aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the country Malaysia|the biogeographical region|Malesia}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|Federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia}}{{EngvarB|date=August 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2019}}{{Use British English|date=August 2019}}{{Coord|2|30|N|112|30|E|display=title}}

}}{{small|"Unity Is Strength"}}Negaraku"()(File:Negaraku instrumental.ogg)Kuala Lumpur{{small>{{coord8101EPutrajaya {{small>(administrative)}}{{small2.9430952region:MY|display=inline}}}}Kuala Lumpur{{small>{{coord8101E|display=inline}}}}Official language {{nobold>and national language}}Malay language>MalaySection 9 of the National Language Act 1963/67 states that "The script of the national language shall be the Rumi script: provided that this shall not prohibit the use of the Malay script, more commonly known as the Jawi script, of the national language".{{#tag:refNational Language Act 1963/67 states that "Save as provided in this Act and subject to the safeguards contained in Article 152(1) of the Constitution relating to any other language and the language of any other community in Malaysia the national language shall be used for official purposes".>group="n"}}See Article 152 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia and National Language Act 1963/67.| languages_sub = yes| languages2_type = Recognised languageMalaysian English>English| ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| 68.8% Bumiputera or indigenous (Malay, Orang Asal and other bumiputera)
| 23.2% Chinese
|  7.0% Indian
|  1.0% Others
}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2018| religion = {{unbulleted list
| 61.3% Islam (official)WEB,weblink The States, Religion and Law of the Federation, Constitution of Malaysia, Judicial Appointments Commission, 29 October 2017, Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation.,
| 19.8% Buddhism
|  9.2% Christianity
|  6.3% Hinduism
|  1.3% Chinese folk religion
|  1.7% Unknown
|  0.4% OthersWEB,weblink Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristic Report 2010 (Updated: 05/08/2011), Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 29 July 2011, 11 June 2018,
}}Malaysians>MalaysianFederal monarchy>Federal parliamentary system Elective monarchy>elective constitutional monarchy| leader_title1 = Yang di-Pertuan AgongAbdullah of Pahang>Abdullah al-HajHARIZ MOHD >TITLE=SOURCES: SULTAN OF PAHANG ELECTED AS NEW AGONG ACCESSDATE=24 JANUARY 2019 PUBLISHER=MALAYSIAKINI, Prime Minister of Malaysia>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Mahathir MohamadParliament of Malaysia>Parliament| upper_house = Dewan Negara (Senate)| lower_house = Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)| sovereignty_type = Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomMerdeka Day>Independence of the Federation of MalayaURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=QM5LIMNBYUSC&PG=PA240PUBLISHER=THE RADCLIFFE PRESSPAGES=240–, Sarawak Self-government Day>Sarawak Self-government| established_date2 = 22 July 1963North Borneo Self-government Day>North Borneo Self-government| established_date3 = 31 August 1963| established_event4 = Proclamation of Malaysia| established_date4 = 16 September 1963Singapore in Malaysia>Secession of Singapore| established_date5 = 9 August 1965| area_rank = 66th| area_km2 = 330,803| area_sq_mi = 127,720| percent_water = 0.3PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIAACCESSDATE=11 JUNE 2018, | population_estimate_year =August 2019| population_estimate_rank = 42nd| population_census_year = 2010| population_census = 28,334,135| population_density_km2 = 92| population_density_sq_mi = 237| population_density_rank = 116th| GDP_PPP_year = 2019PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=23 FEBRUARY 2019, | GDP_PPP_rank = 25th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $32,501| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 41st| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal = $373,447 billion | GDP_nominal_rank = 33th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $11,338| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 62nd| Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = decrease| Gini = 41 PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK, 20 December 2018, | Gini_rank = | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase| HDI = 0.802YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 57thMalaysian ringgit>Ringgit (RM)| currency_code = MYR| date_format = dd-mm-yyyyMalaysian Standard Time>MST| utc_offset = +8Right- and left-hand traffic>left| calling_code = +60| cctld = .myPUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIA, 14 July 2017, }}Malaysia ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Malaysia.ogg|m|ə|ˈ|l|eɪ|z|i|ə|,_|-|ʒ|ə}} {{respell|mə|LAY|zee|ə|,_-|zhə}}; {{IPA-ms|məlejsiə|lang}}) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate. Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation.BOOK, Baten, Jörg, A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present., 2016, Cambridge University Press, 290, 9781107507180, The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, and indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The country's official language is Malaysian, a standard form of the Malay language. English remains an active second language.After independence, the Malaysian GDP grew at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth-largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world. It is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Non-Aligned Movement.


File:LA2-NSRW-1-0148 malaysia.jpg|thumb|left|alt=English Map of Southeast Asia, "MALAYSIA" typeset horizontally so that the letters run across the northernmost corner of Borneo and pass just south of the Philippines.|"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay ArchipelagoMalay ArchipelagoThe name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία.BOOK, Room, Adrian, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic Sites, McFarland & Company, 2004, 978-0-7864-1814-5, 221, The word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively.BOOK, Weightman, Barbara A., Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 2011, John Wiley and Sons, 449,weblink 978-1-118-13998-1, BOOK, Tiwary, Shanker Shiv, Encyclopaedia Of Southeast Asia And Its Tribes (Set Of 3 Vols.), 2009, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, 37,weblink 978-81-261-3837-1, BOOK,weblink People of India, Singh, Kumar Suresh, 26, 981, Anthropological Survey of India, 2003, 978-81-85938-98-1, "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula.BOOK, India's Interaction with Southeast Asia: History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Vol. 1, Part 3, 266, Pande, Govind Chandra, 978-81-87586-24-1, 2005, Munshiram Manoharlal, BOOK, The economic life of northern India: c. A.D. 700–1200, 139, Gopal, Lallanji, 978-81-208-0302-2, 2000, Motilal Banarsidass, BOOK, A Panorama of Indian Buddhism: Selections from the Maha Bodhi journal, 1892–1992, 612, Ahir, D. C., 978-81-7030-462-3, 1995, Sri Satguru Publications, BOOK, The culture and art of India, 212, Mukerjee, Radhakamal, 978-81-215-0114-9, 1984, Coronet Books Inc, BOOK, Some contributions of India to the ancient civilisation of Indonesia and Malaysia, 8, Sarkar, Himansu Bhusan, 1970, Punthi Pustak, Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra.{{citation|last1=Abdul Rashid|first1=Melebek|last2=Amat Juhari|first2=Moain|title=Sejarah Bahasa Melayu ("History of the Malay Language")|pages=9–10|publisher=Utusan Publications & Distributors|year=2006|isbn=978-967-61-1809-7}} The name was later adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra.{{citation | last = Milner | first = Anthony | title = The Malays (The Peoples of South-East Asia and the Pacific) | pages = 18–19| publisher = Wiley-Blackwell | year = 2010 | isbn = 978-1-4443-3903-1}}BOOK, Eliot, Joshua, Jane, Bickersteth, Sumatra Handbook, Footprint Handbooks, 2000, 262,weblink 978-1-900949-59-0, Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu" ("Malay Land").JOURNAL,weblink Legitimacy of the Malays as the Sons of the Soil, Asian Social Science, Mohamed Anwar Omar Din, 2012, Canadian Center of Science and Education, 1911-2025, 80–81, BOOK, Reid, Anthony, Anthony Reid (academic), Imperial alchemy : nationalism and political identity in Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 978-0-521-87237-9, 95, Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race.BOOK, Bernasconi, Robert, Lott, Tommy Lee, The Idea of Race,weblink 2000, Hackett Publishing, 978-0-87220-458-4, WEB,weblink Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University, Yale University, 7–8 November 2003, 13 May 2014, Painter, Nell Irvin, 18, New Haven, Connecticut, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2013, Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East Indies".JOURNAL, 10.1080/0022334032000120512, On the Islands of the Great Ocean, The Journal of Pacific History, 38, 2, 163, 2003, d'Urville, J. S. B. C. S. D., Ollivier, I., De Biran, A., Clark, G., In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.JOURNAL, Earl, George S. W., On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations, Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA), 1850, 119, IV, In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas.WEB,weblink Malay, 2013, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE.BOOK, Suarez, Thomas, Early Mapping of Southeast Asia, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd, 1999, 46–47,weblink 978-962-593-470-9, WEB,weblink Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)e, The UK Statute Law Database, 31 July 1957, 6 November 2010, The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name.BOOK, Sakai, Minako, Cao, Elizabeth, Morrell, Regional Minorities and Development in Asia, Routledge, 2009, 124,weblink 978-0-415-55130-4, Reviving Malay Connections in Southeast Asia, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2014,


File:Malacca Sultanate en.svg|thumb|upright|left|alt=Map showing the extent of the Malacca Sultanate, covering much of the Malay Peninsula and some of Sumatra|The Malacca SultanateMalacca SultanateEvidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.WEB,weblink Getaway to romance in Malaysia, Holme, Stephanie,, 13 February 2012, 6 January 2014, In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos.JOURNAL, Fix, Alan G., Malayan Paleosociology: Implications for Patterns of Genetic Variation among the Orang Asli, American Anthropologist, New Series, 97, 2, 313–323, June 1995, 10.1525/aa.1995.97.2.02a00090, 681964, Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries. Their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, and the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fourth or fifth century.BOOK, Mühlhäusler, Peter, Tryon, Darrell T, Wurm, Stephen A, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, Walter de Gruyer & Co, 1996, 695,weblink 978-3-11-013417-9, The Kingdom of Langkasuka arose around the second century in the northern area of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until about the 15th century. Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of the southern Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijayan empire. By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya.BOOK, Suporno, S., 1979, The Image of Majapahit in late Javanese and Indonesian Writing, Perceptions of the Past, Singapore, Heinemann Books for the Asian Studies Association of Australia, 180, A. Reid, D. Marr, Southeast Asia publications, 4, Islam began to spread among Malays in the 14th century. In the early 15th century, Parameswara, a runaway king of the former Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan court, founded the Malacca Sultanate. Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.File:AMH-6472-KB Battle for Malacca between the VOC fleet and the Portuguese, 1606.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=Dutch fleet vs Portuguese armada|The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca ]]In 1511, Malacca was conquered by Portugal, after which it was taken by the Dutch in 1641. In 1786, the British Empire established a presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of Kedah leased Penang Island to the British East India Company. The British obtained the town of Singapore in 1819,WEB,weblink The Map Room: South East Asia: Malaya, Luscombe, Stephen, 18 September 2010, and in 1824 took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. By 1826, the British directly controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore, and the island of Labuan, which they established as the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. By the 20th century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States, had British residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers, to whom the rulers were bound to defer to by treaty.WEB,weblink The Encyclopædia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 October 2010, The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not directly under British rule, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th century. Development on the peninsula and Borneo were generally separate until the 19th century. Under British rule the immigration of Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged.WEB,weblink International Migration and Governance in Malaysia: Policy and Performance, Kuar, Amarjit, University of New England, 20 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2010, The area that is now Sabah came under British control as North Borneo when both the Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878.BOOK, Malaysia and Its Neighbours, The World studies series, Gullick, J. M.,weblink 1967, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-7100-4141-8, 148–149, In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a crown colony.WEB,weblink Luscombe, Stephen, The Map Room: South East Asia: North Borneo, 1 July 2011, File:FORT CORNWALLIS GEORGETOWN PENANG ISLAND MALAYSIA JAN 2012 (6963840293).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Statue of Francis Light in the Fort of Cornwallis|Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of PenangPenangIn the Second World War, the Japanese Army invaded and occupied Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore for over three years. During this time, ethnic tensions were raised and nationalism grew.BOOK, Hock, David Koh Wee, Legacies of World War II in South and East Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 2007, 48,weblink 978-981-230-457-5, Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was reconquered by Allied forces.NEWS,weblink Our Region, Ourselves, Mohamad, Mahathir, Time, New York, 31 May 1999, 26 October 2010, Post-war British plans to unite the administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the "Malayan Union" met with strong opposition from the Malays, who opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the granting of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese. The Malayan Union, established in 1946, and consisting of all the British possessions in the Malay Peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was quickly dissolved and replaced on 1 February 1948 by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection.NEWS,weblink MALAYA: Token Citizenship, Time, New York, 19 May 1952, 26 October 2010, During this time, mostly Chinese rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency lasted from 1948 to 1960, and involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya.WEB,weblink The Malayan Emergency: 1948–1960, Australian Government Department of Veteran Affairs, 1 July 2011, On 31 August 1957, Malaya became an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations.NEWS,weblink 1957: Malaya celebrates independence, BBC News, 9 August 2016, After this a plan was put in place to federate Malaya with the crown colonies of North Borneo (which joined as Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore. The date of federation was planned to be 31 August 1963 so as to coincide with the anniversary of Malayan independence; however, federation was delayed until 16 September 1963 in order for a United Nations survey of support for federation in Sabah and Sarawak, called for by parties opposed to federation including Indonesia's Sukarno and the Sarawak United Peoples' Party, to be completed.NEWS,weblink Malaysia: Tunku Yes, Sukarno No, Time, New York, 6 September 1963, 17 October 2010, BOOK, Boon Kheng Cheah, Malaysia: The Making of a Nation,weblink 2002, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 978-981-230-154-3, 93–, Federation brought heightened tensions including a conflict with Indonesia as well continuous conflicts against the Communists in Borneo and the Malayan Peninsula which escalates to the Sarawak Communist Insurgency and Second Malayan Emergency together with several other issues such as the cross border attacks into North Borneo by Moro pirates from the southern islands of the Philippines, Singapore being expelled from the Federation in 1965,WEB,weblink Proclamation on Singapore, Singapore Attorney-General, 27 October 2010, NEWS,weblink Malaysia: The Art of Dispelling Anxiety, Time, New York, 27 August 1965, 26 October 2010, and racial strife. This strife culminated in the 13 May race riots in 1969.NEWS,weblink Race War in Malaysia, Time, New York, 23 May 1969, 26 October 2010, After the riots, the controversial New Economic Policy was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the share of the economy held by the bumiputera.WEB, Sundaram, Jomo Kwame,weblink The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia, UNRISD, 1 September 2004, 27 October 2010, Under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanisation beginning in the 1980s. The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North–South Expressway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, and the new federal administrative capital of Putrajaya.NEWS,weblink" title="">weblink 17 March 2009,weblink Bound for Glory, Spaeth, Anthony, Time, New York, 9 December 1996, 20 August 2011, However, in the late 1990s the Asian financial crisis almost caused the collapse of the currency and the stock and property markets.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2010, Ping Lee Poh, Yean Tham Siew, Malaysia Ten Years After The Asian Financial Crisis, Thammasat University, 25 July 2011,

Government and politics

File:MalaysianParliament.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=A photo showing the Malaysian Parliament building along with 2 white arches in diagonal position front of the building.|The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat ]]Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy, and the only federation in Southeast Asia. The system of government is closely modelled on that of the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British colonial rule.WEB,weblink Malaysia Information, Federation of International Trade Associations, 27 October 2010, The head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commonly referred to as the King. The King is elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states; the other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection. By informal agreement the position is systematically rotated among the nine, and has been held by Abdullah of Pahang since 31 January 2019.NEWS,weblink Malaysia crowns Sultan Abdullah as 16th King, The Straits Times, Singapore, 1 February 2019, 6 April 2019, The King's role has been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the upper house.WEB,weblink Malaysia country brief, Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, February 2014, 22 October 2014, Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives and the upper house, the Senate.WEB,weblink Background, Parlimen Malaysia, 3 June 2010, 25 July 2011, The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister's recommendation. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post system.WEB,weblink Malaysia, United States State Department, 14 July 2010, 14 September 2010, BOOK, John W. Langford, K. Lorne Brownsey, The Changing Shape of Government in the Asia-Pacific Region,weblink 1988, IRPP, 978-0-88645-060-1, 101–, Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, the most recent of which took place in May 2018. Until 2018, registered voters of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory.WEB,weblink Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat), Inter-Parliamentary Union, 29 September 2008, In July 2019, a bill to lower the voting age to 18 years old was officially passed in Parliament (Dewan Rakyat).WEB,weblink Dewan Rakyat passes Bill to amend Federal Constitution to lower voting age to 18, Martin Carvalho, Hemananthani Sivanandam, Rahimy Rahim, Tarrence Tan, The Star, 16 July 2019, 16 July 2019, File:Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (42910851015) (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A formal photo of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad.|Mahathir MohamadMahathir MohamadExecutive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister must be a member of the House of Representatives, who in the opinion of the King, commands the support of a majority of members. The Cabinet is chosen from members of both houses of Parliament. The Prime Minister is both the head of cabinet and the head of government. Since the 2018 general election, Malaysia has been governed by the Pakatan Harapan political alliance.NEWS,weblink Malaysia election: Opposition scores historic victory, BBC News, 10 May 2018, 6 April 2019, Malaysia's legal system is based on English Common Law. Although the judiciary is theoretically independent, its independence has been called into question and the appointment of judges lacks accountability and transparency.WEB,weblinkweblink 6 December 2011, Attacks on Justice – Malaysia, International Commission of Jurists, 5 December 2011, dead, The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal and two high courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia. Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 15 May 2011, Malaysian criminal court system, Association of Commonwealth Criminal Lawyers, 15 December 2010, The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, and kidnapping.WEB,weblink Laws of Malaysia [Act 574], Attorney General's Chamber, 1 January 2015, 13 October 2016, WEB,weblink The Death Penalty in Malaysia, Government of the United Kingdom, 15 October 2013, Separate from and running parallel to the civil courtsNEWS, England, Vaudine,weblink Malaysian groups welcome first Islamic women judges, BBC News, 9 July 2010, 27 September 2010, are the Syariah Courts, which apply Shariah law to MuslimsNEWS,weblink Malaysia rejects Christian appeal, BBC News, 30 May 2007, 27 September 2010, in the areas of family law and religious observances. Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia,NEWS, Max, Bearak, Darla, Cameron,weblink Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death, The Washington Post, 16 June 2016, NEWS, Daniel, Avery, 71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal,weblink Newsweek, 4 April 2019, and the authorities can impose punishment such as caning.NEWS,weblink Women caned in Malaysia for attempting to have lesbian sex, Lamb, Kate, 3 September 2018, The Guardian, 26 May 2019, London, Race is a significant force in politics. Affirmative actions such as the New Economic Policy and the National Development Policy which superseded it, were implemented to advance the standing of the bumiputera, consisting of Malays and the indigenous tribes who are considered the original inhabitants of Malaysia, over non-bumiputera such as Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indians.WEB,weblink Dasar Ekonomi Baru, Pusat Maklumat Rakyat, 14 November 2008, 21 November 2010, These policies provide preferential treatment to bumiputera in employment, education, scholarships, business, and access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. However, it has generated greater interethnic resentment.WEB,weblink The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia, Sundaram, Jomo Kwame, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1 September 2004, 1020-8194, 22 August 2011, There is ongoing debate over whether the laws and society of Malaysia should reflect secular or Islamic principles.NEWS,weblink Once Muslim, Now Christian and Caught in the Courts, The New York Times, Perlez, Jane, 24 August 2006, 22 August 2011, Islamic criminal laws passed by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the support of United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) state assemblymen in the state legislative assembly of Kelantan have been blocked by the federal government on the basis that criminal laws are the responsibility of the federal government.NEWS,weblink Malaysian state passes Islamic law, BBC News, 8 July 2002, 27 November 2011, NEWS,weblink Kelantan's passing of hudud amendments void, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 23 March 2015, 1 April 2015, NEWS,weblink BN won't declare hudud support, but individual members can, chief whip says, Malay Mail, Kuala Lumpur, 31 March 2015, 1 April 2015,

Political divisions

{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto;"|{{Malaysia Labelled Map}}Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.NEWS,weblink Understanding the Federation of Malaysia, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 2 November 2015, 3 November 2015, These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and two federal territories on Peninsular Malaysia and the other two states and one federal territory in East Malaysia. Each state is divided into districts, which are then divided into mukim. In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into divisions.WEB,weblink Malaysia Districts, Statoids, 3 November 2010, Governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal government has direct administration of the federal territories.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 22 February 2014, Federal Territories and State Governments, Malaysian government, 15 October 2013, Each state has a unicameral State Legislative Assembly whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. State governments are led by Chief Ministers, who are state assembly members from the majority party in the assembly. In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a Malay, appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister.BOOK, The management of secondary cities in southeast Asia, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, 1996, 120,weblink 978-92-1-131313-0, Except for state elections in Sarawak, by convention state elections are held concurrently with the federal election.Lower-level administration is carried out by local authorities, which include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils, although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and state governments to deal with certain tasks.WEB,weblink Malaysia's government procurement regime, Ministry of Finance Malaysia, 19 February 2014, The federal constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government,WEB,weblink Introduction to local government in Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 19 February 2014, although in practice the federal government has intervened in the affairs of state local governments.WEB,weblink Decentralisation or recentralisation? Trends in local government in Malaysia, Nooi, Phang Siew, Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, May 2008, 19 February 2014, There are 154 local authorities, consisting of 14 city councils, 38 municipal councils, and 97 district councils.The 13 states are based on historical Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11 Peninsular states, known as the Malay states, retain their royal families. The King is elected by and from the nine rulers to serve a five-year term. This King appoints governors serving a four-year term for the states without monarchies, after consultations with the chief minister of that state. Each state has its own written constitution.WEB,weblink Electoral Politics in Malaysia: 'Managing' Elections in a Plural Society, Hai, Lim Hong, 19 February 2014, Sabah and Sarawak have considerably more autonomy than the other states, most notably having separate immigration policies and controls, and a unique residency status.BOOK, Hannum, Hurst, Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights,weblink 1993, Martinus Nijhoff, 978-0-7923-1977-1, 342–, JOURNAL, Lockard, Craig A., Sabah and Sarawak: The Politics of Development and Federalism. Kajian Malaysia, Special Issue. Edited by Francis Loh Kok Wah. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1997. Pp. 236., Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 31, 1, March 2000, 210–213, 10.1017/S0022463400016192, NEWS,weblink An agreement forged and forgotten, Bong, Karen, Pilo, Wilfred, yes, The Borneo Post, Kuching, 16 September 2011, 3 July 2014, Federal intervention in state affairs, lack of development, and disputes over oil royalties have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in several states such as Penang, Johor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak, although these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements exist.WEB,weblink Penang: The Rebel State (Part One), Koay, Su Lin, Penang Monthly, September 2016, 26 November 2017, JOURNAL,weblink Politics of Federal Intervention in Malaysia, with reference to Kelantan, Sarawak and Sabah, James, Chin, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 35, 96–120, 1997, 3 November 2015, 10.1080/14662049708447747, WEB,weblink Could the Federation of Malaysia really come apart?, Mohd Hazmi Mohd Rusli, Astro Awani, 18 October 2015, 3 November 2015, NEWS,weblink Will things fall apart in the Malaysian federation?, Today, Singapore, 3 November 2015, 3 November 2015,
A list of thirteen states and each state capital (in brackets):{{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  1. {{flagicon|Johor}} Johor (Johor Bahru)
  2. {{flagicon|Kedah}} Kedah (Alor Setar)
  3. {{flagicon|Kelantan}} Kelantan (Kota Bharu)
  4. {{flagicon|Melaka}} Malacca (Malacca City)
  5. {{flagicon|Negeri Sembilan}} Negeri Sembilan (Seremban)
  6. {{flagicon|Pahang}} Pahang (Kuantan)
  7. {{flagicon|Penang}} Penang (George Town)
  8. {{flagicon|Perak}} Perak (Ipoh)
  9. {{flagicon|Perlis}} Perlis (Kangar)
  10. {{flagicon|Sabah}} Sabah (Kota Kinabalu)
  11. {{flagicon|Sarawak}} Sarawak (Kuching)
  12. {{flagicon|Selangor}} Selangor (Shah Alam)
  13. {{flagicon|Terengganu}} Terengganu (Kuala Terengganu)
{{div col end}}
Federal Territories
  1. {{flagicon|Kuala Lumpur}} Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur
  2. {{flagicon|Labuan}} Federal Territory of Labuan
  3. {{flagicon|Putrajaya}} Federal Territory of Putrajaya

Foreign relations and military

File:Secretary Pompeo and Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (42910851015).jpg|thumb|left|alt=With Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad|Mahathir meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in PutrajayaPutrajayaA founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)WEB,weblink Overview, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 8 November 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2008, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC),WEB,weblink Islamic Affairs (OIC) and D8 Division, Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 12 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2017, dead, the country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations,WEB,weblink List of Member States, United Nations, 8 November 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2007, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2010, Member Economies, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, 10 June 2011, the Developing 8 Countries,WEB,weblink Malaysia, Developing 8 Countries, 15 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2017, dead, and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).WEB,weblink The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States, Non-Aligned Movement, 5 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2010, It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.WEB,weblink Member States, Commonwealth Secretariat, 26 October 2010, Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005.WEB,weblink Malaysia Foreign Relations, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 4 December 2008, 18 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2010, Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system.WEB,weblink Malaysia's Foreign Policy, 21 September 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The government attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the region. Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation while strengthening relations with other Islamic states. A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs. Malaysia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.WEB,weblink Chapter XXVI: Disarmament â€“ No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, United Nations Treaty Collection, 7 July 2017, NEWS, Japan should support nuclear ban treaty, says Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamad,weblink The Japan Times, 7 August 2019, The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a large portion of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia historically avoided conflicts with China.NEWS,weblink Why Malaysia, unlike Philippines, keeps quiet on sea row, Diola, Camille, The Philippine Star, 25 June 2014, 25 June 2014, However, after the encroachment of Chinese ships in Malaysian territorial waters,NEWS,weblink Presence of China Coast Guard ship at Luconia Shoals spooks local fishermen, The Borneo Post, Kuching, 27 September 2015, 28 September 2015, Malaysia has become active in condemning China.NEWS,weblink Malaysia lodges diplomatic protest against intrusion at Beting Patinggi Ali, Bernama, The Rakyat Post, 15 August 2015, 16 August 2015, NEWS,weblink Malaysia slams China's 'provocation' in South China Sea, Ben, Blanchard, Richard, Pullin, Reuters, Channel News Asia, 18 October 2015, 20 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2015, Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other's land, and committed to resolve issues related to their maritime borders.NEWS, Brunei drops all claims to Limbang,weblink Masli, Ubaidillah, The Brunei Times, 17 March 2009, 23 August 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2014, dead, The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern part of Sabah.JOURNAL, Mohamad, Kadir, 2009, Malaysia's territorial disputes – two cases at the ICJ: Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan [and the Sabah claim] (Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines),weblink Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia, Map of British North Borneo, highlighting in yellow colour the area covered by the Philippine claim, presented to the Court by the Philippines during the Oral Hearings at the ICJ on 25 June 2001, 46, 16 May 2014, Singapore's land reclamation has caused tensions,WEB,weblink Disputed â€“ International, CIA, 26 October 2010, and minor maritime and land border disputes exist with Indonesia.NEWS,weblink Border disputes differ for Indonesia, M'sia, Daily Express (Malaysia), Daily Express, Kota Kinabalu, 16 October 2015, 19 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2015, dead, File:Compilation of Malaysian Armed Forces.png|thumb|right|alt=Malaysian Armed Forces assets|Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: {{sclass-|Scorpène|submarine|1}}, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.]]Malaysia has never recognised Israel and has no diplomatic ties with it,WEB,weblink Malaysia: Anti-Semitism without Jews, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 5 September 2010, and has called for the International Criminal Court to take action against Israel over its Gaza flotilla raid.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 June 2010, Malaysia wants Israel referred to International Criminal Court (Updated), Peng Lee Yuk, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 7 June 2010, 21 May 2011, Malaysia has stated it will establish official relations with Israel only when a peace agreement with the State of Palestine has been reached, and called for both parties to find a quick resolution to realise the two-state solution.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2011, Malaysia can be Muslim 'thought leader' â€“ Clinton, New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur, 15 November 2010, NEWS,weblink Malaysia calls on Palestine and Israel to demonstrate restraint, Bernama, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 19 October 2015, 19 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Implement two-state solution, says Anifah, New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur, 3 August 2017, 12 December 2017, Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Congo, Iran–Iraq, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, East Timor and Lebanon.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2013, Malaysia – Permanent Missions to the United Nations, United Nations, 12 February 2013, 15 October 2013, The Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches: the Royal Malaysian Navy, the Malaysian Army, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. There is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18. The military uses 1.5% of the country's GDP, and employs 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower.WEB,weblink Malaysian Military statistics, NationMaster, 1 October 2010, The Five Power Defence Arrangements is a regional security initiative which has been in place for almost 40 years. It involves joint military exercises held among Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.NEWS,weblink Australia says major military exercise underway in Malaysia, My Sinchew, 26 April 2010, 1 October 2010, Joint exercises and war games have also been held with Brunei,NEWS,weblink Brunei, M'sia train in 11th military exercise, Wood, Daniel, The Brunei Times, 20 April 2014, 5 November 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2014, China,NEWS,weblink Joint table top exercise between armies of China, Malaysia kicks off in Malaysia, Xinhua News Agency, Global Times, 22 December 2014, 24 December 2014, WEB,weblink First China-Malaysia joint military exercise held in Malacca Strait, Yao Jianing, China Military Online, Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China, 17 September 2015, 1 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2018, dead, India,WEB,weblink First Ever Joint Army exercise on Malaysian Soil Commences with Handing-Over of Troops Ceremony, Aman Anand, Press Information Bureau (India), 30 April 2018, 2 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2018, dead, IndonesiaNEWS,weblink Indonesia-Malaysia military exercises must continue â€“ defence minister, ANTARA News, 13 September 2010, 1 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2010, dead, JapanWEB,weblink Japan, Malaysia sign defence accord, John Grevatt, Jane's Information Group, 12 September 2018, 1 October 2018,weblink 1 October 2018, dead, and the United States.NEWS,weblink Malaysia, US armed forces in joint exercise, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 25 August 2014, 26 August 2014, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam have agreed to host joint security force exercises to secure their maritime border and tackle issues such as illegal immigration, piracy and smuggling.NEWS,weblink Malaysia, Philippines committed to enhancing border security, My Sinchew, 9 August 2010, 18 September 2010, WEB,weblink Piracy in Southeast Asia: Organised Criminal Syndicates or Small Scale Opportunists?, Gray Page, April 2013, 24 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2015, dead, NEWS,weblink Malaysia, Thailand military exercise to include other agencies, Asean members, Carvalho, Martin, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 15 May 2012, 5 November 2014, Previously there were fears that extremist militants activities in the Muslim areas of the southern PhilippinesWEB, Pike, John,weblink Malaysia Intensifies Border Security Following US Warnings,, 18 September 2010, and southern ThailandNEWS, Kent, Jonathan,weblink Malaysia ups Thai border security, BBC News, 28 April 2004, 18 September 2010, would spill over into Malaysia. Because of this, Malaysia began to increase its border security.


File:Malaysia on satellite map (NASA World Wind).PNG|left|thumb|alt=Malaysia on a satellite map globe|Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climatetropical rainforest climateMalaysia is the 66th largest country by total land area, with a land area of {{convert|329613|km2|abbr=on}}. It has land borders with Thailand in West Malaysia, and Indonesia and Brunei in East Malaysia.WEB,weblink Malaysia, CIA, 27 March 2014, It is linked to Singapore by a narrow causeway and a bridge. The country also has maritime boundaries with VietnamWEB,weblink To Reduce Conflicts, Indonesia and Malaysia Should Meet Intensively, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 26 October 2010, and the Philippines.BOOK, Prescott, John Robert Victor, Schofield, Clive H, Undelimited maritime boundaries of the Asian Rim in the Pacific Ocean, International Boundaries Research Unit, 2001, 53,weblink 978-1-897643-43-3, The land borders are defined in large part by geological features such as the Perlis River, the Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention. Brunei forms what is almost an enclave in Malaysia,WEB,weblink Brunei, CIA, 13 September 2011, with the state of Sarawak dividing it into two parts. Malaysia is the only country with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago. Tanjung Piai, located in the southern state of Johor, is the southernmost tip of continental Asia.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2007, Asia's southernmost tip, Wei, Leow Cheah, Travel Times, 3 July 2007, 26 October 2010, The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most important thoroughfares in global commerce, carrying 40 per cent of the world's trade.NEWS, Schuman, Michael,weblink Waterway To the World â€“ Summer Journey, Time, New York, 22 April 2009, 16 August 2011, The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per cent of Malaysia's land area, extends {{convert|740|km|abbr=on}} from north to south, and its maximum width is {{convert|322|km|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Saw, Swee-Hock, The population of Peninsular Malaysia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007, 1–2,weblink 978-981-230-730-9, It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains,BOOK, Stevens, Alan M., Kamus Lengkap Indonesia Inggris, Ohio University Press, 2004, 89,weblink 978-979-433-387-7, rising to a peak elevation of {{Convert|2183|m|ft}} at Mount Korbu,BOOK, The A to Z of Malaysia, lxxxii, Ooi Keat Gin, Gin, Rowman & Littlefield, 2010, 9780810876415, part of a series of mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula. These mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape. The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia's river systems.WEB,weblink Main Range (mountains, Malaysia), Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 October 2010, The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of {{convert|50|km|mi|0}}, and the peninsula's coastline is nearly {{convert|1931|km|abbr=on}} long, although harbours are only available on the western side.File:MountKinabalu from CheSuiKhorPagodaKK-01.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Mount Kinabalu seen from the top of a pagoda|Mount KinabaluMount KinabaluEast Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of {{convert|2607|km|abbr=on}}. It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous interior. The Crocker Range extends northwards from Sarawak, dividing the state of Sabah. It is the location of the {{convert|4095|m|adj=on|abbr=on}} high Mount Kinabalu,BOOK, Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei, Richmond, Simon, 978-1-74104-887-2, Lonely Planet, 2010, 74–75,weblink BOOK, Borneo: Sabah – Brunei – Sarawak, Thiessen, Tamara, 9781841623900, Bradt Travel Guides, 23 April 2014, 2012, 192,weblink the tallest mountain in Malaysia. Mount Kinabalu is located in the Kinabalu National Park, which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Malaysia.WEB,weblink Mount Kinabalu â€“ revered abode of the dead, Ecology Asia, 17 September 2010, The highest mountain ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the world, in the Gunung Mulu National Park which is also a World Heritage Site.Around these two halves of Malaysia are numerous islands, the largest of which is Banggi.JOURNAL, Daw, T., Reef Fish Aggregations in Sabah, East Malaysia,weblink April 2004, Society for the Conservation of Reef Fish Aggregations, Western Pacific Fisher Survey series, 5, 17, The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. The temperature is moderated by the presence of the surrounding oceans. Humidity is usually high, and the average annual rainfall is {{convert|250|cm|abbr=on}}. The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Local climates can be divided into three regions, highland, lowland, and coastal. Climate change is likely to affect sea levels and rainfall, increasing flood risks and leading to droughts.


File:Wildlife of Malaysia.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Wildlife of Malaysia|Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tigerMalayan tigerMalaysia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994.WEB,weblink List of Parties, 9 December 2012, It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998.WEB,weblink Malaysia's National Policy on Biological Diversity, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2013, The country is megadiverse with a high number of species and high levels of endemism.WEB,weblink Biodiversity Theme Report, Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2001, 24 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2008, It is estimated to contain 20 per cent of the world's animal species.BOOK, Alexander, James, Malaysia Brunei & Singapore, New Holland Publishers, 2006, 46–50,weblink 978-1-86011-309-3, High levels of endemism are found on the diverse forests of Borneo's mountains, as species are isolated from each other by lowland forest.BOOK, World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2008, 1160, 1166–1192, 1218–1222,weblink 978-0-7614-7642-9, There are about 210 mammal species in the country. Over 620 species of birds have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia, with many endemic to the mountains there. A high number of endemic bird species are also found in Malaysian Borneo. 250 reptile species have been recorded in the country, with about 150 species of snakesBOOK, Richmond, Simon, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, Lonely Planet, 2007, 63–64,weblink 978-1-74059-708-1, and 80 species of lizards. There are about 150 species of frogs, and thousands of insect species. The Exclusive economic zone of Malaysia is {{convert|334,671|km²|sqmi|abbr=on}} and 1.5 times larger than its land area. It is mainly in the South China Sea.Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.BOOK, De Young, Cassandra, Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, 143,weblink 978-92-5-105499-4, Some of its waters are in the Coral Triangle, a biodiversity hotspot.WEB,weblink Coral Triangle, WWF, 14 September 2010, The waters around Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world. Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 fish species.NEWS,weblink Saving the gardeners of the ocean, Inquirer Global Nation, 12 July 2010, 20 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2010, The unique biodiversity of Malaysian Caves always attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the world.WEB,weblink Species diversity and food-web complexity in the caves of Malaysia, Ambient Science, 2014 Vol 1(2), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2014, Nearly 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have been recorded from Malaysia. Of the two fungal groups with the largest number of species in Malaysia, the Ascomycota and their asexual states have been surveyed in some habitats (decaying wood, marine and freshwater ecosystems, as parasites of some plants, and as agents of biodegradation), but have not been or have been only poorly surveyed in other habitats (as endobionts, in soils, on dung, as human and animal pathogens); the Basidiomycota are only partly surveyed: bracket fungi, and mushrooms and toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian rust and smut fungi remain very poorly known. Without doubt, many more fungal species in Malaysia have not yet been recorded, and it is likely that many of those, when found, will be new to science.Lee, S.S.; Alias, S.A.; Jones, E.B.G.; Zainuddin, N. and Chan, H.T. (2012) Checklist of Fungi of Malaysia Research Pamphlet No. 132, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia.File:Rafflesia 80 cm.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Red flower made of 5 petals surrounding a depressed centre, on the forest floor surrounded by dead leaves and small green plants|Some species of 1|m|abbr=on}} in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.About two thirds of Malaysia was covered in forest as of 2007, with some forests believed to be 130 million years old. The forests are dominated by dipterocarps.WEB,weblink The Malaysian Rainforest, WWF Malaysia, 1 October 2010, Lowland forest covers areas below {{convert|760|m|abbr=on}}, and formerly East Malaysia was covered in such rainforest, which is supported by its hot wet climate. There are around 14,500 species of flowering plants and trees. Besides rainforests, there are over {{convert|1425|km2|abbr=on}} of mangroves in Malaysia, and a large amount of peat forest. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarps. There are an estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East.BOOK, Oon, Helen, Globetrotter Wildlife Guide Malaysia, New Holland Publishers, 2008, 11, 978-1-84537-971-1, The forests of East Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare. These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world, with a maximum diameter of {{convert|1|m|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei, Richmond, Simon, 978-1-74104-887-2, Lonely Planet, 2010, 78–82 and 366,weblink

Conservation issues

Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover, causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Over 80 per cent of Sarawak's rainforest has been cleared. Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60 per cent of the Peninsular's forest have been cleared. With current rates of deforestation, mainly for the palm oil industry, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020.NEWS,weblink Malaysia plans to halt all expansion of oil palm plantations, minister says, 4 March 2019, The Straits Times, Singapore, 26 May 2019, Deforestation is a major problem for animals, fungi and plants, as the forest is cut to make room for plantations.WEB, McQuillan, Rebecca,weblink Can global summit save the tiger, The Herald, Glasgow, 22 November 2010, 20 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, Most remaining forest is found inside national parks. Habitat destruction has proved a threat for marine life. Illegal fishing is another major threat, with fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting marine ecosystems.NEWS,weblink Artificial reefs to prevent illegal fishing, The Borneo Post, 4 December 2010, 20 December 2010, Leatherback turtle numbers have dropped 98 per cent since the 1950s. Hunting has also been an issue for some animals, with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine life to tigers. Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2011, Go: A diver's paradise, New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur, 22 June 2011, 20 December 2010, Ridzwan A., Rahim, The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation; and the federal government is trying to cut logging by 10 per cent each year. 28 national parks have been established; 23 in East Malaysia and five in the Peninsular. Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island. Animal trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government is holding talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking laws.NEWS,weblink Standardize illegal animal trafficking law â€“ Ellron, The Borneo Post, 15 December 2010, 20 December 2010,


(File:What does Malaysia export? (2017).jpg|thumb|upright=2|Tree map of Malaysia's exports in 2017)File:Proton Suprima S Front Three Quarter Facing Left.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A blue Proton Suprima|The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.]]Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised market economy.WEB, Boulton, WilliaM, Pecht, Michael, Tucker, William, Wennberg, Sam,weblink Electronics Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim, World Technology Evaluation Center, Chapter 4: Malaysia, The World Technology Evaluation Center, Inc, May 1997, 1 November 2010, WEB,weblink Malaysia, A Statist Economy, Infernalramblings, 1 November 2010, The state plays a significant but declining role in guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans. Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5 per cent annually from 1957 to 2005. Malaysia's economy in 2014–2015 was one of the most competitive in Asia, ranking 6th in Asia and 20th in the world, higher than countries like Australia, France and South Korea.WEB,weblink WEF, 13 February 2015, In 2014, Malaysia's economy grew 6%, the second highest growth in ASEAN behind the Philippines' growth of 6.1%.WEB,weblink Malaysia's GDP grows 6 percent in 2014, 12 February 2014, The economy of Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) in April 2019 was estimated to be $999.397 billion, the third largest in ASEAN and the 25th largest in the world.WEB,weblink Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP), IMF, 29 April 2019, In 1991, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (during his first period as Prime Minister) outlined his ideal in Vision 2020, in which Malaysia would become a self-sufficient industrialised nation by 2020.NEWS, The Way Forward,weblink Prime Minister's Office, Mohamad, Mahathir, 17 November 2008, Najib Razak has said Malaysia could attain developed country status much earlier from the actual target in 2020, adding the country has two program concept such as Government Transformation Programme and the Economic Transformation Programme.NEWS,weblink M'sia On Track To Become High-income Nation Earlier Than Projected, Says Najib, Bernama, 12 May 2014, 13 May 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2014, dead, According to a HSBC report, Malaysia will become the world's 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion (Year 2000 dollars) and a GDP per capita of $29,247 (Year 2000 dollars). The report also says "The electronic equipment, petroleum, and liquefied natural gas producer will see a substantial increase in income per capita. Malaysian life expectancy, relatively high level of schooling, and above average fertility rate will help in its rapid expansion".WEB,weblink These Economies Will Dominate The World In 2050, Platt, Eric, Business Insider, 13 January 2012, 19 October 2014, Viktor Shvets, the managing director of Credit Suisse, has said "Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed nation".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 May 2012, Malaysia got what it takes to be developed nation, Wong, Wei-Shen, The Star, 7 May 2012, 25 June 2013, File:Northport Malaysia Wharve.JPG|thumb|left|Port KlangPort KlangIn the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural-based economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s, the industrial sector, with a high level of investment, has led the country's growth.BOOK, Osman-Rani, H., Toh, Kin Woon, Ali, Anuwar, yes, Effective mechanisms for the enhancement of technology and skills in Malaysia,weblink 1986, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1, 978-9971-988-34-0, The economy recovered from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis earlier than neighbouring countries did, and has since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis era with a GDP per capita of $14,800.BOOK, Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy, Bożyk, PaweÅ‚, Newly Industrialized Countries, 164, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006, 978-0-7546-4638-9, BOOK, Principles of Economics, Mankiw, N. Gregory, 2007, 4, 978-0-324-22472-6, Economic inequalities exist between different ethnic groups. The Chinese make up about one-quarter of the population, but accounts for 70 per cent of the country's market capitalisation.WEB,weblink Minority rule, majority hate, Chau, Amy, Asia Times, 15 November 2010, Chinese businesses in Malaysia are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses in the Southeast Asian market sharing common family and cultural ties.BOOK, Weidenbaum, Murray L, The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia,weblink 1996, Martin Kessler Books, Free Press, 978-0-684-82289-1, 4–8, International trade, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent Strait of Malacca, and manufacturing are the key sectors.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2014, The Security of The Straits of Malacca and Its Implications to The South East Asia Regional Security, Office of The Prime Minister of Malaysia, 21 June 2010, WEB,weblink BNM National Summary Data Page, Bank Negara Malaysia, 30 September 2003, 29 October 2010, NEWS,weblink Time, How to Defeat Pirates: Success in the Strait, Michael, Schuman, 22 April 2009, Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, and petroleum is a major export. Malaysia has once been the largest producer of tin,WEB,weblink TED Case Studies: Tin Mining In Malaysia – Present And Future, American University, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2016, rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy,WEB,weblink BNM National Summary Data Page, Bank Negara Malaysia, 27 October 2010, although Malaysia's economic structure has been moving away from it.WEB,weblink WHO Western Pacific Region â€“ 2006 â€“ Malaysia â€“ Political and socioeconomic situation, WHO, 18 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2010, Malaysia remains one of the world's largest producers of palm oil.NEWS,weblink Malaysia defends palm oil production, The Telegraph, 10 June 2007, 28 November 2010, Charles, Clover, File:Petronas Panorama II.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Petronas Towers|The Petronas Towers house the headquarters of the national oil company PetronasPetronasIn an effort to diversify the economy and make it less dependent on export goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism to Malaysia. As a result, tourism has become Malaysia's third largest source of foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism.BOOK, Heidi, Munan, Yee, Foo Yuk, Malaysia, Benchmark Books, 2001, 28, 36–37, 978-0-7614-1351-6, The tourism sector came under some pressure in 2014 when the national carrier Malaysia Airlines had one of its planes disappear in March, while another was brought down by a missile over Ukraine in July, resulting in the loss of a total 537 passengers and crew. The state of the airline, which had been unprofitable for 3 years, prompted the government in August 2014 to nationalise the airline by buying up the 30 per cent it did not already own.NEWS, State investment firm keen to acquire Malaysia Airlines,weblink 8 August 2014, Malaysia Sun, Between 2013 and 2014, Malaysia has been listed as one of the best places to retire to in the world, with the country in third position on the Global Retirement Index. This in part was the result of the Malaysia My Second Home programme to allow foreigners to live in the country on a long-stay visa for up to 10 years.WEB,weblink M'sia listed as 3rd best place to retire, Avineshwaran, T., Jakarta Post, 8 January 2014, 9 January 2014, In 2016, Malaysia ranked the fifth position on The World's Best Retirement Havens while getting in the first place as the best place in Asia to retire. Warm climate with British colonial background made foreigners easy to interact with the locals.WEB,weblink The World's Best Retirement Havens In 2016, 1 April 2016, The Huffington Post, 22 September 2017, The country has developed into a centre of Islamic banking, and is the country with the highest numbers of female workers in that industry.NEWS,weblink A Path to Financial Equality in Malaysia, 27 September 2010, International Herald Tribune, Gooch, Liz, September 2010, Knowledge-based services are also expanding. To create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development, Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s. The privatisation has created defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry.WEB,weblink Malaysia Defence Industry, Pike, John,, 24 September 2010, Science policies in Malaysia are regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. The country is one of the world's largest exporters of semiconductor devices, electrical devices, and IT and communication products. Malaysia began developing its own space programme in 2002,WEB,weblink About Us – Our Organisation, National Space Agency, Government of Malaysia (ANGKASA), 6 October 2014, NEWS,weblink Malaysia has high hopes for moon, Kent, Jonathan, BBC News, 28 August 2005, 30 May 2011, and in 2006, Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multibillion-dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force.NEWS,weblink Malaysian astronaut to fly to ISS in 2007, RIA Novosti, 19 May 2006, 18 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2011, The government has invested in building satellites through the RazakSAT programme.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 16 June 2013, RM200mil for RazakSAT-2 satellite programme, 9 September 2011, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 7 August 2013,


The overall infrastructure of Malaysia is one of the most developed in AsiaWEB,weblink Why Malaysia, Malaysia Industrial Development Authority, 20 August 2011, and ranked 8th in Asia and 25th in the world.WEB,weblink Global Competitiveness Index, World Economic Forum, 20 October 2015, Malaysia is ranked 19th in the world for its quality roads, quality of port infrastructure and quality of air transport infrastructure but ranked 39th in quality of electricity supply. Its telecommunications network is second only to Singapore's in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers.WEB,weblink Malaysian Telecommunications Overview, American University, 25 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2011, WEB,weblink Telephones â€“ mobile cellular, The World Factbook, 25 May 2011, The country has seven international ports, the major one being the Port Klang. There are 200 industrial parks along with specialised parks such as Technology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park. Fresh water is available to over 95 per cent of the population. During the colonial period, development was mainly concentrated in economically powerful cities and in areas forming security concerns. Although rural areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.WEB,weblinkweblink 6 June 2011, Infrastructure and Rural Development in Malaysia, Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific, 25 May 2011, dead, The telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less available to the rural population.


Malaysia's energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility company in Southeast Asia, with over RM99.03 billion of assets. Customers are connected to electricity through the National Grid, with more than 420 transmission substations in the Peninsular linked together by approximately 11,000 km of transmission lines operating at 66, 132, 275, and 500 kilovolts.WEB, Tenaga Nasional Berhad 500kV Transmission System, Phase 1,weblink Ranhill Berhad, 23 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2009, The other two electric utility companies in the country are Sarawak Energy and Sabah Electricity.{{Citation needed|date=April 2019}} In 2013, Malaysia's total power generation capacity was over 29,728 megawatts. Total electricity generation was 140,985.01 GWh and total electricity consumption was 116,087.51 GWh.WEB,weblink Energy Commission, 11 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2015, dmy-all, Energy production in Malaysia is largely based on oil and natural gas, owing to Malaysia's oil reserves and natural gas reserves, which is the fourth largest in Asia-Pacific region.WEB,weblink Renewable Energy and Kyoto Protocol: Adoption in Malaysia, Selamat, Salsuwanda, Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner, yes, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2013,


{{multiple image|perrow = 2|total_width=300| image1 = NorthSouth-Expressway.jpg
| width1 = 1500
| height1 = 1000| image2 = Ktmb class 91 and class 92 ipoh station.jpg
| width2 = 1630
| height2 = 1000| image3 = KLIA MTB&Tower.jpg
| width3 = 4384
| height3 = 2922North–South Expressway (Malaysia)>North–South Expressway, [hide]KTM Class 91
KTM Class 92>KTM Komuter Class 92 (right) and the Kuala Lumpur International Airport.}}Malaysia's road network is one of the most comprehensive in Asia and covers a total of {{convert|144,403|km|mi|0}}. The main national road network is the Malaysian Federal Roads System, which span over {{convert|49,935|km|mi|abbr=on}}. Most of the federal roads in Malaysia are 2-lane roads. In town areas, federal roads may become 4-lane roads to increase traffic capacity. Nearly all federal roads are paved with tarmac except for parts of the Skudai–Pontian Highway which are paved with concrete, while parts of the Federal Highway linking Klang to Kuala Lumpur are paved with asphalt. Malaysia has over {{convert|1798|km|mi|0}} of highways and the longest highway, the North–South Expressway, extends over {{convert|800|km|mi|0}} on the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, connecting major urban centres like Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru. In 2015, the government announced a RM27 billion (US$8.23 billion) Pan-Borneo Highway project to upgrade all trunk roads to dual-carriageway expressways, bringing the standard of East Malaysian highways to the same level of quality as Peninsular highways.BOOK, Mody, Ashoka, Infrastructure strategies in East Asia: the untold story, The World Bank, 1997, 35,weblink 978-0-8213-4027-1, NEWS,weblink Fadillah says Pan Borneo Highway to be built under Ukas initiative, Pim Lim How, The Borneo Post, Kuching, 17 October 2014, 19 October 2014, There are currently {{convert|1833|km|mi}} of railways in Malaysia, of which {{convert|767|km|mi|abbr=on}} are double tracked and electrified. Rail transport in Malaysia comprises heavy rail (KTM), light rapid transit and monorail (Rapid Rail), and a funicular railway line (Penang Hill Railway). Heavy rail is mostly used for intercity passenger and freight transport as well as some urban public transport, while LRTs are used for intra-city urban public transport. There are two commuter rail services linking Kuala Lumpur with the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The sole monorail line in the country is used for public transport in Kuala Lumpur, while the only funicular railway line is in Penang. A rapid transit project, the KVMRT, is currently under construction to improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. The railway network covers most of the 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia. In East Malaysia, only the state of Sabah has railways. The network is also connected to the Thai railway {{RailGauge|1000mm}} network in the north. If the Burma Railway is rebuilt, services to Myanmar, India, and China could be initiated.Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. The national airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services. Major international routes and domestic routes crossing between Peninsula Malaysia and East Malaysia are served by Malaysia Airlines, AirAsia and Malindo Air while smaller domestic routes are supplemented by smaller airlines like MASwings, Firefly and Berjaya Air. Major cargo airlines include MASkargo and Transmile Air Services. Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the main and busiest airport of Malaysia. In 2014, it was the world's 13th busiest airport by international passenger traffic, recording over 25.4 million international passenger traffic. It was also the world's 20th busiest airport by passenger traffic, recording over 48.9 million passengers. Other major airports include Kota Kinabalu International Airport, which is also Malaysia's second busiest airport and busiest airport in East Malaysia with over 6.9 million passengers in 2013, and Penang International Airport, which serves Malaysia's second largest urban area, with over 5.4 million passengers in 2013.


(File:Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group, 2010.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|alt=Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group, 2010|The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census){|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|6.12000 style="text-align:right;"|23.2{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}(File:Bevölkerungspyramide Malaysia 2016.png|thumb|right|Population pyramid 2016)According to the Malaysian Department of Statistics, the country's population was 28,334,135 in 2010,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2014, Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics, Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 82, 4 October 2011, making it the 42nd most populated country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.54 percent per year. Malaysia has an average population density of 96 people per km², ranking it 116th in the world for population density. People within the 15–64 age group constitute 69.5 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0 percent. In 1960, when the first official census was recorded in Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million.{{Citation needed|date=April 2019}} 91.8 per cent of the population are Malaysian citizens.WEB,weblink Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristic Report 2010 (Ethnic composition), Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2010, 10 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2013, Malaysian citizens are divided along ethnic lines, with 67.4 per cent considered bumiputera The largest group of bumiputera are Malays, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. They play a dominant role politically.NEWS,weblink Malaysia's lingering ethnic divide, Brant, Robin, BBC News, 4 March 2008, 29 October 2013, Bumiputera status is also accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples, including ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and Sarawak. Non-Malay bumiputera make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over two thirds of Sabah's population. There also exist aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsula, where they are collectively known as the Orang Asli.BOOK, Gomes, Alberto G., Modernity and Malaysia: settling the Menraq forest nomads, Taylor & Francis Group, 2007, 10,weblink 978-0-203-96075-2, Laws over who gets bumiputera status vary between states.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 November 2009, PM asked to clarify mixed-race bumiputra status, The Star, 4 November 2009, 26 October 2010, File:Hong San Si 鳯山寺 - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|Malaysian Chinese in PerakPerakOther minorities lack bumiputera status. 24.6 per cent of the population are of Chinese descent, while those of Indian descent comprise 7.3 per cent of the population. The Chinese have historically been dominant in the business and commerce community, and form a plurality of the population of Penang. Immigrants from India, the majority of them Tamils, began arriving in Malaysia early in the 19th century.WEB, Kuppusamy, Baradan,weblink Racism alive and well in Malaysia, Asia Times, 24 March 2006, 27 October 2010, BOOK, West, Barbara A., Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Volume 1, Facts on File inc, 2009, 486,weblink 978-0-8160-7109-8, Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two Malaysian parents outside Malaysia. Dual citizenship is not permitted.WEB,weblink Malaysia: Citizenship laws, including methods by which a person may obtain citizenship; whether dual citizenship is recognized and if so, how it is acquired; process for renouncing citizenship and related documentation; grounds for revoking citizenship, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 16 November 2007, 25 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2011, Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are distinct from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times.NEWS, May, Leow Yong,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 5 January 2009, More than just a card, The Star, 30 August 2007, 27 October 2010, File:Taipusam Batu Caves, 2012 - panoramio (6).jpg|thumb|right|Malaysian Indians in SelangorSelangorThe education system features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education.BOOK, Nozawa, M., Wing, C., Chaiyasook, S., Secondary Education Regional Information Base: Country Profile – Malaysia,weblink 2011, Bangkok, UNESCO, 4 (12), 978-92-9223-374-7, Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil.NEWS, Mustafa, Shazwan,weblink Malay groups want vernacular schools abolished, The Malaysian Insider, 22 August 2010, 18 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2010, Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination.WEB,weblink Secondary School Education, Malaysian Government, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2013, Since the introduction of the matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are open to non-bumiputera students.BOOK, Saw, Swee-Hock, Kesavapany, K., Malaysia: recent trends and challenges, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006, 259,weblink 978-981-230-339-4, (File:Malaysia population density 2010b.png|thumb|left|280px|alt=A map of Malaysia depicting the expected 2010 estimated population density.|Population density (person per km2) in 2010)The infant mortality rate in 2009 was 6 deaths per 1000 births, and life expectancy at birth in 2009 was 75 years.WEB,weblink Malaysia â€“ Statistics, UNICEF, 22 May 2011, With the aim of developing Malaysia into a medical tourism destination, 5 per cent of the government social sector development budget is spent on health care.WEB,weblink Mission, Vision & Background, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 3 July 2009, 17 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2010, The number of live births in Malaysia stood at 508,203 babies in the year 2016. This is a decline compared to 521,136 the previous year. There was also a decline in crude birth rate from 16.7 (2015) to 16.1 (2016) per 1,000 population. Male babies account for 51.7% of all babies born in the year 2016. The highest crude birth rate was reported at Putrajaya (30.4) and the lowest was reported at Penang (12.7). The Julau district has the highest crude birth rate nationwide at 26.9 per 1000 population, meanwhile, the lowest crude birth rate was recorded in the Selangau district. The total fertility rate in Malaysia remains below the replacement level at 1.9 babies in 2017. This is a decline of 0.1 compared to the previous year. The highest crude death rate was reported in Perlis at 7.5 per 1000 population and the lowest crude death rate was reported in Putrajaya (1.9) in 2016. Kuala Penyu was the district with the highest crude death rate while Kinabatangan recorded the lowest crude death rate in the country.WEB,weblink Vital Statistics, Malaysia, 2017, Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 31 October 2017, 11 June 2018, The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia,BOOK, Hassan, Asan Ali Golam, Growth, structural change, and regional inequality in Malaysia, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, 12,weblink 978-0-7546-4332-6, where 20 million out of approximately 28 million Malaysians live. 70 per cent of the population is urban. Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the largest city in Malaysia,WEB,weblink Tourism Malaysia Corporate Website, Tourism Malaysia, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2013, as well as its main commercial and financial centre.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 7 May 2009, Vision & Goals of Kuala Lumpur, Portal Rasmi Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur, 18 September 2010, Putrajaya, a purpose-built city constructed from 1999, is the seat of government,WEB,weblink Putrajaya â€“ Federal Administrative Capital, Malaysian Government, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2013, as many executive and judicial branches of the federal government were moved there to ease growing congestion within Kuala Lumpur.WEB,weblink Putrajaya â€“ Administrative Centre of Malaysia â€“ Planning Concept and Implementation, Ho, Chin Siong, 2006, 18 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, Due to the rise in labour-intensive industries,NEWS,weblink As Malaysia deports illegal workers, employers run short, The New York Times, 13 July 2009, 26 October 2010, Soraya, Permatasari, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers; about 10 per cent of the population.NEWS, Kent, Jonathan,weblink Illegal workers leave Malaysia, BBC News, 29 October 2004, 26 October 2010, Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants.NEWS,weblink Demographic implosion in Sabah? Really?, Quek, Kim, Malaysiakini, 21 June 2010, Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Of this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, 72,400 from the Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a volunteer militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law.WEB,weblink World Refugee Survey 2009, United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 17 June 2009, 10 June 2011, {{Largest cities of Malaysia}}{{Clear}}


(File:Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion, 2010.svg|thumb|right|alt=Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion, 2010.|The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census)The constitution grants freedom of religion and makes Malaysia an officially secular state, while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Federation".WEB,weblink PRESS STATEMENT: Malaysia a secular state, Ambiga Sreenevasan, The Malaysian Bar, 18 July 2007, 6 September 2017, Ambiga Sreenevasan, According to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Approximately 61.3% of the population practice Islam, 19.8% practice Buddhism, 9.2% Christianity, 6.3% Hinduism and 1.3% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. 0.7% declared no religion and the remaining 1.4% practised other religions or did not provide any information. Sunni Islam of Shafi'i school of jurisprudence is the dominant branch of Islam in Malaysia,BOOK, Peletz, Michael G., Islamic Modern: Religious Courts and Cultural Politics in Malaysia,weblink 2002, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-09508-0, WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation, Pew Research Center, 9 August 2012, 4 September 2013, while 18% are nondenominational Muslims.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation, 9 August 2012, 5 October 2016, The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a "Malay", considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly, practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (3.4%) and Christianity (11.1%), along with small Muslim populations in areas like Penang. The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%) or Muslims (4.1%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay bumiputera community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4% identifying as Muslims.File:Maulidur Rasul (8414773898).jpg|thumb|left|Putra Mosque in PutrajayaPutrajayaMuslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah Courts (i.e. Shariah courts) in matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi'i legal school of Islam, which is the main madh'hab of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Syariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices.WEB, Mahathir, Marina,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 22 December 2010, Malaysia moving forward in matters of Islam and women by Marina Mahathir, Common Ground News Service, 17 August 2010, 14 September 2010,


File:Distribution of Malaysia Families Languages.png|thumb|The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:(click image to enlarge){{legend|#FF006E|Malayic}}{{legend|#FF984F|Bornean}}{{legend|#007F0E|Aslian}}{{legend|#00FF90|Land Dayak}}{{legend|#4CFF00|Sama–Bajaw}}{{legend|#B200FF|Philippine}}{{legend|#FFD800|ChineseChineseThe official and national language of Malaysia is Malaysian, a standardised form of the Malay language.WEB,weblink Malay, Standard, Ethnologue, 2009, 25 July 2011, The terminology as per government policy is Bahasa Malaysia (literally "Malaysian language")NEWS,weblink Mahathir regrets govt focussing too much on Bahasa, Daily Express, Kota Kinabalu, 2 October 2013, 16 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2014, live, but legislation continues to refer to the official language as Bahasa Melayu (literally "Malay language").WEB,weblink Federal Constitution, Judicial Appointments Commission, 29 November 2011,weblink 24 April 2012, dead, The National Language Act 1967 specifies the Latin (Rumi) script as the official script of the national language, but does not prohibit the use of the traditional Jawi script.WEB,weblink National Language Act 1967, Malaysian Attorney General Chambers, 2006, 20 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2015, English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. In Sarawak, English is an official state language alongside Malaysian.NEWS,weblink Sarawak makes English official language along with BM, Sulok Tawie, Malay Mail, Kuala Lumpur, 18 November 2015, 18 November 2015, NEWS,weblink Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides Bahasa Malaysia, Borneo Post, Kuching, 18 November 2015, 18 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, NEWS,weblink Sarawak adopts English as official language, The Sun (Malaysia), The Sun, Kuala Lumpur, 19 November 2015, 19 November 2015, Historically, English was the de facto administrative language; Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots (13 May incident).BOOK, Andaya, Barbara Watson, Andaya, Leonard Y., A History of Malaysia, MacMillan, 1982, 26–28, 61, 151–152, 242–243, 254–256, 274, 278,weblink 978-0-333-27672-3, Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. The government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no power to issue compounds or fines to those who use improper Malay on their advertisements.WEB, Zimmer, Benjamin,weblink Language Log: Malaysia cracks down on "salad language", University of Pennsylvania, 5 October 2006, 14 September 2010, NEWS,weblink Dewan Bahasa champions use of BM in ads, New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur, 14 October 2013, 16 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2013, dead, Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages.WEB,weblink Ethnologue report for Malaysia, Ethnologue, 18 October 2010, Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages.WEB,weblink Ethnologue report for Malaysia (Peninsular), Ethnologue, 18 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2011, dead, The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah.BOOK, Adelaar, Alexander, Himmelmann, Nikolaus P., The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar, Taylor and Francis Group, 2005, 56, 397,weblink 978-0-7007-1286-1, Chinese Malaysians predominantly speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China. The more common Chinese varieties in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. The Tamil language is used predominantly by ethnic Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians. Other South Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, as well as Thai. A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese-based Malaccan Creoles,JOURNAL, Malaysian Creole Portuguese: Asian, African or European?, 1975, 30027570, 211–236, Hancock, I. F., 17, 5, Anthropological Linguistics, and the Spanish-based Chavacano language.BOOK, Michaelis, Susanne, Roots of Creole structures, John Benjamins Publishing Co, 2008, 279,weblink 978-90-272-5255-5,


File:Burung Petala Indera III.jpg|thumb|right|Burung Petala Procession in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, 1933}}Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. Substantial influence exists from Chinese and Indian culture, dating back to when foreign trade began. Other cultural influences include the Persian, Arabic, and British cultures. Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities.JOURNAL, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Raghavan, R., Ethno-racial marginality in West Malaysia: The case of the Peranakan Hindu Melaka or Malaccan Chitty community, 133, 4, 438–458,weblink 10.1163/22134379-90002605, 1977, 7 October 2010, In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it.WEB,weblink Cultural Tourism Promotion and policy in Malaysia, School of Housing, Building and Planning, 22 October 1992, 6 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2010, It also promoted the Malay language above others.BOOK, Van der Heide, William, Malaysian cinema, Asian film: border crossings and national cultures, Amsterdam University Press, 2002, 98–99,weblink 978-90-5356-580-3, This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy.Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia. The two countries have a similar cultural heritage, sharing many traditions and items. However, disputes have arisen over things ranging from culinary dishes to Malaysia's national anthem. Strong feelings exist in Indonesia about protecting their national heritage.WEB, Schonhardt, Sara,weblink Indonesia cut from a different cloth, Asia Times, 3 October 2009, 6 November 2010, The Malaysian government and the Indonesian government have met to defuse some of the tensions resulting from the overlaps in culture.WEB,weblink Indonesia, Malaysia agree to cool tension on cultural heritage dispute, People Daily, 17 September 2009, 6 November 2010, Feelings are not as strong in Malaysia, where most recognise that many cultural values are shared.

Fine arts

{{See also|Music of Malaysia|Malaysian literature}}File:Malaysian Batik.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Making Malaysian batik|A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.]]Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing.BOOK, Dunford, George, Southeast Asia on a Shoestring,weblink 2006, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74104-444-7, 419–, Traditional art ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Common artworks included ornamental kris, beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India.BOOK, Miller, Terry E., Williams, Sean, The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music, Taylor and Francis Group, 2008, 223–224,weblink 978-0-203-93144-8, Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the Kelantan-Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand, and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums.BOOK, Gateway to Malay culture, Asiapac Books Ptd Ltd, 2003, 110,weblink 978-981-229-326-8, Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings.BOOK, The Music of Malaysia: The Classical, Folk, and Syncretic Traditions, Matusky, Patricia Ann, Tan, Sooi Beng, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2004,weblink 177–187, 978-0-7546-0831-8, These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in Mindanao in the Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei.File:Other types of wau.JPG|thumb|upright=0.7|right|alt=A Malaysian wau|Wau bulan, originally from KelantanKelantanMalaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century.WEB, Osman, Mohd Taib,weblink Languages and Literature, The Encyclopedia of Malaysia, 3 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2011, English has also become a common literary language. In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in other bumiputera languages was called "regional literature", while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature". Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is popular, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages.


{{multiple imagedrink and National dish#National dishes and foods by country>national dish of the countryHTTP://WWW.NEWSABAHTIMES.COM.MY/NSTWEB/FULLSTORY/61905>TITLE=LIPTON URGES MALAYSIANS TO TAKE PRIDE IN TEH TARIK, OUR NATIONAL BEVERAGENEW SABAH TIMES>DATE=7 SEPTEMBER 2012ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140702212542/HTTP://WWW.NEWSABAHTIMES.COM.MY/NSTWEB/FULLSTORY/61905URL-STATUS=DEAD, HTTP://WWW.THESTAR.COM.MY/TRAVEL/MALAYSIA/2011/04/07/NASI-LEMAK-OUR-NATIONAL-DISH.ASPX>TITLE=NASI LEMAK, OUR 'NATIONAL DISH'WORK=THE STARACCESSDATE=6 NOVEMBER 2013, | align = right| direction = | width = | caption_align = center| image1 = Teh Tarik.jpg| width1 = 110| alt1 = A glass of Teh tarik| caption1 = Teh tarik| link1 = Teh tarik| image2 = Nasi lemak.jpg| width2 = 190| alt2 = Nasi lemak in a plate| caption2 = Nasi lemak| link2 = Nasi lemak}}Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population.BOOK, Eckhardt, Robyn, Kuala Lumpur Melaka & Penang, Lonely Planet, 1 June 2008, 42,weblink 978-1-74104-485-0, Many cultures from within the country and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Much of the influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route.NEWS,weblink Far Eastern cuisine: Fancy a Malaysian?, Jarvis, Alice-Azania, The Independent, London, 13 October 2010, 3 November 2010, The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another; for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes.BOOK, Wu, David Y. H., Tan, Chee Beng, Changing Chinese foodways in Asia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2001, 128,weblink 978-962-201-914-0, Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using styles taken from another culture, For example, sambal belacan (shrimp paste) are commonly used as ingredients by Chinese restaurants to create the stir fried water spinach (kangkung belacan).WEB,weblink Menikmati Kuliner Peranakan, Yulia Sapthiani, Indonesian, Kompas, 30 January 2011, 24 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2016, dead, This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Rice is popular in many dishes. Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy.


Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition,NEWS, Ahmad, Razak,weblink Malaysian media shapes battleground in Anwar trial, Reuters, 5 February 2010, 3 November 2010, NEWS,weblink Malaysian opposition media banned, BBC News, 23 March 2009, 3 November 2010, although some major opposition parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula. The media have been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians.NEWS,weblink Comment: Anwar blames Malaysian media, The Jakarta Post, 28 September 2010, 3 November 2010, The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies.Freedom of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on publishing rights and information dissemination.WEB,weblink Malaysia, Freedom House, 2013, 30 March 2014, The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders,NEWS,weblink Opposition muzzled â€“ here's black and white proof, 29 June 2007, Malaysiakini, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party.NEWS,weblink TV station denies censoring opposition news, 28 June 2007, Malaysiakini, G, Vikneswary, Sabah, where all tabloids but one are independent of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2011, The East-West divide of Malaysian media, Malaysian Mirror, 9 September 2010, 3 November 2010, Laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.WEB,weblink How Press Censorship Works, Mindy McAdams, McAdams, Mindy, 25 May 2011,

Holidays and festivals

File:Ke Lok Si Illuminations 01.JPG|thumb|left|alt=Temple at night illuminated with light from decorations|Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year ]]Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed national holiday is Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 October 2009, Malaysia Day now a public holiday, says PM, Chun, Yeng Ai, 19 October 2009, 7 May 2011, Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King's birthday (first week of June).Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Malay for Eid al-Fitr), Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, Malay for Eid ul-Adha), Maulidur Rasul (birthday of the Prophet), and others being observed. Malaysian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights,WEB,weblink Malaysia â€“ Religion, Asian Studies Center – Michigan State University, 13 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2011, while Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at the Batu Caves.WEB,weblink Batu Caves, Selangor, Tourism Malaysia, 15 October 2013, Malaysia's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai,BOOK, Hutton, Wendy, East Malaysia and Brunei, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd, 1997, 169,weblink 978-962-593-180-7, and the Kadazandusun community celebrate Kaamatan.WEB,weblink PM: Kaamatan, Gawai celebrations, time for people to feel thankful for achievements, Bernama, The Borneo Post, Kuching, 28 May 2016, 24 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2016, dead, Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as "open house" Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.BOOK, Guidebook on Expatriate Living in Malaysia, Malaysia Industrial Development Authority, May 2009, 8–9, 69,weblink {{Clear}}


File:Seni silat melayu.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A woman and a man in black outfits with red belts practising the martial art of Silat Melayu|Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat MelayuSilat MelayuPopular sports in Malaysia include association football, badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding, sailing, and skate boarding. Football is the most popular sport in Malaysia and the country is currently studying the possibility of bidding as a joint host for 2034 FIFA World Cup.JOURNAL,weblink BAT flouts tobacco-free World Cup policy, Assunta, Mary, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Tobacco Control, 11, 3, 277–278, 2006, 3 October 2014, 10.1136/tc.11.3.277, 12198283, 1759036, WEB, Asean to bid for 2034 FIFA World Cup,weblink The Brunei Times, 16 May 2013, 15 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2014, dead, Badminton matches attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of four countries to hold the Thomas Cup, the world team championship trophy of men's badminton.WEB,weblink History of Badminton,, 11 June 2011, The Malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2011,weblink Malaysia Lawn Bowls Federation,, 1 October 2010, Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939.BOOK, Nauright, John, Parrish, Charles, Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice,weblink 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-300-2, 250–, The Squash Racquets Association Of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972.WEB,weblink History of SRAM, Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2013, Malaysia has proposed a Southeast Asian football league.NEWS,weblink Malaysia, Indonesia propose Southeast Asia football league, The Malaysian Insider, 31 July 2010, 27 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 August 2010, The men's national field hockey team ranked 13th in the world {{as of|2015|December|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink FIH Men's World Rankings – 7 December 2015, International Hockey Federation, 7 December 2015, 20 January 2016, The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup.NEWS,weblink History of Hockey World Cup, The Times of India, 27 February 2010, 1 November 2010, The country also has its own Formula One track–the Sepang International Circuit. It runs for {{convert|310.408|km|mi|2}}, and held its first Grand Prix in 1999.WEB,weblink Formula One Grand Prix Circuits, Novikov, Andrew, All Formula One Info, 27 September 2010, Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts practised by ethnic Malays in Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore.BOOK, Minahan, James B., Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia,weblink 30 August 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-660-7, 76–, The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 7 August 2013, Olympic Games â€“ History, The Olympic Council of Malaysia, 27 September 2010, Malaysian athletes have won a total of eleven Olympic medals: eight in badminton, two in platform diving, and one in cycling. The country has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.NEWS, 31 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink Doing Malaysia proud, Dudley, Rueben, The Sun, Kuala Lumpur, 13 September 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Commonwealth Games Federation, History and Tradition of Commonwealth Games, Edinburgh, Bendigo, Pune, Commonwealth Youth Games 2008, 14 August 2000, 27 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2010,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Malaysia}}





External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Malaysia}} {{Malaysia topics}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles relating to Malaysia|list ={{States and Federal Territories of Malaysia}}{{Monarchies}}{{Countries and territories of Southeast Asia}}{{Countries of Asia}}{{Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)}}{{East Asia Summit (EAS)}}{{The Commonwealth}}{{G-15 nations}}{{Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation}}{{Non-Aligned Movement}}{{Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|state=collapsed}}{{Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)|state=collapsed}}}}{{Good article}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Malaysia" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:35pm EDT - Sun, Sep 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott