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Danube
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- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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{{short description|River in Central Europe}}{{about|the river}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}







factoids
HTTPS://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/PLACE/DANUBE-RIVERENCYCLOPEDIA=BRITANNICA.COM, | width_min = | width_avg = | width_max = | depth_min = | depth_avg = | depth_max = Danube Delta>delta| discharge1_min = 7000cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge1_max = | discharge2_location= Passau30km before town| discharge2_min = 580cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge2_max = | discharge3_location= Vienna| discharge3_min = 1900cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge3_max = | discharge4_location= Budapest| discharge4_min = 2350cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge4_max = | discharge5_location= Belgrade| discharge5_min = 5600cuft/s|abbr=on}} | discharge5_max = Breg (river)>BregFurtwangen>Martinskapelle, Black Forest, Germany48440818display=inline}}1078abbr=on}}| source2 = Brigach Sankt Georgen im Schwarzwald>St. Georgen, Black Forest, Germany48240851display=inline}}940abbr=on}}| source_confluence = | source_confluence_location = Donaueschingen47030813display=inline}}| source_confluence_elevation = | mouth = Danube Delta| mouth_location = Romania4532941display=inline,title}}| mouth_elevation = | progression = | waterfalls = | river_system = 801463abbr=on}}| tributaries_left = | tributaries_right = | custom_label = | custom_data = | extra = }}{{River Danube routemap}}The Danube ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|æ|n|.|j|uː|b}} {{respell|DAN|yoob}}; {{small|known by various names in other languages}}) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.The Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for {{convert|2,850|km|mi|abbr=on}}, passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, zander, huchen, Wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe. Today {{convert|2,415|km|mi|abbr=on}} of its total length is navigable. The river is also an important source of hydropower and drinking water.

Names and etymology

Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European {{PIE|*dānu}}. Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Don, Donets, Dnieper, Dniestr, Dysna, Tana/Deatnu and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", and in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers". The Finnish word for Danube is {{wikt-lang|fi|Tonava}}, which is most likely derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, . Its Sámi name means "Great River". It is possible that in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian "far river" and "near river", respectively.BOOK, J. P. Mallory, Mallory, J.P, Victor H. Mair, Victor H., Mair, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London, Thames and Hudson, 2000, 106, . BOOK,weblink V. I. Adaev, ru:Осетинский язык и фольклор, Ossetian language and folklore, Moscow, Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949, 236, ru, The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the ()Herodotus, Histories, §4.48 a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning 'strong, swift', from a root possibly also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester ( in Latin, in Greek) and akin to Iranic 'swift' and Sanskrit () 'swift', from the PIE {{PIE|*isro-}}, {{PIE|*sreu}} 'to flow'.JOURNAL, Straturi etimologice reflectate în hidronimia românească, Oliviu, Felecan, Nicolae, Felecan, 254, Quaderns de Filologia: Estudis Lingüístics, 20, 2015, 1, Universitat de València, 10.7203/qfilologia.20.7521,weblink In the Middle Ages, the Greek was borrowed into Italian as and into Turkic languages as , the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism (). The Thraco-Phrygian name was ,JOURNAL, Matoas, the Thraco-Phrygian name for the Danube, and the IE root *madų, Robert, Dyer, Glotta, 52, 1974, 1/2, 91–95, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG), 40266286, "the bringer of luck".BOOK, Marjeta, Å aÅ¡el Kos, Slovenian, English,weblink 42–50, Reka kot božanstvo â€” Sava v antiki, River as a Deity â€“ The Sava in Antiquity, Jožef, Barachini, Ukročena lepotica: Sava in njene zgodbe, The Tamed Beauty: The Sava and Its Stories, 978-961-92735-0-0, 2009, Sevnica, Javni zavod za kulturo, Å¡port, turizem in mladinske dejavnosti, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304041135weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, In Latin, the Danube was variously known as , or as . BOOK, Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One, Paris, Mouton, 1976, 144, The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, except Slovenian (the name of the Rhine is also masculine in Latin, most of the Slavic languages, as well as in German). The German (Early Modern German , , in BOOK, Sebastian Franck, Weltbuch, 1542,weblink 81, Sebastian Franck, e.g. in BOOK, Leonhard Thurneisser zum Thurn, Pison, 1572,weblink 186, Spelling from the 17th century. Middle High German )BOOK, Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 407, Deutsche Grammatik, is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland".Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, . This form was not inherited from Latin, although Romanian is a Romance language.BOOK, Vékony, Gábor, 2000, Dacians, Romans, Romanians, Matthias Corvinus Publishing, 978-1-882785-13-1, 210, registration,weblink To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypothetical Thracian that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic /, with the suffix also encountered in the ancient name of the IalomiÈ›a River, Naparis, and in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians. He proposes that the Romanian name is loanword from a Turkic language.The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to :
({{IPA-de|ˈdoːnaʊ|IPA|de-Donau.ogg}});


({{IPA-cs|ˈdunaj|IPA}});
({{IPA-sk|ˈdunaj|IPA}});
({{IPA-pl|ˈdunaj|IPA|pl-Dunaj.ogg}});
({{IPA-hu|ˈdunɒ|IPA|hu-Duna.ogg}});
({{IPA-sl|ˈdóːnaʋa|IPA}});
/ ({{IPA-sh|dǔna(ː)ʋ|IPA}});
({{IPA-ro|ˈdunəre̯a|IPA}});
({{IPA-bg|ˈdunɐf|IPA}});
({{IPA-uk|dʊˈnɑj|IPA}});
({{IPA-pt|dɐˈnuβju|IPA}});
({{IPA-fr|danyb|IPA}});
({{IPA-el|ˈðunavis|IPA}});
({{IPA-it|daˈnuːbjo|IPA}});
({{IPA-es|daˈnuβjo|IPA}});


, .{{citation |page=624 |publisher=Akademia e Shkencave e RPS te Shqiperise, Instituti i Kultures Popullore, Sektori i Prozes dhe Poezise |editor1=Kozma Vasili |editor2=Arsen Mustaqi |title=Lirika popullore |trans-title=Folk lyrics |series=Folklor Shqiptar |volume=4 |language=Albanian |issue=3 – Kenge per nizamet dhe kurbetin |year=1981 |location=Tirana |quote=Tunë-a lumi i Danubit }}

Geography

File:Danube_basin.png|thumb|The Danube basin ]]Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg. The Danube then flows southeast for about {{cvt|2730|km}}, passing through four capital cities (Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade) before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine.Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania (29.0% of basin area), Hungary (11.6%), Serbia (10.2%), Austria (10.0%), Germany (7.0%), Bulgaria (5.9%), Slovakia (5.9%), Croatia (4.4%), Ukraine (3.8%), and Moldova (1.6%).WEB,weblink Countries of the Danube River Basin, International Commission for the protection of the Danube River, 2010-11-13, Its drainage basin extends into nine more (ten if Kosovo is included).

Drainage basin

File:The Danube Spills into the Black Sea.jpg|thumb|The Danube discharges into the Black SeaBlack SeaFile:Danubedelta chilia lobe satellite image.jpg|thumb|Where the Danube Meets the Black Sea (NASA GoddardNASA GoddardIn addition to the bordering countries (see above), the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina (4.6%), the Czech Republic (2.9%), Slovenia (2.0%), Montenegro (0.9%), Switzerland (0.2%), Italy (

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