 2004, March 2, 2017,
  • BOOK, harv, Vojnović, Lujo, Pad Dubrovnika (1797.-1806.), Fortuna, 978-953-95981-9-6,weblink 2009,

Further reading

  • {{Citation |publisher = W.J. Adams |publication-place = London |title = Bradshaw's Hand-Book to the Turkish Empire |volume=1: Turkey in Europe |publication-date = c. 1872 |chapter= Ragusa |chapterurl=weblink }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington |series=Foreign Countries and British Colonies |publication-place = London |title = Austria-Hungary |author = David Kay |publication-date = 1880 |chapter=Principal Towns: Ragusa |chapterurl=weblink }}
  • BOOK, Murray's Handbooks for Travellers, J. Murray, London, R. Lambert Playfair, Lambert Playfair, Handbook to the Mediterranean, 3rd, 1892,weblink Ragusa,
  • BOOK, Austria-Hungary, Including Dalmatia and Bosnia, Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, 1905, 344268,weblink Ragusa,
  • BOOK, McClurg & Co, F. K. Hutchinson, Chicago, Motoring in the Balkans,weblink 1909, 8647011, Ragusa, 2016-02-10,
  • BOOK, Trudy Ring, Southern Europe, International Dictionary of Historic Places, 3, 1996, Fitzroy Dearborn, 31045650, Dubrovnik,

External links

{{Commons category|Dubrovnik}} {{County seats of Croatia}}{{Subdivisions of Dubrovnik-Neretva County}}{{Croatian cities}}{{World Heritage Sites in Croatia}}{{Repubbliche Marinare}}{{Authority control}}

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