Adriatic Sea

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Adriatic Sea
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{{Redirect|Adriatic}}{{short description|Body of water between the Italian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}{{good article}}

| type = SeaAdige, Bojana (river)>Bojana, Drin (river), Krka (Croatia)>Krka, Neretva, Po, Soča| outflow = Ionian Sea235000abbr=on}}Bordering: Italy, Albania, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina>Bosnia-HerzegovinaNot bordering: Serbia, North Macedonia, Kosovo,{{efnAustria, Switzerland and France (drainage basins for inflow rivers)HTTPS://WWW.UNECE.ORG/FILEADMIN/DAM/ENV/WATER/PUBLICATIONS/ASSESSMENT/ENGLISH/J_PARTIV_CHAPTER6_EN.PDF TITLE = SECOND ASSESSMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY RIVERS, LAKES AND GROUNDWATERSUNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE>UNECE, August 2011, 800abbr=on}}200abbr=on}}138600abbr=on}}252.5abbr=on}}1233abbr=on}}35000acre.ft|abbr=on}}| residence_time = 3.4±0.4 yearsPractical salinity unit>PSU3739.1abbr=on}}24F}}9F}}| frozen = List of islands in the Adriatic>Over 1300| trenches = | benches = Bari, Venice, Trieste, Split, Croatia>Split, Pescara, Å ibenik, Rimini, Rijeka, Durrës, Ancona, Zadar, Vlorë, Brindisi, Dubrovnik| reference = }}The Adriatic Sea {{IPAc-en|ËŒ|eɪ|d|r|i|ˈ|æ|t|áµ»|k}} is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast. It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of {{convert|1233|m}}. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western (Italian) coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally. The Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin. The surface water temperatures generally range from {{convert|30|C|F}} in summer to {{convert|12|C|F}} in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate.The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era. The plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast. The western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is highly indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity. The sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic, rare and threatened ones.The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people; the largest cities are Bari, Venice, Trieste and Split. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan, Illyrian, and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area, ultimately securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania. The former disintegrated during the 1990s, resulting in four new states on the Adriatic coast. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, and Montenegrin waters are still disputed. Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992.Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is also a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year. The largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year.


The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which probably derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea.{{sfn|Room|2006|p=20}} In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum (Mare Hadriaticum, also sometimes simplified to Adria) or, less frequently, as Mare Superum, "[the] upper sea".JOURNAL, 504, F. and C. Rivington, November 1812, The British Critic, 40, James, Playfair, System of Geography,weblink 21 March 2012, The two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum generally corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto. That boundary became more consistently defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.{{sfn|Calmet|Taylor|1830|pp=53–54}} Mare Superum on the other hand normally encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily.{{sfn|Anthon|2005|p=20}} Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum.{{sfn|Tacitus|1853|p=380}}The names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include ; ; ; – Adriatikí thálassa; ; ; , Јадранско море; ; . In Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the sea is often referred to as simply Jadran.


The Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea,{{sfn|Moranta et al.|2008|p=3}} bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Albania—the Balkan peninsula. In the southeast, the Adriatic Sea connects to the Ionian Sea at the {{convert|72|km|adj=on}} wide Strait of Otranto.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=1–2}} The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) defines the boundary between the Adriatic and the Ionian seas as a line running from the Butrinto River's mouth (latitude 39°44'N) in Albania to the Karagol Cape in Corfu, through this island to the Kephali Cape (these two capes are in latitude 39°45'N), and on to the Santa Maria di Leuca Cape (latitude 39°48'N).WEB,weblink Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3, 1953, International Hydrographic Organization, 7 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2011, It extends {{convert|800|km}} from the northwest to the southeast and is {{convert|200|km}} wide. It covers {{convert|138600|km2}} and has a volume of {{convert|35000|km3}}. The Adriatic extends northwest from 40° to 45°47' north, representing the Mediterranean's northernmost portion.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=1–2}} The sea is geographically divided into the Northern Adriatic, Central (or Middle) Adriatic, and Southern Adriatic.{{sfn|Lipej|Dulčić|2004|p=291}} The Adriatic Sea drainage basin encompasses {{convert|235000|km2}}, yielding a land–sea ratio of 1.8. The drainage basin's mean elevation is {{convert|782|m}} above sea level, with a mean slope of 12.1°.JOURNAL, Progress in Oceanography, 80, 3–4, 199, River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: Major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades?, Wolfgang, Ludwig, Egon, Dumont, Michel, Meybeck, Serge, Heussnera, 2009, 10.1016/j.pocean.2009.02.001, 2009PrOce..80..199L, Major rivers discharging into the Adriatic include the Po, Soča, Krka, Neretva, Drin, Bojana, and Vjosë.WEB, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe,weblink Drainage Basin of the Mediterranean Sea, 27 January 2012, {{sfn|Bombace|1992|pp=379–382}} In the late 19th century, Austria-Hungary established a geodetic network with an elevation benchmark using the average Adriatic Sea level at the Sartorio pier in Trieste, Italy. The benchmark was subsequently retained by Austria, adopted by Yugoslavia, and retained by the states that emerged after its dissolution.{{sfn|Koler|2006|pp=224–225}}WEB, International Cartographic Association, Cartography in Croatia 2007–2011 â€“ National Report to the ICA, Dražen, Tutić, Miljenko, Lapaine,weblink 2011, 5 February 2012, In 2016, Slovenia adopted a new elevation benchmark referring to the upgraded tide gauge station in the coastal town of Koper.NEWS,weblink S pomočjo mareografske postaje v Kopru do novega geodetskega izhodišča za Slovenijo, sl, With the Help of a Tide Gauge Station in Koper to A New Geodetic Origin Point for Slovenia, Slovenian Environment Agency, 23 November 2016, File:Zatoka Kotorska.jpg|thumb|right|Bay of Kotor, a alt=Looping riverFile:Gjipe beach, Albania.JPG|thumb|left|upright=1.1|Gjipe Canyon in southern Albania, where the Adriatic Sea meets the Ionian Sea]]{|class="wikitable"Blake|Topalović|Schofield|1996|pp=1–5}}BOOK,weblink Territory and climate, p. 38 ("Length of the state border"), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 2011, Statisti?ni Letopis Republike Slovenije, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 1318-5403, 2 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2013, ! Country! Mainland! Islands! Total! Coastal fronta align=center| 526 align=center| 926 align=center| 265 align=center| 92 align=center| 17 align=center| 10.5! Total! 3,739.1! 4,102! 7,841.1! 1,836.5Notes: a The distance between the extreme points of each state's coastline, b Not including islands in coastal lagoonsHTTP://WWW.LEISOLETREMITI.IT/INDEX.PHP/ISOLA-DI-SAN-DOMINO-TREMITI>TITLE=ISOLE TREMITITRANS-TITLE=TREMITI ISLANDS, 30 March 2012, {{jctbtm}}{{clear}}The Adriatic Sea contains more than 1,300 islands and islets, most along the Adriatic's eastern coast—especially in Croatia, with 1,246 counted.JOURNAL,weblink Coastline lengths and areas of islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps at the scale of 1 : 25 000, Geoadria, Zadar, 9, 1, 5–32, June 2004, Duplančić Leder, Tea, Ujević, Tin, ÄŒala, Mendi, 21 January 2011, The number includes islands, islets, and rocks of all sizes, including ones emerging at (Wiktionary:Ebb tide|ebb tide) only.JOURNAL, University of Zadar,weblink Josip, Faričić, Vera, Graovac, Anica, ÄŒuka, 145–185, Croatian small islands â€“ residential and/or leisure area, Geoadria, 15, 1, June 2010, 28 January 2012, 10.15291/geoadria.548, The Croatian islands include the largest—Cres and Krk, each covering about the same area of {{convert|405.78|km2}}—and the tallest—Brač, whose peak reaches {{convert|780|m}} above sea level. The islands of Cres and the adjacent LoÅ¡inj are separated only by a narrow navigable canal dug in the time of classical antiquity;WEB, LoÅ¡inj Port Authority,weblink Croatian, Pravilnik za luku Osor, Port of Osor ordinance, 23 December 2005, 25 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 February 2012, the original single island was known to the Greeks as Apsyrtides.JOURNAL, GraÄ‘evinar, 0350-2465, Croatian association of civil engineers, Croatian, Old churches on Cres and LoÅ¡in and nearby islands, 2010, 62, 2, KreÅ¡imir, Regan, Branko, Nadilo,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 15 July 2012, 25 March 2012, Stare crkve na Cresu i LoÅ¡inju te okolnim otocima, The Croatian islands include 47 permanently inhabited ones, the most populous among them being Krk, Korčula and Brač.{{Croatia Yearbook 2015|page=47}} The islands along the Adriatic's western (Italian) coast are smaller and less numerous than those along the opposite coast; the best-known ones are the 117 islands on which the city of Venice is built.{{sfn|Garwood|2009|p=481}} The northern shore of the Greek island of Corfu also lies in the Adriatic Sea as defined by the IHO.{{sfn|Hughes|Flippin|Murphy|Duchaine|2010|p=58}} The IHO boundary places the Diapontia Islands (northwest of Corfu) in the Adriatic Sea.{{Google maps | url =weblink | title = Cape Kephali, Corfu, Greece â€“ the southernmost point of the Adriatic Sea | accessdate = 29 January 2012}}{{wide image|Adriatic Sea islands.jpg|1000px|{{Center|Adriatic islands off Croatia's coast}}}}


(File:Adriatic Sea Bathymetry.svg|thumb|right|Depth of the Adriatic Sea)The Adriatic Sea's average depth is {{convert|259.5|m}}, and its maximum depth is {{convert|1233|m}}; however, the North Adriatic basin rarely exceeds a depth of {{convert|100|m}}.{{sfn|Blake|Topalović|Schofield|1996|pp=1–5}} The North Adriatic basin, extending between Venice and Trieste towards a line connecting Ancona and Zadar, is only {{convert|15|m}} deep at its northwestern end; it gradually deepens towards the southeast. It is the largest Mediterranean shelf and is simultaneously a dilution basin and a site of bottom water formation.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|p=122}} The Middle Adriatic basin is south of the Ancona–Zadar line, with the {{convert|270|m|adj=on}} deep Middle Adriatic Pit (also called the Pomo Depression or the Jabuka Pit). The {{convert|170|m|adj=on}} deep Palagruža Sill is south of the Middle Adriatic Pit, separating it from the {{convert|1200|m|adj=on}} deep South Adriatic Pit and the Middle Adriatic basin from the South Adriatic Basin. Further on to the south, the sea floor rises to {{convert|780|m}} to form the Otranto Sill at the boundary to the Ionian Sea. The South Adriatic Basin is similar in many respects to the Northern Ionian Sea, to which it is connected.{{sfn|Bombace|1992|pp=379–382}} Transversely, the Adriatic Sea is also asymmetric: the Apennine peninsular coast is relatively smooth with very few islands and the Monte Conero and Gargano promontories as the only significant protrusions into the sea; in contrast, the Balkan peninsular coast is rugged with numerous islands, especially in Croatia. The coast's ruggedness is exacerbated by the Dinaric Alps' proximity to the coast, in contrast to the opposite (Italian) coast where the Apennine Mountains are further away from the shoreline.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=2–6}}


(File:Adriatic Sea Currents 2.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Schematic layout of Adriatic Sea currents{{legend-line|red solid 2px|surface currents}} {{legend-line|blue solid 2px|benthic currents}})The coastal water dynamics are determined by the asymmetric coasts and the Mediterranean seawater's inflow through the Straits of Otranto and further on along the eastern coast. The smooth Italian coast (with very few protrusions and no major islands) allows the Western Adriatic Current's smooth flow, which is composed of the surface's relatively freshwater mass and the bottom's cold and dense water mass.{{sfn|Del Negro|2001|p=478}} The coastal currents on the opposite shore are far more complex, due to the jagged shoreline, several large islands and the Dinaric Alps' proximity to the shore. The last produces significant temperature variations between the sea and the hinterland, which leads to the creation of local jets.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=2–6}} The tidal movement is normally slight, usually remaining below {{convert|30|cm}}. The amphidromic point is at the mid-width east of Ancona.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|p=218}}The normal tide levels are known to increase significantly in a conducive environment, leading to coastal flooding; this phenomenon is most famously known in Italy—especially Venice—as acqua alta. Such tides can exceed normal levels by more than {{convert|140|cm}},{{sfn|Valiela|2006|pp=49–56}} with the highest tide level of {{convert|194|cm}} observed on 4 November 1966.{{sfn|Gower|2010|p=11}} Such flooding is caused by a combination of factors, including the alignment of the Sun and Moon, meteorological factors such as sirocco related storm surges,{{sfn|Camuffo|2001|pp=107–108}} and the basin's geometric shape (which amplifies or reduces the astronomical component). Moreover, the Adriatic's long and narrow rectangular shape is the source of an oscillating water motion () along the basin's minor axis.{{sfn|Ferla|2005|p=101}} Finally, Venice is increasingly vulnerable to flooding due to coastal area soil subsidence.{{sfn|Standish|2011|pp=5–6}} Such unusually high tides resulting in flooding have also been observed elsewhere in the Adriatic Sea, and have been recorded in recent years in the towns of Koper, Zadar and Å ibenik as well.NEWS, Nova TV (Croatia), Croatian,weblink U Sloveniji more poplavilo obalu, Sea floods shore in Slovenia, 9 November 2010, 26 January 2012, NEWS, Nova TV (Croatia), Croatian, Zadar: Zbog velike plime more poplavilo obalu, Zadar: Sea floods shore because of high tide,weblink 25 December 2009, 26 January 2012, NEWS, Vijesti, Croatian,weblink Jugo i niski tlak: More poplavilo Å¡ibensku rivu, Sirocco and low pressure: Sea floods Å ibenik quay, 1 December 2010, 26 January 2012, File:Vrulja kod OmiÅ¡a.jpg|thumb|right|A submarine spring near OmiÅ¡OmiÅ¡It is estimated that the Adriatic's entire volume is exchanged through the Strait of Otranto in 3.4±0.4 years, a comparatively short period. (For instance, approximately 500 years are necessary to exchange all the Black Sea's water.) This short period is particularly important as the rivers flowing into the Adriatic discharge up to {{convert|5700|m3/s}}. This rate of discharge amounts to 0.5% of the total Adriatic Sea volume, or a {{convert|1.3|m|adj=on}} layer of water each year. The greatest portion of the discharge from any single river comes from the Po (28%),JOURNAL, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, 0004-1254, Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Marine Radioecology and Waste Management in the Adriatic,weblink Zdenko, Franić, Branko, Petrinec, 57, 3, September 2006, 347–352, 4 February 2012, 17121008, with an average discharge from it alone of {{convert|1569|m3/s}}.{{sfn|Saliot|2005|p=6}} In terms of the annual total discharge into the entire Mediterranean Sea, the Po is ranked second, followed by the Neretva and Drin, which rank as third and fourth.{{sfn|Tockner|Uehlinger|Robinson|2009|loc=section 11.6.1.}} Another significant contributor of freshwater to the Adriatic is the submarine groundwater discharge through submarine springs (); it is estimated to comprise 29% of the total water flux into the Adriatic.JOURNAL,weblink Investigation of submarine groundwater discharge, Hydrological Processes, 1099-1085, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 2115–2159, 16, 27 January 2012, Makoto, Taniguchi, 10.1002/hyp.1145, Burnett, William C, Cable, Jaye E, Turner, Jeffrey V, 11, 2002HyPr...16.2115T, The submarine springs include thermal springs, discovered offshore near the town of Izola. The thermal springwater is rich with hydrogen sulfide, has a temperature of {{convert|22|to|29.6|C|F}}, and has enabled the development of specific ecosystems.JOURNAL,weblink Geografski Obzornik, 2004, 51, 2, 0016-7274, Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia, Slovenian, Jože, Žumer, Odkritje podmorskih termalnih izvirov, Discovery of submarine thermal springs, 11–17, {{sl icon}} The inflow of freshwater, representing a third of the freshwater volume flowing into the Mediterranean,{{sfn|Bombace|1992|pp=379–382}} makes the Adriatic a dilution basin for the Mediterranean Sea.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|p=145}} The Middle and South Adriatic Gyres (SAG), are significant cyclonic circulation features, with the former being intermittent and the latter permanent. The SAG measures {{convert|150|km|abbr=off}} in diameter. It contributes to the flow of bottom water from the Adriatic to the Levantine Basin through the Ionian Sea. Through that process, the Adriatic Sea produces most of the East Mediterranean deep water.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=126–130}}

Temperature and salinity

The Adriatic's surface temperature usually ranges from {{convert|22|to|30|C|F}} in the summer, or {{convert|12|to|14|C|F}} in the winter, except along the western Adriatic coast's northern part, where it drops to {{convert|9|C|F}} in the winter. The distinct seasonal temperature variations, with a longitudinal gradient in the Northern and transversal gradient in the Middle and Southern Adriatic,JOURNAL, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 0022-3670, American Meteorological Society, The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air–Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, 27, 1997, 1492–1514, Artegiani, A, E, Paschini, A, Russo, D, Bregant, F, Raicich, N, Pinardi, 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)0272.0.CO;2, 8, 1997JPO....27.1492A, are attributed to the continental characteristics of the Adriatic Sea: it is shallower and closer to land than are oceans.{{sfn|Zore-Armanda|1979|p=43}} During particularly cold winters, sea ice may appear in the Adriatic's shallow coastal areas, especially in the Venetian Lagoon but also in isolated shallows as far south as Tisno (south of Zadar).{{sfn|Loinello|Malanotte-Rizzoli|Boscolo|2006|pp=47–53}}NEWS, RTL Televizija,weblink Croatian, Led okovao svjetionik, u Tisnom smrznulo more, Ice covers a lighthouse, sea freezes at Tisno, 16 December 2010, 2 February 2012, The Southern Adriatic is about 8 to 10 Â°C (14 to 18 Â°F) warmer during the winter than the more northerly regions.{{sfn|Lipej|Dulčić|2004|p=293}} The Adriatic's salinity variation over the year is likewise distinct:{{sfn|Zore-Armanda|1979|p=43}} it ranges between 38 and 39 PSUs. The southern Adriatic is subjected to saltier water from the Levantine Basin.{{sfn|Lipej|Dulčić|2004|p=293}}


File:Koppen World Map (Mediterranean Sea area only).png|thumb|right|upright=2.05|As seen from the map, most of the landmass surrounding the Adriatic sea is classified as Cfa, with the southern region (near the Ionian seaIonian seaAccording to the Köppen climate classification, the upper half of the Adriatic is classified as humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with wetter summers and colder and drier winters, and the southern Adriatic are classified as hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa).WEB, University of Salento, Piero, Lionello,weblink Mediterranean climate: Background information, 27 January 2012, JOURNAL, University of Zadar,weblink Tomislav, Šegota, Anita, Filipčić, Croatian, 17–37, Köppenova podjela klima i hrvatsko nazivlje, Köppen climate classification and Croatian terminology, Geoadria, 8, 1, June 2003, 27 January 2012, 10.15291/geoadria.93, The air temperature can fluctuate by about {{convert|20|C-change}} during a season.The predominant winter winds are the bora and sirocco (called jugo along the eastern coast). The bora is significantly conditioned by wind gaps in the Dinaric Alps bringing cold and dry continental air; it reaches peak speeds in the areas of Trieste, Senj, and Split, with gusts of up to {{convert|180|km/h|kn mph}}. The sirocco brings humid and warm air, often carrying Saharan sand causing rain dust.{{sfn|Cushman-Roisin|Gačić|Poulain|2001|pp=6–8}}{|class="wikitable"|+Climate characteristics of some major Adriatic cities! rowspan=3|City! colspan=4|Mean temperature (daily high)! colspan=6|Mean total rainfall! colspan=2| January! colspan=2| July! colspan=3| January! colspan=3| July! °C! °F! °C! °F! mm! in! days! mm! in! days align=center| Bari12.1F|disp=table}}28.4F|disp=table}}50.8in|disp=table}}| 7.327.0in|disp=table}}| 2.6 align=center| Dubrovnik12.2F|disp=table}}28.3F|disp=table}}95.2in|disp=table}}| 11.224.1in|disp=table}}| 4.4 align=center| Rijeka8.7F|disp=table}}27.7F|disp=table}}134.9in|disp=table}}| 11.082.0in|disp=table}}| 9.1 align=centerSplit, Croatia>Split10.2F|disp=table}}29.8F|disp=table}}77.9in|disp=table}}| 11.127.6in|disp=table}}| 5.6 align=center| Venice5.8F|disp=table}}27.5F|disp=table}}58.1in|disp=table}}| 6.763.1in|disp=table}}| 5.7Source: World Meteorological OrganizationWORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION>URL=HTTP://WWW.WORLDWEATHER.ORG/EUROPE.HTMACCESSDATE=27 JANUARY 2012, ">

Population {|class"infobox" style"text-align:center; width:97%; margin-right:10px; font-size:90%"|+Most populous urban areas on the Adriatic coast

!rowspan=23 width:150|(File:Bari 1301765417.jpg|border|135px|Bari)Bari(File:Venezia veduta aerea.jpg|border|135px|Venice)Venice(File:Panorama_of_Durres_Port.jpg|135px|Durrës)Durrës! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Rank! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|City! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Country! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Region/County! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Population (urban)!rowspan=23 width:150|(File:Trieste-IMG 3064.JPG|135px|Trieste)Trieste1align=leftBari>Apulia>|320,4752align=leftVenice>Veneto>|270,8843align=leftTrieste>Friuli-Venezia Giulia>|205,5354align=leftDurrës>Durrës County>Durrës199,073weblink" title="">Albania 2011 census page175align=leftSplit, Croatia>SplitCroatiaSplit-Dalmatia County>|178,1026align=leftRimini>Emilia-Romagna>|150,0097align=leftRijeka>Primorje-Gorski Kotar County>Primorje-Gorski Kotar128,3848align=leftPescara>Abruzzo>|123,1039align=leftAncona>Marche>|101,21010align=leftPesaro>Marche>|95,800Sources: 2011 Croatian census,{{Croatian Census 2011title=Population in major towns and municipalities, 2011 census}} Italian National Institute of Statistics (2011),NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (ITALY)>LANGUAGE=ITALIANTITLE=VISTA PER SINGOLA AREAACCESSDATE=30 JANUARY 2012YEAR=2011 ACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120112022139/HTTP://CENSUS.AL/RESOURCES/DATA/CENSUS2011/INSTAT_PRINT%20.PDF, 12 January 2012, {{clear}}On the Adriatic Sea's coasts and islands, there are numerous small settlements, and a number of larger cities. Among the largest are Bari, Venice, Trieste, and Rimini in Italy, Split, Rijeka and Zadar in Croatia, Durrës and Vlorë in Albania and Koper in Slovenia. In total, more than 3.5 million people live on the Adriatic coasts.JOURNAL, Croatian Geographic Society, 1331-5854, Hrvatski geografski glasnik, Bogdan, Sekulić, Ivan, Sondi, 59, 1, December 1997,weblink 27 January 2012, Koliko je Jadran doista opterećen antropogenim i prirodnim unosom tvari?, Croatian, To What Extent is the Adriatic Sea Actually Burdened with Man-induced and Natural Inflow of Substances, There are also some larger cities that are located very near the coast, such as the Italian cities of Ravenna and Lecce.

Coastal management

File:MOSE Project Venice from the air.jpg|thumb|right|MOSE Project north of Lido di VeneziaLido di VeneziaVenice, which was originally built on islands off the coast, is most at risk due to subsidence, but the threat is present in the Po delta as well. The causes are a decrease in sedimentation rate due to loss of sediment behind dams, the deliberate excavation of sand for industrial purposes, agricultural use of water, and removal of ground water.WEB, Facing Water Challenges in the Po River Basin, Italy: A WWDR3 Case Study,weblink, 2009, 6 April 2009, WEB, Po Basin Case study status report, Meri, Raggi, Davide, Ronchi, Laura, Sardonini, Davide, Viaggi, AquaMoney, 4 April 2006, 21 March 2012,weblink {{dead link|date=February 2017}}The sinking of Venice slowed after artesian wells were banned in the 1960s, but the city remains threatened by the acqua alta floods. Recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking,NEWS, Technology: Venetians put barrage to the test against the Adriatic, 1660, New Scientist magazine, 15 April 1989,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2007, 10 October 2007, NEWS, Venice's 1,500-year battle with the waves, BBC Online News, 17 July 2003,weblink 10 October 2007, but a state of alert remains in place. In May 2003, then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates. The project proposes laying a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the Venetian Lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above {{convert|110|cm}}, the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2014.NEWS, 'Moses project' to secure future of Venice, Telegraph News, 11 January 2012,weblink 11 January 2012,


File:Adriatic Plate.jpg|thumb|left|Adriatic Microplate boundaries]]Geophysical and geological information indicate that the Adriatic Sea and the Po Valley are associated with a tectonic microplate—identified as the Apulian or Adriatic Plate—that separated from the African Plate during the Mesozoic era. This separation began in the Middle and Late Triassic, when limestone began to be deposited in the area. Between the Norian and Late Cretaceous, the Adriatic and Apulia Carbonate Platforms formed as a thick series of carbonate sediments (dolomites and limestones), up to {{convert|8000|m}} deep.JOURNAL, University of Zadar, 1331-2294,weblink Geoadria, Submerged Karst â€“ Dead or Alive? Examples from the eastern Adriatic Coast (Croatia), MaÅ¡a, Surić, 5–19, 10, 1, June 2005, 28 January 2012, 10.15291/geoadria.71, Remnants of the former are found in the Adriatic Sea, as well as in the southern Alps and the Dinaric Alps, and remnants of the latter are seen as the Gargano Promontory and the Maiella mountain. In the Eocene and early Oligocene, the plate moved north and north-east, contributing to the Alpine orogeny (along with the African and Eurasian Plates' movements) via the tectonic uplift of the Dinarides and Alps. In the Late Oligocene, the motion was reversed and the Apennine Mountains' orogeny took place.WEB, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Geology Department, Croatian, Mladen Juračić, Geology of the sea, Mediterranean and Adriatic,weblink 28 January 2012, {{dead link|date=February 2017}} An unbroken zone of increased seismic activity borders the Adriatic Sea, with a belt of thrust faults generally oriented in the northeast–southwest direction on the east coast and the northeast–southwest normal faults in the Apennines, indicating an Adriatic counterclockwise rotation.{{sfn|Muço|2006|p=352}} An active {{convert|200|km|adj=on}} fault has been identified to the northwest of Dubrovnik, adding to the Dalmatian islands as the Eurasian Plate slides over the Adriatic microplate. Furthermore, the fault causes the Apennine peninsula's southern tip to move towards the opposite shore by about {{convert|0.4|cm}} per year. If this movement continues, the seafloor will be completely consumed and the Adriatic Sea closed off in 50–70 million years.NEWS, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, National Geographic Society,weblink New Fault Found in Europe; May "Close Up" Adriatic Sea, Sara, Goudarzi, 25 January 2008, 28 January 2012, In the Northern Adriatic, the coast of the Gulf of Trieste and western Istria is gradually subsiding, having sunk about {{convert|1.5|m}} in the past two thousand years.JOURNAL, Antonioli, F., Anzidei, M., Lambeck, K., Auriemma, R., Gaddi, D., Furlani, S., Orrù, P., Solinas, E., Gaspari, A., Karinja, S., Kovačić, V., Surace, L., 10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.06.022, Sea-level change during the Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data, Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 19–21, 2463–2486, 2007, 2007QSRv...26.2463A, In the Middle Adriatic Basin, there is evidence of Permian volcanism in the area of Komiža on the island of Vis and the volcanic islands of Jabuka and Brusnik.NEWS, Zadarski list,weblink Croatian, Ostaci prastarog vulkana u Jadranu, Remains of an ancient volcano in the Adriatic Sea, Branimir, Vukosav, 30 April 2011, 24 February 2012, Earthquakes have been observed in the region since the earliest historical records.{{sfn|Muço|2006|p=351}} A recent strong earthquake in the region was the 1979 Montenegro earthquake, measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale.WEB, Montenegro seismological observatory,weblink Historical Seismicity of Montenegro, 6 February 2012, Historical earthquakes in the area include the 1627 Gargano peninsula and the 1667 Dubrovnik earthquakes, both followed by strong tsunamis.{{sfn|Soloviev et al.|2000|pp=47–52}} In the last 600 years, fifteen tsunamis have occurred in the Adriatic Sea.JOURNAL, Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-011-9916-3, 61, 2, Historical tsunamis in the Adriatic Sea, 2012, 1573-0840, International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Mira, Pasarić, B, Brizuela, L, Graziani, A, Maramai, M, Orlić, 281–316,

Seafloor sediment

File:Spring Runoff in the Adriatic Sea.jpg|thumb|upright|right|alt=Greenish band around the Adriatic coast of ItalyAll types of seafloor sediments are found in the Adriatic Sea. The Northern Adriatic's comparatively shallow seabed is characterised by relict sand (from times when the water level was lower and the area was a sandy beach), while a muddy bed is typical at depths below {{convert|100|m}}.WEB, FAO AdriaMed,weblink Adriatic Sea Fisheries: outline of some main facts, Piero, Mannini, Fabio, Massa, Nicoletta, 29 January 2012, Milone, {{sfn|Schwartz|2005|p=575}} There are five geomorphological units in the Adriatic: the Northern Adriatic (up to {{convert|100|m}} deep); the North Adriatic islands area protected against sediments filling it in by outer islands (pre-Holocene karst relief); the Middle Adriatic islands area (large Dalmatian islands); the Middle Adriatic (characterized by the Middle Adriatic Depression); and the Southern Adriatic consisting of a coastal shelf and the Southern Adriatic Depression. Sediments deposited in the Adriatic Sea today generally come from the northwest coast, being carried by the Po, Reno, Adige, Brenta, Tagliamento, Piave and Soča rivers. The volume of sediments carried from the eastern shore by the Rječina, Zrmanja, Krka, Cetina, Ombla, Dragonja, Mirna, Raša and Neretva rivers is negligible, because these sediments are mostly deposited at the river mouths. The Adriatic's western shores are largely either alluvial or terraced, whereas the eastern shores are predominantly rocky, except for the southernmost part of the shore located in Albania that consists of sandy coves and rocky capes.


(File:Rocky beach at Brač island, in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia.jpg|thumb|Rocky beach at Brač island, in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia)The eastern Adriatic shore's Croatian part is the most indented Mediterranean coastline.{{sfn|Randić|2002|pp=155–156}} Most of the eastern coast is characterised by a karst topography, developed from the Adriatic Carbonate Platform's exposure to weathering. Karstification there largely began after the Dinarides' final uplift in the Oligocene and the Miocene, when carbonate deposits were exposed to atmospheric effects; this extended to the level of {{convert|120|m}} below the present sea level, exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum. It is estimated that some karst formations are from earlier sea level drops, most notably the Messinian salinity crisis. Similarly, karst developed in Apulia from the Apulian Carbonate Platform.JOURNAL,weblink Acta Carsologica, 40, 1, 73–93, 2011, Mario, Parise, Surface and subsurface karst geomorphology in the Murge (Apulia, Southern Italy), 28 January 2012, 0583-6050, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 10.3986/ac.v40i1.30, (File:Mali Lošinj - camping Čikat.jpg|thumb|Rocky coast of Croatia)The largest part of the eastern coast consists of carbonate rocks, while flysch (a particular type of sedimentary rock) is significantly represented in the Gulf of Trieste coast, especially along Slovenia's coast where the {{convert|80|m|adj=on}} Strunjan cliff—the highest cliff on the entire Adriatic and the only one of its type on the eastern Adriatic coast—is located,WEB,weblink Zavarovano območje narave: Krajinski park Strunjan / Area prottetta: Parco naturale di Strugnano, Protected Area of Nature: Strunjan Landscape Park, Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for Nature Conservation, 2008, 5 February 2012, on the Kvarner Gulf coast opposite Krk, and in Dalmatia north of Split.{{sfn|Tomljenović|Csontos|Márton|Márton|2008|pp=146–149}} Rocks of the same type are found in Albania and on the western Adriatic coast.{{sfn|Beccaluva|Shallo|Coltorti|Premti|1997|pp=7–16}}{{sfn|Vezzani|Festa|Ghisetti|2010|pp=6–56}}There are alternations of maritime and alluvial sediments occurring in the Po Valley, at the Adriatic's north-west coast, and as far west as Piacenza, dating to the Pleistocene as the sea advanced and receded over the valley. An advance began after the Last Glacial Maximum, which brought the Adriatic to a high point at about 5,500 years ago.{{sfn|McKinney|2007|pp=123–132}} Since then, the Po delta has been prograding (expanding/extending). The rate of coastal zone progradation between 1000 BC and 1200 AD was {{convert|4|m}} per year.JOURNAL, Distributary channels and their impact on sediment dispersal, James P M, Syvitski, Marine Geology, 222–223, 15, 75–94, 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.06.030publisher=Elsevierfirst2=Albert Jfirst3=Annafirst4=Bruce Wbibcode=2005MGeol.222...75S, {{subscription required}} In the 12th century, the delta advanced at a rate of {{convertm}} per year. In the 17th century, the delta began to become a human-controlled environment, as the excavation of artificial channels started; the channels and new Distributary of the Po have been prograding at rates of {{convert>50ACCESSDATE=28 JANUARY 2012Barrocup=210}} including the lagoons of Venice Lagoon, Marano-Grado Lagoon>Grado and Caorle.HTTP://WWW.DSA.UNIPR.IT/LAGUNET/MED03/ABSTRACTS_CONFERENCE.PDF>TITLE=ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE FEATURES ON HARD SUBSTRATA IN THE LARGE NORTH ADRIATIC LAGOONSACCESSDATE=31 MARCH 2012WORK=PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOUTHERN EUROPEAN COASTAL LAGOONS: THE INFLUENCE OF RIVER BASIN-COASTAL ZONE INTERACTIONSGOVERNMENT OF SLOVENIATITLE=SLOVENIAN SEABojana (river)#Border river and the mouth>Bojana and Neretva rivers.EURONATUR>URL=HTTP://WWW.EURONATUR.ORG/UPLOADS/MEDIA/CHAPT_1-3_RAPID_ASSESSMENT_OF_THE_ECOLOGICAL_VALUE_OF_THE_BOJANA-BUNA_DELTA_01.PDFURL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=RAPID ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL VALUE OF THE BOJANA-BUNA DELTATITLE=THE NERETVA DELTA: GREEN PEARL OF COASTAL CROATIALAST=MUžINIćDATE=APRIL 2007ISSUE=2, 127–129,

Biogeography and ecology

The Adriatic Sea is a unique water body in respect of its overall biogeochemical physiognomy. It exports inorganic nutrients and imports particulate organic carbon and nitrogen through the Strait of Otranto—acting as a mineralization site. The exchange of the substances is made more complex by bathymetry of the Adriatic Sea—75% of water flowing north through the strait recirculates at the Palagruža Sill and North Adriatic adds no more than 3 â€“ 4% of water to the South Adriatic.{{sfn|Gačić|Civitarese|Ursella|1999|p=356}} This is reflected in its biogeography and ecology, and particularly in the composition and properties of its ecosystems.{{sfn|Lipej|Dulčić|2004|pp=291–300}} Its main biogeographic units are the Northern Adriatic, the Central Adriatic, and the Southern Adriatic.{{sfn|Bianchi|2007|p=10}}

Flora and fauna

The unique nature of the Adriatic gives rise to an abundance of endemic flora and fauna. The Croatian National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan identified more than 7,000 animal and plant species in the Adriatic Sea. The Central Adriatic is especially abundant in endemic plant species, with 535 identified species of green, brown and red algae.WEB, Natural Resources Management & Development Portal,weblink Biodiversity assessment for Croatia, 31 December 2000, Chemonics International Inc, 31 January 2012, Four out of five Mediterranean seagrass species are found in the Adriatic Sea. The most common species are Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii, while Zostera marina and Posidonia oceanica are comparatively rare.JOURNAL, Aquatic Botany, 77, 2003, 17–25, Genome size of Adriatic seagrasses, 30 January 2012,weblink 0304-3770, Jasna Dolenc, Koce, Barbara, Vilhar, Borut, Bohanec, Marina, Dermastia, 10.1016/S0304-3770(03)00072-X, A number of rare and threatened species are also found along the Adriatic's eastern coast; it is relatively clearer and less polluted than the western Adriatic coast—in part because the sea currents flow through the Adriatic in a counterclockwise direction, thus bringing clearer waters up the eastern coast and returning increasingly polluted water down the western coast. This circulation has significantly contributed to the biodiversity of the countries along the eastern Adriatic coast; the common bottlenose dolphin is frequent in the eastern coast's waters only, and the Croatian coast provides refuge for the critically endangered monk seal and sea turtles. Recent studies revealed that cetaceans and other marine megafaunas, that were once thought to be vagrants to Adriatic Sea, migrate and live in the semi-closed sea on larger scales.D.Holcer D.. Fortuna M.C.. Mackelworth C. P.. 2014. Status and Conservation of Cetaceans in the Adriatic Sea (pdf). United Nations Environment Programme. Mediterranean Action Plan. Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas. Retrieved on 4 September 2017 Largest of these live normally is the fin whale,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 April 2016, Fin whales in the Adriatic - Tethys Research Institute, 25 April 2016, and sperm whale,WEB,weblink Kitovi kod Tijata, Neven Cukrov, 9 September 2014, YouTube, the largest of toothed whales also migrate but less common than fin whales, followed by Cuvier's beaked whales. Basking sharksWEB,weblink Incontro ravvicinato nel Mar Adriatico con uno squalo di 8 metri, Alessandro Vatalakis, 16 April 2015, YouTube, and manta rays are some of migrant species to the sea.WEB,weblink On the presence of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus)in the Mediterranean Sea, WEB,weblink Morski pas kod Ilovika, Grlograb Brudi, 9 May 2011, YouTube, WEB,weblink Jadransko more je puno morskih pasa, kitova, kornjača i dupina, Historical presences of depleted or extinct species such as North Atlantic right whales (extinct or functionally extinct), atlantic gray whales (extinct), and humpback whales have been speculated as well.The MORSE Project – Ancient whale exploitation in the Mediterranean: species mattersThe Northern Adriatic in particular is rich in endemic fish fauna.{{sfn|Bombace|1992|pp=379–382}} Around thirty species of fish are found in only one or two countries bordering the Adriatic Sea. These are particularly due to or dependent upon the karst morphology of the coastal or submarine topography; this includes inhabiting subterranean habitats, karst rivers, and areas around freshwater springs.WEB, Ministry of Culture (Croatia), Ivna, Vukšić,weblink Fourth national report of the Republic of Croatia to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 18 May 2009, 22 March 2012, There are 45 known subspecies endemic to the Adriatic's coasts and islands. In the Adriatic, there are at least 410 species and subspecies of fish, representing approximately 70% of Mediterranean taxa, with at least 7 species endemic to the Adriatic. Sixty-four known species are threatened with extinction, largely because of overfishing. Only a small fraction of the fish found in the Adriatic are attributed to recent processes such as Lessepsian migration, and escape from mariculture.{{sfn|Lipej|Dulčić|2004|p=300}}

Protected areas

File:Tremiti 00.jpg|thumb|left|Isole TremitiIsole Tremiti{{see also|Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance}}The biodiversity of the Adriatic is relatively high, and several marine protected areas have been established by countries along its coasts. In Italy, these are Miramare in the Gulf of Trieste (in the Northern Adriatic), Torre del Cerrano and Isole Tremiti in the Middle Adriatic basin and Torre Guaceto in southern Apulia.WEB,weblink Italian, Torre del Cerrano, Dove Siamo, Where We Are, 24 March 2012, 2010, The Miramare protected area was established in 1986 and covers {{convert|30|ha}} of coast and {{convert|90|ha}} of sea. The area encompasses {{convert|1.8|km}} of coastline near the Miramare promontory in the Gulf of Trieste.WEB, La Riserva Marina di Miramare,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 September 2004, La Riserva, The reserve, Italian, 31 January 2012, The Torre del Cerrano protected area was created in 2009, extending {{convert|3|nmi|km mi}} into the sea and along {{convert|7|km}} of coastline. Various zones of the protected area cover {{convert|37|km2}} of sea surface.WEB, Marine Protected Area Torre Cerrano,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 14 May 2013, The Marine Protected Area, 31 January 2012, The Isole Tremiti reserve has been protected since 1989, while the Tremiti islands themselves are part of the Gargano National Park.WEB,,weblink Italian, Riserva Marina delle Isole Tremiti, Tremiti Islands Marine Reserve, 31 January 2012, The Torre Guaceto protected area, located near Brindisi and Carovigno, covers a sea surface of {{convert|2227|ha}} and is adjacent to the Torre Guaceto State Reserve covering {{convert|1114|ha}} of coast and sharing an {{convert|8|km|adj=on}} coastline with the marine protected area.WEB, Consorzio di Gestione di Torre Guaceto,weblink Protected Area, 31 January 2012, Furthermore, there are 10 internationally important (Ramsar) wetland reserves in Italy located along the Adriatic coast.WEB, Ramsar Convention,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2013, The Annotated Ramsar List: Italy, 3 February 2012, File:Kornati islands.jpg|thumb|right|KornatiKornatiThere are seven marine protected areas in Croatia: Brijuni and the Lim Canal off the Istria peninsula's coast, near Pula and Rovinj respectively; Kornati and Telašćica in the Middle Adriatic basin, near Zadar; and Lastovo, Bay of Mali Ston () and Mljet in southern Dalmatia. The Brijuni national park encompasses the {{convert|743.3|ha|adj=on}} archipelago itself and {{convert|2651.7|ha}} of surrounding sea;WEB, Brijuni national park,weblink General Info, 31 January 2012, it became a national park in 1999.WEB, Brijuni national park,weblink Documents and reports, 31 January 2012, The Lim Canal is a {{convert|10|km|adj=on}} ria of the Pazinčica river.WEB, City of Rovinj,weblink Limski kanal, Lim Canal, Croatian, 31 January 2012, The Kornati national park was established in 1980; it covers approximately {{convert|220|km2}}, including 89 islands and islets. The marine environment encompasses three quarters of the total area, while the island shores' combined length equals {{convert|238|km}}.WEB, Kornati national park,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 August 2013, About Park, 2 December 2013, Telašćica is a nature park established on Dugi Otok in 1988. The park covers {{convert|69|km}} of coastline, {{convert|22.95|km2}} of land and {{convert|44.55|km2}} of sea.WEB, Telašćica nature park,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 23 July 2009, Nature Park Telašćica, 31 January 2012, The Bay of Mali Ston is located at the border of Croatia and Bosnia–Herzegovina, north of the PeljeÅ¡ac peninsula. The marine protected area covers {{convert|48|km2}}. The Lastovo nature park was established in 2006, and it includes 44 islands and islets, {{convert|53|km2}} of land and {{convert|143|km2}} of sea surface.WEB, Lastovo nature park,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, About Us, 22 April 2012, The Mljet national park was established in 1960, covering a {{convert|24|km2|adj=on}} marine protection area. In addition, there is a Ramsar wetland reserve in Croatia—the Neretva river's delta.WEB, Ramsar Convention,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, The Annotated Ramsar List: Croatia, 3 February 2012, File:Karavasta.jpg|thumb|left|Karavasta LagoonKaravasta LagoonIn Slovenia, the marine and coastal protected nature areas are the Sečovlje Salina Landscape Park, Strunjan Landscape Park, Å kocjan Inlet Nature Reserve, and the Debeli Rtič, Cape Madona and Lakes in Fiesa natural monuments.JOURNAL,weblink 159–170, 10 August 2012, 0506-4252, Barbara, Vidmar, Robert, Turk, Marine protected areas in Slovenia: How far are we from the 2012/2020 target?, September 2011, Nature Conservation Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Suppl., 1, Varstvo Narave, WEB,weblink Naravni spomenik Jezeri v Fiesi, Slovenian, The Fiesa Lakes Natural Monument, Nature Conservation Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 4 February 2012, {{sl icon}} The Sečovlje Salina Landscape Park was established in 1990, covers {{convert|721|ha}}, and includes four nature reserves.BOOK,weblink Territory and climate, p. 40 ("Enlarged protected areas of nature â€“ natural parks"), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 2011, Statisti?ni Letopis Republike Slovenije, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 1318-5403, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2013, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Sečoveljske soline, Sečovlje Saltworks, Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem â€“ DEDI, Primož, Pipan, Å mid Hribar, Mateja, Torkar, Gregor, Golež, Mateja, Podjed, Dan, Kladnik, Drago, Erhartič, Bojan, Pavlin, Primož, Jerele, Ines, 3 February 2012, Slovenian, {{sl icon}} In 1993, the area was designated a Ramsar site; it is also a site of international importance for waterbird species.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 November 2012, Report of the Republic of Slovenia on the implementation of the Agreement in the period 2005–2007, Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, 2008, 21 June 2012, The {{convert|429|ha|adj=on}} Strunjan Landscape Park was established in 2004 and comprises two nature reserves. It includes a {{convert|4|km}} long cliff, the northernmost Mediterranean salt field and the only Slovenian lagoon system.BOOK,weblink Saltpans of Strunjan, Slovenia â€“ proposal, Landscape Management Methodologies: Synthesis report of thematic studies, 286–291, NataÅ¡a, Bratina Jurkovič, United Nations Environment Programme, April 2011, 21 June 2012, It is also the northernmost point of growth of some Mediterranean plant species.JOURNAL,weblink Landscape Park Strunjan, Dejan, Putrle, Varstvo Narave, 187, September 2011, Nature Conservation Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 0506-4252, Suppl., 1, 10 August 2012, The Å kocjan Inlet Nature Reserve was established in 1998 and covers {{convert|122|ha}}.WEB,weblink Osebna izkaznica, Slovenian, Identity Card, 4 February 2012, Bird Watching and Bird Study Society of Slovenia, {{sl icon}} The Debeli Rtič natural monument covers {{convert|24|ha}},WEB,weblink Zavarovana območja: Debeli rtič, Slovenian, Protected Areas: Debeli Rtič, 31 August 2012,, May 2007, Agencija RS za okolje; Zavod Republike Slovenije za varstvo narave; Synergise, d. o. o., the Cape Madona natural monument covers {{convert|12|ha}},WEB,weblink Zavarovana območja: Rt Madona v Piranu, Slovenian, Protected Areas: Cape Madona in Piran, 31 August 2012,, May 2007, Agencija RS za okolje; Zavod Republike Slovenije za varstvo narave; Synergise, d. o. o., and the Lakes in Fiesa natural monument, with the coastal lake as the only brackish lake in Slovenia,JOURNAL,weblink Microplanktonic and Microbenthic Algal Assemblages in the Coastal Brackish Lake Fiesa and the Dragonja Estuary (Slovenia), Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra, VrhovÅ¡ek, Danijel, Smolar-Žvanut, NataÅ¡a, Natura Croatica, Croatian Natural History Museum, 16, 1, 31 March 2007, covers {{convert|2.1|ha}}.WEB,weblink Zavarovana območja: Jezeri v Fiesi, Slovenian, Protected Areas: Lakes in Fiesa, 31 August 2012,, May 2007, Agencija RS za okolje; Zavod Republike Slovenije za varstvo narave; Synergise, d. o. o., In 2010, Albania established its first marine protection area, the Karaburun-Sazan National Marine Park at the Karaburun Peninsula where the Adriatic and Ionian Seas meet. The park covers a total of {{convert|12570|ha}}.WEB,,weblink Vendim për shpalljen "Park Kombëtar" të ekosistemit natyror detar pranë gadishullit të Karaburunit dhe ishullit të Sazanit, Albanian, Decision to declare as a "National Park" the maritime natural ecosystem of Karaburun Peninsula and Sazan Island, 31 January 2012, {{sq icon}} Two additional marine protection areas are planned in Albania: the Cape of Rodon () and Porto Palermo. In addition, Albania is home to two Ramsar wetland reserves: Karavasta Lagoon, and Butrint.WEB, Ramsar Convention,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 May 2012, The Annotated Ramsar List: Albania, 3 February 2012, Neither Bosnia–Herzegovina nor Montenegro have or plan to establish any marine protection areas.


The Adriatic Sea ecosystem is threatened by excessive input of nutrients through drainage from agricultural land and wastewater flowing from cities; this includes both along its coast and from rivers draining into the sea—especially from the Po River.{{sfn|Chin|2006|pp=5–6}} Venice is often cited as an example of polluted coastal waters where shipping, transportation, farming, manufacturing and wastewater disposal contribute to polluting the sea.NEWS, CNN,weblink Woes of Venice Lagoon tackled in U.S., 23 September 1999, 27 March 2012, A further risk is presented by ballast water discharge by ships, especially tankers. Still, since most of the cargo handled by the Adriatic ports, and virtually all liquid (tanker) cargo handled by the ports, is coming to—not coming from—the Adriatic Basin, the risk from ballast water (from tankers expelling ballast water then loading in the Adriatic) remains minimal. However, proposed export oil pipelines were objected to specifically because of this issue. Oil spills are a major concern in terms of potential environmental impact and damage to tourism and fisheries.WEB, University of Zagreb,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, Ecologic risks from crude oil tankers in Croatian part of Adriatic Sea, Vedran, Jelavić, Damir, Radan, 2004, 27 March 2012, It is estimated that if a major oil spill happened, a million people would lose their livelihoods in Croatia alone.NEWS, Jutarnji list,weblink Croatian, Tankerska havarija u Jadranu bez prihoda bi ostavila milijun ljudi, A tanker disaster in the Adriatic would cost a million people their livelihood, 14 May 2010, Sergejfirst2=Nevenkaaccessdate=27 March 2012, An additional risk is presented by oil refineries in the Po River basin where oil spills have occurred before,THE GUARDIAN>TITLE=ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER WARNING AS OIL SPILL REACHES THE PO, ITALY'S BIGGEST RIVERDATE=24 FEBRUARY 2010SLOBODNA DALMACIJATITLE=HAVARIJA TANKERA NA HVARU: PIJANI KORMILAR VOZIO, KAPETAN BORAVIO U â€“ ZAHODULANGUAGE=CROATIANFIRST=M ACCESSDATE=27 MARCH 2012, Since 2006, Italy has been considering the construction of an offshore and an onshore liquified natural gas terminal in the Gulf of Trieste, as well as a pipeline, in the immediate vicinity of the Slovenian–Italian border.{{sfn>MalačičMalejpp=375–376}} The Slovenian government and municipalities,HTTP://WWW.STA.SI/VEST.PHP?S=S&ID=1659936 >TITLE=COASTAL TOWN MAYORS PROTEST OVER ITALY'S GAS TERMINAL WORK=STA: SLOVENIAN PRESS AGENCY, the municipal council of Trieste,HTTP://WWW.STA.SI/EN/VEST.PHP?S=A&ID=1728281 >ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131202164321/HTTP://WWW.STA.SI/EN/VEST.PHP?S=A&ID=1728281 ARCHIVE-DATE=2 DECEMBER 2013 DATE=21 FEBRUARY 2012 DATE=21 JULY 2009 UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONALTITLE=SLOVENIA SLAMS ITALY'S TRIESTE LNG PLANSACCESSDATE=27 MARCH 2012, Another source of pollution of the Adriatic is solid waste. Drifting waste—occasionally relatively large quantities of material, especially waste plastic—is transported northwest by the sirocco.NEWS, Slobodna Dalmacija,weblink Nevrijeme i Božićni blagdani: smeće u starom Portu, Poor weather and Christmas holidays: waste in the old port, Croatian, 26 December 2011, Ahmet, Kalajdžić, 27 March 2012, Air pollution in the Adriatic Basin is associated with the large industrial centres in the Po River valley and the large industrial cities along the coast.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Made in Italy: Fashion, food, Fiat, pollution, Elisabeth, Rosenthal, 11 June 2007, 27 March 2012, NEWS, Novi list, Croatian,weblink Kvaliteta zraka u Rijeci: Mlaka, Urinj i ViÅ¡evac crne točke zagaÄ‘enja, Quality of air in Rijeka: Mlaka, Urinj and ViÅ¡evac are black spots of pollution, Marinko, Glavan, 12 October 2011, 27 March 2012, Italy and Yugoslavia established a joint commission to protect the Adriatic Sea from pollution in 1977; the organization later changed with Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro replacing Yugoslavia.WEB, Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection (Croatia),weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 15 July 2012, The Joint Commission for the protection of the Adriatic Sea and coastal area from pollution, 27 March 2012, 2008, Future pollution hazards are addressed and pollution hotspots are assessed not only by nations in the basin but also through regional projects with World Bank support. 27 such hotspots have been determined as of 2011, 6 warranting an urgent response.WEB, Western Balkans Investment Framework,weblink November 2011, Addressing Adriatic Hot Spots: A Proposed Adriatic Environmental Program, 27 March 2012,weblink 7 April 2012, live,


File:Pula Arena aerial 1.jpg|thumb|right|Pula ArenaPula ArenaSettlements along the Adriatic dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern coast, related to the Cardium pottery culture.{{sfn|Cunliffe|2008|pp=115–116}} During classical antiquity, Illyrians inhabited the eastern Adriatic coast,{{sfn|Wilkes|1995|pp=91–104}} and the western coast was inhabited by the peoples of Ancient Italy, mainly Etruscans, before the Roman Republic's rise.{{sfn|Hall|1996|pp=2–14}} Greek colonisation of the Adriatic dates back to the 7th and 6th centuries BC when Epidamnos and Apollonia were founded. The Greeks soon expanded further north establishing several cities, including Epidaurus, Black Corcyra, Issa and Ancona, with trade established as far north as the Po River delta, where the emporion (trading station) of Adria was founded.{{sfn|Gruen|1986|p=359}}

Roman era

Roman economic and military influence in the region began to grow with the creation by 246 BC of a major naval base at Brundisium (now Brindisi), which was established to bar Carthaginian ships from the Adriatic during the Punic Wars. This led to conflict with the Illyrians, who lived in a collection of semi-Hellenized kingdoms that covered much of the Balkans and controlled the eastern shore of the sea, resulting in the Illyrian Wars from 229–168 BC. The initial Roman intervention in 229 BC, motivated in part by a desire to suppress Illyrian piracy in the Adriatic, marked the first time that the Roman navy crossed that sea to launch a military campaign.{{sfn|Grant|1978|pp=131–132}}WEB,weblink Illyricum â€“ Dalmatia, UNRV, 13 August 2012, Those wars ended with the eastern shore becoming a province of the Roman Republic.{{sfn|Cabanes|2008|pp=155–186}} However, resistance to Roman rule continued sporadically and Rome did not completely consolidate control of the region until Augustus's general Tiberius put down the Great Illyrian Revolt, a bitter struggle waged from 6 to 9 AD.WEB,weblink Bosnia-Herzegovina, 13 August 2012, Following the repression of the revolt the Roman province of Illyricum was split into Dalmatia and Pannonia. Most of the eastern shore of the Adriatic was part of Dalmatia, except for the southernmost portion, part of the province of Macedonia, and the peninsula of Istria on the northern part of the eastern shore; Istria contained the important Roman colony at Pula and was incorporated into the province of Italy.WEB,weblink Istria, GlobalSecurity, 24 August 2012, During the Roman period Brundisium, on the western shore, and Apollonia and Dyrrachium (originally called Epidamnos, now Durrës in Albania) on the eastern shore became important ports. Brundisium was linked by the Via Appia road to the city of Rome, and Dyrrachium and Apollonia were both on the Via Egnatia, a road that by about 130 BC the Romans had extended eastward across the Balkans to Byzantium (later Constantinople, now Istanbul).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 March 2001, Via Egnatia, Crandall University, 15 August 2012, WEB,weblink Via Egnatia: a journey across the lower Balkans through time, Montclair State: The College of Humanities and Social Sciences, 15 August 2012, This made the sea passage across the Adriatic between Brundisium and Dyrrachium (or Apollonia) a link in the primary route for travelers, trade, and troop movements, between Rome and the East. This route played a major role in some of the military operations that marked the end of the Roman Republic and start of the imperial period. Sulla used it during the First Mithridatic War.WEB,weblink Via Egnatia, Livius, 15 August 2012, During Caesar's Civil War, there was a three-month delay in Caesar's Balkan campaign against Pompey caused when winter storms on the Adriatic and a naval blockade held up Mark Antony from reaching him from Brundisium with reinforcements; after the reinforcements finally arrived Caesar made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Dyrrachium before the campaign moved inland.{{sfn|Grant|1978|p=231}} Marc Antony and Octavian (later Augustus) crossed the Adriatic to Dyrrachium with their armies in their campaign against two of Caesar's assassins, Brutus and Cassius, that culminated in the Battle of Philippi.{{sfn|Grant|1978|pp=242–243}} Brundisium and Dyrrachium remained important ports well after the Roman period, but an earthquake in the 3rd century AD changed the path of a river causing Apollonia's harbor to silt up, and the city to decline.WEB,weblink Apollonia, Illyria, Albanian Canadian Information Service, 16 August 2012, Another city on the Italian coast of the Adriatic that increased in importance during the Roman era was Ravenna. During the reign of Augustus it became a major naval base as part of his program to re-organize the Roman navy to better protect commerce in the Mediterranean.{{sfn|Grant|1978|pp=263–264}} During the 4th century AD the emperors of the Western Roman Empire had moved their official residence north from Rome to Mediolanum (now Milan) in order to be better able to control the military frontier with the Germanic tribes. In 402 AD, during a period of repeated Germanic invasions of Italy, the capital was shifted to Ravenna because nearby marshes made it more defensible, and the Adriatic provided an easy escape path by sea.{{sfn|Grant|1978|pp= 395–427}} When the Western Empire fell in 476 AD Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.{{sfn|Grant|1978|p=464}}

Middle Ages

File:Korcula City.jpg|thumb|Korčula, Croatia]]In the Early Middle Ages, after the Roman Empire's decline, the Adriatic's coasts were ruled by Ostrogoths, Lombards and the Byzantine Empire.{{sfn|Paul the Deacon|1974|pp=326–328}}{{sfn|Burns|1991|pp=126–130}} The Ostrogothic Kingdom ruled Italy following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. However, during the reign of Justinian the Byzantine Empire sent an army under the general Belisarius to regain control of Italy, resulting in the Gothic War (535–554). The Byzantines established the Exarchate of Ravenna and by 553 AD their viceroy (Exarch) ruled almost the entire Italian peninsula from that city. In 568 AD the Lombards invaded northern Italy, and over the course of the next century or so the importance of the Exarchate declined as the territory under Lombard control expanded and as the Byzantine outpost of Venice became increasingly independent. In 752 AD the Lombards overthrew the Exarchate, ending the influence of the Byzantine Empire on the western shore of the Adriatic for a few centuries.WEB,weblink Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna AD 552 â€“ 754, The History Files, 22 August 2012, The last part of the period saw the rise of the Carolingian Empire and then the Frankish Kingdom of Italy, which controlled the Adriatic Sea's western coast,{{sfn|Goodrich|1856|p=773}} while Byzantine Dalmatia on the east coast gradually shrunk following the Avar and Croatian invasions starting in the 7th century.{{sfn|Paton|1861|pp=218–219}} The Republic of Venice was founded during this period and went on to become a significant maritime power after receiving a Byzantine tax exemption in 1082.{{sfn|Buckley|Hebbert|Hughes|2004|pp=360–362}} The end of the period brought about the Holy Roman Empire's control over the Kingdom of Italy (which would last until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648),{{sfn|Nanjira|2010|pp=188–190}} the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Croatia and the Byzantine Empire's return to the southern Apennine peninsula.JOURNAL, Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest, 30, 1, 0353-295X, 281–290, Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba, Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav, Croatian, Vladimir, Posavec, March 1998, 16 October 2011,weblink {{sfn|Norwich|1997|pp=250–253}} In addition, the Papal States were carved out in the area around Rome and central Italy in the 8th century.{{sfn|Hinson|1995|pp=296–298}}File:Canal Grande Chiesa della Salute e Dogana dal ponte dell Accademia.jpg|thumb|left|The Republic of VeniceRepublic of VeniceThe High Middle Ages in the Adriatic Sea basin saw further territorial changes, including the Norman conquest of southern Italy ending the Byzantine presence on the Apennine peninsula in the 11th and 12th centuries (the territory would become the Kingdom of Naples in 1282){{sfn|Brown|2003|pp=3–5}}{{sfn|Fremont-Barnes|2007|p=495}} and the control of a substantial part of the eastern Adriatic coast by the Kingdom of Hungary after a personal union was established between Croatia and Hungary in 1102.JOURNAL, Scrinia Slavonica, 1332-4853, Hrvatski institut za povijest â€“ Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje, Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije, Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue, Croatian,weblink Ladislav, Heka, October 2008, 8, 1, 152–173, 16 October 2011, In this period, the Republic of Venice began to expand its territory and influence.{{sfn|Norwich|1997|p=72}} In 1202, the Fourth Crusade was diverted to conquer Zadar at the behest of the Venetians—the first instance of a Crusader force attacking a Catholic city—before proceeding to sack Constantinople.{{sfn|Sethre|2003|pp=43–54}} In the 13th century, Venice established itself as a leading maritime nation. During much of the 12th and 13th centuries, Venice and the Republic of Genoa were engaged in warfare culminating in the War of Chioggia, ousting the Genoese from the Adriatic.{{sfn|Braudel|1992|pp=118–119}} Still, the 1381 Treaty of Turin that ended the war required Venice to renounce claims to Dalmatia, after losing the territory to Hungary in 1358. In the same year, the Republic of Ragusa was established in Dubrovnik as a city-state after it was freed from Venetian suzerainty.{{sfn|Shaw|1976|p=48}}Venice regained Dalmatia in 1409 and held it for nearly four hundred years, with the republic's apex of trading and military power in the first half of the 15th century.{{sfn|Crouzet-Pavan|Cochrane|2005|p=79}} The 15th and the 16th centuries brought about the Byzantine Empire's destruction in 1453 and the Ottoman Empire's expansion that reached Adriatic shores in present-day Albania and Montenegro as well as the immediate hinterland of the Dalmatian coast,{{sfn|Browning|1992|p=133}}{{sfn|Reinert|2002|p=270}} defeating the Hungarian and Croatian armies at Krbava in 1493 and Mohács in 1526.{{sfn|Frucht|2005|pp=422–423}} These defeats spelled the end of an independent Hungarian kingdom, and both Croatian and Hungarian nobility chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as their new ruler, bringing the Habsburg Monarchy to the shore of the Adriatic Sea, where it would remain for nearly four hundred years.WEB,weblink Povijest saborovanja, History of parliamentarism, Croatian, Sabor, 18 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2010, live, The Ottomans and Venetians fought a series of wars, but until the 17th century these were not fought in the Adriatic area.{{sfn|Crouzet-Pavan|Cochrane|2005|pp=80–82}} Ottoman raids on the Adriatic coasts effectively ceased after the massive setback in the Battle of Lepanto in October 1571.{{sfn|Prothero|Leathes|Ward|1934|p=495}}

Early modern period

File:Battle of Lissa.jpg|thumb|right|Battle of Lissa, 1811]]In 1648, the Holy Roman Empire lost its claim on its former Italian lands, formally ending the Kingdom of Italy; however, its only outlet on the Adriatic Sea, the Duchy of Ferrara, was already lost to the Papal States.{{sfn|King|2003|p=241}} The 17th century's final territorial changes were caused by the Morean or Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War, when in 1699 Venice slightly enlarged its possessions in Dalmatia.{{sfn|Ivetic|2011|p=66}} In 1797, the Republic of Venice was abolished after the French conquest.{{sfn|Martin|Romano|2002|p=219}} The Venetian territory was then handed over to Austria and briefly ruled as part of the Archduchy of Austria. The territory was turned back over to France after the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, when the territory in the Po valley became an integral part of the new Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.{{sfn|Stephens|2010|pp=192, 245}} The new kingdom included the province of Romagna, thus removing the Papal State from the Adriatic coast;{{sfn|Levillain|2002|p=1103}} however, Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia were joined into a set of separate provinces of the French Empire: the Illyrian Provinces.{{sfn|Stephens|2010|pp=192, 245}} These were created in 1809 through the Treaty of Schönbrunn; they represented the end of Venetian rule on the eastern Adriatic coast, as well as the end of the Republic of Ragusa.{{sfn|Grab|2003|pp=188–194}} The Adriatic Sea was a minor theatre in the Napoleonic Wars; the Adriatic campaign of 1807–1814 involved the British Royal Navy contesting the Adriatic's control by the combined navies of France, Italy and the Kingdom of Naples. During the campaign, the Royal Navy occupied Vis and established its base there in Port St. George.{{sfn|Henderson|1994|p=112}} The campaign reached its climax in the 1811 Battle of Lissa,{{sfn|Carstens|Sanford|2011|p=425}} and ended with British and Austrian troops seizing the coastal cities on the eastern Adriatic coast from the French.{{sfn|James|Lambert|2002|p=180}} Days before the Battle of Waterloo, the Congress of Vienna awarded the Illyrian Provinces (spanning from the Gulf of Trieste to the Bay of Kotor) to Austria.{{sfn|Nicolson|2000|pp=180, 226}} The Congress of Vienna also created the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia which encompassed the city of Venice, the surrounding coast and a substantial hinterland, and was controlled by Austria.{{sfn|Schjerve|2003|p=200}} In the Apennine peninsula's south, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was formed in 1816 by unifying the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily.{{sfn|Sarti|2004|p=601}}

Modern period

File:Die Seeschlacht bei Lissa.jpg|thumb|left|Battle of Lissa, 1866]]The process of Italian unification culminated in the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in the Kingdom of Sardinia annexing all territories along the western Adriatic coast south of Venetia in 1860, and the 1861 establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in its place. The Kingdom of Italy expanded in 1866: it annexed Venetia,{{sfn|Noble|Strauss|Osheim|Neuschel|2010|pp=619–622}} but its navy was defeated in the Adriatic near Vis.{{sfn|Monzali|2009|pp=73–76}} Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, the control of much of the eastern Adriatic coast was redefined. The cisleithanian (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary spanned from the Austrian Littoral to the Bay of Kotor, with the exception of the Croatian Littoral mainland. In the territory outside the Austrian Littoral, special status was given to Fiume (modern day Rijeka) as a separate part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The rest of the territory was made a part of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, which in turn was also in the Transleithanian part of the dual monarchy. The Adriatic coastline controlled by the Ottoman Empire was reduced by the Congress of Berlin in 1878, through recognition of the independence of the Principality of Montenegro, which controlled the coast south of the Bay of Kotor to the Bojana River.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=225}} The Ottoman Empire lost all territories along the Adriatic following the First Balkan War and consequent 1913 Treaty of London that established an independent Albania.{{sfn|Tucker|2009|p=1553}}File:Affondamento Santo Stefano.jpg|thumb|right|SMS Szent István moments before its sinking by the Italian MAS ]]The World War I Adriatic Campaign was largely limited to blockade attempts by the Allies and the effort of the Central Powers to thwart the British, French and Italian moves.{{sfn|Tucker|2005|p=39}} Italy joined the Allies in April 1915 with the Treaty of London, which promised Italy the Austrian Littoral, northern Dalmatia, the port of Vlorë, most of the eastern Adriatic islands and Albania as a protectorate.{{sfn|Tucker|1996|p=440}} The treaty provided the basis for all the following divisions between Italy and Yugoslavia.{{sfn|Lipušček|2005|p=446}} In 1918, the Montenegrin national assembly voted to unite with the Kingdom of Serbia, giving the latter access to the Adriatic.{{sfn|Palmer|2000|p=298}} Another short-lived, unrecognised state established in 1918 was the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, formed from parts of Austria-Hungary, comprising most of the former monarchy's Adriatic coastline. Later that year, the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes—subsequently renamed Yugoslavia. The proponents of the new union in the Croatian parliament saw the move as a safeguard against Italian expansionism as stipulated in the Treaty of London.{{sfn|Tomasevich|2001|pp=4–16}} The treaty was largely disregarded by Britain and France because of conflicting promises made to Serbia and a perceived lack of Italian contribution to the war effort outside Italy itself.{{sfn|Burgwyn|1997|pp=4–6}} The 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye did transfer the Austrian Littoral and Istria to Italy, but awarded Dalmatia to Yugoslavia.{{sfn|Lee|2003|p=318}} Following the war, a private force of demobilized Italian soldiers seized Rijeka and set up the Italian Regency of Carnaro—seen as a harbinger of Fascism—in order to force the recognition of Italian claims to the city.{{sfn|D'Agostino|2004|pp=127–128}} After sixteen months of the Regency's existence, the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo redefined the Italian–Yugoslav borders, among other things transferring Zadar and the islands of Cres, Lastovo and Palagruža to Italy, securing the island of Krk for Yugoslavia and establishing the Free State of Fiume; this new state was abolished in 1924 by the Treaty of Rome that awarded Fiume (modern Rijeka) to Italy and Sušak to Yugoslavia.{{sfn|Singleton|1985|pp=135–137}}

Late 20th century

During World War II, the Adriatic saw only limited naval action, starting with the Italian invasion of Albania and the joint Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. The latter led to the annexation of a large part of Dalmatia and nearly all the eastern Adriatic islands by Italy and the establishment of two puppet states, the Independent State of Croatia and the Kingdom of Montenegro, which controlled the remainder of the former Yugoslav Adriatic coast.{{sfn|Tomasevich|2001|pp=130–139, 233–234}} In 1947, after the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces and the war's end, Italy (now a republic) and the Allies signed the Treaty of Peace with Italy. The treaty reversed all wartime annexations, guaranteed the independence of Albania, created the Free Territory of Trieste (FTT) as a city-state, and gave communist Yugoslavia most of the Slovenian Littoral, as well as Istria, the islands of Cres, Lastovo and Palagruža, and the cities of Zadar and Rijeka.{{sfn|Klemenčič|Žagar|2004|pp=198–202}} The FTT was partitioned in 1954: Trieste itself and the area to the North of it were placed under Italian control, while the rest came under Yugoslav control. This arrangement was made permanent in the 1975 Treaty of Osimo.{{sfn|Navone|1996|pp=141–142}}During the Cold War, the Adriatic Sea became the southernmost flank of the Iron Curtain as Italy joined NATO,WEB, NATO, History,weblink 1 February 2012, while the Warsaw Pact established bases in Albania.{{sfn|Polmar|Noot|1991|pp=169–170}} After the fall of communism, Yugoslavia broke apart: Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in 1991,NEWS, The New York Times,weblink 2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands, Chuck Sudetic, 26 June 1991, 12 December 2010,weblink 29 July 2012, live, Chuck Sudetic, and Bosnia–Herzegovina followed in 1992,NEWS, BBC Online News,weblink Bosnia-Hercegovina timeline, 1 February 2012, while Montenegro remained in a federation with Serbia, officially called Serbia and Montenegro.NEWS, BBC Online News,weblink Timeline: Montenegro, 1 February 2012, The ensuing Croatian War of Independence included limited naval engagements and a blockade of Croatia's coast by the Yugoslav Navy,{{sfn|O'Shea|2005|pp=21–25}} leading to the Battle of the Dalmatian channels and a later withdrawal of Yugoslav vessels.NEWS, Slobodna Dalmacija,weblink Admiral Letica je naredio: Raspali!, Croatian, Admiral Letica ordered: Fire!, Stjepan, Bernardić, 15 November 2004, 1 February 2012, Montenegro declared itself independent in 2006, effectively land-locking Serbia. The period also saw the Adriatic Sea as the theatre of several NATO operations, including the blockade of Yugoslavia,WEB, John, Pike,weblink Operation Maritime Guard,, 1 February 2012, intervention in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia.NEWS, Roger, Cohen, NATO and the UN quarrel in Bosnia as Serbs press on,weblink The New York Times, 27 November 1994, 1 February 2012, NEWS, BBC Online News,weblink Heart of Belgrade bombed, 3 April 1999, 1 February 2012,


Italy and Yugoslavia defined their Adriatic continental shelf delimitation in 1968,{{sfn|Blake|Topalović|Schofield|1996|pp=11–13}} with an additional agreement signed in 1975 on the Gulf of Trieste boundary, following the Treaty of Osimo. The boundary agreed in 1968 extends {{convert|353|nmi|km mi}} and consists of 43 points connected by straight lines or circular arc segments. The additional boundary agreed upon in 1975 consists of 5 points, extending from an end point of the 1968 line. All successor states of former Yugoslavia accepted the agreements. In the Adriatic's southernmost areas the border was not determined in order to avoid prejudicing the location of the tripoint with the Albanian continental shelf border, which remains undefined. Before the breakup of Yugoslavia, Albania, Italy and Yugoslavia initially proclaimed {{convert|15|nmi|km mi|adj=on}} territorial waters, subsequently reduced to international-standard {{convert|12|nmi|km mi}} and all sides adopted baseline systems (mostly in the 1970s). Albania and Italy determined their sea border in 1992 according to the equidistance principle.JOURNAL, Geoadria, University of Zadar, 1331-2294,weblink The maritime boundaries of the Adriatic Sea, Mladen, Klemenčić, DuÅ¡ko, Topalović, 311–324, 14, 2, December 2009, 1 February 2012, 10.15291/geoadria.555, Following Croatian EU membership, the Adriatic became an internal sea of the EU.WEB, Nacional (weekly),weblink Croatian, ZERP je nepotrebna avantura, ZERP is a needless adventure, Robert, BajruÅ¡i, 6 December 2007, 2 February 2012, 11 July 2012, dead,weblink The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea defines the Adriatic Sea as an enclosed or semi-enclosed sea.{{sfn|Vukas|2006|p=205}}

Adriatic Euroregion

File:The Adriatic Sea near the port of Izola, Slovenia.JPG|thumb|The town of Izola in the Gulf of KoperGulf of KoperThe Adriatic Euroregion was established in Pula in 2006 to promote trans-regional and trans-national cooperation in the Adriatic Sea area and serve as an Adriatic framework to help resolve issues of regional importance. The Adriatic Euroregion consists of 23 members: the Apulia, Molise, Abruzzo, Marche, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia regions of Italy; the municipality of Izola in Slovenia; the Istria, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Lika-Senj, Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia and Dubrovnik-Neretva counties of Croatia; the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia–Herzegovina; the municipalities of Kotor and Tivat in Montenegro; the Fier, Vlorë, Tirana, Shkodër, Durrës and Lezhë counties of Albania; and the Greek prefectures of Thesprotia and Corfu.WEB, Adriatic Euroregion,weblink About the Adriatic Euroregion, 21 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 9 September 2012,


The former Yugoslav republics' land borders were decided by demarcation commissions implementing the AVNOJ decisions of 1943 and 1945,JOURNAL, Egon, Kraljević, Croatian State Archives,weblink Croatian, Prilog za povijest uprave: Komisija za razgraničenje pri PredsjedniÅ¡tvu Vlade Narodne Republike Hrvatske 1945–1946, Contribution to the history of public administration: commission for the boundary demarcation at the government's presidency of the People's Republic of Croatia, 1945–1946, November 2007, Arhivski Vjesnik, 50, 50, 121–130, PDF, 0570-9008, 21 June 2012, JOURNAL, ÄŒasopis Za Suvremenu Povijest, 0590-9597, Croatian Institute of History, Kriza meÄ‘unarodnih odnosa â€“ studija slučaja: Hrvatska i Slovenija â€“ granica u Istri, Croatian, International relations crisis â€“ a case study: Croatia and Slovenia â€“ border in Istria, Tatjana, Tomaić, 391–414,weblink 43, 2, October 2011, 12 February 2012, but the exact course has not been agreed upon by the successor states, which makes the maritime boundaries' definition difficult;{{sfn|Blake|Topalović|Schofield|1996|p=20}} the maritime borders were not defined at all in the time of Yugoslavia.{{sfn|Vukas|2007|pp=553–566}} In addition, the maritime boundary between Albania and Montenegro was not defined before the 1990s.Croatia and Slovenia started negotiations to define maritime borders in the Gulf of Piran in 1992 but failed to agree, resulting in a dispute. Both countries also declared their economic zones, which partially overlap.WEB,weblink Chronology of Events 2005, Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia, 25 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2013, dead, Croatia's application to become an EU member state was initially suspended pending resolution of its border disputes with Slovenia. These disputes with Slovenia were eventually settled with an agreement to accept the decision of an international arbitration commission set up via the UN, enabling Croatia to progress towards EU membership.NEWS,weblink Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid, BBC News Online, 12 September 2009, 11 September 2009, NEWS,weblink Slovenia backs Croatia border deal in referendum vote, BBC News Online, 7 June 2010, 6 June 2010, NEWS,weblink 14 March 2012, Croatia and Slovenia submit arbitration agreement to UN, Durham University, Aside from the EU membership difficulty, even before its settling the dispute has caused no major practical problems.The maritime boundary between Bosnia–Herzegovina and Croatia was formally settled in 1999, but a few issues are still in dispute—the Klek peninsula and two islets in the border area. The Croatia–Montenegro maritime boundary is disputed in the Bay of Kotor, at the Prevlaka peninsula. This dispute was exacerbated by the peninsula's occupation by the Yugoslav People's Army and later by the (Serbian–Montenegrin) FR Yugoslav Army, which in turn was replaced by a United Nations observer mission that lasted until 2002. Croatia took over the area with an agreement that allowed Montenegrin presence in the bay's Croatian waters, and the dispute has become far less contentious since Montenegro's independence in 2006.



The Adriatic Sea fishery's production is distributed among countries in the basin.JOURNAL, Food and Agriculture Organization,weblink Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics, 2011, Rome, 2070-6057, 11 August 2012, FAO Yearbook, In 2000, the nominal—on a live weight basis—total landings of all Adriatic fisheries reached {{convert|110000|t|LT|abbr=off|lk=on|sigfig=3}}.WEB, FAO AdriaMed,weblink Adriatic Sea Fisheries: outline of some main facts, Piero, Mannini, Fabio, Massa, Nicoletta, Milone, 30 January 2012, Overfishing is a recognised problem—450 species of fish live in the Adriatic Sea, including 120 species threatened by excessive commercial fishing, a problem exacerbated by pollution and global warming. Overexploited species include common dentex, red scorpionfish, monkfish, John Dory, blue shark, spiny dogfish,NEWS, Vjesnik,weblink 14 June 2012,weblink Talijanski ribari optužuju hrvatsku flotu da im kradu ribu, Croatian, Italian fishermen accuse Croatian fleet of fish theft, 29 April 2011, Damir Herceg, 10 May 2012, dead, mullet, red mullet, Norway lobster,{{sfn|Houde|Jukić-Peladić|Brandt|Leach|1999|p=344}} as well as European hake,NEWS, Slobodna Dalmacija,weblink Croatian, U Jadranu je 40 posto manje ribe, Adriatic Sea fish stock drops 40 percent, 26 August 2003, Lola Wright, 10 May 2012, and sardines.WEB, Nova TV (Croatia),weblink Croatian, Prosvjed zbog prekomjernog izlova srdele, Protest over overfishing of sardines, 30 September 2011, 10 May 2012, Turtles and common bottlenose dolphins are also being killed by fishing nets. The depleted fish stock, and Croatia's Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone (ZERP) contributed to accusations of overfishing exchanged between Italian and Croatian fishermen. ZERP was introduced in 2003, but its application to EU member states was suspended in 2004. The depleted stocks of fish are being addressed through a new proposed EU fisheries policy that was scheduled to take effect in 2013, when Croatia acceded to the EU,NEWS, Vjesnik, Croatian, Potpisan pristupni ugovor: budućnost EU-a i u hrvatskim je rukama, Accession Treaty Signed: EU Fortune is in Croatian Hands too,weblink 14 June 2012,weblink 9 December 2011, 7 January 2012, Bruno Lopandić, dead, and restore the stocks to sustainable levels by 2015.NEWS, Vjesnik,weblink 14 June 2012,weblink Croatian, Kako ispraviti promaÅ¡aj ribolovne politike?, How to fix failure of fisheries policy?, 14 July 2011, Alen Legović, 10 May 2012, dead, The largest volume of fish harvesting was in Italy, where the total production volume in 2007 stood at {{convert|465637|t|LT|abbr=out}}. In 2003, 28.8% of Italian fisheries production volume was generated in the Northern and central Adriatic, and 24.5% in Apulia (from the Southern Adriatic and Ionian Sea). Italian fisheries, including those operating outside the Adriatic, employed 60,700 in the primary sector, including aquaculture (which comprises 40% of the total fisheries production). The total fisheries output's gross value in 2002 was $1.9 billion.WEB, Food and Agriculture Organization,weblink Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles â€“ Italy, 2 December 2013, File:Kamerlengo Castle and the Fishing Boat (5975779114).jpg|thumb|Fishing boat in Croatia]]In 2007, Croatia's production in live weight reached {{convert|53083|t|LT|abbr=out}}. In 2006, the total Croatian fisheries production volume was {{convert|37800|t|LT|abbr=out}} of catch and {{convert|14200|t|LT|abbr=out}} from marine aquaculture. Croatian fisheries employed approximately 20,000. The 2006 marine capture catch in Croatian waters consisted of sardines (44.8%), anchovies (31.3%), tunas (2.7%), other pelagic fish (4.8%), hake (2.4%), mullet (2.1%), other demersal fish (8.3%), crustaceans (largely lobster and Nephrops norvegicus) (0.8%), shellfish (largely oysters and mussels) (0.3%), cuttlefish (0.6%), squids (0.2%) and octopuses and other cephalopods (1.6%). Croatian marine aquaculture production consisted of tuna (47.2%), oysters and mussels (28.2% combined) and bass and bream (24.6% combined).WEB, Food and Agriculture Organization,weblink Fishery Country Profiles â€“ Croatia, 30 January 2012, In 2007, Albanian fisheries production amounted to {{convert|7505|t|LT|abbr=out}}, including aquaculture production, which reached {{convert|1970|t|LT|abbr=out}} in 2006. At the same time, Slovenian fisheries produced a total of {{convert|2500|t|LT|sigfig=3}} with 55% of the production volume originating in aquaculture, representing the highest ratio in the Adriatic. Finally, the Montenegrin fisheries production stood at {{convert|911|t|LT|abbr=out}} in 2006, with only 11 tonnes coming from aquaculture.WEB, FAO AdriaMed,weblink Country Fishery Information, 30 January 2012, In 2007, the fisheries production in Bosnia–Herzegovina reached volume of {{convert|9625|t|LT|abbr=out}} and {{convert|2463|t|LT|abbr=out}} in Slovenia.


File:Dubrovnik view 01.JPG|thumb|right|DubrovnikDubrovnikFile:Golden Cape.jpg|thumb|The Zlatni Rat (Golden Cape) on the island of BračBračFile:Split center from the air 1.jpg|thumb|right|The Palace of the Emperor Diocletian in Split ]]File:Rimini Waterfront.jpg|thumb|right|RiminiRiminiFile:Palace Hotel Portoroz.JPG|thumb|PortorožPortorožThe countries bordering the Adriatic Sea are significant tourist destinations. The largest number of tourist overnight stays and the most numerous tourist accommodation facilities are recorded in Italy, especially in the Veneto region (around Venice). Veneto is followed by the Emilia-Romagna region and by the Adriatic Croatian counties. The Croatian tourist facilities are further augmented by 21,000 nautical ports and moorings; nautical tourists are attracted to various types of marine protected areas.All countries along the Adriatic coast, except Albania and Bosnia–Herzegovina, take part in the Blue Flag beach certification programme (of the Foundation for Environmental Education), for beaches and marinas meeting strict quality standards including environmental protection, water quality, safety and services criteria.WEB, Foundation for Environmental Education,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 15 August 2008, FEE is, 30 January 2012, As of January 2012, the Blue Flag has been awarded to 103 Italian Adriatic beaches and 29 marinas, 116 Croatian beaches and 19 marinas, 7 Slovenian beaches and 2 marinas, and 16 Montenegrin beaches.WEB, Foundation for Environmental Education,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 June 2011, Blue Flag Beaches and Marinas, 30 January 2012, Adriatic tourism is a significant source of income for these countries, especially in Croatia and Montenegro where the tourism income generated along the Adriatic coast represents the bulk of such income.WEB, Statistical office of Montenegro,weblink Tourism, 30 January 2012, WEB, Institute for Tourism (Croatia),weblink Croatian, SiniÅ¡a, Horak, Davor, Krasić, Petra, Gatti, Mladen, Gledec, Alen, Jugović, Blanka, Kesić, Zoran, Klarić, Damir, KreÅ¡ić, Ivo, Kunst, Eduard, KuÅ¡en, Dubravko, Milojević, Stanislav, Pavlin, Glavni plan i strategija razvoja turizma Republike Hrvatske, General plan and strategy of development of tourism in the Republic of Croatia, November 2011, 30 January 2012, The direct contribution of travel and tourism to Croatia's GDP stood at 5.1% in 2011, with the total industry contribution estimated at 12.8% of the national GDP.WEB, World Travel and Tourism Council,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 6 November 2011, Croatia â€“ Key Facts at a Glance, 30 January 2012, For Montenegro, the direct contribution of tourism to the national GDP is 8.1%, with the total contribution to the economy at 17.2% of Montenegrin GDP.WEB, World Travel and Tourism Council,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2011, Montenegro â€“ Key Facts at a Glance, 30 January 2012, Tourism in Adriatic Croatia has recently exhibited greater growth than in the other regions around the Adriatic.WEB, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 14 October 2012, International tourism in the coastal regions of five Mediterranean countries, Fabio, Quintiliani, 30 January 2012, {|class="wikitable"EUROSTAT,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 16 October 2012, Eurostat â€“ Tourism, 30 January 2012, WEB, Neum municipality, Intervju: Načelnik općine Neum dr. Živko MatuÅ¡ko za BH. Privrednik, Interview: Municipal mayor dr. Živko MatuÅ¡ko for BH Privrednik, 17 October 2011, Bosnian, 30 January 2012,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2015, dead, WEB, Chamber of Economy of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,weblink Bosnian, Pregled sektora turizma, A review of tourism sector, 2011, 30 January 2012, WEB, Ministry of Tourism, Cultural Affairs, Youth and Sports (Albania),weblink Albanian, Tourism statistical indicators, Treguesit statistikorë të turizmit, 30 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2012, {{sq icon}}BOOK,weblink Tourism, 423, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 2011, Statisti?ni Letopis Republike Slovenije, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 1318-5403, 25 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2013, JOURNAL,weblink 1854-1275, Tourism â€“ Hotels, Slovenia, 2008–2010 â€“ final data, Statistične Informacije â€“ Rapid Reports, 27 September 2011, 16, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 5, 25 March 2012, ! Country! Region! CAF beds*! Hotel beds! Overnight Stays align=centerAlbania >| 2,302,899 align=centerBosnia and Herzegovina>Bosnia-Herzegovina Neum municipality {{circa}} 6,000 1,810 280,000 align=centerCroatia >NUTS of Croatia>Adriatic Croatia 411,722 137,561 34,915,552 align=centerItaly Friuli-Venezia Giulia 152,847 40,921 8,656,077 align=centerVeneto >| 60,820,308 align=center| 37,477,880 align=center| 10,728,507 align=center| 33,716,112 align=center| 7,306,951 align=centerApulia** >| 12,982,987 align=centerMontenegro >| 7,964,893 align=centerSlovenia >| 1,981,141{{small|*Beds in all collective accommodation facilities; includes "Hotel beds" figure also shown separately**Includes both Adriatic and Ionian sea coasts}}


{{See also|Ship transport}}File:Triest Port1.JPG|thumb|right|Port of TriestePort of TriesteFile:Koper (39).jpg|thumb|Port of Koper, the largest port in SloveniaSloveniaFile:Luka brajdica 040408.jpg|thumb|right|Port of RijekaPort of RijekaFile:Durres harbor from the sea.jpg|thumb|right|Port of DurrësPort of DurrësThere are nineteen Adriatic Sea ports (in four different countries) that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year. The largest cargo ports among them are the Port of Trieste (the largest Adriatic cargo port in Italy), the Port of Venice, the Port of Ravenna, the Port of Koper (the largest Slovenian port),WEB,weblink Transport, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2011, 2 February 2012, the Port of Rijeka (the largest Croatian cargo port), and the Port of Brindisi. The largest passenger ports in the Adriatic are the Port of Split (the largest Croatian passenger port) and ports in Ancona (the largest Italian passenger seaport in the Adriatic).WEB, Raiffeisen Zentralbank,,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, Slovenia's Luka Koper 2011 Cargo Throughput Up 11%, 17 January 2012, 2 February 2012, The largest seaport in Montenegro is the Port of Bar.NEWS, B92,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 29 August 2009, Serbia eyes Montenegro's largest port, 26 August 2009, 2 February 2012, In 2010, the Northern Adriatic seaports of Trieste, Venice, Ravenna, Koper and Rijeka founded the North Adriatic Ports Association to position themselves more favourably in the EU's transport systems.WEB, Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia),weblink Signed the founding of the NAPA in Trieste, Rijeka is expected to join in, 2 March 2010, 21 March 2012, Ministarstvo pomorstva, prometa i infrastrukture, Zagreb, WEB, North Adriatic Ports Association,weblink 29 November 2010, Port of Rijeka â€“ Fifth Star of NAPA, 27 August 2011, {| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Major Adriatic ports*, annual transport volume!Port!Country, Region/County!Cargo (tonnes)!Passengers align=centerAncona>Italy, Marche>|1,483,000 align=centerBari>Apulia>|1,392,000 align=centerBarletta>|{{n/a}} align=centerBrindisi>|469,000 align=centerChioggia>Veneto>|{{n/a}} align=centerPort of Durrës>DurrësAlbania, Durrës County>|770,000 align=centerPort of Koper>KoperSlovenia, Slovenian Istria18,000,000100,300 align=centerManfredonia>|{{n/a}} align=centerMonfalcone>Friuli-Venezia Giulia>|{{n/a}} align=centerOrtona>Abruzzo>|{{n/a}} align=centerPort of Ploče>PločeCroatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva County>|146,000 align=centerPorto Nogaro>|{{n/a}} align=centerRabac>Istria County>Istria1,090,000669,000 align=centerPort of Ravenna>RavennaItaly, Emilia-Romagna27,008,000{{n/a}} align=centerPort of Rijeka>RijekaCroatia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County>|219,800 align=centerPort of Split>SplitCroatia, Split-Dalmatia County>|3,979,000 align=centerPort of Trieste>TriesteItaly, Friuli-Venezia Giulia39,833,000{{n/a}} align=centerVenice>Veneto>|1,097,000 class="sortbottom" *Ports handling more than a million tonnes of cargo or serving more than a million passengers per yearSources: National Institute of Statistics (Italy) (2007 data, Italian ports, note: the Port of Ancona includes Ancona and Falconara Marittima;PORT OF ANCONA AUTHORITYLANGUAGE=ITALIANTRANS-TITLE=STATISTICAL REPORT 2011URL=HTTP://WWW3.ISTAT.IT/DATI/CATALOGO/20101119_00/PDF/CAP19.PDFNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (ITALY)>LANGUAGE=ITALIANARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110812170735/HTTP://WWW.ISTAT.IT/DATI/CATALOGO/20101119_00/PDF/CAP19.PDFURL-STATUS=DEAD, Croatian Bureau of Statistics (2008 data, Croatian ports, note: the Port of Rijeka includes the Rijeka, Bakar, BrÅ¡ica and OmiÅ¡alj terminals;PORT OF RIJEKA AUTHORITY>URL=HTTP://WWW.PORTAUTHORITY.HR/EN/INFRASTRUCTURE/GENERAL_INFORMATIONACCESSDATE=22 MAY 2012ARCHIVE-DATE=9 JANUARY 2015Ploče and Metković terminals),CROATIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICSTITLE=TRAFFIC OF SHIPS, PASSENGERS AND GOODS BY HARBOUR MASTER'S OFFICES AND STATISTICAL PORTS, 2008PORT OF PLOčE AUTHORITY TITLE=CAPACITIES URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=21 JANUARY 2012, Durrës' Chamber of Commerce and Industry â€“ Albania (2007 data, Port of Durrës),DURRëS' CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY â€“ ALBANIA>URL=HTTP://WWW.CCIDR.AL/FILES/DURRES_A_GOOD_BUSINESS_CHOISE.PDFURL-STATUS=DEADACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2012TITLE=DURRëS, A GOOD BUSINESS CHOICE, SEOnet (2011 data, Port of Koper)HTTP://SEONET.LJSE.SI/FILE.ASPX?ATTACHMENTID=26225 >TITLE=LADIJSKI PRETOVOR V LETU 2011 TRANS-TITLE=SHIP TRANSLOADING IN 2011 DATE=17 JANUARY 2012, {{sl icon}}

Oil and gas

Natural gas is produced through several projects, including a joint venture of the Eni and INA companies that operates two platforms—one is in Croatian waters and draws gas from six wells, and the other (which started operating in 2010) is located in Italian waters. The Adriatic gas fields were discovered in the 1970s,Ianniello, A., Bolelli, W., and Di Scala, L., 1992, Barbara Field, Adriatic Sea, Offshore Italy, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978–1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, {{ISBN|0-89181-333-0}}{{rp|265}} but their development commenced in 1996. In 2008, INA produced 14.58 million BOE per day of gas.WEB, INA (company), INA,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 26 February 2014, Annamaria offshore oil rig starts trial run, 30 January 2012, 2009, About 100 offshore platforms are located in the Emilia-Romagna region,WEB, European Union,weblink The potential of Maritime Spatial Planning in the Mediterranean Sea â€“ Case study report: The Adriatic Sea, 5 January 2011, 30 January 2012, along with 17 in the Northern Adriatic.NEWS, Nacional (weekly),weblink MuÅ¡ki život na plinskoj kraljici, A bachelors' life on a gas queen, Croatian, Marko, Biočina, 7 February 2012, 9 February 2012, 11 July 2012, dead,weblink Eni estimated its concessions in the Adriatic Sea to hold at least {{convert|40000000000|m3|cuft}} of natural gas, adding that they may even reach {{convert|100000000000|m3|cuft}}. INA estimates, however, are 50% lower than those supplied by Eni.WEB, Raiffeisen Zentralbank,, Natural gas reserves in the Adriatic may be up to 100 billion cubic meters,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, 30 January 2012, 22 July 2008, Oil was discovered in the Northern Adriatic at a depth of approximately {{convert|5400|m}}; the discovery was assessed as not viable because of its location, depth and quality.JOURNAL, Rudarsko-geoloÅ¡ki-naftni Zbornik, University of Zagreb, 0353-4529, Istraživanje i proizvodnja ugljikovodika u Hrvatskoj,weblink Oil exploration and production in Croatia, Croatian, 8, 1, December 1996, 19–25, Josip, Sečen, Žarko, Prnić, 30 January 2012, These gas and oil reserves are part of the Po basin Province of Northern Italy and the Northern Mediterranean Sea.WEB, United States Geological Survey,weblink Petroleum Systems of the Po Basin Province of Northern Italy and the Northern Adriatic Sea, 30 January 2012, In the 2000s, investigation works aimed at discovering gas and oil reserves in the Middle and Southern Adriatic basins intensified, and by the decade's end, oil and natural gas reserves were discovered southeast of the Bari, Brindisi—Rovesti and Giove oil discoveries. Surveys indicate reserves of 3 billion barrels of oil in place and {{convert|2000000000000|cuft|m3|order=flip}} of gas in place.WEB, Proactive Investors Australia,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 December 2013, 29 July 2011, 2 December 2012, Northern Petroleum to expand exploration of Rovesti and Giove oil discoveries, Jamie, Ashcroft, The discovery was followed by further surveys off the Croatian coast.JOURNAL, Nafta, 60, 2, 68–82, 2009, New Commercial Oil Discovery at Rovesti Structure in South Adriatic and its Importance for Croatian Part of Adriatic Basin, Sanjin, Grandić, Slobodan, Kolbah,weblink Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Scientific commission for oil, 0027-755X, 30 January 2012, In January 2012, INA commenced prospecting for oil off Dubrovnik, marking the resumption of oil exploration along the eastern Adriatic coast after surveys commenced in the late 1980s around the island of Brač were cancelled because of Yugoslavia's breakup and war in Croatia. Montenegro is also expected to look for oil off its coast.NEWS, Slobodna Dalmacija, Croatian,weblink Naftu i plin vadit ćemo kod Dubrovnika, Oil and gas will be pumped near Dubrovnik, 11 January 2012, Jasmina, Mrvaljević, 30 January 2012, As of January 2012, only 200 exploration wells had been sunk off the Croatian coast, with all but 30 in the Northern Adriatic basin.WEB,,weblink Milanović poniÅ¡tio Kosoričin natječaj za istraživanje nafte i plina, Milanović cancels Kosor's oil and gas exploration tender procedure, Croatian, Miho, DobraÅ¡in, 3 January 2012, 31 January 2012,

See also







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  • BOOK,weblink Geology and tectonic evolution of the central-southern Apennines, Italy, Geological Society of America, 2010, 978-0-8137-2469-0
first1=Liviofirst2=Andreafirst3=Francesca C.ref=harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Law of the Sea, Environmental Law, and Settlement of Disputes: Liber Amicorum Judge Thomas A. Mensah, Sea Boundary Delimitation and Internal Waters, Vukas, Budislav, Mensah, Thomas A, Ndiaye, Malick Tafsir, Wolfrum, Rüdiger, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 978-90-04-16156-6, 2007, 553–566, 21 June 2012, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Maritime Delimitation, Rainer, Lagoni, Daniel, Vignes, Brill Publishers, 2006, 978-90-04-15033-1, Maritime Delimitation in a Semi-enclosed Sea: The Case of the Adriatic Sea, Budislav, Vukas, 22 May 2012, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink The Illyrians, John, Wilkes, Wiley-Blackwell, 1995, 978-0-631-19807-9, 31 January 2012, harv,
  • CONFERENCE,weblink Bruun memorial lectures: The importance and application of satellite and remotely sensed data to oceanography, UNESCO, 1979, Oceanographic Time Series in the Adriatic Sea, Mira, Zore-Armanda, 978-92-3-101746-9, 21 June 2012, harv,

External links

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott