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{{short description|River in Central Europe}}{{about|the river}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}

| width_min = | width_avg = | width_max = | depth_min = | depth_avg = | depth_max = Danube Delta>delta| discharge1_min = 7000cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge1_max = | discharge2_location= Passau30km before town| discharge2_min = 580cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge2_max = | discharge3_location= Vienna| discharge3_min = 1900cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge3_max = | discharge4_location= Budapest| discharge4_min = 2350cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge4_max = | discharge5_location= Belgrade| discharge5_min = 4000cuft/s|abbr=on}} | discharge5_max = Breg (river)>BregFurtwangen>Martinskapelle, Black Forest, Germany48440818display=inline}}1078abbr=on}}| source2 = Brigach Sankt Georgen im Schwarzwald>St. Georgen, Black Forest, Germany48240851display=inline}}940abbr=on}}| source_confluence = | source_confluence_location = Donaueschingen47030813display=inline}}| source_confluence_elevation = | mouth = Danube Delta| mouth_location = Romania4532941display=inline,title}}| mouth_elevation = | progression = | waterfalls = | river_system = 801463abbr=on}}| tributaries_left = | tributaries_right = | custom_label = | custom_data = | extra = }}{{River Danube routemap}}The Danube ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|æ|n|.|j|uː|b}} {{respell|DAN|yoob}}; {{small|known by various names in other languages}}) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.The Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for {{convert|2,850|km|mi|abbr=on}}, passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, zander, huchen, Wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays {{convert|2,415|km|mi|abbr=on}} of its total length being navigable. The river is also an important source of energy and drinking water.

Names and etymology

Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Don, Donets, Dnieper, Dniestr, Dysna, Tana and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", and in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers". The Finnish word for Danube is w:, which is most likely derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River". It is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively.BOOK, J. P. Mallory, Mallory, J.P, Victor H. Mair, Victor H., Mair, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London, Thames and Hudson, 2000, 106, . BOOK,weblink V. I. Adaev, ru, Осетинский язык и фольклор, Ossetian language and folklore, Moscow, Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949, 236, The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros () a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root possibly also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester (Danaster in Latin, Tiras in Greek) and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iá¹£iras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”.JOURNAL, Straturi etimologice reflectate în hidronimia românească, Oliviu, Felecan, Nicolae, Felecan, 254, Quaderns de Filologia: Estudis Lingüístics, 20, 2015, 1, Universitat de València, 10.7203/qfilologia.20.7521, In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism (Turlă).JOURNAL, Straturi etimologice reflectate în hidronimia românească, Oliviu, Felican, Nicolae, Felecan, 254, Quaderns de Filologia: Estudis Lingüístics, 20, 2015, 1, Universitat de València, 10.7203/qfilologia.20.7521, The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas,JOURNAL, Matoas, the Thraco-Phrygian name for the Danube, and the IE root *madų, Robert, Dyer, 91, Glotta, 52, 1974, 1/2, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG), 40266286, "the bringer of luck".BOOK, Marjeta, Å aÅ¡el Kos, Slovenian, English,weblink 42–50, Reka kot božanstvo â€” Sava v antiki, River as a Deity â€“ The Sava in Antiquity, Jožef, Barachini, Ukročena lepotica: Sava in njene zgodbe, The Tamed Beauty: The Sava and Its Stories, 978-961-92735-0-0, 2009, Sevnica, Javni zavod za kulturo, Å¡port, turizem in mladinske dejavnosti, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, In Latin, the Danube was variously known as , or as . BOOK, Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One, Paris, Mouton, 1976, 144, The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, except Slovenian (the name of the Rhine is also masculine in Latin, most of the Slavic languages, as well as in German). The German Donau (Early Modern German Donaw, Tonaw,Tonaw in BOOK, Sebastian Franck, Weltbuch, 1542,weblink 81, Donaw e.g. in BOOK, Leonhard Thurneisser zum Thurn, Pison, 1572,weblink 186, Spelling Donau from the 17th century. Middle High German Tuonowe)BOOK, Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 407, is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland".Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea.JOURNAL, Straturi etimologice reflectate în hidronimia românească, Oliviu, Felecan, Nicolae, Felecan, 254, Quaderns de Filologia: Estudis Lingüístics, 20, 2015, 1, Universitat de València, 10.7203/qfilologia.20.7521, This form was not inherited from Latin, although Romanian is a Romance language.BOOK, Vékony, Gábor, 2000, Dacians, Romans, Romanians, Matthias Corvinus Publishing, 978-1-882785-13-1, 210, To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris also encountered in the ancient name of the IalomiÈ›a River, Naparis, and in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica.JOURNAL, Straturi etimologice reflectate în hidronimia românească, Oliviu, Felecan, Nicolae, Felecan, 254, Quaderns de Filologia: Estudis Lingüístics, 20, 2015, 1, Universitat de València, 10.7203/qfilologia.20.7521, Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians. He proposes that the Romanian name is loanword from a Turkic language.The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius:

/ ({{IPA-hr|dǔnaʋ|IPA}} or {{IPA-sr|dǔnaːʋ|}});

, .{{citation|page=624| publisher = Akademia e Shkencave e RPS te Shqiperise, Instituti i Kultures Popullore, Sektori i Prozes dhe Poezise| editor= Kozma Vasili, Arsen Mustaqi| title=Lirika popullore | trans-title=Folk lyrics| series = Folklor Shqiptar | volume= 4| language=Albanian |issue = 3 - Kenge per nizamet dhe kurbetin| year=1981 | location = Tirana| quote= Tunë-a lumi i Danubit }}


File:Danube_basin.png|thumb|The Danube basin ]]Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg. The Danube then flows southeast for about {{cvt|2730|km}}, passing through four capital cities (Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade) before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine.Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania (29.0% of basin area), Hungary (11.6%), Serbia (10.2%), Austria (10.0%), Germany (7.0%), Bulgaria (5.9%), Slovakia (5.9%), Croatia (4.4%), Ukraine (3.8%), and Moldova (1.6%).WEB,weblink Countries of the Danube River Basin, International Commission for the protection of the Danube River, 2010-11-13, Its drainage basin extends into nine more (ten if Kosovo is included).

Drainage basin

File:The Danube Spills into the Black Sea.jpg|thumb|The Danube discharges into the Black SeaBlack SeaFile:Danubedelta chilia lobe satellite image.jpg|thumb|Where the Danube Meets the Black Sea (NASA GoddardNASA GoddardIn addition to the bordering countries (see above), the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina (4.6%), the Czech Republic (2.9%), Slovenia (2.0%), Montenegro (0.9%), Switzerland (0.2%), Italy (

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