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Montenegro
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{{about|the country in Europe|other uses|Montenegro (disambiguation)|and|Crna Gora (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{short description|Republic in Southeastern Europe}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{Coord|42|30|N|19|18|E|display=title}}







factoids
| image_map2 = Montenegro - Location Map (2013) - MNE - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Podgorica42N28type:city}}| largest_city = capitalMontenegrin language>Montenegrin (national)HTTP://WWW.WIPO.INT/WIPOLEX/EN/TEXT.JSP?FILE_ID=187544 >TITLE=CONSTITUTION OF MONTENEGRO CHAPTER=LANGUAGE AND ALPHABET ARTICLE 13 WIPO >DATE=19 OCTOBER 2007 Serbian language>Serbian, Bosnian language, Albanian language>Albanian, Croatian language (in official use)HTTP://WWW.WIPO.INT/WIPOLEX/EN/TEXT.JSP?FILE_ID=187544 CHAPTER-URL=HTTP://WWW.WIPO.INT/WIPOLEX/EN/TEXT.JSP?FILE_ID=187544#LINKTARGET_1506 PUBLISHER=WIPO QUOTE=SERBIAN, BOSNIAN, ALBANIAN AND CROATIAN SHALL ALSO BE IN THE OFFICIAL USE., | languages_type = Writing systemLatin script>Latin, Cyrillic| ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| {{nowrap|44.5% Montenegrins}}
| 28.7% Serbs
| 8.6% Bosniaks
| 4.9% Albanians
| 0.9% Croats
| 13.6% Others
}}PUBLISHER=MONSTAT, 12 July 2011, item_style=white-space:nowrap; Religion in Montenegro>Christians Islam in Montenegro>Muslims Religion in Montenegro>irreligious Religion in Montenegro>Others}}| religion_year = 2011| demonym = Montenegrin Unitary state>Unitary Dominant-party system parliamentary system>parliamentary constitutional republicPresident of Montenegro>President| leader_name1 = Milo ĐukanovićPrime Minister of Montenegro>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = DuÅ¡ko MarkovićPresident of the Parliament of Montenegro>Speaker of Parliament| leader_name3 = Ivan BrajovićParliament of Montenegro>SkupÅ¡tinaHistory of Montenegro>Establishment historyFormation of Duklja}}| established_date1 = 625Kingdom of Zeta proclaimed}}| established_date4 = 1373Prince-Bishopric founded}}| established_date5 = 1516Principality of Montenegro>Principality proclaimed| established_date7 = 1852Kingdom of Montenegro>Kingdom proclaimed| established_date8 = 1910Kingdom of Yugoslavia>Yugoslavia| established_date9 = 1918Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006>Independence regained| established_date10 = 2006| area_rank = 156th | area_km2 = 13,812| area_sq_mi = | percent_water = 2.6| population_estimate = {{increase}} 622,35weblinkPUBLISHER=MONSTAT.ORG, | population_estimate_year = January 2018| population_estimate_rank = 163th| population_census_year = 2011| population_density_km2 = 45| population_density_sq_mi = 117| population_density_rank = 133stTITLE=REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTS IMF.ORG >PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 10 June 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = TITLE=REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTS IMF.ORG >PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 1 February 2019, | GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 74th| GDP_nominal = $5.443 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = | GDP_nominal_per_capita = $8,711| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 80th| Gini = 31.9| Gini_year = 2014| Gini_change = decreasePUBLISHER=WORLD BANK, 7 March 2019, | Gini_rank = 9th| HDI = 0.814 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 50thEuro (Euro sign>€)a| currency_code = EURCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Central European Summer Time>CEST| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Montenegro>+382| cctld = .meMontenegro and the euro>Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.}}Montenegro ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Montenegro.ogg|ËŒ|m|É’|n|t|ɪ|ˈ|n|eɪ|É¡|r|oÊŠ|,_|-|ˈ|n|iː|É¡|r|oÊŠ|,_|-|ˈ|n|É›|É¡|r|oÊŠ}}; / Crna Gora {{IPA-sh|tsr̩̂ːnaː É¡Ç’ra|}}){{efn|Serbian and Bosnian: , ; ; .}} is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo{{efn|name=status}} to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079 (2011 census). Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north.BOOK, David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c. 1024{{snd, c. 1198|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cUl53tLtFukC&pg=PA267|date= 2004|publisher=Cambridge University Press | pages=266–|isbn=9780521414111 }}BOOK, Jean W Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500,weblink University of Washington Press, 21–, 9780295800646, 2013, BOOK, John Van Antwerp Fine, he early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century,weblink University of Michigan Press, 194, 9780472100255, 1983, In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. After being ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty for two centuries, the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of BalÅ¡ić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Etymology

File:Ancient city Doclea - ruins 02.jpg|thumb|left|Ancient Roman city Doclea.]]The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests.WEB, Montenegro History – Part I,weblink visit-montenegro.com, 27 June 2018, In the monuments of Kotor, Montenegro was mentioned as Montenegro in 1397, as Monte Nigro in 1443 and as Crna Gora in 1435 and 1458, but there are much older papers of Latin sources where Montenegro is mentioned as Monte nigro. The first mention of Montenegro (as Monte nigro) dates to 9 November 1053 in a papal epistle and the others date to 1061, 1097, 1121, 1125, 1144, 1154, 1179 and 1189.WEB, PRVI POMENI CRNE GORE - Marijan Mašo Miljić,weblink www.maticacrnogorska.me, The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro in the 15th century.{{harvnb|Fine|1994|p=532}} Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora 'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda '(The) Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor.
After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе / Savezna država Crne Gore) on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB. After Democratic Federal Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY), the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора / Narodna Republika Crna Gora) on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора / Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora). As the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора / Republika Crna Gora) on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as Montenegro.The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 26 September 2006 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080820140547weblink |date=20 August 2008}}

History

Arrival of the Slavs

File:South-Eastern Europe, ca. 1090, by User-Hxseek.png|thumb|left|Kingdom of Duklja in the zenith of power, 1080 AD. ]]In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death (in 1101 or 1108), several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Constantine Bodin (1081–1101).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19970116032145weblink">weblink yes, 16 January 1997, Duklja, the first Montenegrin state, Montenegro.org, 7 December 2012, By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the BalÅ¡ić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: ).As the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, and by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the BalÅ¡ićs, became sovereigns of Zeta.In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate, but after 1455, another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans in 1496, and got annexed to the sanjak of Shkodër. During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name â€“ Montenegro. For a short time, Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528 (Sanjak of Montenegro). Also, Old Herzegovina region was part of Sanjak of Herzegovina.

Ottoman period

File:Петар II Петровић Његош, песник и владика.jpg|thumb|right|Petar II Petrović-Njegoš was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro and the national poet and philosopher.]]Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. In the 16th century, Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire permitting Montenegrin clans freedom from certain restrictions. Nevertheless, the Montenegrins were disgruntled with Ottoman rule, and in the 17th century, raised numerous rebellions, which culminated in the defeat of the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century.Montenegro consisted of territories controlled by warlike clans. Most clans had a chieftain (knez), who was not permitted to assume the title unless he proved to be as worthy a leader as his predecessor. The great assembly of Montenegrin clans (Zbor) was held every year on 12 July in Cetinje, and any adult clansman could take part.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}}Parts of the territory were controlled by Republic of Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, its successors. In 1515, Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, which flourished after the Petrović-Njegoš of Cetinje became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). However, the Venetian Republic introduced governors who meddled in Montenegrin politics. The republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, and the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}}

Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro

File:Battle of Vučji Do, Orao, 1877.jpg|thumb|right|Battle of Vučji DoBattle of Vučji DoUnder Nicholas I, the principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.Uğur Özcan, II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri (Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era) Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013. {{ISBN|9789751625274}}The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations. Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party, who supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia, and those of the True People's Party, who were monarchist.During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at theBattle of Grahovac. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of Knjaz Danilo, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans who had 15,000 troops at Grahovac on 1 May 1858. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina,{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} then part of Austria-Hungary. This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.The first Montenegrin constitution was proclaimed in 1855; it was also known as the Danilo Code.File:Kralj i kraljica u krugu sire familije.jpg|thumb|Royal family of Montenegro: King Nicholas I with his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren and sons- and daughters-in-law]]In 1910, Montenegro became a kingdom, and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania, though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica, was the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia.Montenegro was among the Allied Powers during World War I (1914–18). From 1916 to October 1918, Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

In 1922, Montenegro formally became the Oblast of Cetinje in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around Budva and Bay of Kotor. In a further restructuring in 1929, it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River.Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I, dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas which formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia.

World War II and Socialist Yugoslavia

(File:Crna Gora - Oslobodjenje od strane okupacije 1711-1918.png|thumb|left|Liberation of Montenegro from 1711 to 1918)File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-185-0116-27A, Bucht von Kotor (-), jugoslawische Schiffe.jpg|thumb|Captured ships of the Yugoslavian Navy, Bay of KotorBay of Kotor(File:Borbe_za_oslobođenje_Crne_Gore.jpg|thumb|Liberation of Montenegro in World War II)In April 1941, Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and other Axis allies attacked and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro.In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6,000 of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare. The first armed uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.WEB,weblink Prema oceni istoričara, Trinaestojulski ustanak bio je prvi i najmasovniji oružani otpor u porobljenoj Evropi 1941. godine, B92.net, Serbian, 7 December 2012, Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32,000 men and women had joined the fight. Except for the coast and major towns (Podgorica, Cetinje, Pljevlja, and Nikšić), which were besieged, Montenegro was mostly liberated. In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5,000 dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67,000 Italian troops brought in from Albania. Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December.Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. Most of them went on to join the Yugoslav Partisans, consisting of communists and those inclined towards active resistance; these included Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, and Blažo Jovanović. Those loyal to the Karađorđević dynasty and opposing communism went on to become Chetniks, and turned to collaboration with Italians against the Partisans.War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of 1942. Pressured by Italians and Chetniks, the core of the Montenegrin Partisans went to Serbia and Bosnia, where they joined with other Yugoslav Partisans. Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war. Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid-1942 to April 1943. Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar, where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat.During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June 1943, Germans disarmed large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944. Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December 1944.Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Its capital became Podgorica, renamed Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}}

Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia

After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia.In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, the turnout was 66%, with 96% of the votes cast in favour of the federation with Serbia. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organized under anti-democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in 2006 when European Union observers were present.File:Njegos mausoleum montenegro.jpg|thumb|Mausoleum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, in LovćenLovćenDuring the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia.WEB,weblink Bombing of Dubrovnik, Croatiatraveller.com, 7 December 2012, These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterized by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights.WEB,weblink A/RES/47/121. The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, United Nations, 7 December 2012, Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik.YIHR.org {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150403105152weblink |date=3 April 2015 }}Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed.Annex VIII – part 3/10 Prison Camps. ess.uwe.ac.uk {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131020191517weblink|date=20 October 2013}}"Porodica Nedžiba Loje o Njegovom Hapšenju i Deportaciji 1992". Godine Bosnjaci.net {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071012182522weblink |date=12 October 2007 }}In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and its partner Serbia, which was led by Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the euro, although not part of the Eurozone currency union. Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected.NEWS,weblink Russia pushes peace plan, BBC, 29 April 1999, In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years.

Independence and recent history

The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate; 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against.NEWS,weblink Montenegro vote result confirmed, BBC News, 23 May 2006, 11 September 2010, This narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence.The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)/ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE), and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report stated that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights."On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro,NEWS,weblink Montenegro declares independence, BBC News, 4 June 2006, 11 September 2010, formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration.File:Global Investment Game Changers Summit I 2018 (30572772047).jpg|thumb|right|President of Montenegro on the Global Investment Game Changers Summit 2018 GenevaGenevaThe Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty was passed by the Parliament of Montenegro on 12 July 2011. It rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic.In 2015, the investigative journalists' network OCCRP named Montenegro's long-time President and Prime Minister Milo Đukanović "Person of the Year in Organized Crime"."OCCRP announces 2015 Organized Crime and Corruption ‘Person of the Year’ Award". Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. The extent of Đukanović's corruption led to street demonstrations and calls for his removal."The Balkans’ Corrupt Leaders are Playing NATO for a Fool". Foreign Policy. 5 January 2017."Montenegro invited to join NATO, a move sure to anger Russia, strain alliance's standards". The Washington Times. 1 December 2015.In October 2016, for the day of the parliamentary election, a coup d'état was prepared by a group of persons that included leaders of the Montenegrin opposition, Serbian nationals and Russian agents; the coup was prevented.NEWS, Dusan, Stojanovic, 31 October 2016, NATO, Russia to Hold Parallel Drills in the Balkans,weblink Associated Press, 8 November 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161107162123weblink">weblink 7 November 2016, NEWS, Russians behind Montenegro coup attempt, says prosecutor,weblink Deutsche Welle, Germany, AFP, Reuters, AP, 6 November 2016, 8 November 2016, NEWS, 6 November 2016, Montenegro Prosecutor: Russian Nationalists Behind Alleged Coup Attempt,weblink The Wall Street Journal, United States, 8 November 2016, NEWS, 'Russian nationalists' behind Montenegro PM assassination plot,weblink BBC, United Kingdom, 6 November 2016, 8 November 2016, In 2017, fourteen people, including two Russian nationals and two Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević, were indicted for their alleged roles in the coup attempt on charges such as "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act."Montenegrin Court Confirms Charges Against Alleged Coup Plotters Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty, 8 June 2017.Montenegro formally became a member of NATO in June 2017, though "Montenegro remains deeply divided over joining NATO",Indictment tells murky Montenegrin coup tale: Trial will hear claims of Russian involvement in plans to assassinate prime minister and stop Balkan country's NATO membership. Politico, 23 May 2017. an event that triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia's government.Montenegro finds itself at heart of tensions with Russia as it joins Nato: Alliance that bombed country only 18 years ago welcomes it as 29th member in move that has left its citizens divided The Guardian, 25 May 2017.МИД РФ: ответ НАТО на предложения российских военных неконкретный и размытый ″Расширение НАТО″, TASS, 6 October 2016.[http:www.mid.ru/web/guest/kommentarii_predstavitelya/-/asset_publisher/MCZ7HQuMdqBY/content/id/2740071 Комментарий Департамента информации и печати МИД России в связи с голосованием в Скупщине Черногории по вопросу присоединения к НАТО] Russian Foreign Ministry′s Statement, 28.04.17.Montenegro has been in negotiations with the EU since 2012. In 2018, the earlier goal of acceding by 2022Darmanović: Montenegro becomes EU member in 2022 20 April 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. was revised to 2025."EU to map out membership for 6 western Balkan states", Michael Peel and Neil Buckley, Financial Times, 1 February 2018

Geography

(File:HSV 654 07 Jan 2014 Montenegro Holokarst.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.4|Satellite view of Montenegro)Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only {{convert|1.5|to|6|km|mi|0|abbr=off}} wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.Montenegro's large karst region lies generally at elevations of {{convert|1000|m|sigfig=3}} above sea level; some parts, however, rise to {{convert|2000|m|abbr=on|sigfig=3}}, such as Mount Orjen ({{convert|1894|m|disp=or|abbr=on}}), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of {{convert|500|m|abbr=on|sigfig=2}}, is the lowest segment.The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than {{convert|2000|m|abbr=off}} in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of {{convert|2522|m|abbr=on}}. Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.File:Zla Kolata summit view with Kolata peaks (cropped).jpg|thumb|Zla KolataZla KolataFile:Lac de Shkodra.jpg|thumb|Lake SkadarLake SkadarFile:Big Black Lake.jpg|thumb|Black Lake ]]File:Pinus heldreichii Bijela gora above Borovi do.jpg|thumb|Pinus heldreichii, Bijela goraBijela goraInternationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo,{{efn|name=status}} and Albania. It lies between latitudes 41° and 44°N, and longitudes 18° and 21°E.
  • Longest beach: Velika Plaža, Ulcinj â€“ {{convert|13000|m|mi|abbr=on}}
  • Highest peak: Zla Kolata, Prokletije at {{convert|2535|m|ft|abbr=on}}
  • Largest lake: Skadar Lake â€“ {{convert|391|km2|abbr=on}} of surface area
  • Deepest canyon: Tara River Canyon â€“ {{convert|1300|m|abbr=on}}
  • Biggest bay: Bay of Kotor
  • Deepest cave: Iron Deep {{convert|1169|m|ft|abbr=on}}, exploring started in 2012, now more than {{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on}} longWEB,weblink [Iron Deep 2012] Czech Speleological Society,
{| class="wikitable sortable"! Name! Established! Area| Durmitor National Park| 1952390ha|0}}| Biogradska Gora| 195254ha|0}}| Lovćen National Park| 195264ha|0}}| Lake Skadar National Park| 1983400ha|0}}| Prokletije National Park| 2009166ha|0}}Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, as more than {{convert|2000|km2|0|abbr=on}} of the country's territory lie within the Danube catchment area.

Biodiversity

The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country.BOOK, Environment Reporter 2010, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, 22,
Biodiversity outlook
  • Freshwater algae of Montenegro â€“ so far 1,200 species and varieties have been described.
  • The vascular flora of Montenegro has 3,250 species. The number of endemics is also high â€“ there are 392 Balkan (regional) endemic species, equivalent to over 7% of Montenegrin flora.
  • There are 354 species of marine molluscs in Montenegro.Petović S., Gvozdenović S. & Ikica Z. (2017) "An Annotated Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of the South Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) and a Comparison with Those of Neighbouring Areas". Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17: 921–934. PDF. {{DOI|10.4194/1303-2712-v17_5_08}}
  • Lake Skadar is among the most important habitats of freshwater fish, with 40 species, including species that migrate from marine to freshwater ecosystems, such as the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and shad (Alossa falax nilotica).
  • The diversity of marine fish fauna of the Adriatic Sea includes 117 recorded families, but with a low level of endemism. To date, 40,742 marine fish species have been recorded in Montenegro, which represent 70% of the species recorded in the Mediterranean.
  • Currently, 56 species (18 amphibian and 38 reptile) and 69 subspecies are recorded within 38 genera, and the list is probably incomplete. The mountain regions of Lovćen and Prokletije are particular hot spots for amphibians and reptiles.
  • Of 526 European bird species, 333 are assumed to be regularly present in Montenegro. Of these, 204 species nest in the country.BOOK, Environment Reporter 2010, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, 22–23,

Politics

{{more citations needed|section|date=June 2019}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:left; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Milo Đukanović in 2010.jpg (File:Dusko Markovic.png|120px) Milo ĐukanovićPresident Duško MarkovićPrime MinisterThe Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law."WEB,weblink Ustav Crne Gore, PDF, 11 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100326020047weblink">weblink 26 March 2010, Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.File:Plavi dvorac.jpg|thumb|Blue PalaceBlue PalaceThe President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje.The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is a unicameral legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the 2012 parliamentary election.

Foreign relations of Montenegro

{{See also|Foreign relations of Montenegro}}After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June 2006, following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state.The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation. These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921043856weblink">weblink yes, 2013-09-21, mvpei.gov.me, Foreign Policy, Integration into the European Union is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term.The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO, which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals. Montenegro believes NATO integration would speed up EU integration. In May 2017 NATO accepted Montenegro as a NATO member starting 5 June 2017.NEWS, Montenegro to Join NATO on June 5 – WSJ,weblink 25 May 2017, Julian E. Barnes, The Wall Street Journal, 25 May 2017, Although it only borders Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, and Serbia, Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics North Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece.

Symbols

{{See also|National symbols of Montenegro}}An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I, was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ, in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script), representing King Nicholas I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion.The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the worldWEB,weblink President Vujanovic's Closing Speech at the Crans Montana Forum, Predsjednik.me, 21 February 2006, 11 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511115623weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, yes, and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, "Oh, Bright Dawn of May", as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nicholas I was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori ("To Our Beautiful Montenegro").

Military

File:Military Montenegro 11.jpg|thumb|Armed Forces of MontenegroArmed Forces of MontenegroThe military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army, the Montenegrin Navy, and the Montenegrin Air Force, along with special forces. Conscription was abolished in 2006. The military currently maintains a force of 1,920 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.WEB,weblink Adriatic Charter, 7 September 2018, Montenegro was invited to join NATO on 2 December 2015 and on 19 May 2016, NATO and Montenegro conducted a signing ceremony at NATO headquarters in Brussels for Montenegro's membership invitation.WEB,weblink NATO Formally Invites Montenegro as 29th Member, Associated Press, 19 May 2016, 20 May 2016, Montenegro became NATO's 29th member on 5 June 2017, despite Russia's objections.NEWS,weblink Defying Russia, Montenegro finally joins NATO, Milic, Predrag, 5 June 2017, ABC News, 5 June 2017, The government plans to have the army participate in peacekeeping missions through the UN and NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force.WEB,weblink Spremaju se za Avganistan, Vijesti.me, 11 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725140231weblink">weblink 25 July 2011,

Administrative divisions

Montenegro is divided into twenty-three municipalities (opština). This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".{| border="0" cellpadding="4"! | No. || Municipality || Seat (File:Montenegro, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored.svgupright=1.15thumbRegions of Montenegro.)x30px) 1 Pljevlja Municipality Pljevljax27px) 2 Plužine Municipality Plužinex18px) 3 Žabljak Municipality Žabljakx34px) 4 Mojkovac Municipality Mojkovacx38px) 5 Bijelo Polje Municipality Bijelo Poljex30px) 6 Berane Municipality / Petnjica Municipality>Petnjica Berane / Petnjica (22)x25px) 7 Rožaje Municipality Rožajex30px) 8 Šavnik Municipality Šavnikx35px) 9 Nikšić Municipality Nikšićx25px) 10 Kolašin Municipality Kolašinx30px) 11 Andrijevica Municipality Andrijevicax28px) 12 Plav Municipality / Gusinje Municipality>Gusinje Plav / Gusinje (23)x16px) 13 Kotor Municipality Kotorx28px) 14 Cetinje Old Royal Capitalx25px) 15 Danilovgrad Municipality Danilovgradx18px) 16 Podgorica Capital City and Municipalityx28px) 17 Herceg Novi Municipality Herceg Novix20px) 18 Tivat Municipality Tivatx15px) 19 Budva Municipality Budvax18px) 20 Bar Municipality Barx27px) 21 Ulcinj Municipality Ulcinj

Cities in Montenegro

{{Largest cities of Montenegro}}

Economy

File:The port of Bar, view from Vrsuta mnt (39372956332).jpg|thumb|Port of Bar is Montenegro's main sea port located in Bar.]]The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.376 billion in 2016. The GDP PPP for 2016 was $10.428 billion, or $16,749 per capita. According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2017.WEB,weblink GDP per capita in PPS, European Commission, 1 February 2019, The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "euroised", using the euro unilaterally as its currency.GDP grew at 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008.WEB,weblink 5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, IMF.org, International Monetary Fund, April 2011, The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment.FDI falls across West Balkans, except Montenegro. Reuters India 10 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009. The country exited the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth at around 0.5%.WEB,weblink Montenegro's leader sees slow economic recovery, balkans.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514222459weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit.In 2007, the service sector made up 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively.WEB,weblink Montenegro at a glance, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511082355weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget.WEB, Milena, Milosevic,weblink EU Farming Standards Pose Test For Montenegro, Balkan Insight, 7 December 2012,

Infrastructure

File:Montenegro motorways.JPG|thumb|left|upright=1.2|Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red – Bar–Boljare highway, blue – Adriatic–Ionian motorwayAdriatic–Ionian motorwayThe Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination.Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E80.The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade–Bar railway, which provides international connection towards Serbia. There is a domestic branch line, the Nikšić-Podgorica railway, which was operated as a freight-only line for decades, and is now also open for passenger traffic after the reconstruction and electrification works in 2012. The other branch line from Podgorica towards the Albanian border, the Podgorica–Shkodër railway, is not in use.{{Multiple image
|align = right
|direction = horizontal
|width =
|image1 = 01.10.13 Nikšić 6111.101 (10101158945).jpg
|width1 = 225
|alt1 =
|caption1 = A train of Railways of Montenegro
|image2 =IMG-20170712-100302-montenegro-podgorica-airport-2017.jpg
|width2 = 265
|alt2 =
|caption2 = Podgorica Airport Bridge
}}Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.

Tourism

File:Velke a male Skrcke jezero mezi Prutasem a Planinici (2330 m.jpg|thumb|DurmitorDurmitorFile:View over Bay of Kotor - Montenegro - 01.jpg|thumb|Bay of KotorBay of KotorMontenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years.File:Buljarica beach.jpg|thumb|right|BuljaricaBuljaricaFile:Durmitor, canyon Tara - Montenegro.JPG|thumb|right|Tara Canyon, deepest canyon in Europe]]With a total of 1.6 million visitors, the nation is the 36th (out of 47 countries) most visited country in Europe.WEB, Mark Hillsdon, The European capital you'd never thought to visit (but really should),weblink The Daily Telegraph, 27 February 2017, the Montenegrin Adriatic coast is {{convert|295|km|abbr=on}} long, with {{convert|72|km|abbr=on}} of beaches, and with many well-preserved ancient old towns. National Geographic Traveler (edited once in decade) features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine.WEB,weblink 50 Places of a Lifetime, National Geographic, 17 September 2009, 11 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100329113520weblink">weblink 29 March 2010, The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, The New York Times ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, as among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations.NEWS,weblink The 31 Places to Go in 2010, The New York Times, 7 January 2010, 7 December 2012, Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)".WEB,weblink 10 Top Hot Spots of 2009 by Yahoo Travel, Yahoo!, 11 September 2010, It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as top touristic destination along with Greece, Spain and other world touristic places.WEB, Holger, Leue,weblink Where to go in June, Lonely Planet, 11 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100605042913weblink">weblink 5 June 2010, WEB,weblink America Sending their Best Adventure Racers to Montenegro, Adventureworldmagazineonline.com, 4 June 2010, 11 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100710170345weblink">weblink 10 July 2010, yes, It was not until the 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays.The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors.Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic.

Demographics

Ethnic structure

(File:MontenegroEthnic2011.PNG|thumb|upright=0.8|left|Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Montenegro, 2011)According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro has 620,029 citizens.{{Historical populations| footnote = 311564 317856 311341 360044 419873 529604 584310 615035 620145 620029}}Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority.WEB,weblink Montenegro, country report, European Commission, December 2006, 24 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160830004805weblink">weblink 30 August 2016, BOOK,weblink Montenegro: A Modern History, I.B. Tauris, 2009, 9781845117108, Major ethnic groups include Montenegrins (Црногорци/Crnogorci) and Serbs (Срби/Srbi), others are Bosniaks (BoÅ¡njaci), Albanians (Albanci â€“ Shqiptarët) and Croats (Hrvati). The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation.WEB,weblink Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003, Njegos.org, 23 September 2004, 11 September 2010, NEWS,weblink Romani, Balkan in Montenegro, Joshua Project, 8 July 2018, WEB,weblink Montenegro: The money came and went – and Romani families are still unhoused, Romea.cz, 18 July 2011, 8 July 2018, {{hidden begin| title = Ethnic groups (2011 census)| toggle = left}}Ethnic composition according to the 2011 official data:PRESS RELEASE,weblink PDF, Serbo-Croatian, English, Popis stanovniÅ¡tva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine, Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011, Statistical office, Montenegro, 12 July 2011, 30 March 2011, {| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" class="toccolours" style="align:left; margin:0.5em 0 0; border-style:solid; border:1px solid #7f7f7f; border-right-width:2px; border-bottom-width:2px; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:100%;" style="background:beige;" Number % style="background:#c1c1c1;" Total 620,029 100 Montenegrins| 278,865| 45.0 Serbs| 178,110| 28.7 Bosniaks| 53,605| 8.6 Albanians| 30,439| 4.9 Muslims by nationality| 20,537| 3.3 Croats| 6,021| 1.0 Roma| 5,251| 0.8 Serbians-Montenegrins (ethnic group)>Montenegrins| 2,103| 0.3 "Egyptians"| 2,054| 0.3 Montenegrins-Serbs| 1,833| 0.3 Yugoslavs| 1,154| 0.2 Russians| 946| 0.2 Macedonians| 900| 0.2 Bosnians| 427| 0.1 Slovenes| 354| 0.1 Hungarians| 337| 0.1 Muslim-Montenegrins| 257|

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