House of Habsburg

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House of Habsburg
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{{Redirect|Habsburg|the House of Habsburg-Lorraine|House of Lorraine|other uses|Habsburg (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Austrian dynastic family}}

name House of Habsburg

Germans (Austrians>Austrian), Spanish|native_name=Haus Habsburg|native_name_lang=GermanHoly Roman Empire>Imperial and Royal dynasty|coat_of_arms=Familienwappen Habsburg-Stroehl.jpg|coat_of_arms_size=140px|coat_of_arms_caption=Coat of arms of the Counts of Habsburg|country={hide}Collapsible list

| {{flagicon|Habsburg Monarchy{edih} Habsburg Monarchy
| {{*}} {{flagicon|Austria}} Archduchy of Austria
| {{*}} {{flag|Kingdom of Hungary}}
| {{*}} {{flagicon|Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)}} Kingdom of Croatia
| {{*}} {{flag|Kingdom of Bohemia}}
| {{*}} {{flag|Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria}}
| {{*}} {{flagicon|Spanish Empire}} Spain
| {{*}} Low Countries
| {{*}} Kingdom of Portugal
| {{*}} Kingdom of Naples
| {{*}} Kingdom of Sicily
| other smaller historical states }}|etymology=Habsburg Castle|founded=11th century |founder=Radbot, Count of Habsburg|current_head=None; main line extinct|final_ruler=Empress Maria Theresa|final_head=|titles={hide}Collapsible list {edih}|motto= A.E.I.O.U.|motto_lang=|motto_trans=
  • Habsburg-Spain (extinct)
  • Habsburg-Laufenburg (extinct)
  • Hasburg-Kyburg (extinct)
  • Cognatic: The House of Habsburg ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|h|æ|p|s|b|ɜːr|É¡}}; {{IPA-de|ˈhaːpsbʊʁk|lang}}; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English) and also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish),WEB,weblink The House of Austria – the Habsburgs and the Empire, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.A series of dynastic marriagesJOURNAL, 1851170, Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach, The American Historical Review, 81, 2, 243–265, Fichtner, Paula Sutter, 1976, 10.2307/1851170, enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the (House of Habsburg#Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs|senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches), who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the (wikt:appellation#English|appellation) of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name, for example Karl von Habsburg.The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War.BOOK, A. Wess Mitchell, The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire,weblink 2018, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-8996-9, 307, Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.{{TOC limit|limit=4}}

    Principal roles

    Their principal roles (including the roles of their cadet branches) were as follows: Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.


    {{History of Austria}}

    Counts of Habsburg

    File:Schweiz um 1200.png|thumb|upright=1.8|The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as {{legend0|#f4bedb|Habsburg}}, among the houses of {{legend0|#f7b282|Savoy}}, {{legend0|#9dd575|Zähringer}} and {{legend0|#f6f07f|Kyburg}}]]The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg (hawk castle), or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108."Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung, (page 17) 23 May 2008.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead,, September 21, 2008, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Kanton Aargau, December 23, 2008, de, The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.

    Kings of the Romans and consolidation in the Eastern Alps

    By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273, Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.''Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. {{ISBN|3-406-44754-6}}.In a crucial step towards the creation of his own power base in the Eastern Alps, Rudolpf led a coalition against king Ottokar II of Bohemia who had taken advantage of the Great Interregnum in order to expand southwards, taking over first the Babenberg (Austria, Styria, Savinja), and then the Spanheim inheritance (Carinthia and Carniola). In 1278, Ottokar was defeated and killed in the Battle of Marchfeld. The lands he had acquired in the previous decades were reverted to the German crown. In 1282, the Habsburgs gained for themselves the rulership of the duchies of Austria and Styria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. The southern portions of Ottokar's former realm, Carinthia, Carniola and Savinja, were granted to Rudolph's allies from the House of Gorizia. The resulting arrangement, known as the "Habsburg-Gorizia equilibrium in the Eastern Alps" lasted for half a decade.Milko Kos, Srednjeveška kulturna, družbena in politična zgodovina Slovencev (Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, 1985), 260France Dolinar & al, Slovenski zgodovinski atlas (Ljubljana: Nova revija, 2011), 72After Rudolph's death, the Habsburgs failed to maintain the Roman kingship. In the 1300s, their attempt to gain the Bohemian crown was frustrated first by Henry of Bohemia and finally by the House of Luxembourg. However, the weakening of the House of Gorizia in this succession struggle enabled them to expand southwards: in 1311, they took over the Savinja, and after the death of Henry of Bohemia in 1335, they assumed power in Carniola and in Carinthia. In 1369, they would succeed his daughter in Tyrol, as well. After the death of Albert III of Gorizia in 1374, they gained their first foothold on the Adriatic, in central Istria (Mitterburg), followed by Trieste in 1382.Through the forged privilegium maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House of Habsburg and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's brothers ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379: the former would maintain Austria proper, while the latter would rule over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, which became known as Inner Austria, as well as Tyrol and the original Habsburg lands in Swabia, now known as Further Austria.By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) of the Albertine line became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades. With Ladislaus's death, the Albertine line died out, and the Leopoldine line took over all the family possessions.

    Holy Roman emperors

    (File:Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Central Europe)In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the electoral college to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur and Leitha.On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. {{ISBN|3-17-011866-8}}After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.File:Habsburg Map 1547.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, particularly in the New WorldNew WorldMaximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon, and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became emperor Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World) as Charles I, Southern Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries.Great Events from History, The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol I, p. 112–114, author-Clare Callaghan, {{ISBN|1-58765-214-5}}.The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. All the children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson and Charles V's brother Ferdinand, became the King of Bohemia.The Habsburg dynasty achieved the position of a true world power by the time of Charles V's election in 1519, for the first and only time in their history—the "World Emperor" ruling an "empire on which the sun never sets".The Habsburgs' policies against Protestantism led to an eradication of the former throughout vast areas under their control.

    Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs

    (File:Habsburg dominions 1700.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.)After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian Habsburgs (or German Habsburgs) and the branch of the Spanish Habsburgs.BOOK,weblink The Thirty Years War: A Sourcebook, Peter H., Wilson, October 27, 2010, Macmillan International Higher Education, Google Books, 9781137069771, Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary,Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699. and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V, became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor (designated as successor already in 1531). Philip II of Spain, son of Charles V, became King of Spain and its colonial empire, and ruler of the Mezzogiorno of Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time (1580–1640).The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were also left in personal union under the King of Spain, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia. In the secret Oñate treaty, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

    Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

    The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages. This resulted in a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding".JOURNAL, The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty, April 15, 2009, 19367331, 2664480, 10.1371/journal.pone.0005174, Gonzalo, Alvarez, Ceballos, Francisco C., Quinteiro, Celsa, PLoS ONE, 4, 4, e5174, Bauchet, Marc, 2009PLoSO...4.5174A, JOURNAL, FC Ceballos, G Alvarez, Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs, Heredity, 2013, 2, 114–121, 23572123, 10.1038/hdy.2013.25, 111, 3716267, {{Ancestors of Charles II of Spain}}

    Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs

    The Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female line in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa; it was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan, Duke of LorraineMaria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, older brother of Francis Stephan. (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses). Their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.Austria-Hungary in 1915">

    Habsburg-Lorraine{| border"1" style"width:350px; float:right; margin:0.5em 0 1em 1em; background:white; border:1px #aaa solid; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:90%;"|+ Austria-Hungary in 1915

    300px)Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary:'''Cisleithania (Austrian EmpireAUSTRIA-HUNGARYPAGES=2–39, )''': 1. Kingdom of Bohemia, 2. Bukovina, 3. Duchy of Carinthia>Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Kingdom of Dalmatia, 6. Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria>Galicia, 7. Austrian Littoral, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Duchy of Salzburg>Salzburg, 11. Austrian Silesia, 12. Duchy of Styria>Styria, 13. Tyrol (state), 14. Upper Austria, 15. Vorarlberg; Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary): 16. Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary>Hungary proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium)
    On 6 August 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a real union, whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Empire of Austria, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal statusMicrosoft Encarta: The height of the dual monarchy Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.(File:Austria Hungary ethnic.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910)On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I of Austria (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, the eldest son of Charles I, on 31 May 1961 renounced all claims to the throne.The dynasty's motto was "Leave the waging of wars to others! But you, happy Austria, marry; for the realms which Mars awards to others, Venus transfers to you."Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Comprehensive Volume. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003. 330. Print.

    Family tree

    Early Habsburgs

    Family tree of the ancestors of the Habsburg family, largely before becoming Holy Roman Emperors and (Arch)Dukes of Austria. This family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg from 920 to 1308.WEB,weblink House of Habsburg,, 2019-04-21, Otto II was probably the first to take the Habsburg Castle name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title and creating the House of Habsburg.WEB,weblink The World of Habsburgs, 2011, 2019-04-21, See below for more references.{{Familytree/start|style=font-size:95%; line-height: 120%; margin:1em;|align=center| summary=Boxes and lines diagram with 61 boxes}}{{Familytree | | | | | GUNGuntram the RichHEINZ-DIETER HEIMANNURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=DHQEA0JSYTMCPAGE=22ISBN=978-3-406-44754-9, Count in Breisgauc.920-973member of Etichonider family}}{{Familytree | | | | | |:| }} {{Familytree | | | | | LAN |LAN = Lanzelin of Klettgau and Altenburg}}{{Familytree | |,|-|-|-|A|.| | | }}{{Familytree | WER | | RAD Werner I (Bishop of Strasbourg)>Werner IBishop of Strasbourgc.978/980-1028Radbot, Count of Habsburg>Radbot of Klettgau built Habsburg Castle Count of Habsburg c.985-1045}}{{Familytree | | | | | |!| }}{{Familytree | | | | | WER | | | | | | WER = Werner I the PiousBOOK, Andreas Bönner, Die Religionspolitik der Habsburger Kaiser in der Zeit des Dreißigjährigen Krieges,weblink 2010, GRIN Verlag, 7, 978-3-640-50510-4, Count of Habsburg c.1025/1030-1096}}{{Familytree | | | | | |!| }}{{Familytree | | | | | GRP | | | | | | GRP=Otto II Count of Habsburg 1096-1111}}{{Familytree | | | | | |!| }}{{Familytree | | | | | MOM | MOM=Werner II Count of Habsburg 1111-1167(File:Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg|40px)}}{{Familytree | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | }}{{Familytree | | | JOE | | ME | | JOE=Otto III Bishop of Constance 1166-1174|ME=Albert III Count of Habsburg 1167-1199(File:Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg|40px)}}{{Familytree | | | | | | | |!| }}{{Familytree | | | | | | | MOM | MOM=Rudolf II Count of Habsburg 1199-1232(File:Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg|40px)}}{{Familytree | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | }}{{Familytree | | | | | JOE | | ME | | JOE=Albert IV Count of Habsburg 1232-1239(File:Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg|40px)|ME=Rudolf III Count of Habsburg 1232 Count of Laufenburg 1232-1249}}{{Familytree | | | | | |!| | | |)|-|-|-|.| }}{{Familytree | | | | | JOE | | ME | | GRP | JOE=Rudolf IV (I) Count of Habsburg 1240-1291 King of Germany 1273-1291 Duke of Austria and Styria 1278-1282 Duke of Carinthia 1276-1286(File:Emperor Rudolf I Arms.svg|50px)|ME=Eberhard I Count of Kiburg 1249-1284|GRP=Gottfried I Count of Laufenburg 1249-1271}}{{Familytree | |,|-|-|-|(| | | |!| | | |!| | | }}{{Familytree | JOE | | ME | | GRP | | MOM | JOE= Albert I Duke of Austria, Styria and Carniola 1282-1308 Holy Roman Emperor 1298-1308(File:Armoiries empereur Albert Ier.svg|50px) |ME= Rudolf II Duke of Swabia 1282-1290 Duke of Austria 1282-1283 |GRP=Kiburg Line 1284-1414|MOM= Laufenburg Line 1271-1408}}{{Familytree | |!| | | |!| | | }}{{Familytree | |!| | | MOM | MOM=John the Parricide(murdered his uncle Albert I)}}{{Familytree |HAB| |HAB=House of Austriasee below(File:Gules a fess argent.svg|40px)}}{{Familytree/end}}

    Middle Habsburgs

    {{chart top|Male scions of the direct House of Habsburg who survived to adulthood(:File:Habsburg Family Tree.jpg)}}{{chart/start|style=font-size:95%; line-height: 120%; margin:1em;|align=center| summary=Boxes and lines diagram with 61 boxes}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Ru1Ge| Ru1Ge=Rudolf Iof Germany{{smaller|{{nowrap|c. 1218–1291}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Al1Ge| |Hartm| | | | | | | |Ru2Au| Al1Ge=Albert Iof Germany{{smaller|{{nowrap|1255–1308}}}}| Hartm=Hartmann{{smaller|{{nowrap|1263–1281}}}}| Ru2Au=Rudolf IIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1270–1290}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | |!}}{{chart| | | | |Ru1Bo| |Fr1Ge| |Le1Au| |Al2Au| |Heinr| |OttAu| |JohPa| Ru1Bo=Rudolf Iof Bohemia{{smaller|{{nowrap|1281–1307}}}}| Fr1Ge=Frederickthe Fair{{smaller|{{nowrap|c. 1289–1330}}}}| Le1Au=Leopold IDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1290–1326}}}}| Al2Au=Albert IIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1298–1358}}}}| Heinr=Henrythe Friendly{{smaller|{{nowrap|1299–1327}}}}| OttAu=OttoDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1301–1339}}}}| JohPa=JohnParricida{{smaller|{{nowrap|c. 1290–1312/13}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | | |Ru4Au| |Fr3Au| |Al3Au| | | |Le3Au| |Fr2Au| |Le2Au| Ru4Au=Rudolf IVDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1339–1365}}}}| Fr3Au=Frederick IIIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1347–1362}}}}| Al3Au=Albert IIIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1349–1395}}}}| Le3Au=Leopold IIIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1351–1386}}}}| Fr2Au=Frederick IIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1327–1344}}}}| Le2Au=Leopold IIDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1328–1344}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | |,|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |Al4Au| |WilAu| |Le4Au| |ErnAu| | | |Fr4Au| Al4Au=Albert IVDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1377–1404}}}}| WilAu=WilliamDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|c. 1370–1406}}}}| Le4Au=Leopold IVDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1371–1411}}}}| ErnAu=ErnestDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1377–1424}}}}| Fr4Au=Frederick IVDuke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1382–1439}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |Al2Ge| | | | | | | |Fr3HR| |Al6Au| |SigAu| Al2Ge=Albert IIof Germany{{smaller|{{nowrap|1397–1439}}}}| Fr3HR=Frederick IIIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1415–1493}}}}| Al6Au=Albert VIArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1418–1463}}}}| SigAu=SigismundArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1427–1496}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |La1Bo| | | | | | | |M1HRE| La1Bo=Ladislausthe Posthumous{{smaller|{{nowrap|1440–1457}}}}| M1HRE=Maximilian IHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1459–1519}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Ph1Ca| Ph1Ca=Philip Iof Castile{{smaller|{{nowrap|1478–1506}}}}}}{{chart| | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|^|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | |C5HRE| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |F1HRE| C5HRE=Charles VHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1500–1558}}}}| F1HRE=Ferdinand IHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1503–1564}}}}}}{{chart| | | |!| | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart| | |Ph2Sp| | | | | | | | | | | |M2HRE| | | | | | | | | |Fe2Au| | | | | | | |Ch2Au| Ph2Sp=Philip IIof Spain{{smaller|{{nowrap|1527–1598}}}}| M2HRE=Maximilian IIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1527–1576}}}}| Fe2Au=Ferdinand IIArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1529–1595}}}}| Ch2Au=Charles IIArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1540–1590}}}}}}{{chart| |,|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | |!| | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | | | | }}{{chart|CarAs| |Ph3Sp| |R2HRE| |ErnA2| |MaHRE| |Ma2Au| |Al7Au| |KarAu| |F2HRE| |MaxEr| |Le5Au| |Karlx| CarAs=CarlosPrince of Asturias{{smaller|{{nowrap|1545–1568}}}}| Ph3Sp=Philip IIIof Spain{{smaller|{{nowrap|1578–1621}}}}| R2HRE=Rudolf IIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1552–1612}}}}| ErnA2=Ernestof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1553–1595}}}}| MaHRE=MatthiasHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1557–1619}}}}| Ma2Au=Maximilian IIIArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1558–1618}}}}| Al7Au=Albert VIIArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1559–1621}}}}| KarAu=CharlesMargrave of Burgau{{smaller|{{nowrap|1560–1618}}}}| F2HRE=Ferdinand IIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1578–1637}}}}| MaxEr=Maximilian Ernestof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1583–1616}}}}| Le5Au=Leopold VArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1586–1632}}}}| Karlx=Charlesof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1590–1624}}}}}}{{chart| | | |,|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.| | | |,|-|^|-|.| | }}{{chart| | |Ph4Sp| |CarSp| |CIFer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |F3HRE| |LeWAu| |FeCAu| |SiFAu| Ph4Sp=Philip IVof Spain{{smaller|{{nowrap|1605–1665}}}}| CarSp=Charlesof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1607–1632}}}}| CIFer=Ferdinandof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1609/10–1641}}}}| F3HRE=Ferdinand IIIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1608–1657}}}}| LeWAu=Leopold Wilhelmof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1614–1662}}}}| FeCAu=Ferdinand CharlesArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1628–1662}}}}| SiFAu=Sigismund FrancisArchduke of Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1630–1665}}}}}}{{chart| |,|-|^|-|.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|.}}{{chart|BaCAs| |CH2Sp| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Fe4Hu| |L1HRE| |ChJAu| BaCAs=Balthasar CharlesPrince of Asturias{{smaller|{{nowrap|1629–1646}}}}| CH2Sp=Charles IIof Spain{{smaller|{{nowrap|1661–1700}}}}| Fe4Hu=Ferdinand IVKing of the Romans{{smaller|{{nowrap|1633–1654}}}}| L1HRE=Leopold IHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1640–1705}}}}| ChJAu=Charles Josephof Austria{{smaller|{{nowrap|1649–1664}}}}}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,|-|^|-|.}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |J1HRE| |C4HRE| J1HRE=Joseph IHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1678–1711}}}}| C4HRE=Charles VIHRE{{smaller|{{nowrap|1685–1740}}}}}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

    Later Habsburgs

    Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:(File:Habsburg-Lorraine Genealogy.PNG|1000px)

    Monarchs of the House of Habsburg

    The Habsburg Empire was never composed of a single unified and unitary state as Bourbon France, Hohenzollern Germany, or Great Britain was. It was made up of an accretion of territories that owed their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord. The Habsburgs had mostly married the heiresses of these territories, most famously of Spain and the Netherlands. They used their coats of arms then as a statement of their right to rule all these territories. As there were many territories, so their arms were complex and reflected the waxing and waning position of the Habsburgs within European power politics. It was not until the 19th century (see below Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that the arms began to take on their own life as symbols of a state which may have an existence outside of the Habsburg dynasty. A complete listing of the arms can be found at the (:fr:Armorial des Habsbourg|Habsburg Armory).


    • Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of:Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume I Europe & Latin America, 1977, pp. 18, 32. {{ISBN|0-85011-023-8}} The chronology of the Muri Abbey, burial place of the early Habsburgs, written in the 11th century, states that Guntramnus Dives (Guntram the Rich), was the ancestor of the House of Habsburg. Many historians believe this indeed makes Guntram the progenitor of the House of Habsburg. However, this account was 200 years after the fact, and much about him and the origins of the Habsburgs is uncertain.BOOK, Heinz-Dieter Heimann, Die Habsburger: Dynastie und Kaiserreiche,weblink 2001, 22, C.H.Beck, 978-3-406-44754-9, If true, as Guntram was a member of the Etichonider family, it would link the Habsburg lineage to this family.
    • Lanzelin of Altenburg (died 991). Besides Radbot, below, he had sons named Rudolph I, Wernher, and Landolf.

    Counts of Habsburg

    (File:Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg|right|100px)(File:Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg|thumb|right|upright=0.45|Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.)Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts of Baden in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland.
    • Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg Castle (c. 985 – 1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albrecht I. Founded the Muri Abbey, which became the first burial place of members of the House of Habsburg. It is possible that Radbot founded the castle Habichtsburg, the residence of the House of Habsburg, but another possible founder is Werner I.BOOK, Andreas Bönner, Die Religionspolitik der Habsburger Kaiser in der Zeit des Dreißigjährigen Krieges,weblink 2010, GRIN Verlag, 7, 978-3-640-50510-4,
    • Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025/1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, who was reeve of Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II.
    • Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of:
    • Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; died 1167) Father of:
    • Albrecht III of Habsburg (the Rich), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Father of:
    • Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of:
    • Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

    Dukes/Archdukes of Austria

    (File:Ducal Hat of Styria.svg|right|100px)File:Gules a fess argent.svg|thumb|right|upright=0.45|The arms of (:de: Bindenschild|Austria), originally belonging to the Babenberg dukes. They became all but synonymous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these.]]In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they usually ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) and the eastern part of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich). The Habsburg possessions also included the rest of what was then called Inner Austria (Innerösterreich), i.e. the Duchy of Styria, and then expanded west to include the Duchy of Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and the Count of Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria.The senior Habsburg dynasty generally ruled Lower Austria from Vienna as archduke ("paramount duke") of the Duchy of Austria. The Styrian lands had already been ruled in personal union by the Babenberg dukes of Austria since 1192 and were finally seized with the Austrian lands by the Habsburg king Rudolph I of Germany upon his victory in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. In 1335 Rudolph's grandson Duke Albert II of Austria also received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacent March of Carniola at the hands of Emperor Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs.The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.When Albert's son Duke Rudolf IV of Austria died in 1365, his younger brothers Albert III and Leopold III quarrelled about his heritage and in the Treaty of Neuberg of 1379 finally split the Habsburg territories: The Albertinian line would rule in the Archduchy of Austria proper (then sometimes referred to as "Lower Austria" (Niederösterreich), but comprising modern Lower Austria and most of Upper Austria), while the Leopoldian line ruled in the Styrian, Carinthian and Carniolan territories, subsumed under the denotation of "Inner Austria". At that time their share also comprised Tyrol and the original Habsburg possessions in Swabia, called Further Austria; sometimes both were collectively referred to as "Upper Austria" (Oberösterreich) in that context, also not to be confused with the modern state of that name.After the death of Leopold's eldest son William in 1406, the Leopoldinian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV. In 1457 Ernest's son Duke Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous had died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favor of Frederick's son Maximilian I. In 1512, the Habsburg territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle.File:Carte archiduché Autriche.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|right|Map of showing the constituent lands of the Archduchy of Austria: the Duchy of Austria comprising Upper Austria centred around Linz and Lower Austria centered around Vienna, Inner Austria comprising duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola and the lands of the Austrian Littoral centered on Graz, and Further Austria comprising mostly the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, and usually the County of Tyrol. The part between Further Austria and the duchy of Austria was the Archbishopric of SalzburgArchbishopric of SalzburgArchduke of Austria, was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the "ruler" (thus "Arch-") of the Duchy of Austria, usually from Vienna, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been bypassed as hereditary prince-electors of the empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that title to the highest-ranking Imperial princes. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title.The archducal title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III.BOOK, Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Furstliche Hauser Band XIV, C. A. Starke Verlag, 1991, Limburg ad der Lahn, Germany, 91–93, 978-3-7980-0700-0, Emperor Frederick III himself used just "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (died 1463), who used it at least from 1458.In 1477, Frederick III also granted the title archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria.Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482), as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled "Duke of Austria"). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries.Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory, i.e., only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. But these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet.From the 16th century onward, archduke and its female form, archduchess, came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg (e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria.
    • Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons.
    • Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also below.
    • Rudolph III, the oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307
    • Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of the emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
    • Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326.
    • Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
    • Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
    • Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.
    After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

    Albertine line: Dukes of Austria

    (File:Ducal Hat of Styria.svg|right|75px)
    • Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions.
    • Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
    • Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II. See also below.
    • Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.

    Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol (Inner Austria)

    (File:Ducal Hat of Styria.svg|right|75px)(File:Armoiries Habsbourg-Styrie.svg|right|75px)
    • Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
    • William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
    • Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria

    Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line

    (File:Ducal Hat of Styria.svg|right|75px)
    * Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 1406–1424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV. * Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also below. * Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458–1463 * Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918

    Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line

    (File:Ducal Hat of Styria.svg|right|75px)
    * Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria * Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

    Reuniting of Habsburg possessions

    Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.

    King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

    (File:Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg|right|75px)
    • Rudolph I, emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned) (File:Emperor Rudolf I Arms.svg|50px)
    • Albert I, emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned) (File:Armoiries empereur Albert Ier.svg|50px)
    • Albert II, emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia (File:Armoiries empereur Albert II.svg|50px)
    • Frederick III, emperor 1440–1493 (File:Armoiries empereur Frédéric III.svg|50px)

    Kings of Hungary and Bohemia prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

    (File:Crown of Saint Stephen.svg|right|75px)(File:Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg|right|75px)
    • Albert, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1437–1439) (File:Armoiries Albert II de Habsbourg.svg|50px)
    • Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary (1444–1457) and Bohemia (1453–1457) (File:Coa Hungary Country History Ladislaus V (1440 – 1457).svg|50px)

    Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

    (File:Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg|right|75px)(File:Archducal Coronet.svg|right|75px)The title Archduke of Austria, the one most famously associated with the Habsburgs, was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the (thus 'Arch')duchy of Austria, in an effort to put that ruler on par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356, when the electorships had been assigned. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, was never in his lifetime authorized to use it, and accordingly, not he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty ever used the title.Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by his son, Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Frederick III himself used just Duke of Austria, never Archduke, until his death in 1493.Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482) as the title never appears in documents of joint Maximilian and Mary rule in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled Duke of Austria). The title appears first in documents of joint Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) rule in the Low Countries. It only gained currency with Charles V and the descendants of his brother, the Emperor Ferdinand.
    • Maximilian I, emperor 1508–1519 (File:Coat of arms of Maximilan of Hapsburg as archduke of Austria.svg|50 px) (File:Coat of arms of Maximilan of Hapsburg as consort to Mary of Burgundy.svg|50 px) (File:Armoiries Maximilien Ier.svg|50px) (File:Coat of arms of Maximilian of Austria as emperor.svg|50px)
    • Charles V, emperor 1519–1556, his arms are explained in an article about them (File:Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg|50px) (File:Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant (1530-1556).svg|50px)

    Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Netherlands

    (File:Cross of Burgundy-Gules and Link.svg|right|75px)(File:Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|right|75px)The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Charles controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county), but the wealthy and powerful Southern Netherlands, current Flanders, the real center of his power. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles.Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. {{ISBN|3-406-44754-6}}. pp. 38–45. Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son:
    • Philip the Handsome (1482–1506) (File:Coat of arms of Philipp of Austria 1483-1485.svg|50px) (File:Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|50px)
    • Charles V (1506–1555) (File:Arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as Heir of Philip the Handsome.svg|50px) (File:Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|50px)
    • Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, regent (1507–1515) and (1519–1530) (File:Coat of arms of Margaret of Austria (princess of Spain).svg|50px) (File:Coat of arms of Margaret of Austria (duchess of Savoy).svg|50px) (File:Coat of arms of Margaret of Austria (countess of Burgundy).svg|50px)
    • Mary of Hungary, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531–1555 (File:Coat of Arms of Mary of Austria as Queen of Hungary.svg|50px) (File:Coat of Arms of Mary of Austria as Dowager Queen of Hungary.svg|50px)
    • Margaret of Parma, illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Duchess of Parma, and mother of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, governor 1559–1567 (File:Coat of Arms of Margareth of Parma Before her Marriage.svg|50px)
    • Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576–1578 (File:Coat of Arms of John of Austria (1545-1578).svg|100px)
    • Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, son of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, 1578–1592 (File:Armoiries Parme 1586.svg|50px)
    The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601–1621), when shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé, Archduke Albert of Austria, a younger son of Emperor Maximilian II. The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633:
    • the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, 1601-1621 (File:Coat of Arms of Archduke Albert of Austria as Governor-Monarch of the Low Countries.svg|75px) (File:Coat of Arms of Infanta Isabella of Spain as Governor Monarch of the Low Countries.svg|50px)

    King of England

    Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640)

    {{See also|Spanish Habsburgs|Philippine Dynasty}}(File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|right|100px)(File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1580-1598).svg|center|thumb|upright=1.35|Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1581–1621 Version) showing the shield as kings of Portugal. Portugal regained its independence in 1640, and when Spain acknowledged this in 1668, it was removed.)The Habsburg Kingdom(s) of Spain were more a personal union of possessions of the Habsburg king and dynast, who was King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Valencia, sometime of Portugal, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Milan, and Lord of the Americas, as well as Duke of Brabant, Count of Flanders and Holland, Duke of Luxemburg (i.e. all the Habsburg Netherlands). A listing of a number of the titles can be seen here. The dynast (head of the Spanish Habsburgs, i.e. the King, showed this wide range of claims in his arms. There are many more variants of these arms in the (:fr:Armorial des Habsbourg#Branche aînée (Espagnole)|Habsburg Armory, Spanish Section) as well as coat of arms of the King of Spain, coat of arms of Spain, coat of arms of the Prince of Asturias, and coats of arms of Spanish Monarchs in Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also kept up the Burgundian court tradition of the dynast being known by a "nickname" (e.g. the Bold, the Prudent, the Bewitched).(List of nicknames of European royalty and nobility: C) In Spain they were known as the "(:es:Casa de Austria|"Casa de Austria"), and illegitimate sons were known as "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria and Don Juan José de Austria).
    • Philip I of Castile the Handsome, second son of Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son: (File:Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile.svg|50px)
    • Charles I 1516–1556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines The meanings of his arms are analyzed here. (File:Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg|50px) (File:Middle Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor-Middle (1530-1556).svg|50px)
    • Philip II the Prudent 1556–1598, also Philip I of Portugal 1581–1598 and Philip I of England with his wife Mary I of England 1554–1558. The meanings of his arms are analyzed here. (File:Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg|50px). (File:Royal Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|50px)
    • Philip III the Pious, also Philip II of Portugal 1598–1621 (File:Royal Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|50px)
    • Philip IV the Great 1621–1665, also Philip III of Portugal 1621–1640 (File:Royal Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|50px)
    • Charles II the Bewitched ( "El Hechizado") 1665–1700 (File:Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg|50px)
    The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

    Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria

    (File:Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg|right|75px)(File:Crown of Saint Stephen.svg|right|75px)(File:Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg|right|75px)(File:Archducal Coronet.svg|right|75px)The main junior line of the house ruled the Duchy of Austria, as well as the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary. The dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg. The Inner Austrian line founded by Archduke Charles II prevailed again, when his son and successor as regent of Inner Austria (i.e. the Duchy of Styria, the Duchy of Carniola with March of Istria, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial City of Trieste, ruled from Graz) Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as well as King of Bohemia and Hungary in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand's brother Archduke Leopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century.
    • Charles V, emperor 1519–1556 (Maintained legal authority over his brother Ferdinand I, archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia and Hungary. Divided the House of Habsburg into Spanish and Austrian branches in 1556, when Ferdinand became monarch suo jure and Emperor.) (File:Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg|50px)
    • Ferdinand I, emperor 1556–1564 (File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.svg|50px) (→Family Tree)
    • Maximilian II, emperor 1564–1576 (File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.svg|50px)
    • Rudolf II, emperor 1576–1612 (File:Armoiries empereur Rodolphe II.svg|50px)
    • Matthias, emperor 1612–1619 (File:Armoiries empereur Rodolphe II.svg|50px)
    • Ferdinand II, emperor 1619–1637 (File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand III.svg|50px)
    • Ferdinand III, emperor 1637–1657 (File:Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg|50px)(→Family Tree)
    • Leopold I, emperor 1658–1705 (File:Armoiries empereur Rodolphe II.svg|50px)
    • Josef I, emperor 1705–1711 (File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.svg|50px)
    • Charles VI, emperor 1711–1740 (File:Arms of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg|50px)
    • Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1740–1780.
    The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria

    (File:Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg|right|75px)(File:Crown of Saint Stephen.svg|right|75px)(File:Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg|right|75px)(File:T08 Grossherzog.svg|right|75px)
    • Francis I Stephen, emperor 1745–1765 (File:Armoiries empereur François Ier.svg|50px) (→Family Tree)
    • Joseph II, emperor 1765–1790 (File:Armoiries empereur Joseph II.svg|50px)
    • Leopold II, emperor 1790–1792 (File:Armoiries empereur Léopold II.svg|50px) (→Family Tree)
    • Francis II, emperor 1792–1806 (File:Armoiries empereur Léopold II.svg|50px) (→Family Tree)
    Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria

    (File:Imperial Crown of Austria (Heraldry).svg|right|75px)(File:Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg|right|75px)(File:Coat of Arms of Emperor Franz Joseph I.svg|thumb|center|upright=1.8|Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804. On the center is the Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor Francis I. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine.)
    • Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (File:Armoiries Léopold II Habsbourg Lorraine.svg|50px) (File:Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg|50px)
    (→Family Tree)
    • Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835–1848 (File:Habsburg Personal Arms Ferdinand I.PNG|50px)
    • Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848–1916. (File:Habsburg Personal Arms Franz Joseph and Charles.PNG|50px)
    • Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma. (File:Habsburg Personal Arms Franz Joseph and Charles.PNG|50px)

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany

    (File:Coat of arms of the House of Habsurg-Lorraine (Tuscany line).svg|right|75px) Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy

    (File:Coat of arms of the House of Habsurg-Lorraine (Tuscany line).svg|right|75px)

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine (Austria-Este): Dukes of Modena

    The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification. The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D'Este Duke of Modena.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy

    (File:Coat of Arms of the House of Habsburg Este.svg|right|75px)

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal

    Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria (22 January 1797 – 11 December 1826) was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France

    • Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma

    The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

    (File:Coat of arms of Mexico (1864-1867).svg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864)Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro, in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)

    Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished.File:Habsburg Lothringen.png|right|thumb|upright=0.7|Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of ArchdukeArchduke see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne


    {{Empty section|date=September 2018}}

    Kings of Hungary

    The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, as "Palatine" of Hungary, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.(File:Crown of Saint Stephen.svg|right|75px)(File:Arms of Hungary.svg|right|75px)

    Albertine line: Kings of Hungary

    Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary

    (File:Crown of Saint Stephen.svg|right|75px)(File:Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svg|right|75px)

    Kings of Bohemia

    (File:Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg|right|90px)(File:Blason Boheme.svg|right|90px)After Václav III’s death, there were no male heirs remaining in the Přemyslid line. Therefore, with the election of Rudolf in 1306, the kingship of Bohemia was a position elected by its nobles, although often the crown was transferred through war, such as John of Bohemia in 1310.Hugh Agnew. The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Studies of Nationalities. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2004. pg. 29 As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until the rule of Ferdinand I, Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were displaced by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately. The Habsburgs became hereditary kings of Bohemia in 1627. By their acquisition of the Bohemian Crown in 1526 the Habsburgs secured the highest rank among the secular prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Main line

    Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia

    Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia

    House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

    Family name Habsburg

    Most royal families did not have a family name until the 19th century. They were known as "of" (in German von) based on the main territory they ruled. For example, sons, daughters, grandsons and granddaughters of a ruling French King were known as "of France" (see Wikipedia on House of Bourbon). The name "Capet" was an invention of the French Revolutionaries. "Bourbon" was in some sense the name of the house as it was differentiated from the previous Valois kings. Princes and Princesses of the royal house of England were known as "of England", or later "Great Britain" (see House of Windsor) or "of" the main title associated with their parent (see Prince William of Wales). In the Middle Ages, princes of England were often known by the town or castle of their birth (see John of Gaunt, Henry Bolingbroke, or Henry of Monmouth). Even when the royal family had a last name (see House of Tudor, House of Stuart or House of Windsor), it was not used in their titles.Similarly, the Habsburg name was used as one of the subsidiary titles of the rulers above, as in "Princely Count of Habsburg" (see above under Habsburg-Lorraine). The Habsburg arms (see above) were displayed only in the most complete (great arms) of the prince. The dynasty was known as the "house of Austria". Most of the princes above were known as Archduke xyz "of Austria" and had no need of a surname. Charles V was known in his youth after his birthplace as "Charles of Ghent". When he became king of the Spains he was known as "Charles of Spain", until he became emperor, when he was known as Charles V ("Charles Quint"). In Spain, the dynasty was known as the (:es:casa de Austria|"casa de Austria"), and illegitimate sons were given the title of "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria and Don Juan José de Austria). The arms displayed in their simplest form were those of Austria, which the Habsburgs had made their own, at times impaled with the arms of the Duchy of Burgundy (ancient).{| border="0" align="center" width="100%"!width=25% |(File:Arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg.svg|center|100px)!width=25% |(File:Habsburg Lorraine.png|center|100px)!width=25% |(File:Habsburg Lorraine Tuscany.png|center|100px)!width=25% |(File:Habsburg Lorraine Trishield.png|center|100px)Arms of Austria impaled with Burgundy (ancient). The most personal arms of Austrian princes from 1477 until 1740 ((:fr:Armorial des Habsbourg|see here)Personal Arms of Joseph II and Marie Antoinette showing Austria impaled with Lorraine.Tripartite personal arms of Leopold II and Francis II/I showing Austria, Lorraine and Tuscany, and used by the House of Austria-Tuscany (see Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany).Tripartite personal arms of the "Habsburg" ruling house after 1805 showing the return to prominence of the Habsburg arms. Used today by most archdukes/archduchesses.When Maria Theresa married the duke of Lorraine, Francis Stephen (see above), there was a desire to show that the ruling dynasty continued as did all its inherited rights, as the ruling dynasty's right to rule was based on inherited legitimate birthright in each of the constituent territories. Using the concept of "Habsburg" as the traditional Austrian ruler was one of those ways. When Francis I became Emperor of Austria, there was an even further reinforcement of this by the reappearance of the arms of Habsburg in the tripart personal arms of the house with Austria and Lorraine. This also reinforced the "Germaness" of the Austrian Emperor and his claim to rule in Germany against the Prussian Kings, or at least to be included in "Germany". As Emperor Francis Joseph wrote to Napoleon III „Nein, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“ 1: Wolfgang Menzel: Die letzten 120 Jahre der Weltgeschichte, Band 6 (1740-1860), Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 211 {{Google books|NQAIAAAAIAAJ|Online|page=211}}2.: Wolfgang Menzel: Supplementband zu der Geschichte der letzten 40 Jahre (1816-1856). Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 153 {{Google books|IMRBAAAAcAAJ|Online|page=153}}Aus diesem wurde später: „Sire, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“:Hermann Struschka: Kaiser Franz Josef I. Georg Szelinski, Wien 1888, S. 22 {{Google books|BUMpAAAAYAAJ|Online|page=22}}Es kommt auch in der anglifizierten Schreibung „Sir, ich bin deutscher Fürst“ vor.Stenographische Protokolle – Abgeordnetenhaus – Sitzungsprotokolle. Haus der Abgeordneten – 14. Sitzung der XVIII. Session am 16. Juli 1907, S. 1337 3: (wikiquote:de:Franz Joseph I. von Österreich) In the genealogical table above, some younger sons who had no prospects of the throne, were given the personal title of "count of Habsburg".Today, as the dynasty is no longer on the throne, the surname of members of the house is taken to be "von Habsburg" or more completely "von Habsburg-Lothringen" (see Otto von Habsburg and Karl von Habsburg). Princes and members of the house use the Tripartite arms shown above, generally forgoing any imperial pretensions.

    Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

    The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. That very idea had been, heretofore, foreign to the concept of the Habsburg state. The state had been the personal property of the Habsburg dynast. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord, these full ("grand") arms of dominion of Austria-Hungary reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.(File:Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.65|Shield of the Austrian part of the empire (1867–1915).)(File:Coat of arms of Austria-Hungary with numbers 1867-1915.png|thumb|left|upright=1.65|Enumeration)After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also called Transleithania, was mostly under the domination of the Kingdom of Hungary. The shield integrated the arms of the kingdom of Hungary, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen, along with the territories that were subject to it:The Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia (conjoined with Croatia as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia - formally known as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, although the claim to Dalmatia was mostly de jure), the Great Principality of Transylvania, the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1915–1918), the City of Fiume and its district (modern Rijeka), and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary.The western or Austrian part of the empire, Cisleithania, continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815.{| cellpadding="5" style="margin:auto;" class="wikitable"!|I!|II!|III!|IV!|V (File:Coa Hungary Country History (19th Century).svg|35px) (File:Wappen Königreich Galizien & Lodomerien.png|55px) (File:Wappen Erzherzogtum Österreich unter der Enns.png|55px) (File:Wappen Herzogtum Salzburg.png|45px) (File:Wappen Herzogtum Steiermark.png|60px)!|Kingdom of Hungary!|Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria!|Archduchy of Austria!|Duchy of Salzburg!|Duchy of Styria!|VI! colspan="2" |VII! colspan="2" |VIII (File:Wappen Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol.png|60px) (File:Wappen Herzogtum Kärnten.png|60px) (File:Wappen Herzogtum Krain.png|60px) (File:Wappen Markgrafschaft Mähren.png|60px) (File:Wappen Herzogtum Schlesien.png|60px)!|Duchy of Tirol! colspan="2" |Duchy of Carinthia and Duchy of Carniola (Marshalled)! colspan="2" |Margraviate of Moravia and Duchy of Silesia (Marshalled)!|IX!|X!|XI (File:Wappen Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen.png|45px) (File:CoA of Kingdom of Illyria.svg|65px) (File:Wappen Königreich Böhmen.png|60px)!|Great Principality of Transylvania!|Kingdom of Illyria!|Kingdom of Bohemia

    Version of 1915

    In 1915, in the middle of World War I, Austria-Hungary adopted a heraldic composition uniting the shield that was used in the Hungarian part, also known as the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, with a new version of the medium shield of the Austrian part as depicted above in the section on the main line of the Emperors of Austria.Before 1915, the arms of the different territories of the Austrian part of the Empire (heraldry was added to some areas not shown in the previous version and to the left to the Hungarian part) appeared together in the shield positioned on the double-headed eagle coat of arms of the Austrian Empire as an inescutcheon. The eagle was inside a shield with a gold field. The latter shield was supported by two griffins and was topped by the Austrian Imperial Crown (previously these items were included only in the large shield). Then, shown in the center of both arms of dominion, as an inescutcheon to the inescutcheon, is the small shield, i.e. personal arms, of the Habsburgs. All this was surrounded by the collar Order of the Golden FleeceH. Ströhl: Die neuen österreichischen, ungarischen und gemeinsamen Wappen. Hrsg. auf Grund der mit d. allerhöchsten Handschreiben vom 10. u. 11. Okt. 1915, bezw. 2. u. 5. März 1916 erfolgten Einführung. Viena 1917.WEB,weblink Diem, P. Die Entwicklung des österreichischen Doppeladlers, 5 July 2012, (File:Middle Coats of arms of Austrian Countries (1915).png|thumb|center|upright=2.75|Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as a center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center.)In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa, below which was the collars of the Orders of St. Stephen's and Leopold. At the bottom was the motto that read "AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER" ("indivisible and inseparable"). There were other simplified versions which did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary (with chequer of Croatia at the tip).(File:Austria-Hungaria transparency.png|thumb|center|upright=3.2|Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with.){| class="wikitable" style="background:#efefef;" Austrian Lands! style="width:50%;"|Shield! style="width:5%;"|Partition! style="width:65%;"|Territory(File:Austrian shield.jpg230px)style="text-align: center;" I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX>Kingdom of Galicia and LodomeriaKingdom of BohemiaKingdom of DalmatiaAustrian Silesia>Duchy of Upper and Lower SilesiaDuchy of SalzburgMargraviate of MoraviaCounty of TirolDuchy of BukovinaVorarlberg#HistoryMarch of Istria#Habsburg Margraviate>Margraviate of IstriaCounty of Gorizia#Habsburg (part of the Gorizia and Gradisca>Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca) Gorizia and Gradisca#Province of the Habsburg Empire (also part of the Gorizia and Gradisca>Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca)Bosnia and Herzegovina#Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918) (Conjoined) Imperial Free City of TriesteHistory of Austria#Redivision of the Habsburg lands (1564–1620)>Archduchy of Lower AustriaArchduchy of Upper AustriaDuchy of StyriaDuchy of CarniolaDuchy of CarinthiaArchduchy of Austria{| class="wikitable" style="background:#efefef;"Territories of the crown of St. Stephen! style="width:50%;"|Shield! style="width:5%;"|Partition! style="width:65%;"|Territory(File:Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svgborder)(File:Wappen Ungarische Länder 1915 (Mittel) Numbers.pngborder)style="text-align: center;" I II III IV V VI VII >Kingdom of Dalmatia (Legally Hungarian)Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)>Kingdom of CroatiaKingdom of SlavoniaPrincipality of Transylvania (1711–1867)Bosnia and Herzegovina#Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918)>Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined)City of Fiume and its districtKingdom of Hungary{| class="wikitable" style="background:#efefef;"Personal Shield of the Dynasty! style="width:50%;"|Shield! style="width:5%;"|Partition! style="width:65%;"|Significance(File:Habsburg Lorraine Trishield.pngI II IIICount of HabsburgArchduke of AustriaDuke of Lorraine 260px">

    Gallery{| style"margin:auto;" class"wikitable" (File:Wappen Ungarische Länder 1867 (Mittel).png|260px)

    (File:Coa Hungary Country History med (1915).svg|260px) (File:Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg|240px)!|Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867–1915)!|Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1915–1918)!|Small Arms of Austria (Cisleithania) (1805–1918) (File:Imperial Coat of Arms of Austria.svg|160px) (File:Coat of Arms of Emperor Franz Joseph I.svg|260px) (File:Wappen Österreich-Ungarn 1916 (Klein).png|250px)!|Simple Arms of Cisleithania (1915–1918)!|Personal Arms of the Emperor Franz Josef (1848–1916)!|Simple Arms of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire (1915–1918)In der Burg Jan 2008 pano.jpg|Hofburg Palace, ViennaSchloss Schönbrunn Wien 2014 (Zuschnitt 2).jpg|Schönbrunn Palace, ViennaPražský hrad s katedrálou z Petřína.JPG|Prague Castle Buda--Castles01.jpg|Buda Castle File:Vista aerea del Monasterio de El Escorial.jpg|El Escorial

    See also

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    Further reading

    • Agamov A.M. Dynasties of Europe 400--2016: Complete Genealogy of Sovereign Houses (In Russian). URSS, Moscow, 2017. P. 27-33
    • Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996.
    • Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963)
    • Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979.
    • McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966.
    • Palmer, Alan. Napoleón and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003.
    • Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).

    External links

    {{EB1911 poster|Habsburg}}{{Commons category}}{{Wikivoyage|Habsburgs}} {{Habsburg Monarchy topics}}{{Royal houses of Europe}}{{Authority control}}

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