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{{about|the English city|the city in Massachusetts, United States|Cambridge, Massachusetts|other uses|Cambridge (disambiguation)}}{{EngvarB|date=April 2014}}









< 0 Â°C), European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 11 September 2012, per year over the 1981–2010 period. Typically the coldest night of the year at the Botanic Garden will fall to {{convert|-8.0|C|F}}.WEB,weblink Climatology details for station CAMBRIDGE (B. GDNS): Minimum value of daily minimum temperature, European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 11 September 2012, Such minimum temperatures and frost averages are typical for inland areas across much of southern and central England.Sunshine averages around 1,500 hours a year or around 35% of possible, a level typical of most locations in inland central England.{{Weather box|location = Cambridge University Botanic Garden, elevation 12m,1981–2010, extremes 1914–|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan record high C = 14.9|Feb record high C = 18.8|Mar record high C = 23.9|Apr record high C = 27.4|May record high C = 31.1|Jun record high C = 34.0|Jul record high C = 35.6|Aug record high C = 36.9|Sep record high C = 33.9|Oct record high C = 29.3|Nov record high C = 21.1|Dec record high C = 15.8|year record high C= 36.9|Jan high C = 7.4|Feb high C = 8.0|Mar high C = 11.1|Apr high C = 13.8|May high C = 17.5|Jun high C = 20.4|Jul high C = 23.1|Aug high C = 22.8|Sep high C = 19.6|Oct high C = 15.2|Nov high C = 10.5|Dec high C = 7.7|year high C=|Jan low C = 1.4|Feb low C = 1.2|Mar low C = 3.0|Apr low C = 4.3|May low C = 7.3|Jun low C = 10.2|Jul low C = 12.4|Aug low C = 12.2|Sep low C = 10.0|Oct low C = 7.2|Nov low C = 3.9|Dec low C = 1.7|year low C=|Jan record low C = −16.1|Feb record low C = −17.2|Mar record low C = −11.7|Apr record low C = −6.1|May record low C = −4.4|Jun record low C = −0.6|Jul record low C = 2.2|Aug record low C = 3.3|Sep record low C = −2.2|Oct record low C = −6.1|Nov record low C = −13.3|Dec record low C = −15.6|year record low C= −17.2|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 45.96|Feb precipitation mm = 34.58|Mar precipitation mm = 38.57|Apr precipitation mm = 40.34|May precipitation mm = 46.75|Jun precipitation mm = 52.08|Jul precipitation mm = 50.7|Aug precipitation mm = 53.58|Sep precipitation mm = 54.27|Oct precipitation mm = 57.65|Nov precipitation mm = 54.85|Dec precipitation mm = 46.87|year precipitation mm= 557.65! Year || colspan="2"|Population
factoids
official_name Cambridge
| other_name =
City of Cambridge









image_skyline KingsCollegeChapelWest.jpg
| imagesize = 280px
| image_caption = King's College Chapel, seen from the Backs

| blank_emblem_type = Coat of Arms of the City Council
| blank_emblem_size = 150px
| blank_emblem_link = Cambridge City Council, England
| nickname =
| motto =

| subdivision_type = Sovereign state
| subdivision_name = {{Flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
Countries of the United Kingdom>CountryRegions of England>Region
| subdivision_type3 = Ceremonial county
| subdivision_type4 = Admin HQ
| subdivision_name1 = {{flagu|England}}| subdivision_name2 = East of England
| subdivision_name3 = {{flag|Cambridgeshire}}
| subdivision_name4 = Cambridge Guildhall


| established_title = Founded
| established_date = 1st century
| established_title2 = City status
| established_date2 = 1951


| government_footnotes =
| government_type = Non-metropolitan district, city
| leader_title = Governing body
| leader_name = Cambridge City Council
| leader_title1 = Mayor
| leader_name1 = George Pippas (LD)
| area_total_sq_mi = 15.71
| area_land_sq_mi =


| elevation_m = 6


| population_total = {{English district population|GSS = E07000008}} (ranked {{English district rank|GSS = E07000008}})
| population_as_of = {{English statistics year}}
| population_metro = 280,000 WEB,weblink Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas, 5 June 2016,
-| population_demonym=Cantabrigian
| population_blank1_title =
| population_blank1 =
id=2092957699accessdate=8 February 2018}}
| population_blank2 = 66% White British1.4% White Irish15% White Other1.7% Black British3.2% Mixed Race11% British Asian & Chinese1.6% other| postal_code_type = Postcode
| postal_code = CB1 â€“ CB5
| area_code = 01223
| website = www.cambridge.gov.uk
MPs elected in the UK general election, 2017>MPs:
| leader_name3 = Daniel Zeichner (L)Heidi Allen (C)
| timezone = Greenwich Mean Time
| utc_offset = +0
| timezone_DST = BST
| utc_offset_DST = +1
| blank1_name = ONS code
| blank1_info = 12UB (ONS)E07000008 (GSS)
| blank2_name = OS grid reference
| blank2_info = {{gbmappingsmall|TL450588}}
}}
Cambridge ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|eɪ|m|b|r|ɪ|dʒ}}WEB,weblink Cambridge
publisher=Collins DictionaryKAYMCollege town>university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately {{convertmiUnited Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students.HTTP://THEGEOGRAPHIST.WORDPRESS.COM/2013/11/23/LARGEST-CITIES-UK-POPULATION/ YEAR=2013 ACCESSDATE=15 FEBRUARY 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140509061755/HTTP://THEGEOGRAPHIST.WORDPRESS.COM/2013/11/23/LARGEST-CITIES-UK-POPULATION/ DF=DMY, Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951.The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209.NEWS,weblink What it takes to make it to Oxbridge, Richard, Cairns, The Daily Telegraph, London, 1 October 2011, 26 February 2012, The buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, and the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology. Its main campus is in the city.Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}. The Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital.NEWS,weblink Papworth heart and lung specialist hospital to move, 3 December 2013, BBC News, Parker's Piece hosted the first ever game of Association football. The Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, and Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station.

History

{{see also|Timeline of Cambridge}}

Prehistory

{{see also|Prehistoric Britain|British Iron Age}}Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a {{nowrap|3,500-}}year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.NEWS,weblink Bronze Age site is found in city, BBC News, 17 January 2008, 5 February 2009, Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC, perhaps relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae.WEB,weblink A brief history of Cambridge, Cambridge City Council, 2010, 27 June 2010,

Roman

The principal Roman site is a small fort (') Duroliponte''' on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill.BOOK, Gray, Ronald D, Stubbings, Derek, Cambridge Street-Names: Their Origins and Associations, Cambridge University Press, 2000, Cambridge, 2–3, It was constructed around AD 70 and converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteadsNEWS,weblink The Roman foundations of Cambridge, John, Henley, The Guardian, 28 August 2009, 'What's interesting about Cambridge is that with these tracts of land bequeathed to the university, you have a lot of preserved green space coming in close to the city centre,' says Chris Evans, head of the Cambridge unit. 'It hasn't been developed in the intervening centuries. There are iron-age and Roman farmsteads literally every 200–300 metres.', 26 February 2012, London, and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham.WEB,weblink Schoolgirls unearth Roman village under College garden, University of Cambridge, 22 September 2010, Large amounts of Roman pottery convinced both Dr Hills and Dr Lewis that they had dug through to the remains of a 2,000-year-old settlement, significant because it suggests that the Roman presence at Newnham was far more considerable than previously thought., 26 February 2012,

Medieval

Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is usually identified as {{nowrap|Cair Grauth}}Nennius ({{abbr|attrib.|Traditional attribution}}). Theodor Mommsen ({{abbr|ed.|Editor}}). s: Composed after {{sc|ad}} 830. {{la icon}} Hosted at s:. listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.Ford, David Nash. "The 28 Cities of Britain" at Britannia. 2000.{{refn|Although note that Bishop Ussher believed the listing to refer to the Cambridge in Gloucestershire.Newman, John Henry & al. Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre, Ch. X: "Britain in 429, A. D.", p. 92. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160321234154weblink |date=21 March 2016 }} James Toovey (London), 1844.}} Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century.BOOK, Burnham, Barry C, Wacher, John, The Small Towns of Roman Britain, B T Batsford, 1990, London, Their settlement – also on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge{{refn|In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, cited by Roach.}} ("Granta-bridge"). (By Middle English, the settlement's name had changed to "Cambridge" and the lower stretches of the Granta changed their name to match.JOURNAL,weblink Notes and Queries: A Medium of Inter-Communication for Literary Men, General Readers, etc., F., Chance, 13 November 1869, 4, London, Cambridge., 401–404, 25 February 2012, Bell & Daldy, 644126889, ) Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge: Medieval history, Roach, J.P.C., Institute of Historical Research, 1959, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge, 18 July 2011, Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river.File:cmglee St Benets exterior.jpg|thumb|St Bene't's Church, the oldest standing building in Cambridgeshire, situated next to (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge|Corpus Christi College]]BOOK, Taylor, Kevin, Central Cambridge: A Guide to the University and Colleges, 31 March 1994, Cambridge University Press, 34,weblink'et%20church%20oldest&pg=PA34#v=onepage&q=st%20ben'et%20church%20oldest&f=false, 13 September 2016, )The arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878BOOK,weblink A history of the University of Cambridge, 1, Cambridge University Press, 1988, 9–10 [10], Christopher, Nugent Lawrence Brooke, Riehl Leader, Damien, 0-521-32882-9, Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, wharves, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies.The first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It gave Cambridge monopoly of waterborne traffic and hithe tolls and recognised the borough court.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge: Constitutional history, Roach, J.P.C., Institute of Historical Research, 1959, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge, 26 February 2012, The distinctive Round Church dates from this period.BOOK, Roach, RPC, The city of Cambridge: Churches; A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge., 1959, Victoria County History, London, 123–132,weblink 23 September 2016, In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford.WEB,weblink University and Colleges: A Brief History, University of Cambridge, 7 February 2008, 13 January 2010, The oldest existing college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284.WEB,weblink About the College, Peterhouse College, 13 January 2010, In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive but 16 of 40 scholars at King's Hall died.BOOK, The Black Death, Philip, Ziegler, 978-0-14-027524-7, Penguin, London, Platt, Colin, 1998, 2nd, 178, The town north of the river was severely affected being almost wiped out.BOOK, Cambridge, Described and Illustrated: Being a Short History of the Town and University, Thomas, Atkinson, 1897, 41, London, Macmillan, 1663499,weblink The Ward beyond the Bridge, that is, all the town on the Castle side of the river, appears to have been almost entirely destroyed. Most of the people in the parish of All Saints' in Castro died and those that escaped left the neighbourhood for other parishes., Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill even one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.BOOK,weblink The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (European History Series), David, Herlihy, 1997, 978-0-674-07613-6, Harvard University Press, 70, 25 February 2012, In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's participation in the Peasants' Revolt. The charter transfers supervision of baking and brewing, weights and measures, and forestalling and regrating, from the town to the university.King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI.WEB,weblink History of the Chapel, King's College, Cambridge, 19 July 2011, The chapel was built in phases by a succession of kings of England from 1446 to 1515, its history intertwined with the Wars of the Roses, and completed during the reign of King Henry VIII. The building would become synonymous with Cambridge, and currently is used in the logo for the City Council.BOOK, Pennick, Nigel, Secrets of King's College Chapel, 9 January 2012, Karnac Books, 3, 23 September 2016, File:Part of Peterhouse College - geograph.org.uk - 1508178.jpg|thumb|PeterhousePeterhouse

Early modern

(File:Cambridge 1575 colour.jpg|thumb|left|Cambridge in 1575)Following repeated outbreaks of pestilence throughout the 16th Century,BOOK, The city of Cambridge: Public health; A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge., 1959, Victoria County History, London, 101–108,weblink 23 September 2016, sanitation and fresh water were brought to Cambridge by the construction of Hobson's Conduit in the early 1600s. Water was brought from Nine Wells, at the foot of the Gog Magog Hills, into the centre of the town.WEB,weblink Cambridgeshire > Natural History > Cam Valley Walk > Stage 7, BBC Cambridgeshire, 23 July 2013, Cambridge played a significant role in the early part of the English Civil War as it was the headquarters of the Eastern Counties Association, an organisation administering a regional East Anglian army, which became the mainstay of the Parliamentarian military effort before the formation of the New Model Army.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge â€“ Modern history | A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge (1959), 15–29, 1959, 26 February 2012, In 1643 control of the town was given by Parliament to Oliver Cromwell, who had been educated at Sidney Sussex College.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge: Modern history {{!, British History Online|website=www.british-history.ac.uk|language=en|access-date=2018-07-06}} The town's castle was fortified and garrisoned with troops and some bridges were destroyed to aid its defence. Although Royalist forces came within {{convert|2|mi|0|abbr=out}} of the town in 1644, the defences were never used and the garrison was stood down the following year.

Early-industrial era

In the 19th century, in common with many other English towns, Cambridge expanded rapidly, due in part to increased life expectancy and improved agricultural production leading to increased trade in town markets.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge: Economic history, J. P. C. Roach (editor), Institute of Historical Research, 1959, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge, 1 March 2012, The Inclosure Acts of 1801 and 1807 enabled the town to expand over surrounding open fields and in 1912 and again in 1935 its boundaries were extended to include Chesterton, Cherry Hinton, and Trumpington.The railway came to Cambridge in 1845 after initial resistance, with the opening of the Great Eastern Railway's London to Norwich line. The station was outside the town centre following pressure from the university to restrict travel by undergraduates.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge, J. P. C. Roach (editor), Institute of Historical Research, 1959, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge, 1 March 2012, With the arrival of the railway and associated employment came development of areas around the station, such as Romsey Town.{{citation|title=Bringing it all back home: Changes in Housing and Society 1966-2006|first1=Allan|last1=Brigham|first2=Colin|last2=Wiles|publisher=Chartered Institute of Housing, Eastern Branch|date=2006|url=http://www.colc.co.uk/cambridge/tours/article3.htm}} The rail link to London stimulated heavier industries, such as the production of brick, cement and malt.

20th century

From the 1930s to the 1980s, the size of the city was increased by several large council estates.BOOK,weblink Chesterton: Introduction, 5–13, Wright, A.P.M.; Lewis, C.P. (eds), Institute of Historical Research, 1989, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9: Chesterton, Northstowe, and Papworth Hundreds, 6 March 2012, The biggest impact has been on the area north of the river, which are now the estates of East Chesterton, King's Hedges, and Arbury where Archbishop Rowan Williams lived and worked as an assistant priest in the early 1980s.BOOK, Rowan's Rule: the biography of the Archbishop, Rupert, Shott, 2009, 978-0-340-95433-1,weblink 83, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 8 September 2016, During the Second World War, Cambridge was an important centre for defence of the east coast. The town became a military centre, with an R.A.F. training centre and the regional headquarters for Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Hertfordshire, and Bedfordshire established during the conflict. The town itself escaped relatively lightly from German bombing raids, which were mainly targeted at the railway. 29 people were killed and no historic buildings were damaged. In 1944, a secret meeting of military leaders held in Trinity College laid the foundation for the allied invasion of Europe. During the war Cambridge served as an evacuation centre for over 7,000 people from London, as well as for parts of the University of London.Cambridge was granted its city charter in 1951 in recognition of its history, administrative importance and economic success. Cambridge does not have a cathedral, traditionally a prerequisite for city status, instead falling within the Church of England Diocese of Ely. In 1962 Cambridge's first shopping arcade, Bradwell's Court, opened on Drummer Street, though this was demolished in 2006.WEB,weblink Christ's Lane, Land Securities, n.d., 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907115715weblink">weblink 7 September 2008, Other shopping arcades followed at Lion Yard, which housed a relocated Central Library for the city, and the Grafton Centre which replaced Victorian housing stock which had fallen into disrepair in the Kite area of the city. This latter project was controversial at the time.NEWS,weblink Derek Taunt â€“ Obituary, The Daily Telegraph, 23 July 2004, 26 February 2012, London, The city gained its second University in 1992 when Anglia Polytechnic became Anglia Polytechnic University. Renamed Anglia Ruskin University in 2005, the institution has its origins in the Cambridge School of Art opened in 1858 by John Ruskin. The Open University also has a presence in the city, with an office operating on Hills Road.WEB,weblink The Open University in the East of England, 2 February 2017,

Governance

Local government

File:Cambridge UK ward map 2010 coloured on Cambridge-Openstreetmap-08-06-13.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Map showing the 2010 electoral boundaries of the city, with postcode districtpostcode district{{See also|Cambridge local elections}}Cambridge is a non-metropolitan district served by Cambridge City Council. Cambridge Local Authority District covers most of the City's urban area but some extends outside this into South Cambridgeshire District. Cambridge is one of five districts within the county of Cambridgeshire, and is bordered on all sides by the mainly rural South Cambridgeshire district. The city council's headquarters are in the Guildhall, a large building in the market square. Cambridge was granted a Royal Charter by King John in 1207, which permitted the appointment of a Mayor,WEB,weblink Ceremonial maces, 1207 charter and the city's coat of arms, Cambridge City Council, 8 June 2015, although the first recorded Mayor, Harvey FitzEustace, served in 1213.WEB,weblink The mayors of Cambridge, Cambridge City Council, 4 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090923003216weblink">weblink 23 September 2009, City councillors now elect a mayor annually.For electoral purposes the city is divided into 14 wards: Abbey, Arbury, Castle, Cherry Hinton, Coleridge, East Chesterton, King's Hedges, Market, Newnham, Petersfield, Queen Edith's, Romsey, Trumpington, and West Chesterton. The political composition of the city council is currently: 25 Labour councillors, 14 Liberal Democrat, 2 independent and one Conservative.WEB,weblink Elections 2014: Labour takes control of Cambridge City Council, Cambridge News, 23 May 2014, 24 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525145244weblink">weblink 25 May 2014, dmy-all, Each of the 14 wards also elects councillors to Cambridgeshire County Council. Responsible for services including school education, social care and highways, since 2017 the County Council has been controlled by the Conservative Party.WEB,weblink Cambridgeshire County Council, BBC News, en-GB, 2018-08-02,

Westminster

{{See also|Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency)}}The parliamentary constituency of Cambridge covers most of the city. Daniel Zeichner (Labour) was elected Member of Parliament (MP) at the 2015 general election, replacing Julian Huppert, a Liberal Democrat. He was re-elected in the 2017 general election. One area of the city, Queen Edith's ward,WEB,weblink Ordnance Survey, Election maps, 17 July 2010, lies in the South Cambridgeshire constituency, whose MP is Heidi Allen (Conservative). Allen was also elected in 2015, succeeding Andrew Lansley, and was re-elected in 2017. The city had previously elected a Labour MP from 1992 to 2005 and prior to this, usually elected a Conservative after the Second World War. However, the Conservatives have seen their share of the vote fall over the past 20 years.{{citation needed|date=September 2016}}The University of Cambridge formerly had two seats in the House of Commons; Sir Isaac Newton was one of the most notable MPs. The Cambridge University constituency was abolished under 1948 legislation, and ceased at the dissolution of Parliament for the 1950 general election, along with the other university constituencies.

Geography and environment

{hide}Geographic location
| Centre = Cambridge
| North = Histon and Impington Milton
| Northeast = Fen Ditton
| East = Teversham
| Southeast = Fulbourn
| South = Great Shelford
| Southwest = Grantchester
| West = Coton
| Northwest = Girton
| image =
{edih}(File:cmglee Cambridge aerial.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Aerial view of Cambridge city centre)(file:Cambridge Morning.webm|thumb|Cambridge morning)Cambridge is situated about {{convert|50|mi|0}} north-by-east of London. The city is located in an area of level and relatively low-lying terrain just south of the Fens, which varies between {{convert|6|and|24|m|ft}} above sea level.WEB,weblink Cambridge (England, United Kingdom), Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 13 January 2010, The town was thus historically surrounded by low lying wetlands that have been drained as the town has expanded.WEB,weblink Wayback Machine, 2016-12-20,weblink 2016-12-20, 2018-04-02, The underlying geology of Cambridge consists of gault clay and Chalk Marl, known locally as Cambridge Greensand,WEB,weblink England's Geology â€“ Cambridgeshire, Natural England, 27 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091021063524weblink">weblink 21 October 2009, partly overlaid by terrace gravel. A layer of phosphatic nodules (coprolites) under the marl were mined in the 19th century for fertiliser. It became a major industry in the county, and its profits yielded buildings such as the Corn Exchange, Fulbourn Hospital and St. John's Chapel until the Quarries Act 1894 and competition from America ended production.The River Cam flows through the city from the village of Grantchester, to the southwest. It is bordered by water meadows within the city such as Sheep's Green as well as residential development. Like most cities, modern-day Cambridge has many suburbs and areas of high-density housing. The city centre of Cambridge is mostly commercial, historic buildings, and large green areas such as Jesus Green, Parker's Piece and Midsummer Common. Many of the roads in the centre are pedestrianised. Population growth has seen new housing developments in the 21st century, with estates such as the CB1WEB,weblink CB1 development, Cambridgshire County Council, 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101009021937weblink">weblink 9 October 2010, dmy-all, and Accordia schemes near the station,PRESS RELEASE,weblink Accordia wins top architectural prize, Cambridge City Council, 15 October 2008, 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101214062115weblink">weblink 14 December 2010, and developments such as Great Kneighton, formally known as Clay Farm,WEB,weblink Vision, Clay Farm, 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100109182335weblink">weblink 9 January 2010, and Trumpington MeadowsWEB,weblink Home, Trumpington Meadows Land Company, 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090831131342weblink">weblink 31 August 2009, currently under construction in the south of the city. Other major developments currently being constructed in the city are Darwin Green (formerly NIAB), and University-led developments at West Cambridge and North West Cambridge, (Eddington).The entire city centre, as well as parts of Chesterton, Petersfield, West Cambridge, Newnham, and Abbey, are covered by an Air Quality Management Area, implemented to counter high levels of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere.WEB, Air Pollution in Cambridge,weblink Cambridge City Council, 3 June 2016,

Climate

The city has oceanic climate, but more extreme by stay inside island. (Köppen: Cfb).WEB,weblink Cambridge, England Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 2018-11-13, Cambridge currently has two official weather observing stations, the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), about {{convert|2|mi|0|abbr=out}} north of the city centre near Girton, and the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, about 1 mile south of the city centre. In addition, the Digital Technology Group of the University's Computer LaboratoryWEB, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Digital Technology Group,weblink 26 September 2014, maintains a weather station on the West Cambridge site, displaying current weather conditions online via web browsers or an app, and also an archive dating back to 1995.WEB, Weather Station, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Digital Technology Group,weblink 26 September 2014, The city, like most of the UK, has a maritime climate highly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Located in the driest region of Britain,JOURNAL,weblink Mapping the Distribution of Flowering Plants, Franklyn, Perring, New Scientist, 16 June 1960, 1525, 26 February 2012, WEB,weblink Climate & Soils, Cambridge University Botanic Garden, 2012, Cambridge is in the driest region of Britain and has a more continental climate than most of Britain., 26 February 2012, Cambridge's rainfall averages around {{convert|570|mm|2|abbr=on}} per year, around half the national average,WEB,weblink Our strategy, Cambridge Water, 2012, We live in one of the driest areas of the UK. The East of England's rainfall of conditions is only half the national average and Cambridge is one of the driest parts of this region., 26 February 2012, with some years occasionally falling into the semi-arid (under {{convert|500|mm|2|abbr=on}} of rain per year) category. The last time this occurred was in 2011 with {{convert|380.4|mm|2|abbr=on}}WEB,weblink Climate and Soils, Cambridge University Botanic Garden, 21 February 2011, of rain at the Botanic Gardens and {{convert|347.2|mm|2|abbr=on}} at the NIAB site.WEB,weblink NIAB weather data, Met Office, 4 February 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629215430weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy-all, Conversely, 2012 was the wettest year on record, with {{convert|812.7|mm|2|abbr=on}} reported.WEB,weblink Wettest year since records began, Cambridge University Botanic Garden, 4 February 2013, Snowfall accumulations are usually small, in part because of Cambridge's low elevation, and low precipitation tendency during transitional snow events.Owing to its low lying, inland, and easterly position within the British Isles, summer temperatures tend to be somewhat higher than areas further west, and often rival or even exceed those recorded in the London area. July 2006 for example recorded the highest official mean monthly maximum (i.e. averaged over the entire month) of any month at any location in the UK since records began; {{convert|28.3|C|F}}, at both the NIABWEB,weblink Historic station data: Cambridge NIAB, Met Office, 21 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629215430weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy-all, and Botanic GardenWEB,weblink Anomaly details for Station Cambridge (B. GDNS): Mean of daily maximum temperature, July 2006, European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 21 February 2011, observing stations. Cambridge also often records the annual highest national temperature in any given year â€“ {{convert|30.2|C|F}} in July 2008 at NIABWEB,weblink UK Climate: July 2008, Met Office, 21 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629215447weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy-all, and {{convert|30.1|C|F}} in August 2007 at the Botanic GardenWEB,weblink Anomaly details for Station Cambridge (B. GDNS): Maximum value of daily maximum temperature, August 2007, European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 21 February 2011, are two recent examples. The absolute maximum stands at {{convert|36.9|C|F}}WEB,weblink Anomaly details for Station Cambridge (B. GDNS): Maximum value of daily maximum temperature, August 2003, European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 21 February 2011, set on 10 August 2003, although a temperature of {{convert|37.5|C|F}}WEB,weblink August 2003 â€“ Hot spell, Met Office, 21 February 2011, was recorded on the same day at the Guildhall rooftop weather station in the city centre and is acknowledged by the Met Office. Before this, the absolute maximum was {{convert|36.5|C|F}} set at the Botanic GardenWEB,weblink Hot spell August 1990, Met Office, 21 February 2011, in August 1990. The last time the temperature exceeded {{convert|35|C|F}} was July 2006 when the maximum reached {{convert|35.6|C|F}} at the Botanic Garden and {{convert|35.8|C|F}} at NIAB.WEB,weblink July 2006, Met Office, 21 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629215609weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, Typically the temperature will reach {{convert|25.1|C|F}} or higher on over 25 days of the year over the 1981–2010 period,WEB,weblink Climatology details for station CAMBRIDGE (B. GDNS): Summer days (TX > 25 Â°C), European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 11 September 2012, with the annual warmest day averaging {{convert|31.5|C|F}}WEB,weblink Climatology details for station CAMBRIDGE (B. GDNS): Maximum value of daily maximum temperature, European Climate Assessment and Dataset, 11 September 2012, over the same period.The absolute minimum temperature recorded at the Botanic Garden site was {{convert|-17.2|C|F}}, recorded in February 1947,WEB,weblink Botanic Garden Extremes 1931–60, 21 February 2011, although a minimum of {{convert|-17.8|C|F}} was recorded at the now defunct observatory site in December 1879.WEB,weblink 8 December 1879, 21 February 2011, More recently the temperature fell to {{convert|-15.3|C|F}} on 11 February 2012,WEB,weblink Coldest temperatures of winter so far, Met Office News Blog, 11 February 2012, 27 February 2012, {{convert|-12.2|C|F}} on 22 January 2013WEB,weblink 22nd Jan 2013 Temperatures, Met Office News Blog, 22 January 2013, 4 February 2013, and {{convert|-10.9|C|F}}WEB,weblink December 2010, Cambridge University Botanic Garden, 21 February 2011, on 20 December 2010. The average frequency of air frosts ranges from 42.8 days at the NIAB site,WEB,weblink Cambridge 1981–2010 averages, Met Office, 11 September 2012, to 48.3 days at the Botanic GardenWEB,weblink Climatology details for station CAMBRIDGE (B. GDNS): Frost days (TN
&INDEXID=&PERIODIDSELECT=1981-2010&SEASONID=0&SCALELOGIDSELECT=NO&MINX=-461428.571429&MINY=-4727380.952381&MAXX=405238.095239&MAXY=-4077380.952380&MAPSIZE=560%2C420&IMAGEWIDTH=560&IMAGEHEIGHT=420&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#BOTTOMWORK=EUROPEAN CLIMATE ASSESSMENT AND DATASET, 11 September 2012, |date=September 2012}}{{Weather box|location = Cambridge University Botanic Garden, elevation 12m,1971–2000|collapsed = y|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan high C = 7.0|Feb high C = 7.6|Mar high C = 10.4|Apr high C = 13.0|May high C = 16.9|Jun high C = 19.8|Jul high C = 22.6|Aug high C = 22.5|Sep high C = 19.1|Oct high C = 14.9|Nov high C = 10.1|Dec high C = 7.9|Jan low C = 1.2|Feb low C = 0.9|Mar low C = 2.7|Apr low C = 4.0|May low C = 6.8|Jun low C = 9.7|Jul low C = 11.9|Aug low C = 11.8|Sep low C = 9.7|Oct low C = 6.8|Nov low C = 3.5|Dec low C = 2.1year low C= 5.9year low F =42.7|Jan precipitation mm = 44.79|Feb precipitation mm = 32.56|Mar precipitation mm = 41.72|Apr precipitation mm = 42.44|May precipitation mm = 45.03|Jun precipitation mm = 53.70|Jul precipitation mm = 41.85|Aug precipitation mm = 48.46|Sep precipitation mm = 53.34|Oct precipitation mm = 54.35|Nov precipitation mm = 51.39|Dec precipitation mm = 50.31|year precipitation mm=559.94&INDEXID=&PERIODIDSELECT=1971-2000&SEASONID=0&SCALELOGIDSELECT=NO&MINX=-461428.571429&MINY=-4727380.952381&MAXX=405238.095239&MAXY=-4077380.952380&MAPSIZE=560%2C420&IMAGEWIDTH=560&IMAGEHEIGHT=420&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#BOTTOMWORK=EUROPEAN CLIMATE ASSESSMENT AND DATASET, 21 February 2011, |date=March 2012}}{{Weather box|location = Cambridge NIAB, elevation 26m,1981–2010|collapsed = y|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan high C = 7.3|Feb high C = 7.7|Mar high C = 10.6|Apr high C = 13.3|May high C = 16.9|Jun high C = 19.9|Jul high C = 22.8|Aug high C = 22.6|Sep high C = 19.3|Oct high C = 14.9|Nov high C = 10.3|Dec high C = 7.5|Jan low C = 1.6|Feb low C = 1.3|Mar low C = 3.1|Apr low C = 4.3|May low C = 7.1|Jun low C = 10.2|Jul low C = 12.4|Aug low C = 12.4|Sep low C = 10.4|Oct low C = 7.6|Nov low C = 4.2|Dec low C = 1.9year low C= 6.4year low F =43.5|Jan precipitation mm = 46.6|Feb precipitation mm = 34.5|Mar precipitation mm = 38.3|Apr precipitation mm = 41.2|May precipitation mm = 46.0|Jun precipitation mm = 51.5|Jul precipitation mm = 47.5|Aug precipitation mm = 50.8|Sep precipitation mm = 53.5|Oct precipitation mm = 59.0|Nov precipitation mm = 52.8|Dec precipitation mm = 46.4|year precipitation mm=568.1|Jan sun = 58.3|Feb sun = 77.1|Mar sun = 110.7|Apr sun = 152.5|May sun = 179.4|Jun sun = 176.7|Jul sun = 187.6|Aug sun = 182.6|Sep sun = 139.5|Oct sun = 113.9|Nov sun = 66.7|Dec sun = 49.3|year sun=1494.5 PUBLISHER=MET OFFICE, 11 September 2012, |date=September 2012}}{{Weather box|location = Cambridge NIAB, elevation 26m,1971–2000|collapsed = y|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan high C = 7.0|Feb high C = 7.4|Mar high C = 10.2|Apr high C = 12.6|May high C = 16.5|Jun high C = 19.4|Jul high C = 22.2|Aug high C = 22.3|Sep high C = 18.9|Oct high C = 14.6|Nov high C = 9.9|Dec high C = 7.8|Jan low C = 1.3|Feb low C = 1.1|Mar low C = 2.9|Apr low C = 4.0|May low C = 6.7|Jun low C = 9.8|Jul low C = 12.0|Aug low C = 11.9|Sep low C = 10.1|Oct low C = 7.1|Nov low C = 3.7|Dec low C = 2.3year low C= 6.1year low F =42.9|Jan precipitation mm = 45.0|Feb precipitation mm = 32.7|Mar precipitation mm = 41.5|Apr precipitation mm = 43.1|May precipitation mm = 44.5|Jun precipitation mm = 53.8|Jul precipitation mm = 38.2|Aug precipitation mm = 48.8|Sep precipitation mm = 51.0|Oct precipitation mm = 53.8|Nov precipitation mm = 51.1|Dec precipitation mm = 50.0|year precipitation mm=553.5|Jan sun = 55.5|Feb sun = 72.6|Mar sun = 107.0|Apr sun = 145.8|May sun = 189.7|Jun sun = 180.0|Jul sun = 191.3|Aug sun = 186.9|Sep sun = 141.6|Oct sun = 115.0|Nov sun = 68.1|Dec sun = 47.7|year sun=1501.2 PUBLISHER=MET OFFICE DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=5 JUNE 2011, dmy-all, |date=March 2012}}

Ecology

The city contains three Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), at Cherry Hinton East Pit, Cherry Hinton West Pit, and Travellers Pit,JOURNAL,weblink CAMBRIDGE CITY NATURE CONSERVATION STRATEGY "ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY", September 2006, The Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire & Peterborough, Cambridge City Council, 16 May 2016,weblink 18 August 2016, yes, dmy-all, and ten Local Nature Reserves (LNRs): Sheep’s Green and Coe Fen,Coldhams Common, Stourbridge Common, Nine Wells, Byron’s Pool, West Pit, Paradise, Barnwell West, Barnwell East, and Logan’s Meadow.WEB, Cambridge City Local Nature Reserves,weblink Cambridge City Council, 16 May 2016,

Green belt

{{further|Cambridge Green Belt}}Cambridge is completely enclosed by green belt as a part of a wider environmental and planning policy first defined in 1965 and formalised in 1992.WEB, The Origins of the Cambridge Green Belt,weblink www.cambridge.gov.uk, Anthony, J Cooper, MA, LL.B, PhD, WEB, Green belt final,weblink www.eastcambs.gov.uk, While some small tracts of green belt exist on the fringes of the city's boundary, much of the protection is in the surrounding South CambridgeshireWEB, CAMBRIDGE GREEN BELT STUDY A Vision of the Future for Cambridge in its Green Belt Setting,weblink www.scambs.gov.uk, and nearby East CambridgeshireWEB, East Cambridgeshire Local Plan - April 2015,weblink www.eastcambs.gov.uk, districts, helping to maintain local green space, prevent further urban sprawl and unplanned expansion of the city, as well as protecting smaller outlying villages from further convergence with each other as well as the city.WEB, LDA Design - Cambridge Inner Belt Boundary Study,weblink www.cambridge.gov.uk, .

Demography

The demography in Cambridge changes considerably in and out of University term times, so can be hard to measure.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}}In the 2001 Census held during University term, 89.44% of Cambridge residents identified themselves as white, compared with a national average of 92.12%.2001 Census (Ethnic group, Cambridge local authority). Office For National Statistics. Within the University, 84% of undergraduates and 80% of post-graduates identify as white (including overseas students).WEB
,weblink
, University of Cambridge Fact Sheet: Ethnicity
, 17 January 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080101185656weblink">weblink
, 1 January 2008
, dmy
, .Retrieved 17 January 2008.Cambridge has a much higher than average proportion of people in the highest paid professional, managerial or administrative jobs (32.6% vs. 23.5%)ONS 2001 Census (Approximated Social Grade â€“ Workplace Population, Cambridge local authority) and a much lower than average proportion of manual workers (27.6% vs. 40.2%). In addition, a much higher than average proportion of people have a high level qualification (e.g. degree, Higher National Diploma, Master's or PhD), (41.2% vs. 19.7%).ONS 2001 Census (Qualifications, Cambridge local authority)

Historical population{| class"wikitable" style"border:none;"

! Year || colspan="2"|Population
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Local census 1749{{Citation|title=The History of the County of Cambridgeshire|first=Edmund|last=Carter|year=1753|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BqI9AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA13|quote=...6131 souls; as they were collected from house to house in July and August in the year 1749}}Census: Regional District 1801–1901WEB,weblink Cambridge Civil Parish, Vision of Britain, 26 July 2008, Civil Parish 1911–1961WEB,weblink Cambridge Civil Parish, Vision of Britain, 26 July 2008, District 1971–2011WEB,weblink Cambridge Civil Parish, Vision of Britain, 26 July 2008,

Economy

The town's river link to the surrounding agricultural land, and good road connections to London in the south meant Cambridge has historically served as an important regional trading post. King Henry I granted Cambridge a monopoly on river trade, privileging this area of the economy of Cambridge BOOK, The Story of Cambridge, Stephanie, Boyd, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-62897-6, 2005, The town market provided for trade in a wide variety of goods and annual trading fairs such as Stourbridge Fair and Midsummer Fair were visited by merchants from across the country. The river was described in an account of 1748 as being "often so full of [merchant boats] that the navigation thereof is stopped for some time".JOURNAL,weblink The London magazine, or, Gentleman's monthly intelligencer, 64, A description of Cambridge, January 1748, 17, Kimber, Isaac, Kimber, Edward, London, R. Baldwin, 29 February 2012, For example, 2000 (wikt:Special:Search/firkin|firkins) of butter were brought up the river every Monday from the agricultural lands to the North East, particularity Norfolk, to be unloaded in the town for road transportation to London. Changing patterns of retail distribution and the advent of the railways led to a decline in Cambridge's importance as a market town.BOOK, A History of the University of Cambridge, 3, Peter, Searby, 705, 978-0-521-35060-0, 1997, Cambridge University Press, File:S95MarketCambridgefromGreatStMarys.jpg|upright=1.15|thumb|left|Cambridge Market viewed from the Tower of St. Mary the Great ]]Today Cambridge has a diverse economy with strength in sectors such as research & development, software consultancy, high value engineering, creative industries, pharmaceuticals and tourism.WEB,weblink Cambridge City â€“ Annual demographic and socio-economic report, 17, April 2011, Cambridgeshire County Council, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828063418weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, Described as one of the "most beautiful cities in the world" by Forbes in 2010,NEWS,weblink Forbes, Tim, Kiladze, World's Most Beautiful Cities, 22 January 2010, with the view from The Backs being selected as one of the 10 greatest in England by National Trust chair Simon Jenkins, tourism generates over £750 million for the city's economy.NEWS,weblink Dramatic increase in tourism's contribution to the Cambridge economy revealed, Gooding, Matt, 2017-06-05, cambridgenews, 2018-02-12, Cambridge and its surrounds are sometimes referred to as Silicon Fen, an allusion to Silicon Valley, because of the density of high-tech businesses and technology incubators that have developed on science parks around the city. Many of these parks and buildings are owned or leased by university colleges, and the companies often have been spun out of the university.WEB,weblink Science Parks | Cambridge Science Park, United Kingdom Science Park Association, 2012, many companies on the park have spun out of Cambridge University...the majority of the companies on the Cambridge Science Park have active links and research partnerships with the University, 29 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120130154419weblink">weblink 30 January 2012, Cambridge Science Park, which is the largest commercial R&D centre in Europe, is owned by Trinity College;WEB,weblink Science Parks | Cambridge Science Park, United Kingdom Science Park Association, 2012, Cambridge Science Park is Europe's longest-serving and largest centre for commercial research and development..., 29 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120130154419weblink">weblink 30 January 2012, WEB,weblink History, Cambridge Science Park, 14 August 2011, St John's is the landlord of St John's Innovation Centre.WEB,weblink History, St John's Innovation Centre, 19 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707012502weblink">weblink 7 July 2011, Technology companies include Abcam, CSR, ARM Limited, CamSemi, Jagex and Sinclair.WEB,weblink Directory of Cambridge Network Members â€“ Cambridge University Spin Out, Cambridge Network, 2012, 29 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070429102928weblink">weblink 29 April 2007, dmy-all, Microsoft has located its Microsoft Research UK offices in West Cambridge, separate from the main Microsoft UK campus in Reading, and also has an office on Station Road.Cambridge was also the home of Pye Ltd., founded in 1898 by W. G. Pye, who worked in the Cavendish Laboratory; it began by supplying the University and later specialised in wireless telegraphy equipment, radios, televisions and also defence equipment. Pye Ltd evolved into several other companies including TETRA radio equipment manufacturer Sepura. Another major business is Marshall Aerospace located on the eastern edge of the city. The Cambridge Network keeps businesses in touch with each other. The software company Autonomy Corporation is located at the Business Park on Cowley Road.

Transport

(File:Guided bus from Trumpington - geograph.org.uk - 2543891.jpg|thumb|right|A guided bus on the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway)Because of its rapid growth in the 20th century, Cambridge has a congested road network.WEB,weblink Cambridge Futures 2 – Report, Cambridgefutures.org, 26 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130130191440weblink">weblink 30 January 2013, yes, dmy-all, The M11 motorway from east London terminates to the north-west of the city where it joins the A14, a major freight route which connects the port of Felixstowe on the east coast with the Midlands. The A428 connects the city with Bedford and St Neots, and the A10 connects the city to King's Lynn to the north via Ely, and to central London to the south.As a university town lying on fairly flat ground and with traffic congestion, Cambridge has the highest level of cycle use in the UK.UK Census 2001 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090605201526weblink |date=5 June 2009 }} According to the 2001 census, 25% of residents travelled to work by bicycle. Furthermore, a survey in 2013 found that 47% of residents travel by bike at least once a week.Cambridge retains 'cycling capital' title in nationwide survey | Cambridge News | Latest News Headlines From Cambridge City & Cambridgeshire | National News By {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130419062221weblink |date=19 April 2013 }}. Cambridge News (16 April 2013). Retrieved on 15 July 2013. In recognition of this, the 3rd stage of the 2014 Tour de France started in the city, adjacent to Parker's Piece.Cambridge has several bus services including routes linking five Park and Ride sites all of which operate seven days a week and are aimed at encouraging motorists to park near the city's edge.Cambridge park-and-ride. Cambridgeshire County Council. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130308123636weblink |date=8 March 2013 }} Since 2011, the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway has carried bus services into the centre of Cambridge from St Ives, Huntingdon, Peterborough and other towns and villages along the routes, operated by Stagecoach and Go Whippet.WEB, The Busway - Routes and Times,weblink Cambridgeshire County Council, 29 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141225184459weblink">weblink 25 December 2014, dmy, The A service continues on to the railway station and Addenbrookes, before terminating at a new Park and Ride in Trumpington. Since 2017 it has also linked to Cambridge North railway station.Cambridge also has its own airport; Cambridge Airport was used mainly by charter and training flights as well as to fly in aircraft for maintenance.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091211170657weblink">weblink 11 December 2009, dmy, "Cambridge Airport"weblink "Cambridge Flying Club"weblink"Cambridge Aero Club" Regular flights to Jersey and European destinations such as Gothenburg operated until the end of January 2016 when all scheduled and charter traffic from the airport was halted.Cambridge Airport axes charter and scheduled passenger flights {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151220034356weblink |date=20 December 2015 }}, Cambridge News, 2 December 2015. Retrieved 2016-02-02.

Rail

Cambridge railway station was opened in 1845, initially linking to Bishopsgate station in London, via Bishops Stortford.BOOK, Fellowes, Reginald B, Railways to Cambridge - actual and proposed), 1948, Oleander Press, Cambridge,UK, 0 902675 62 1, 10, 1976 reprint, Further lines opened throughout the 19th century, including the Cambridge and St Ives branch line, the Stour Valley Railway, the Cambridge to Mildenhall railway, and the Varsity Line. Another station was opened in Cherry Hinton though, at the time, this was a separate village to Cambridge. Several of these lines were closed during the 1960s.Today, Cambridge station has direct rail links to London with termini at {{stnlnk|London King's Cross}} (via the Cambridge Line and the East Coast Main Line), {{stnlnk|Liverpool Street}} (on the West Anglia Main Line), and St Pancras (on the Thameslink line). Commuter trains to King's Cross run every half hour during peak hours, with a journey time of 53 minutes.WEB,weblink Train Timetables, Great Northern, 17 December 2017, Trains also run to {{stnlnk|King's Lynn}} and {{stnlnk|Ely}} (via the Fen Line), {{stnlnk|Norwich}} (via the Breckland Line), {{stnlnk|Leicester}}, Birmingham, {{stnlnk|Peterborough}}, {{stnlnk|Stevenage}}, {{stnlnk|Ipswich}}, London Stansted Airport, Brighton and Gatwick Airport.A second railway station, Cambridge North, opened on 21 May 2017, having originally planned to open in March 2015.NEWS,weblink First train arrives at Cambridge North station - but it took 30 years to get there, Brown, Raymond, 21 May 2017, 21 May 2017, Cambridge Evening News, NEWS,weblink PICTURES: First step towards opening of Cambridge’s second railway station as work starts on guided busway extension, 23 July 2014, Cambridge News, 15 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140905005943weblink">weblink 5 September 2014, yes, dmy, NEWS,weblink Cambridge's new railway station 'to open in 2015', 21 February 2012, Cambridge News, 27 February 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120224071720weblink">weblink 24 February 2012, yes, dmy, A third railway station, Cambridge South, near Addenbrooke's Hospital has been proposed.NEWS, Cox, Tara, 2025 opening for Cambridge South station is 'unacceptable',weblink 31 May 2018, Local World, May 16, 2018,

Education

File:Anglia Ruskin Cambridge Main, 28 Sep, 2012.jpg|thumb|Anglia Ruskin University evolved from the nineteenth century Cambridge School of Art, opened by educationist and art figure John RuskinJohn Ruskin{{See also|List of schools in Cambridgeshire}}Cambridge's two universities,WEB,weblinkweblink 17 July 2010, Draft housing strategy 2009–2010, Cambridge City Council, 28 September 2009, yes, dmy, the collegiate University of Cambridge and the local campus of Anglia Ruskin University, serve around 30,000 students, by some estimates.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130114025558weblink">weblink yes, 14 January 2013, Cambridge, The Complete University Guide, 28 September 2009, Cambridge University estimated its 2007/08 student population at 17,662,WEB,weblink Facts and Figures January 2009, University of Cambridge: Planning and statistics section, 28 September 2009, January 2009, and Anglia Ruskin reports 24,000 students across its two campuses (one of which is outside Cambridge, in Chelmsford) for the same period.WEB,weblink Annual Review 2007-8, Anglia Ruskin University, 28 September 2009, {{Dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} State provision in the further education sector includes Hills Road Sixth Form College, Long Road Sixth Form College, and Cambridge Regional College.Both state and independent schools serve Cambridge pupils from nursery to secondary school age. State schools are administered by Cambridgeshire County Council, which maintains 251 schools in total,WEB,weblink Our schools and colleges, 28 September 2009, Cambridgeshire County Council, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090402122811weblink">weblink 2 April 2009, 35 of them in Cambridge city.NEWS, Educational establishments in Cambridgeshire, Cambridgeshire County Council, Netherhall School, Chesterton Community College, the Parkside Federation (comprising Parkside Community College and Coleridge Community College), North Cambridge Academy and the Christian inter-denominational St. Bede's School provide comprehensive secondary education.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120729163405weblink">weblink yes, 29 July 2012, It's a record breaker for GCSE students, 27 August 2009, 28 September 2009, John, Morgan, Cambridge News, Many other pupils from the Cambridge area attend Village Colleges, an educational institution unique to Cambridgeshire, which serve as secondary schools during the day and adult education centres outside of school hours.BOOK,weblink Managing external relations in schools: a practical guide, Nicholas, Foskett, Routledge, 1992, 0-415-06833-9, 149, Independent schools in the city include The Perse School, Stephen Perse Foundation, Sancton Wood School, St Mary's School, Heritage School and The Leys School.NEWS,weblink City spotlight: Cambridge, The Daily Telegraph, Max, Davidson, 20 May 2006, 28 September 2009, London, The city has one University Technical College, Cambridge Academy for Science and Technology, which opened in September 2014.

Sport

Football

(File:Reality Checkpoint - geograph.org.uk - 971592.jpg|thumb|Parker's Piece)Cambridge played a unique role in the invention of modern football: the game's first set of rules were drawn up by members of the University in 1848. The Cambridge Rules were first played on Parker's Piece and had a "defining influence on the 1863 Football Association rules." which again were first played on Parker's Piece.WEB,weblink Cambridge...the birthplace of football?!, BBC, The city is home to Cambridge United F.C., who play at the Abbey Stadium. Formed in 1912, as Abbey United, they were elected to the Football League in 1970 and reached the Football League Second Division in 1978, although a serious decline in them in the mid 1980s saw them drop back down to the Football League Fourth Division and almost go out of business. Success returned to the club in the early 1990s when they won two successive promotions and reached the FA Cup quarter finals in both of those seasons, and in 1992 they came close to becoming the first English team to win three successive Football League promotions which would have taken them into the newly created FA Premier League. But they were beaten in the playoffs and another decline set in, which was completed in 2005 when they were relegated from the Football League and for the second time in 20 years narrowly avoided going out of business. After nine years of non league football they returned to the Football League in 2014 by winning the Conference National playoffs.Cambridge City F.C. of the Southern Football League Premier Division now play in the adjoining village of Histon. Formed in Cambridge in 1908 as Cambridge Town, the club were Southern Premier League champions in 1962-63, the highest they have finished in the English football pyramid. After a legal dispute with their landlords,WEB,weblink The supporters who took on a property developer and won, 3 October 2007, 3 September 2014, The Guardian, Conn, David, the club left their home ground in Cambridge in order to groundshare with fellow Southern League Premier club Histon F.C. in 2013-14 and intend to construct a new ground outside the city, in Sawston.

Cricket

As well as being the home of the Cambridge Rules in football, Parker's Piece was used for first-class cricket matches from 1817 to 1864.WEB,weblink List of first-class matches on Parker's Piece, Cricketarchive.com, 17 July 2010, The University of Cambridge's Cricket ground, Fenner's, is located in the city and is one of the home grounds for minor counties team Cambridgeshire CCC.WEB,weblink About Us, Cambridgeshire CCC, 6 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120717191057weblink">weblink 17 July 2012, dmy-all,
There are seven amateur cricket clubs within the city: Cambridge Granta, Camden, Cambridge St Giles, New Chesterton Institute, Fen Ditton, Romsey Town and Cherry Hinton.WEB,weblink Cambridgeshire Cricket Association, Cambridgeshire CA, 5 October 2011,

Rugby

The city is represented in both codes of Rugby football. Rugby Union club Cambridge R.U.F.C. were founded in 1923,NEWS, Jackson, Steve, Cambridge RUFC season preview,weblink 16 September 2016, BBC Sport, BBC, 5 September 2008, and play in National League OneNEWS, Taylor, Mark, Familiar faces and new tests: Cambridge Rugby Club's National League One fixtures for 2016/17,weblink 16 September 2016, Cambridge News, 1 June 2016, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} at their home ground, Grantchester Road, in the southwest corner of the city. Cambridge Lions represent the city in rugby league, and are members of East Rugby League.NEWS, Cambridge Lions suffer loss at Southend Spartans in East Rugby League,weblink 16 September 2016, Cambridge News, 15 June 2016, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Watersports

File:Cambridge MayBump2015 (pixinn.net).jpg|thumb|right|Bumps race on the River CamRiver CamThe River Cam running through the city centre is used for boating. The University and its colleges are well known for rowing and the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association, formed in 1868, organises competitive rowing on the river outside of the University.WEB,weblink Early CRA History, Cambridgeshire Rowing Association, 14 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090519101519weblink">weblink 19 May 2009, dmy-all, Rowing clubs based in the city include City of Cambridge RC, Cambridge '99 RC, Cantabrigian RC and Rob Roy BC. Shallower parts of the Cam are used for recreational punting, a type of boating in which the craft is propelled by pushing against the river bed with a quant pole.Cambridge Swimming Club, Cambridge Dive team, and City of Cambridge Water Polo Club are all based at Parkside Swimming Pool.WEB, Parkside Pools,weblink Cambridge City Council, 20 April 2016,

Other sports

Cambridge is home to two Real Tennis courts out of just 42 in the world at Cambridge University Real Tennis Club.WEB,weblink Cambridge University Real Tennis Club, Curtc.net, 17 July 2010, British American Football League club Cambridgeshire Cats play at Coldham's Common. Cambridge Royals are members of the British Baseball Federation's Triple-A South Division.WEB,weblink Triple-A South, Double-A Central and Northern Conference 2016 schedules announced, British Baseball Federation, 18 February 2016, 12 October 2016, Cambridge has two cycling clubs Team CambridgeWEB,weblink Team Cambridge, Team Cambridge, 17 July 2010, and Cambridge Cycling Club.WEB,weblink Cambridge CC, Cambridge-cycling-club.org.uk, 17 July 2010, Cambridge & Coleridge Athletic ClubWEB,weblink Cambridge & Coleridge AC official website, is the city's track and field club, based at the University of Cambridge's Wilberforce Road track. Cambridge Handball Club compete in the men's England Handball National Super 8 League, and the women's England Handball National Super 7 League. The city is also represented in polo by Cambridge Polo Club, based in Barton, just outside the city. The Romsey Town Rollerbillies play roller derby in Cambridge.WEB,weblink, Uk Roller Derby, Uk Roller Derby, 31 October 2011, yes, https:web.archive.org/web/20111024164540weblink 24 October 2011, dmy-all, Speedway racing was formerly staged at a greyhound stadium in Coldhams Lane.WEB, Cambridge Speedway,weblink www.speedwayplus.com, 20 September 2016,

Varsity sports

Cambridge is also known for the sporting events between the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford, especially the rugby union Varsity Match and the Boat Race, though many of these do not take place within Cambridge.

Culture

Theatre

(File:CambridgeCorn.jpg|thumb|upright|Cambridge Corn Exchange)Cambridge's main traditional theatre is the Arts Theatre, a venue with 666 seats in the town centre.WEB,weblink Cambridge Arts Theatre Website, Cambridgeartstheatre.com, 17 July 2010, The theatre often has touring shows, as well as those by local companies. The largest venue in the city to regular hold theatrical performances is the Cambridge Corn Exchange with a capacity of 1,800 standing or 1,200 seated. Housed within the city's 19th century former corn exchange building the venue was used for a variety of additional functions throughout the 20th century including tea parties, motor shows, sports matches and a music venue with temporary stage.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080829124506weblink">weblink 29 August 2008, The History of the Cambridge Corn Exchange, Cambridge City Council, 2 March 2009, The City Council renovated the building in the 1980s, turning it into a full-time arts venue, hosting theatre, dance and music performances.The newest theatre venue in Cambridge is the 220-seat J2, part of Cambridge Junction in Cambridge Leisure Park. The venue was opened in 2005 and hosts theatre, dance, live music and comedyWEB,weblink Our Spaces, junction.co.uk, J2 is the venue for our theatre, dance, family theatre and comedy programme, 28 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120212004617weblink">weblink 12 February 2012, The ADC Theatre is managed by the University of Cambridge, and typically has 3 shows a week during term time. It hosts the Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club which has produced many notable figures in British comedy. The Mumford Theatre is part of Anglia Ruskin University, and hosts shows by both student and non-student groups. There are also a number of venues within the colleges.

Museums

Within the city there are several notable museums, some run by the University of Cambridge Museums consortium and others independent of it.The Fitzwilliam Museum is the city's largest, and is the lead museum of the University of Cambridge Museums. Founded in 1816 from the bequeathment and collections of Richard, Viscount FitzWilliam, the museum was originally located in the building of the Perse Grammar School in Free School Lane.JOURNAL,weblink The University of Cambridge — The Fitzwilliam Museum, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge, J P C Roach, 1959, 326–327, After a brief housing in the University of Cambridge library, it moved to its current, purpose-built building on Trumpington Street in 1848. The museum has five departments: Antiquities; Applied Arts; Coins and Medals; Manuscripts and Printed Books; and Paintings, Drawings and Prints. Other members of the University of Cambridge Museums are the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Polar Museum, The Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences, Museum of Classical Archaeology, The Whipple Museum of the History of Science, and the University Museum of Zoology.The Museum of Cambridge, formerly known as the Cambridge & County Folk Museum, is a social history museum located in a former pub on Castle Street.WEB,weblink Museum of Cambridge: The life and history of the people of Cambridge, Fen Museum Partnership, 13 September 2016, The Centre for Computing History, a museum dedicated to the story of the Information age, moved to Cambridge from Haverhill in 2013.NEWS, Cambridge Centre of Computing History opens,weblink 13 September 2016, BBC News, 30 July 2013, Housed in a former sewage pumping station, the Cambridge Museum of Technology has a collection of large exhibits related to the city's industrial heritage.

Music

Popular music

Pink Floyd are the most notable band with roots in Cambridge. The band's former songwriter, guitarist and vocalist Syd Barrett was born and lived in the city, and he and another founding member, Roger Waters, went to school together at Cambridgeshire High School for Boys. David Gilmour, the guitarist who replaced Barrett, was also a Cambridge resident and attended the nearby Perse School. Bands who were formed in Cambridge include Clean Bandit, Henry Cow, The Movies, Katrina and the Waves, The Soft Boys,{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p5472|label=The Soft Boys}} Ezio{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p165353|label=Ezio}} The Broken Family Band,WEB,weblink The Broken Family Band biography, www.xfm.co.uk, 13 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081220143638weblink">weblink 20 December 2008, dmy-all, Uncle Acid & the Deadbeats,WEB, Rivadavia, Eduardo, Uncle Acid and the Deadbeats: Blood Lust,weblink AllMusic, 2 June 2013, and the pop-classical group King's Singers, who were formed at the University.WEB,weblink The Official Kings Singers Website :History, kingssingers.com, 2012, The group takes its name from King's College Cambridge, where Martin Lane, Al Hume, Alastair Thompson, Richard Salter, Simon Carrington and Brian Kay were choral scholars., 25 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111010165008weblink">weblink 10 October 2011, Solo artist Boo Hewerdine{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p85801|label=Boo Hewerdine}} is from Cambridge, as are drum and bass artists (and brothers) and Logistics. Singers Matthew Bellamy,NEWS,weblink Muse: profile of the band, David, Cheal, The Daily Telegraph, 13 April 2001, 28 February 2012, London, of the rock band Muse, Tom Robinson,NEWS, Tom Robinson is showing a new generation the power of the protest song,weblink The Independent, 11 February 2016, en-GB, and Olivia Newton-JohnWEB,weblink Biography, www.olivia-newtonjohn.com, 9 December 2008, were born in the city. 2012 Mercury Prize winners Alt-J are based in Cambridge.WEB, Jane, Sarah,weblink BBC News – Mercury Prize: Alt-J album An Awesome Wave wins award, Bbc.co.uk, 2 November 2012, 26 March 2013, Live music venues hosting popular music in the city include the Cambridge Corn Exchange, Cambridge Junction and the Portland Arms.

Contemporary art

Cambridge contains the Kettle's Yard gallery and the artist run organisations Aid and Abet, Cambridge Art Salon, and Changing Spaces.WEB, Collins, Ruthie, Cambridge art scene: change in the air,weblink The guardian, Guardian Media Group, 20 April 2016, 3 January 2013, Wysing Arts Centre, one of the leading research centres for the visual arts in Europe, is associated with the city, though is located several miles west of Cambridge.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140429192943weblink">weblink yes, 29 April 2014, cultunet, cultunet.com, 3 December 2012, 3 February 2013, Anglia Ruskin University operates the publicly accessible Ruskin Gallery within the Cambridge School of Art.WEB, About the gallery,weblink Anglia Ruskin University, 18 May 2016,

Festivals and events

(File:Strawberry Fair 2007, Cambridge - geograph.org.uk - 460832.jpg|thumb|Strawberry Fair)Several fairs and festivals take place in Cambridge, mostly during the British summer. Midsummer Fair dates back to 1211, when it was granted a charter by King John.WEB,weblink Cambridge Midsummer Fair, 26 April 2016, National Fairground Archive, University of Sheffield, Today it exists primarily as an annual funfair with the vestige of a market attached and is held over several days around or close to midsummers day. On the first Saturday in June Midsummer Common is the site for Strawberry Fair, a free music and children's fair, with various market stalls. For one week in May, on Jesus Green, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival has been held since 1974.WEB,weblink Cambridge & District CAMRA Winter Ale Festival 2010, Cambridgebeerfestival.com, 13 January 2010, Cambridge Folk Festival is held annually in the grounds of Cherry Hinton Hall. The festival has been organised by the city council since its inception in 1964. The Cambridge Summer Music Festival is an annual festival of classical music, held in the University's colleges and chapels.WEB,weblink Cambridge Summer Music Festival, The Gramophone, 20 October 2010, The Cambridge Shakespeare Festival is an eight-week season of open-air performances of the works of William Shakespeare, held in the gardens of various colleges of the university.WEB,weblink About the Festival, The Cambridge Shakespeare Festival, 27 February 2012, Started in 1977, the Cambridge Film Festival was held annually in July, moving to September in 2008 to avoid a clash with the rescheduled Edinburgh Film Festival.WEB,weblink Cambridge Film Festival, Festival Focus, 21 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080702060335weblink">weblink 2 July 2008, dmy-all, The Cambridge Science Festival, typically held annually in March, is the United Kingdom's largest free science festival.WEB, University of Cambridge Science Festival 2011, BBC News,weblink 21 March 2015, Between 1975 and 1985 the Cambridge Poetry Festival was held binannually.WEB
,weblink
, Open account - A memoir: the Cambridge Poetry Festival
, Blair-Underwood
, Alison
, 2012
, Blackbox Manifold, Issue 9: Peter Robinson at Sixty
, Blackbox Manifold
, 6 June 2013, Other festivals include the annual Mill Road Winter Fair, held the first Saturday of December,NEWS,weblink All you need to know about the 2017 Mill Road Winter Fair, Rabbett, Abigail, 2017-12-01, cambridgenews, 2018-05-31, the E-luminate Festival, which has taken place every November since 2013,NEWS, Rabbett, Abigail, Cambridge News,weblink 31 May 2018, Local World, 17 Jan 2018, and The Big Weekend, is a city outdoor event organised by the City Council every July.WEB, Big Weekend,weblink Visit Cambridge, Cambridge City Council, 31 May 2018,

Literature and film

{{See also|University of Cambridge in popular culture}}The city has been the setting for all or part of several novels, including Douglas Adams' Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, Rose Macaulay's They Were Defeated,NEWS,weblink They were defeated, Evening Post, Wellington, NZ, 7, 24 December 1932, 7 October 2010, Kate Atkinson's Case Histories,NEWS,weblink A Daily Sense of Danger – Case Histories by Kate Atkinson, The Daily Telegraph, Katie, Owen, 29 August 2004, 25 February 2011, London, Rebecca Stott's GhostwalkWEB,weblink Woman's Hour -Rebecca Stott on 'Ghostwalk', BBC Radio 4, 2012, 25 February 2012, and Robert Harris's Enigma,BOOK, Chainey, Graham, A Literary History of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1985, 1995, 0-907115-25-X, BOOK, Garrett, Martin, Cambridge: a Cultural and Literary History, Oxford, 2004, 1-902669-79-7, while Susanna Gregory wrote a series of novels set in 14th century Cambridge.WEB,weblink GREGORY, SUSANNA | List of Writers, literaturewales.org, 25 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130831223859weblink">weblink 31 August 2013, dmy-all, Gwen Raverat, the granddaughter of Charles Darwin, talked about her late Victorian Cambridge childhood in her memoir Period Piece and The Night Climbers of Cambridge is a book written by Noel Symington under the pseudonym "Whipplesnaith" about nocturnal climbing on the colleges and town buildings of Cambridge in the 1930s.WEB,weblink Some References to Cambridge Night Climbing, 26 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090209213416weblink">weblink 9 February 2009, yes, dmy-all, Fictionalised versions of Cambridge appear in Philippa Pearce's Tom's Midnight Garden and Minnow on the Say, the city renamed as Castleford, and as the home of Tom Sharpe's fictional college in Porterhouse Blue.BOOK,weblink No equal in the world: an interpretation of the academic presidency, Joseph N., Crowley, University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV, 1994, 978-0-87417-237-9, 167, 25 February 2012, ITV TV series Granchester was partly filmed in Cambridge.WEB, Grantchester – Drama Series Hits ITV 1,weblink Visit Cambridge, Cambridge City Council, 31 May 2018,

Public services

File:Addenbrooke's hospital.JPG|thumb|Addenbrooke's HospitalAddenbrooke's HospitalCambridge is served by Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, with several smaller medical centres in the city and a teaching hospital at Addenbrooke's. Located on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Addenbrooke's is one of the largest hospitals in the United Kingdom and is a designated regional trauma centre.The East of England Ambulance Service covers the city and has an ambulance station on Hills Road.WEB,weblink 28 September 2009, East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust, National Health Service, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927125551weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, The smaller Brookfields Hospital stands on Mill Road.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 13 April 2009, Brookfields Hospital, National Health Service, 28 September 2009, Cambridgeshire Constabulary provides the city's policing; the main police station is at Parkside,WEB,weblink Contact us, Cambridgeshire Constabulary, 28 September 2009, adjacent to the city's fire station, operated by Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service.WEB,weblink Cambridge fire station, Cambridgehsire Fire and Rescue, 28 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090928063131weblink">weblink 28 September 2009, Cambridge Water Company supplies water services to the city,WEB,weblink About Us, Cambridge Water Company, 2012, 26 February 2012, while Anglian Water provides sewerage services.WEB,weblink About you: water charges, Cambridge Water, 28 September 2009, "Anglian Water supply your sewerage services. Cambridge Water bills and collects on behalf of Anglian Water.", yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090916212341weblink">weblink 16 September 2009, For the supply of electricity, Cambridge is part of the East of England region, for which the distribution network operator is UK Power Networks.WEB,weblink National Grid: Distribution Network Operator (DNO) Companies, nationalgrid.com, 2012, Distribution Network Operator (DNO) Companies, 26 February 2012, The city has no power stations, though a five-metre wind turbine, part of a Cambridge Regional College development, can be seen in King's Hedges.WEB,weblink The SmartLIFE Sustainable Skills Centre in Cambridge, 28 September 2009, Building.co.uk, Will, Jones, 6 March 2008, Following the Public Libraries Act 1850 the city's first public library, located on Jesus Lane, was opened in 1855.WEB,weblink The city of Cambridge: Public buildings, Roach, J.P.C., Institute of Historical Research, 1959, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3: The City and University of Cambridge, 19 July 2011, It was moved to the Guildhall in 1862, and is now located in the Grand Arcade shopping centre. The library was reopened in September 2009,NEWS, Revamped Central Library ready to open,weblink Cambridge News, 28 September 2009, 25 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120926033441weblink">weblink 26 September 2012, after having been closed for refurbishment for 33 months, more than twice as long as was forecast when the library closed for redevelopment in January 2007.NEWS,weblink Library is hit by new delay fear, 17 April 2009, Chris, Elliott, Cambridge News, 28 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120926033500weblink">weblink 26 September 2012, As of 2018 the city contains six public libraries, run by the County Council.NEWS,weblink Find a library, Cambridgeshire County Council, 2018-02-09, en, The Cambridge City Cemetery is located to the north of Newmarket Road.

Religion

File:CambridgeTownCentre.jpg|thumb|right|Great St Mary's Church marks the centre of Cambridge, while the Senate House on the left is the centre of the University. Gonville and Caius CollegeGonville and Caius CollegeCambridge has a number of churches, some of which form a significant part of the city's architectural landscape. Like the rest of Cambridgeshire it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Ely.WEB,weblink 26 April 2016, A brief history of the Diocese of Ely, The Church Of England Diocese Of Ely, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160513231910weblink">weblink 13 May 2016, dmy-all, A Cambridge-based family and youth organisation, Romsey Mill, had its centre re-dedicated in 2007 by the Archbishop of York, and is quoted as an example of best practice in a studyWEB,weblink EERA 61 Social Strategy, East of England Regional Assembly, 17 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110606050507weblink">weblink 6 June 2011, dmy, into social inclusion by the East of England Regional Assembly.Great St Mary's Church has the status of "University Church".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120801173303weblink">weblink yes, 1 August 2012, Great St Mary's, Great St Mary's Ministry, 21 March 2012, Many of the University colleges contain chapels that hold services according to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England, while the chapel of St Edmund's College is Roman Catholic.WEB,weblink Chapel, St Edmund's College, Cambridge, 12 May 2008, 17 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080923132344weblink">weblink 23 September 2008, The city also has a number of theological colleges training clergy for ordination into a number of denominations, with affiliations to both the University of Cambridge and Anglia Ruskin University.Cambridge is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia and is served by the large Gothic Revival Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church at the junction of Hills Road and Lensfield Road, St Laurence's on Milton Road, St Vincent De Paul Church on Ditton Lane and by the church of St Philip Howard, in Cherry Hinton Road.WEB,weblink Diocese of East Anglia, 6 January 2015, Catholic Directory, There is a Russian Orthodox church under the Diocese of Sourozh who worship at the chapel of Westcott House,WEB,weblink Parishes â€“ Diocese of Sourozh, Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh, 21 March 2012, and the Greek Orthodox Church holds services at the church St Athanasios under the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain.WEB,weblink The Greek Orthodox Church of St. Anthanasius and St. Clement, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain, 21 March 2012, There are three Quaker Meetings in Cambridge, located on Jesus Lane, Hartington Grove, and a Meeting called "Oast House" that meets in Pembroke College.WEB,weblink Quakers in Cambridge, Cambridge Quakers, 21 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725104136weblink">weblink 25 July 2011, An Orthodox synagogue and Jewish student centre is located on Thompson's Lane, operated jointly by the Cambridge Traditional Jewish Congregation and the Cambridge University Jewish Society, which is affiliated to the Union of Jewish Students.WEB,weblink Welcome to CTJC, Cambridge Traditional Jewish Congregation, We share our shul building with the students, who run Shabbat services during term-time., 28 February 2012, WEB,weblink Cambridge University | Union of Jewish Students, Cambridge University Union of Jewish Students, The Cambridge Traditional Jewish Congregation hold Orthodox services at Thompsons Lane which are run by the students during term time and the residents in the vacation., 28 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120726021846weblink">weblink 26 July 2012, The Beth Shalom Reform synagogue which previously met at a local school,NEWS,weblink Home of its own: Cambridge Synagogue has a new base, BBC News, 12 April 2010, 28 February 2012, has recently opened a purpose-built synagogue.WEB,weblink Beth Shalom Reform Synagogue â€“ Cambridge â€“ A New Synagogue, beth-shalom.org.uk, Our new Synagogue and Community Centre is an environmentally-friendly, economical and flexible space..., 16 July 2016, There is also a student-led egalitarian minyan which holds services on Friday evenings.The Abu Bakr Jamia Islamic Centre on Mawson Road and the Omar Faruque Mosque and Cultural Centre in Kings HedgesWEB,weblink Omar Faruque Mosque and Cultural Centre, Salatomatic, 20 July 2010, serve the city's community of around 4,000 Muslims until a planned new mosque is built.NEWS,weblink Mosque site hunt is over, Rachel, Extance, Cambridge News, 6 May 2008, 21 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105221743weblink">weblink 5 January 2009, A Buddhist centre was opened in the former Barnwell Theatre on Newmarket Road in 1998.WEB,weblink History of the Barnwell or Festival Theatre, Cambridge Buddhist Centre, 13 January 2010, A Hindu shrine was opened in 2010 at the Bharat Bhavan Indian cultural centre off Mill Road.WEB,weblink The Indian Community and Culture Association of Cambridge (ICCA),, Bharat Bhavan Indian cultural centre, 3 March 2012, WEB,weblink The Shrine, Bharat Bhavan Indian cultural centre, 3 March 2012,

Twinned cities

Cambridge is twinned with two cities. Like Cambridge, both have universities and are also similar in population; Heidelberg, Germany since 1965,WEB,weblink Twinning, City of Heidelberg, 12 November 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060718022609weblink">weblink 18 July 2006, and Szeged, Hungary since 1987.

Panoramic gallery

{{wide image|Cambridge-1.jpg|800px|Trinity Street}}{{wide image|Panoramic View of Cambridge.jpg|800px|King's Parade}}{{wide image|Panoramic view of Cambridge.jpg|800px|Silver Street}}{{wide image|Panoramic view of Cambridge 02.jpg|800px|Quayside}}{{wide image|Cambridge Panorama.jpg|800px|Cambridge skyline}}{{wide image|Panorama of Kings Parade in Cambridge, UK, at St. Mary's.jpg|800px|Cambridge King's Parade at St Mary's}}(File:Panorama of Cambridge City Centre.jpg|alt= Panorama of Cambridge City Centre, viewed from the tower of Great St. Mary's|center|thumb|upright=3.65|Panorama of Cambridge City Centre, viewed from the tower of Great St. Mary's)

See also

{{Clear}}

References

Notes
{{Reflist}}

Further reading

{{See also|Timeline of Cambridge#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Cambridge}}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Macmillan & Bowes |publication-place = Cambridge |title = A catalogue of books printed at or relating to the University, town & county of Cambridge, from 1521 to 1893 |url =weblink |author = Bowes, Robert |publication-date = 1894 |oclc = 1064186 |accessdate = 13 September 2016 }}
  • Rawle, Tim (author and photographer), John Adamson (editor). Cambridge (new ed. with foreword by William Bortrick). Cambridge: The Oxbridge Portfolio (2016), 204 pp. {{ISBN|978-0-9572867-2-6}}

External links

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