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deforestation
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{{redirect|Deforest|other uses|DeForest (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Conversion of forest to non-forest for human use}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2017}}File:Bolivia-Deforestation-EO.JPG|thumb|Satellite image of deforestation in progress in eastern Bolivia. Worldwide, 10% of wilderness areas were lost between 1990 and 2015."Un dizième des terres sauvages ont disparu en deux décennies" (Radio Télévision SuisseRadio Télévision SuisseDeforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.SAFnet Dictionary|Definition For [deforestation] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110725234528weblink |date=25 July 2011 }}. Dictionary of forestry.org (29 July 2008). Retrieved 2011-05-15. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.Bradford, Alina. (4 March 2015) Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects. Livescience.com. Retrieved 2016-11-13. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.Deforestation | Threats | WWF. Worldwildlife.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016.Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600.JOURNAL, Kauppi, P. E., Ausubel, J. H., Fang, J., Mather, A. S., Sedjo, R. A., Waggoner, P. E., Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 46, 2006, 17101996, 1635979, 10.1073/pnas.0608343103, 17574–9, 2006PNAS..10317574K, "Use Energy, Get Rich and Save the Planet", The New York Times, 20 April 2009. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into (wikt:wasteland|wasteland).Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation—both naturally occurring and human-induced—is an ongoing issue.BOOK,weblink 21st Century Homestead: Sustainable Agriculture III: Agricultural Practices, Henkel, Marlon, Lulu.com, 9781312939752, en, Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.JOURNAL, Sahney, S., Benton, M.J., Falcon-Lang, H.J., yes, 2010, Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica, Geology, 10.1130/G31182.1, 38, 1079–1082, 12, 2010Geo....38.1079S, More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests.Rainforest Facts {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151022034531weblink |date=22 October 2015 }}. Nature.org (1 November 2016). Retrieved 2016-11-13.Between 2000 and 2012, {{convert|2.3|e6km2|mi2|abbr=}} of forests around the world were cut down."Facts About Rainforests" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151022034531weblink |date=22 October 2015 }}. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 19 October 2015. As a result of deforestation, only {{convert|6.2|e6km2|e6mi2|abbr=off}} remain of the original {{convert|16|e6km2|e6mi2|abbr=off|sigfig=1}} of tropical rainforest that formerly covered the Earth. An area the size of a football pitch is cleared from the Amazon rainforest every minute, with {{convert|136|e6acre|e6ha|abbr=off}} of rainforest cleared for animal agriculture overall.WEB, Amazon Destruction,weblink Mongabay, 13 December 2017, More than 3.6 million hectares of virgin tropical forest was lost in 2018.Human society under urgent threat from loss of Earth's natural life. Scientists reveal 1 million species at risk of extinction in damning UN report 6 May 2019 Guardian weblink

Causes

File:Riau deforestation 2006.jpg|thumb|The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation.]]According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%; logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%.WEB,weblink UNFCCC, Investment and financial flows to address climate change, unfccc.int, UNFCCC, 81, 2007, Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation.JOURNAL,weblink Angelsen, Arild, Kaimowitz, David, Rethinking the causes of deforestation: Lessons from economic models, 12322119, 10.1093/wbro/14.1.73, 3986539, The World Bank Research Observer, 14, 1, Oxford University Press, 73–98, February 1999, JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060908032336weblink">weblink yes, 2006-09-08, William F., Laurance, Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis, Biological Conservation, 91, 2–3, December 1999, 109–117, 10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00088-9, Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases.JOURNAL,weblink Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation, February 2002, BioScience, 52, 2, 143–150, 10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0143:PCAUDF]2.0.CO;2, Geist, Helmut J., Lambin, Eric F., 17 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726064720weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, yes, dmy-all, Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions,NEWS,weblink Corruption blamed for deforestation, T.J., Burgonio, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 3 January 2008, {{Dead link|date=November 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink WRM Bulletin Number 74, World Rainforest Movement, September 2003, 17 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081004225352weblink">weblink 4 October 2008, yes, dmy-all, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power,WEB,weblink Global Deforestation, Global Change Curriculum, University of Michigan Global Change Program, 4 January 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110615044847weblink">weblink 15 June 2011, dmy-all, population growth and overpopulation,WEB,weblink Impact of Population and Poverty on Rainforests, Rhett A, Butler, Mongabay.com / A Place Out of Time: Tropical Rainforests and the Perils They Face, 13 May 2009, WEB,weblink The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day, Stock, Jocelyn, Rochen, Andy, umich.edu, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090416161300weblink">weblink 16 April 2009, dmy-all, and urbanization.WEB,weblink Demographics, Democracy, Development, Disparity and Deforestation: A Crossnational Assessment of the Social Causes of Deforestation, Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, 16 August 2003, 13 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081210160729weblink">weblink 10 December 2008, yes, dmy-all, Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation,WEB,weblink The Double Edge of Globalization, Yale University Press, June 2007, YaleGlobal Online, WEB,weblink Human Threats to Rainforests—Economic Restructuring, Rhett A, Butler, Mongabay.com / A Place Out of Time: Tropical Rainforests and the Perils They Face, 13 May 2009, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new flows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.JOURNAL,weblink Globalization, Forest Resurgence, and Environmental Politics in El Salvador, World Development, 34, 2, 308–323, 2006, 10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.09.005, Hecht, Susanna B., Kandel, Susan, Gomes, Ileana, Cuellar, Nelson, Rosa, Herman, 17 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081029090622weblink">weblink 29 October 2008, yes, dmy-all, File:Operação Hymenaea, Julho-2016 (29399454651).jpg|thumb|Deforestation in the MaranhãoMaranhãoIn 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible", and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions".WEB,weblink Population and deforestation, Marcoux, Alain, August 2000, SD Dimensions, Sustainable Development Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628184520weblink">weblink 28 June 2011, dmy-all, The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation.JOURNAL,weblink Pearce, David W, The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems, Ecosystem Health, 7, 4, December 2001, 284–296, 10.1046/j.1526-0992.2001.01037.x, Many important forest functions have no markets, and hence, no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being. From the perspective of the developing world, the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services. Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world, such as the United States of America, cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited economically from this deforestation, and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities, i.e. that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem.JOURNAL, Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica?, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 3, 10.1139/x99-225, 2000, 495–506, Bulte, Erwin H, Joenje, Mark, Jansen, Hans GP, Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years.JOURNAL,weblink Butler, Rhett A., Laurance, William F., New strategies for conserving tropical forests, August 2008, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 9, 469–472, 10.1016/j.tree.2008.05.006, Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America, India, Java, and so on, during the late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century, by the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture.Rudel, T.K. (2005) Tropical Forests: Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in the Late 20th Century. Columbia University Press {{ISBN|0-231-13195-X}} Since 2001, commodity-driven deforestation, which is more likely to be permanent, has accounted for about a quarter of all forest disturbance, and this loss has been concentrated in South America and Southeast Asia.JOURNAL, Curtis, P. G., Slay, C. M., Harris, N. L., Tyukavina, A., Hansen, M. C., Classifying drivers of global forest loss, Science, 361, 6407, 2018, 1108–1111, 10.1126/science.aau3445,

Environmental effects

Atmospheric

{{see|Deforestation and climate change}}File:Manantenina bushfire.jpg|thumb|Illegal "slash-and-burn" practice in MadagascarMadagascarDeforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.WEB,weblink NASA DATA SHOWS DEFORESTATION AFFECTS CLIMATE, 9 June 2004, Nasa, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718105636weblink">weblink yes, 18 July 2011, Massive deforestation threatens food security, newsfromafrica.org, 15 February 2005, Mweninguwe, Raphael, Confirmed: Deforestation Plays Critical Climate Change Role, ScienceDaily, 11 May 2007.Clearing Forests May Transform Local—and Global—Climate; Researchers are finding that massive deforestation may have a profound, and possibly catastrophic, impact on local weather {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130413213815weblink |date=13 April 2013 }}. Scientific American (4 March 2013)Deforestation is a contributor to global warming,Deforestation causes global warming, FAOJOURNAL, 10.1890/03-5225, Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions, Ecological Applications, 14, 4, 982, 2004, Fearnside, Philip M., Laurance, William F., and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions.WEB,weblink Fondation Chirac ' Deforestation and desertification, According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section 7.3.3.1.5.p. 527 But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6% to 17%.JOURNAL, CO2 emissions from forest loss, Nature Geoscience, 2, 2009, 737–738, 10.1038/ngeo671, 11, Van Der Werf, G. R., Morton, D. C., Defries, R. S., Olivier, J. G. J., Kasibhatla, P. S., Jackson, R. B., Collatz, G. J., Randerson, J. T., 2009NatGe...2..737V, Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun. The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming, which is better known as the greenhouse effect.Mumoki, Fiona (18 July 2006)."The Effects of Deforestation on our Environment Today". Panorama. TakingITGlobal.. Plants remove carbon in the form of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis, but release some carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon, by storing it in plant tissues. Both the decay and the burning of wood release much of this stored carbon back into the atmosphere. Although an accumulation of wood is generally necessary for carbon sequestration, in some forests the network of symbiotic fungi that surround the trees' roots can store a significant amount of carbon, storing it underground even if the tree which supplied it dies and decays, or is harvested and burned.JOURNAL, 10.1126/science.1231923, 23539604, 2013Sci...339.1615C, Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest, Science, 339, 6127, 1615–8, Clemmensen, K. E., Bahr, A., Ovaskainen, O., Dahlberg, A., Ekblad, A., Wallander, H., Stenlid, J., Finlay, R. D., Wardle, D. A., Lindahl, B. D., 2013, Another way carbon can be sequestered by forests is for the wood to be harvested and turned into long-lived products, with new young trees replacing them.Prentice, I.C. "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". IPCC Deforestation may also cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle).In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall.NASA Data Shows Deforestation Affects Climate In The Amazon. NASA News. 9 June 2004. However, according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the models used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation showed a broad but mild temperature increase all through the tropical atmosphere. The model predicted

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