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Pannonian Avars
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{{pp-sock|small=yes}}{{short description|Historical ethnic group}}{{About||the modern ethnic group native to the North Caucasus|Avars (Caucasus)|other uses|Avar (disambiguation)}}







factoids
Mongolic languages>Mongolic, Turkic languages or Tungusic languages (possibly, partially)CURTA AUTHOR-LINK=FLORIN CURTA TITLE=THE SLAVIC LINGUA FRANCA (LINGUISTIC NOTES OF AN ARCHAEOLOGIST TURNED HISTORIAN) JOURNAL=EAST CENTRAL EUROPE/L'EUROPE DU CENTRE-EST ISSUE= DOI= QUOTE=BY CONTRAST, THERE IS VERY LITTLE EVIDENCE THAT SPEAKERS OF SLAVIC HAD ANY SIGNIFICANT CONTACT WITH TURKIC. AS A CONSEQUENCE, AND SINCE THE LATEST STRATUM OF LOAN WORDS IN COMMON SLAVIC IS IRANIAN IN ORIGIN, JOHANNA NICHOLS ADVANCED THE IDEA THAT THE AVARS SPOKE AN IRANIAN, NOT A TURKIC LANGUAGE., HELIMSKI>FIRST1=ETITLE=DIE SPRACHE(N) DER AWAREN: DIE MANDSCHU-TUNGUSISCHE ALTERNATIVEPAGES=59–72, HTTPS://WWW.ACADEMIA.EDU/14286788/TUNGUSIC_HISTORICAL_LINGUISTICS_AND_THE_BUYLA_A.K.A._NAGYSZENTMIKL%C3%B3S_INSCRIPTION>TITLE=TUNGUSIC HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS AND THE BUYLA (A.K.A. NAGYSZENTMIKLóS) INSCRIPTIONLAST=FUENTEWEBSITE=ACADEMIA.EDU, |capital = |religion = Originally Shamanism and Animism, Christianity after 796|year_start = 567|event1 = Defeated by Pepin of Italy|date_event1 = 796|year_end = after 822Carl Waldman & Catherine Mason, 2006, Encyclopedia of European Peoples, Volume 2, New York: Infobase Publishing, p. 769.|p1 = Lombards|flag_p1 = |p2 = Kingdom of the Gepids|flag_p2 =|s1 = Frankish Empire|flag_s1 = Frankish Empire 481 to 814-en.svg|s2 = First Bulgarian Empire|image_s2 = |image_map = Historical map of the Balkans around 582-612 AD.jpg|image_map_caption = Avar Khaganate around 582–612 AD.
  • Bayan I (562–602)
  • Bayan II (602–617)
  • (Names unknown 617 â€“ c. 802)
  • Zodan (fl. 803)
  • Theodorus (? – 805)Some sources claim that Khagan Theodorus and his predecessor Zodan were one and the same; that is, Zodan assumed the name Thedours after converting to Christianity.
  • Abraham ( fl. 805)
  • Isaac (? – ?)The name of Khagan Isaac appears to have been corrupted into Latin as Canizauci princeps Avarum ("Khagan Isaac, Prince of the Avars").
}}|year_leader1 =|title_leader = Khaganarea_km2=GDP_PPP=HDI=today=}}File:Coins of the Avars 6th-7th centuries CE imitating Ravenna mint types of Heraclius.jpg|thumb|300px|Coins of the Avars 6th–7th centuries AD, imitating Ravenna mint types of (Heraclius]].CNG Coins)The Pannonian Avars ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|v|ɑr|z}}; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or VarchonitaiAvars at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-AvarsAccording to Grousset, Empire of the Steppes, page 171,Theophylact Simocatta called them pseudo-Avars because he thought the true Avars were the Rouran. in Byzantine sources) were an alliance of several groups of Eurasian nomads of unknown origins.WEB,weblink Avar, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica (company), Encyclopædia Britannica, May 14, 2015, Avar, one of a people of undetermined origin and language..., BOOK, Frassetto, Michael, harv, Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation,weblink 28 May 2015, 1 January 2003, ABC-CLIO, 978-1576072639, 54–55, "The exact origins of the Avars remain uncertain...", BOOK, Waldman, Carl, Mason, Catherine, harv, Encyclopedia of European Peoples,weblink 5 May 2013, 2006, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-2918-1, 46–49, {{harvnb|Beckwith|2009|pp=390–391}}: "... the Avars certainly contained peoples belonging to several different ethnolinguistic groups, so that attempts to identify them with one or another specific eastern people are misguided."{{harvnb|Kyzlasov|1996|p=322}}: "The Juan-Juan state was undoubtedly multi-ethnic, but there is no definite evidence as to their language... Some scholars link the Central Asian Juan-Juan with the Avars who came to Europe in the mid-sixth century. According to widespread but unproven and probably unjustified opinion, the Avars spoke a language of the Mongolic group."{{harvtxt|Pritsak|1983|p=359}}They are probably best known for their invasions and destruction in the Avar–Byzantine wars from 568 to 626.The name Pannonian Avars (after the area in which they eventually settled) is used to distinguish them from the Avars of the Caucasus, a separate people with whom the Pannonian Avars might or might not have had links.They established the Avar Khaganate, which spanned the Pannonian Basin and considerable areas of Central and Eastern Europe from the late 6th to the early 9th century.Walter Pohl, Die Awaren: ein Steppenvolk im Mitteleuropa, 567–822 n. Chr, C.H.Beck (2002), {{ISBN|978-3-406-48969-3}}, p. 26-29.Although the name Avar first appeared in the mid-5th century, the Pannonian Avars entered the historical scene in the mid-6th century,BOOK,weblink Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Cambridge medieval textbooks, 2006, 2009-11-20, Curta, Florin, 978-0-521-81539-0, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe as a people who wished to escape the rule of the Göktürks.

Origins

Avars and Pseudo-Avars

The earliest clear reference to the Avar ethnonym comes from Priscus the Rhetor (died after 472 AD). Priscus recounts that, c. 463, the Šaragurs, Onogurs and Ogurs were attacked by the Sabirs, who had been attacked by the Avars. In turn, the Avars had been driven off by people fleeing "man-eating griffins" coming from "the ocean" (Priscus Fr 40).{{harvtxt|Maenchen-Helfen|1976|p=436}} Whilst Priscus' accounts provide some information about the ethno-political situation in the Don-Kuban-Volga region after the demise of the Huns, no unequivocal conclusions can be reached. Denis Sinor has argued that whoever the "Avars" referred to by Priscus were, they differed from the Avars who appear a century later, during the time of Justinian (who reigned from 527 to 565).{{harvtxt|Dobrovits|2003}}The next author to discuss the Avars, Menander Protector, appeared during the 6th century, and wrote of Göktürk embassies to Constantinople in 565 and 568 AD. The Turks appeared angry at the Byzantines for having made an alliance with the Avars, whom the Turks saw as their subjects and slaves. Turxanthos, a Turk prince, calls the Avars "Varchonites" and "escaped slaves of the Turks", who numbered "about 20 thousand" (Menander Fr 43).{{harvtxt|Whitby| 1986|p= 226, footnote 48}}Many more, but somewhat confusing, details come from Theophylact Simocatta, who wrote c. 629, describing the final two decades of the 6th century. In particular, he claims to quote a triumph letter from the Turk lord Tamgan:File:Avaric - Drinking Bowl - Walters 57565 - Profile.jpg|thumb|250px|Gold Avar bowl, found in modern AlbaniaAlbaniaAccording to the interpretation of Dobrovits and Nechaeva, the Turks insisted that the Avars were only pseudo-Avars, so as to boast that they were the only formidable power in the Eurasian steppe. The Gokturks claimed that the "real Avars" remained loyal subjects of the Turks, farther east.{{harvtxt|Nechaeva|2011}}Furthermore, Dobrovits has questioned the authenticity of Theophylact's account. As such, he has argued that Theophylact borrowed information from Menander's accounts of Byzantine-Turk negotiations to meet political needs of his time – i.e. to castigate and deride the Avars during a time of strained political relations between the Byzantines and Avars (coinciding with Emperor Maurice's northern Balkan campaigns).

Uar, Rouran and other Central Asian peoples

According to some scholars the Pannonian Avars originated from a confederation formed in the Aral Sea region, by the Uar, also known as the Var or Warr (who were probably a Uralic people) and the Xūn or Xionites (also known as the Chionitae, Chunni, Hunni, Yun and similar names);Гулямов Я. Г., История орошения Хорезма с древнейших времен до наших дней, Ташкент, 1957.Муратов Б.А. Аланы, кавары и хиониты в этногенезе башкир//Урал-Алтай: через века в будущее: Материалы Всероссийской научной конференции. Уфа, 27 июня 2008. the Xionites were maybe Iranian or Turkic-speaking or both.Peter B. Golden, 2005 "Turks and Iranians: a cultural sketch", in: Lars Johanson and Christiane Bulut (ed.), Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects, Turcologica 62, Wiesbaden, p. 19. A third tribe affiliated previously to the Uar and Xionites, the Hephthalites, had remained in Central and northern South Asia. In some transliterations, the term Var is rendered Hua, which is an alternate Chinese term for the Hephthalites. (While one of the cities most significant to the Hephthalites was Walwalij or Varvaliz, this may also be an Iranian term for "upper fortress".) The Pannonian Avars were also known by names including Uarkhon or Varchonites – which may have been portmanteau words combining Var and Chunni.The 18th-century historian Joseph de Guignes postulated a link between the Avars of European history with the proto-Mongolic Rouran (Ruanruan) of Inner Asia based on a coincidence between Tardan Khan's letter to Constantinople and events recorded in Chinese sources, notably the Wei zhi and Wu Bei Zhi.{{harvtxt|Harmatta|2001}} Chinese sources state that Bumin Qaghan (Tumen khan), founder of the Turkic Khaganate, defeated the Rouran, some of whom fled and joined the Western Wei. Later – according to another Chinese source – Muqan Qaghan (Mugan Kehan), Bumin's successor, defeated the Hephthalites (Chinese name: Ya Da) as well as the Turkic Tiele. Superficially these victories over the Tiele, Rouran and Hephthalites echo a narrative in the Theophylact, boasting of Tardan's victories over the Hephthalites, Avars and Oghurs. However, the two series of events are not synonymous: the events of the latter took place during Tardan's rule, c. 580–599, whilst Chinese sources referring to the Turk defeat of the Rouran and other Central Asian peoples occurred 50 years earlier, at the founding of the Turk khanate by Bumen. It is for this reason that the linguist Janos Harmatta rejects the identification of the Avars with the Rouran.According to Edwin G. Pulleyblank, the name Avar is the same as the prestigious name Wuhuan in the Chinese sources.THE PEOPLES OF THE STEPPE FRONTIER IN EARLY CHINESE SOURCES, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, pages 35, 44[hrcak.srce.hr/file/161177]Several historians, including Golden and Benjamin Peter, suggest that the Avars are of Turkic origin, likely from the Oghur branch.BOOK,weblink An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples, Golden, Peter B., en, Another theory suggests that some of the Avars were of Tungusic origin.Helimski, E (2004). "Die Sprache(n) der Awaren: Die mandschu-tungusische Alternative". Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies, Vol. II: 59–72.A study by Emil Heršak and Ana Silić suggests that the Avars were of heterogeneous origin, including mostly Turkic (Oghuric) and Mongolic groups. Later in Europe some Germanic and Slavic groups were assimilated into the Avars. They concluded that their exact origin is unknown but state that it is likely that the Avars were originally mainly composed of Turkic (Oghuric) tribes.JOURNAL, Silić, Ana, Heršak, Emil, 2002-09-30, The Avars: A Review of Their Ethnogenesis and History,weblink Migracijske i etničke teme, hr, 18, 2-3, 197–224, 1333-2546, In 2018, new evidence was found through the analysis of the Brāhmī Bugut and Khüis Tolgoi inscriptions, which suggests that the Ruan-ruan language was in fact a Mongolic language, close but not identical to Middle Mongolian. Alexander Vovin links the Pannonian Avars with the Rouran and suggests that the Avars were of predominantly Mongolic origin.JOURNAL, Vovin, Alexander, A Sketch of the Earliest Mongolic Language: the Brāhmī Bugut and Khüis Tolgoi Inscriptions,weblink International Journal of Eurasian Linguistics, en, 1, 1, 162–197, 2589-8825,

Steppe empire dynamics and ethnogenesis

File:Pontic steppe region around 650 AD.png|thumb|The Pontic steppe, c. 650, showing the early territories of the Khazars, BulgarsBulgarsIn 2003, Walter Pohl summarized the formation of nomadic empires:{{harvtxt|Pohl| 2003| pp=477–78}}Such views are mirrored by Csanád Bálint. "The ethnogenesis of early medieval peoples of steppe origin cannot be conceived in a single linear fashion due to their great and constant mobility", with no ethnogenetic "point zero", theoretical "proto-people" or proto-language.{{harvtxt|Balint|2010|p=150}}{{full citation needed|date=November 2018}}Moreover, Avar identity was strongly linked to Avar political institutions. Groups who rebelled or fled from the Avar realm could never be called "Avars", but were rather termed "Bulgars". Similarly, with the final demise of Avar power in the early 9th century, Avar identity disappeared almost instantaneously.{{harvtxt|Pohl|1998}}

History

Arrival in Europe

In 557 the Avars sent an embassy to Constantinople, marking their first contact with the Byzantine Empire{{mdash}}presumably from the northern Caucasus. In exchange for gold, they agreed to subjugate the "unruly gentes" on behalf of the Byzantines. They conquered and incorporated various nomadic tribes{{mdash}}Kutrigurs and Sabirs{{mdash}}and defeated the Antes. By 562 the Avars controlled the lower Danube basin and the steppes north of the Black Sea.Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies", Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, pp 13–24 p. 18 (On-line text). By the time they arrived in the Balkans, the Avars formed a heterogeneous group of about 20,000 horsemen.{{sfn|Curta|2001}} After the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565) bought them off, they pushed northwestwards into Germania. However, Frankish opposition halted the Avars' expansion in that direction.Seeking rich pastoral lands, the Avars initially demanded land south of the Danube River in present-day Bulgaria, but the Byzantines refused, using their contacts with the Göktürks as a threat against Avar aggression.EVANS > FIRST = JAMES ALLAN STEWART URL= HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=XDNV6QZ_I-IC SERIES = GREENWOOD GUIDES TO HISTORIC EVENTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD PUBLISHER= GREENWOOD PUBLISHING GROUP, 978-0-313-32582-3 quote= An Avar embassy first appeared in Constantinople in 558, asking for land within the empire and calling for an annual subsidy. Justinian granted them a subsidy, but for land he directed them elsewhere., The Avars turned their attention to the Carpathian Plain and to the natural defenses it afforded.History of Transylvania, Volume I. László Makkai, András Mócsy. Columbia University Press. 2001 However, the Carpathian basin was then occupied by the Gepids. In 567 the Avars formed an alliance with the Lombards{{mdash}}enemies of the Gepids{{mdash}}and together they destroyed much of the Gepid Kingdom. The Avars then persuaded the Lombards to move into Kingdom of the Lombards, an invasion that marked the last Germanic mass-movement in the Migration Period.{{citation needed>date=May 2014}}Continuing their successful policy of turning the various barbarians against each other, the Byzantines persuaded the Avars to attack the Sclavenes in Scythia Minor (modern Dobruja), a land rich with goods.{{sfn|Curta|2001}}{{page needed|date=December 2015}} After devastating much of the Sclavenes' land, the Avars returned to Pannonia after many of the Khagan's subjects deserted to the Byzantine Emperor.

Early Avar Period (580–670)

(File:Avari pljene balkanske zemlje, K. Mandrović (1885).jpg|thumb|left|Avars plundering Balkan lands.)
By about 580, the Avar Khagan Bayan I had established supremacy over most of the Slavic, Bulgar and Germanic tribes living in Pannonia and the Carpathian Basin.Pohl 1998:18. When the Byzantine Empire was unable to pay subsidies or hire Avar mercenaries, the Avars raided their Balkan territories. According to Menander, Bayan commanded an army of 10,000 Kutrigur Bulgars and sacked Dalmatia in 568, effectively cutting the Byzantine terrestrial link with North Italy and Western Europe. By 582, the Avars had captured Sirmium, an important fort in Pannonia. When the Byzantines refused to increase the stipend amount as requested by Bayan's son and successor Bayan II (from 584), the Avars proceeded to capture Singidunum and Viminacium. They suffered setbacks, however, during Maurice's Balkan campaigns in the 590s.Nevertheless, by 600 the Avars had established a nomadic empire ruling over a multitude of peoples and stretching from modern-day Austria in the west to the Pontic–Caspian steppe in the east.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}}After being defeated in their homeland, some Avars defected to the Byzantines in 602,Walter Pohl, Die Awaren (Munich) 2.ed.2002., page 158. but Emperor Maurice decided not to return home as was customary. He maintained his army camp beyond the Danube throughout the winter and the resulting hardships caused the army to revolt. This gave the Avars a desperately needed respite. They attempted an invasion of northern Italy in 610. The ongoing Byzantine civil war prompted a Persian invasion and after 615, the Avars enjoyed a free hand in the undefended Balkans.(File:Europe around 650.jpg|thumb|Avar Khaganate around 650)While negotiating with Emperor Heraclius beneath the walls of Constantinople in 617, the Avars launched a surprise attack. While they were unable to capture the city centre they pillaged the suburbs of the city and took 270,000 captives. Payments in gold and goods to the Avars reached the record sum of 200,000 solidi shortly before 626.Walter Pohl, Die Awaren (Munich) 1.ed.1988. Then in 626, the Avars cooperated with the Sassanid force in the failed siege of Constantinople. Following this defeat, the political and military power of the Avars declined. Byzantines and Frankish sources documented a war between the Avars and their western Slav clients, the Wends.{{sfn|Curta|2001}}In the 630s, Samo, the ruler of the first historically known Slavic polity known as Samo's Tribal Union or Samo's realm, increased his authority over lands to the north and west of the Khaganate at the expense of the Avars, ruling until his death in 658.The fate of Samo's empire after his death is unclear; it is generally assumed to have disappeared. Archaeological findings show that the Avars returned to their previous territories{{mdash}}at least to southernmost part of present-day Slovakia{{mdash}}and entered into a symbiotic relationship with the Slavs, whereas to the north of the Avar empire was purely Wends territory. The first specific knowledge of the presence of Slavs and Avars in this area is the existence in the late 8th century of the Moravian and Nitrian principalities (see Great Moravia) that were attacking the Avars, and the defeat of the Avars by the Franks under Charlemagne in 799 or 802–03.The Chronicle of Fredegar recorded that during Samo's rebellion in 631AD, 9,000 Bulgars led by Alciocus left Pannonia to modern-day Bavaria where Dagobert I massacred most of them. The remaining 700 joined the Wends.At about the time of Samo's realm, the Kubrat of the Dulo clan led a successful uprising to end Avar authority over the Pannonian Plain; he established what the Byzantines used to call Patria Onoguria, "the homeland of Onogurs". The civil war, possibly a succession struggle in Onoguria between the joint Kutrigur and Utigur forces, raged from 631 to 632. The power of the Avars' Kutrigur forces was shattered and the Avars came under the control of Patria Onoguria.Also at the same time, according to Constantine VII's work De Administrando Imperio (10th century), a group of Croats separated from the White Croats who lived in White Croatia and arrived by their own will, or were called by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610-641), to fight and defeat the Avars after which they eventually organized their own principality in Dalmatia.

Middle (670–720) and Late (720–804) Avar periods

File:KHM - Nagyszentmiklos Medaillonkrug 2.jpg|thumb|A golden jug from the Treasure of NagyszentmiklósTreasure of NagyszentmiklósWith the death of Samo, some Slavic tribes again came under Avar rule. The Bulgar Khan Kubrat died in 665 and was succeeded by Khan Batbayan of Old Great Bulgaria. By 670, the Viennese chronicle records that in 677, the "Ungri" (Onogur Bulgar) ethnicon was established decisively in Pannonia.Following Khan Kubrat's death or a few years later in the time of Bezmer, the empire was dissolved into 5 branches. Two of them (led by Batbayan and Kotrag) were subdued by the emerging Khazar Empire, while the fourth one led by Asparukh established the Danube Bulgar Empire and stabilized it by the victory at the battle of Ongal. The fourth folk moved to Ravenna while the fifth one, led by Kuber moved into the Avar Khaganate.According to the Miracles of Saint Demetrius the Avar-Slavic alliance from northern Carpathia forced the Bulgars south out of western Onoguria (Sirmium) at about the same time that the Battle of Ongal took place south of the eastern Carpathians. The new ethnic element marked by hair clips for pigtails; curved, single-edged sabres; broad, symmetrical bows marks the middle Avar-Bulgar period (670–720). The Onogur Bulgars under a Kuber leader expelled from western Onoguria (Sirmium) moved south, settling in the present-day region of Macedonia. The Onogur-Bulgars, led by Khan Asparukh{{mdash}}the father of Khan Tervel{{mdash}}settled permanently along the Danube (c. 679–681), expanding the First Bulgarian Empire from Onogur, Bulgaria. Although the Avar empire had diminished to half its original size, the new Avar-Slav alliance consolidated their rule west from the central parts of the mid-Danubian basin and extended their sphere of influence west to the Viennese Basin. New regional centers, such as those near Ozora and Igar{{mdash}}county Fehér in Hungary{{mdash}}appeared. This strengthened the Avars' power base, although most of the Balkans now lay in the hands of Slavic tribes since neither the Avars nor Byzantines were able to reassert control.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}}File:Bulgarians and Slavs VI-VII century.png|thumb|Avar Khaganate, Slavs and BulgarsBulgarsA new type of ceramics{{spaced ndash}}the so-called "Devínska Nová Ves" pottery{{spaced ndash}}emerged at the end of the 7th century in the region between the Middle Danube and the Carpathians.{{sfn|Barford|2001|p = 78}} These vessels were similar to the hand-made pottery of the previous period, but wheel-made items were also found in Devínska Nová Ves sites.{{sfn|Barford|2001|p = 78}} Large inhumation cemeteries found at Holiare, Nové Zámky and other places in Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia from the period beginning around 690 show that the settlement network of the Carpathian Basin became more stable in the Late Avar period.{{sfn|Barford|2001|p = 79}}{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp = 92–93}} The most popular Late Avar motifs{{spaced ndash}}griffins and tendrils decorating belts, mounts and a number of other artifacts connected to warriors{{spaced ndash}}may either represent nostalgia for the lost nomadic past or evidence a new wave of nomads arriving from the Pontic steppes at the end of the 7th century.{{sfn|Barford|2001|p = 79}}{{sfn|Curta|2006|p = 92}} According to historians who accept the latter theory, the immigrants may have been either Onogurs{{sfn|Kristó|1996|p = 93}} or Alans.{{sfn|Havlík|2004|p = 228}} Anthropological studies of the skeletons point at the presence of a population with mongoloid features.{{sfn|Barford|2001|p = 79}}The Khaganate in the Middle and Late periods was a product of cultural symbiosis between Slavic and original Avar elements with a Slavic language as a lingua franca or the most common language.Curta, Florin (2004), "The Slavic Lingua Franca. Linguistic Notes of an Archaeologist Turned Historian." (PDF), East Central Europe/L'Europe du Centre-Est 31 (1): 125–148,In the 7th century, the Avar Khaganate opened a door for Slavic demographic and linguistic expansion to Adriatic and Aegean regions.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}}In the early 8th century, a new archaeological culture the so-called "griffin and tendril" culture{{mdash}}appeared in the Carpathian basin. Some theories, including the "double conquest" theory of archaeologist Gyula László, attribute it to the arrival of new settlers, such as early Magyars, but this is still under debate. Hungarian archaeologists Laszló Makkai and András Móczy attribute this culture to an internal evolution of Avars resulting from the integration of the Bulgar émigrés from the previous generation of the 670s. According to Makkai and Mócsy, "the material culture{{mdash}}art, clothing, equipment, weapons{{mdash}}of the late Avar/Bulgar period evolved autonomously from these new foundations". Many regions that had once been important centers of the Avar empire had lost their significance while new ones arose. Although Avaric material culture found over much of the northern Balkans may indicate an existing Avar presence, it probably represents the presence of independent Slavs who had adopted Avaric customs.László Makkai and András Mócsy, editors, 2001. History of Transylvania, II.4 "The period of Avar rule"

Collapse

(File:Avar settlement area.jpg|thumb|right|The Avar settlement area from the 7th to the 9th century, according to Éva Garam)The gradual decline of Avar power accelerated to a rapid fall within a decade. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s, beginning in 791, ended with the conquest of the Avar realm after eight years. The 791 campaign ended successfully, although no pitched battle was fought.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|p=61}} Avars had fled before the Carolingian army arriving by the Danube, while disease left most of the Avar horses dead.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|p=61}} Tribal infighting began, showing the weakness of the khaganate.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|p=61}} The Franks had been supported by Slavs, who established polities on former Avar territory.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|pp=61-62}} One of Charlemagne's sons captured a large, fortified encampment known as "the Ring", which contained much of the spoils from earlier Avar campaigns.Victor Duruy, The History of the Middle Ages, p. 446 The campaign against the Avarsagain gathered momentum. It would take two massive hammer-blows, two major musters of the host, drawing upon levies from every part of the now great kingdom, before the robbers'nest was exterminated. And at last, in the year 796, five years after the war began, the Avars cracked and lay utterly at the king's mercy.The Emperor Charlemagne, Russell Chamberlin, Sutton Publishing, 2004 pp.181 & 182By 796, the Avar chieftains had surrendered and accepted Christianity.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|p=61}} Pannonia was conquered.{{sfn|Sinor|1990|pp=218-220}} According to the Annales Regni Francorum, Avars began to submit to the Franks from 796 onwards. The song "De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica" celebrating the defeat of the Avars at the hands of Pepin of Italy in 796 still survives. The Franks baptized many Avars and integrated them into the Frankish Empire....(sc. Avaros) autem, qui obediebant fidei et baptismum sunt consecuti... A growing amount of archaeological evidence in Transdanubia also suggests an Avar population in the Carpathian Basin in the very late 9th century. In 799, some Avars revolted.{{sfn|Schutz|2004|p=62}}In 804, the Bulgaria conquered the southeastern Avar lands of Transylvania and southeastern Pannonia up to the Middle Danube River, and many Avars became subjects of the Bulgarian Empire. Khagan Theodorus, a convert to Christianity, died after asking Charlemagne for help in 805; he was succeeded by Khagan Abraham, who was baptized as the new Frankish client (and should not be assumed from his name alone to have been Khavar rather than Pseudo-Avar). Abraham was succeeded by Khagan (or Tudun) Isaac (Latin Canizauci), about whom little is known. The Franks turned the Avar lands under their control into a military march. The March of Pannonia{{mdash}}the eastern half of the Avar March{{mdash}}was then granted to the Slavic Prince Pribina, who established the Balaton principality in 840. It continued to exist in the west until it was divided between the Carinthian and Eastern marches in 871.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}}According to Pohl, an Avar presence in Pannonia is certain in 871, but thereafter the name is no longer used by chroniclers. Pohl wrote, "It simply proved impossible to keep up an Avar identity after Avar institutions and the high claims of their tradition had failed".Pohl 1998:19. Although, Regino wrote about them at the year of 889."Et primo quidem Pannoniorum et Avarum solitudines pererrantes" The growing number of archaeological evidence in Transdanubia also presumes an Avar population in the Carpathian Basin in the very late 9th century. Archaeological findings suggest a substantial, late Avar presence on the Great Hungarian Plain, however it is difficult to determine their proper chronology. The preliminary results of the new excavations also imply that the known and largely accepted theory of the destruction of the Avar settlement area is outdated, the disastrous depopulation of the Avar Khaganate has never happened.Imperial Spheres and the Adriatic: Byzantium, the Carolingians and the Treaty of Aachen (812)Byzantine records, including the "Notitia episcopatuumî", the "Additio patriarchicorum thronorumî" by Neilos Doxopatres, the "Chronica" by Petrus Alexandrinus and the "Notitia patriarchatuum" mention the 9th century Avars as an existing Christian population.OLAJOS , TERÉZ, Az avar továbbélés kérdésérõl {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120205235035weblink |date=2012-02-05 }}, A 9. SZÁZADI AVAR TÖRTÉNELEM GÖRÖG ÉS LATIN NYELVÛ FORRÁSAI, Tiszatáj, 2001, pp. 50–56 The Avars had already been mixing with the more numerous Slavs for generations, and they later came under the rule of external polities, such as the Franks, Bulgaria, and Great Moravia.The early medieval Balkans. John Fine, Jr{{Page needed|date=November 2010}} The Avars in the region known as solitudo avarorum{{mdash}}currently called the Alföld{{mdash}}vanished in an arc of three generations. They slowly merged with the Slavs to create a bilingual Turkic-Slavic-speaking people who were subjected to Frankish domination; the invading Magyars found this composite people in the late 9th century.András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 264 The De Administrando Imperio, written around 950, clearly states the presence of an Avar population in the region of modern-day Croatia.

Anthropological evidence

In contemporary art, Avars were sometimes depicted as mounted archers, riding backwards on their horses.Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, Vol. 4. Otto Harrassowitz, 1984According to mid-20th Century physical anthropologists such as Pál Lipták, human remains from the early Avar (7th century) period had mostly "Europoid" features, while grave goods indicated cultural links to the Eurasian steppe.Cemeteries dated to the late Avar period (8th century) included many human remains with physical features typical of East Asian people or Eurasians (i.e., people with both East Asian and European ancestry)."Acta archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae", Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1 Jan 1967, Page 86 weblink
Remains with East Asian or Eurasian features were found in about one third of the Avar graves from the 8th Century.Russian Translation Series of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology ... – Page 21 weblink{{Full citation needed|date=July 2017}} According to Lipták, 79% of the population of the Danube-Tisza region during the Avar period showed Europoid characteristics.Erzsébet Fóthi, Anthropological conclusions of the study of Roman and Migration periods, Acta Biologica Szegediensis, Volume 44(1–4):87–94, 2000.
(Lipták used racial terms later deprecated or regarded as obsolete, such as "Mongoloid" for North East Asian and "Turanid" for individuals of mixed ancestry.Lipták, Pál. Recherches anthropologiques sur les ossements avares des environs d'Üllö (1955) – In: Acta archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol. 6 (1955), pp. 231–314)

Social and tribal structure

{{See also|Avar Khaganate}}(File:Klosz Gyorgy Ozora-Totipuszta.jpg|thumb|200px|Avar findings from Ozora-Tótipuszta, Hungary)The Pannonian Basin was the centre of the Avar power-base. The Avars re-settled captives from the peripheries of their empire to more central regions. Avar material culture is found south to Macedonia. However, to the east of the Carpathians, there are next to no Avar archaeological finds, suggesting that they lived mainly in the western Balkans. Scholars propose that a highly structured and hierarchical Avar society existed, having complex interactions with other "barbarian" groups. The khagan was the paramount figure, surrounded by a minority of nomadic aristocracy.A few exceptionally rich burials have been uncovered, confirming that power was limited to the khagan and a close-knit class of "elite warriors". In addition to hoards of gold coins that accompanied the burials, the men were often buried with symbols of rank, such as decorated belts, weapons, stirrups resembling those found in central Asia, as well as their horse. The Avar army was composed from numerous other groups: Slavic, Gepidic and Bulgar military units. There also appeared to have existed semi-independent "client" (predominantly Slavic) tribes which served strategic roles, such as engaging in diversionary attacks and guarding the Avars' western borders abutting the Frankish Empire.Initially, the Avars and their subjects lived separately, except for Slavic and Germanic women who married Avar men. Eventually, the Germanic and Slavic peoples were included in the Avaric social order and culture, itself Persian-Byzantine in fashion.History of Transylvania Scholars have identified a fused, Avar-Slavic culture, characterized by ornaments such as half-moon-shaped earrings, Byzantine-styled buckles, beads, and bracelets with horn-shaped ends. Paul Fouracre notes, "[T]here appears in the seventh century a mixed Slavic-Avar material culture, interpreted as peaceful and harmonious relationships between Avar warriors and Slavic peasants. It is thought possible that at least some of the leaders of the Slavic tribes could have become part of the Avar aristocracy".The New Cambridge Medieval History. Paul Fouracre Apart from the assimilated Gepids, a few graves of west Germanic (Carolingian) peoples have been found in the Avar lands. They perhaps served as mercenaries.

Language

The language or languages spoken by the Avars are unknown. Classical philologist Samuel Szadeczky-Kardoss states that most of the Avar words used in contemporaneous Latin or Greek texts appear to have their origins in possibly Mongolian or Turkic languagesweblink{{sfn|Szadeczky-Kardoss|1990|p=221}} Other theories propose a Tungusic origin.NEWS,weblink Helimski: Early European Avars were (in part) Tungusic speakers, 2014-09-08, SARKOBOROS, 2017-08-05, en-US, According to Szadeczky-Kardoss, many of the titles and ranks used by the Pannonian Avars were also used by the Turks, Proto-Bulgars, Uighurs and/or Mongols, including khagan (or kagan), khan, kapkhan, tudun, tarkhan, and khatun.{{sfn|Szadeczky-Kardoss|1990|p=221}} There is also evidence, however, that ruling and subject clans spoke a variety of languages. Proposals by scholars include Caucasian, Iranian,JOURNAL, Curta, Florin, Florin Curta, 2004, The Slavic lingua franca (Linguistic notes of an archaeologist turned historian),weblink East Central Europe/L'Europe du Centre-Est, 31, 125–148, 29 May 2015, By contrast, there is very little evidence that speakers of Slavic had any significant contact with Turkic. As a consequence, and since the latest stratum of loan words in Common Slavic is Iranian in origin, Johanna Nichols advanced the idea that the Avars spoke an Iranian, not a Turkic language., Tungusic,BOOK, Futaky, I., Nyelvtörténeti vizsgálatok a Kárpát-medencei avar-magyar kapcsolatok kérdéséhez. Mongol és mandzsu-tunguz elemek nyelvünkben, 2001, Budapest, Hungarian, BOOK, Helimski, Eugene, Folia Orientalia 36 (Festschrift for St. Stachowski), 2000, 135–148, Eugene Helimski, Russian, Язык(и) аваров: тунгусо-маньчжурский аспект, JOURNAL, Helimski, Eugene, On probable Tungus-Manchurian origin of the Buyla inscription from Nagy-Szentmiklós (preliminary communication), Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia, 2000, 5, 43–56, HungarianJOURNAL, 2016-11-12, Kettős honfoglalás,weblink Wikipédia, hu, and Turkic.BOOK,weblink Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History, Róna-Tas, András, 1999-01-01, Central European University Press, 9789639116481, 116, en, A few scholars speculated that Proto-Slavic became the lingua franca of the Avar Khaganate.JOURNAL, Curta, Florin, 2004, The Slavic lingua franca (Linguistic Notes of an Archeologist Turned Historian),weblink PDF, East Central Europe/L'Europe du Centre-Est, 31, 1, 132–148, Historian Gyula László has suggested that the late 9th century Pannonian Avars spoke a variety of Old Hungarian, thereby forming an Avar-Hungarian continuity with then-newly arrived Hungarians.WEB,weblink História 1982-01{{!, Digitális Tankönyvtár|website=www.tankonyvtar.hu|language=hu-HU|access-date=2016-11-30}}

Gyula László's Avar-Hungarian continuity theory

Gyula László, a Hungarian archaeologist, suggests that late Avars, arriving to the khaganate in 670 in great numbers, lived through the time between the destruction and plunder of the Avar state by the Franks during 791–795 and the arrival of the Magyars in 895. László points out that the settlements of the Hungarians (Magyars) complemented, rather than replaced, those of the Avars. Avars remained on the plough fields, good for agriculture, while Hungarians took the river banks and river flats, suitable for pasturage. He also notes that while the Hungarian graveyards consist of 40–50 graves on average, those of the Avars contain 600–1000. According to these findings, the Avars not only survived the end of the Avar polity but lived in great masses and far outnumbered the Hungarian conquerors of Árpád. He also shows that Hungarians occupied only the centre of the Carpathian basin, but Avars lived in a larger territory. Looking at those territories where only the Avars lived, one only finds Hungarian geographical names, not Slavic or Turkic as would be expected interspersed among them. This is further evidence for the Avar-Hungarian continuity. Names of the Hungarian tribes, chieftains and the words used for the leaders, etc., suggest that at least the leaders of the Hungarian conquerors were Turkic speaking. However, Hungarian is not a Turkic language, rather Finno-Ugric, and so they must have been assimilated by the Avars that outnumbered them and the genetics of today's modern Hungarians is no different than that of neighboring West Slavs as well as western Ukrainians. László's Avar-Hungarian continuity theory also states that the modern Hungarian language descends from that spoken by the Avars rather than the conquering Magyars.BOOK, A "kettős honfoglalás", László, Gyula, Magvető Könyvkiadó, 1978, Budapest, Hungary, WEB,weblink Documentary with Gyula László, Duna Television, László's research does suggest, at the very least, that it is likely that any remaining Avars in the Carpathian Basin who resisted Slavic assimilation were absorbed by the invading Magyars and lost their identity.

See also

Notes

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

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