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Vietnam
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{{other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{EngvarB|date=April 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}{{short description|Country in Southeast Asia}}{{Coord|16|N|108|E|display=title}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of Vietnam.svg| image_coat = Emblem of Vietnam.svg| symbol_type = Emblem()}}(File:United States Navy Band - Tiến Quân Ca.ogg>center)| image_map = Location Vietnam ASEAN.svglocation_color=green ASEAN >region_color=dark grey |legend=Location Vietnam ASEAN.svg}}| capital = Hanoi21N51type:city}}| largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City| languages_type = Official languageThe Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam does not state that the official language is Vietnamese language.HTTPS://VIETNAMNEWS.VN/POLITICS-LAWS/250222/THE-CONSTITUTION-OF-THE-SOCIALIST-REPUBLIC-OF-VIET-NAM.HTML#PKXAV0J1EALWXQQ9.97PUBLISHER=VIETNAM NEWS AGENCYACCESSDATE=13 JUNE 2019, |group="n"}}| languages2_type = National languageVietnamese language>Vietnamese| ethnic_groups = {{vunblist
| 85.7% Vietnamese{{#tag:ref|Also called Kinh people.{{sfn|Communist Party of Vietnam|2004}}|group="n"}}
| {{collapsible list
| title= {{small|53 minorities}}| 1.9% Tay | 1.8% Tai | 1.5% Mường | 1.5% Khmer | 1.2% Hmong | 1.1% Nùng | 5.3% Others}}}}
item_style=white-space:nowrap; Vietnamese folk religion>Folk or Irreligion >12.2% Buddhism Christianity >4.8% Caodaism Hòa Hảo>Hoahaoism Bielefeldt|2014}} }}Vietnamese people>VietnameseUnitary state>Unitary Marxism-Leninism one-party state>one-party socialist republicGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam>Party General Secretary| leader_name1 = Nguyễn Phú TrọngPresident of Vietnam>President| leader_name2 = Nguyễn Phú TrọngVice President of Vietnam>Vice-President| leader_name3 = Đặng Thị Ngọc ThịnhPrime Minister of Vietnam>Prime Minister| leader_name4 = Nguyễn Xuân PhúcChairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam>Chairwoman of National Assembly| leader_name5 = Nguyễn Thị Kim NgânNational Assembly of Vietnam>National AssemblyHistory of Vietnam>Formation| sovereignty_note =National Day (Vietnam)>Independence declared from France| established_date1 = 2 September 1945Geneva Conference (1954)>Geneva Accords| established_date2 = 21 July 1954Reunification Day>ReunificationJeffriesp=4}}Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam>Current constitutionIn effect since 1 January 2014.{{sfn2014}}|group="n"}}| area_km2 = 331,212| area_rank = 65th| area_sq_mi = 128,069| percent_water = 6.38Viet Nam}}{{sfn|United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs}}Year}}| population_estimate_rank = 15th| population_density_km2 = {{#expr: 91700000/332210 round 2}}| population_density_sq_mi =| population_density_rank = 46thInternational Monetary Fund}}| GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 35thInternational Monetary Fund}}| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 128thInternational Monetary Fund}}| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 47thInternational Monetary Fund}}| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 129th| Gini = 37.6| Gini_year = 2014| Gini_change =World Bank|2016a}}| Gini_rank =| HDI = 0.694| HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseHuman Development Reportp=23}}| HDI_rank = 116thVietnamese đồng>đồng (₫)| currency_code = VNDVietnam Standard Time)| utc_offset = +07:00| utc_offset_DST =| time_zone_DST =| date_format = dd/mm/yyyy| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Vietnam>+84| cctld = .vn}}{{Contains Vietnamese text}}Vietnam ( {{IPA-vi|vîət nāːm|pron|Vietnam.ogg}}), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated {{#expr:{{replace|{{UN Population|Viet Nam}}|,||}}/1e6 round 1}} million inhabitants {{As of|{{UN Population|Year}}|lc=y}}, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares its maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea.{{#tag:ref|The South China Sea is referred to in Vietnam as the East Sea ().{{sfn|Cham|2012}}|group="n"}} Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.Archaeological excavations indicate that Vietnam was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic age. The ancient Vietnamese nation was annexed by China in the 2nd century BC, which subsequently made Vietnam a division of China for over a millennium. The first independent monarchy emerged in the 10th century AD, paving the way for successive imperial dynasties as the nation expanded geographically southward until the Indochina Peninsula was colonised by the French in the mid-19th century. Modern Vietnam was born upon the Declaration of Independence from France in 1945. Following Vietnamese victory against the French in the First Indochina War, which ended in 1954, the nation was divided into two rival states: communist North and anti-communist South. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War, which saw extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam and ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.After North and South Vietnam were reunified under a unitary socialist government in 1976, the country became economically and politically isolated until 1986, when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into world politics and the global economy. As a result of the successful reforms, Vietnam has enjoyed a high GDP growth rate, consistently ranked among the fastest-growing countries in the world, although it faces challenges including poverty, corruption and inadequate social welfare. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries. It is a member of the UN, ASEAN, APEC, WTO and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

Etymology

The name ({{IPA-vi|viə̀t naːm}}) is a variation of ({{zh|c=(wikt:南越|南越)|p=Nányuè}}; literally "Southern Việt"), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty of the 2nd century BC.{{sfn|Woods|2002|p=38}} The word Việt originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt ({{zh|c=(Wikt:百越|百越)|p=Bǎiyuè}}), a group of people then living in southern China and Vietnam.{{sfn|Yue Hashimoto|1972|p=1}} The form "Vietnam" ({{Vi-nom|}}) is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình. The name has also been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Hải Phòng that dates to 1558.{{sfn|Phan|1976|p=510}} In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (who later become Emperor Gia Long) established the Nguyễn dynasty. In the second year of his rule he asked the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty to confer him the title 'King of Nam Viet/Nanyue' ( in Chinese) after seizing power in Annam. The Emperor refused since the name was related to Zhao Tuo's Nanyue which included the regions of Guangxi and Guangdong in southern China. Therefore the Qing Emperor decided to call the area "Viet Nam" instead.{{#tag:ref|At first, Gia Long requested the name "Nam Việt", but the Jiaqing Emperor refused.{{sfn|Woods|2002|p=38}}{{sfn|Shaofei|Guoqing|2016}}|name="etymology"|group="n"}}{{sfn|Ooi|2004|p=932}} Between 1804 and 1813, the name Vietnam was used officially by Emperor Gia Long. It was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Châu's History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ).{{sfn|Tonnesson|Antlov|1996|p=117}} The country was usually called Annam until 1945, when both the imperial government in Huế and the Việt Minh government in Hanoi adopted .{{sfn|Tonnesson|Antlov|1996|p=126}}

History

Prehistory

File:DrumFromSongDaVietnamDongSonIICultureMid1stMilleniumBCEBronze.jpg|left|thumb|A Đông SơnĐông SơnArchaeological excavations have revealed the existence of humans in what is now Vietnam as early as the Paleolithic age. Homo erectus fossils dating to around 500,000 BC have been found in caves in Lạng Sơn and Nghệ An provinces in northern Vietnam.{{sfn|McKinney|2009}} The oldest Homo sapiens fossils from mainland Southeast Asia are of Middle Pleistocene provenance, and include isolated tooth fragments from Tham Om and Hang Hum.{{sfn|Akazawa|Aoki|Kimura|1992|p=321}}{{sfn|Rabett|2012|p=109}}{{sfn|Dennell|Porr|2014|p=41}} Teeth attributed to Homo sapiens from the Late Pleistocene have also been found at Dong Can,{{sfn|Matsumura|Yoneda|Yukio|Oxenham|2008|p=12}} and from the Early Holocene at Mai Da Dieu,{{sfn|Matsumura|Lan Cuong|Kim Thuy|Anezaki|2001}}{{sfn|Oxenham|Tayles|2006|p=36}} Lang Gao{{sfn|anon.|1985|p=16}}{{sfn|Karlström|Källén|2002|p=83}} and Lang Cuom.{{sfn|Oxenham|Buckley|2015|p=329}} By about 1,000 BC, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River floodplains led to the flourishing of the Đông Sơn culture,{{sfn|Higham|1984}}{{sfn|Nang Chung|Giang Hai|2017|p=31}} notable for its elaborate bronze Đông Sơn drums.{{sfn|de Laet|Herrmann|1996|p=408}}{{sfn|Calò|2009|p=51}}{{sfn|Kiernan|2017|p=31}} At this time, the early Vietnamese kingdoms of Văn Lang and Âu Lạc appeared, and the culture's influence spread to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Maritime Southeast Asia, throughout the first millennium BC.{{sfn|Calò|2009|p=51}}{{sfn|Cooke|Li|Anderson|2011|p=46}}

Dynastic Vietnam

(File:Territorial expansion of Vietnam from Lý dynasty to Nguyễn dynasty (1009–1834).gif|thumb|Territorial expansion of Vietnam, 1009–1834)The Hồng Bàng dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered to be the first Vietnamese state, known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang.{{sfn|Pelley|2002|p=151}}{{sfn|Cottrell|2009|p=14}} In 257 BC, the last Hùng king was defeated by Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt and Âu Việt tribes to form the Âu Lạc, proclaiming himself An Dương Vương.{{sfn|Đức Trần|Thư Hà|2000|p=8}} In 179 BC, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue.{{sfn|Nang Chung|Giang Hai|2017|p=31}} However, Nanyue was itself incorporated into the empire of the Chinese Han dynasty in 111 BC after the Han–Nanyue War.{{sfn|Ooi|2004|p=932}}{{sfn|Yao|2016|p=62}} For the next thousand years, what is now northern Vietnam remained mostly under Chinese rule.{{sfn|Holmgren|1980}}{{sfn|Taylor|1983|p=30}} Early independence movements, such as those of the Trưng Sisters and Lady Triệu,{{sfn|Pelley|2002|p=177}} were temporarily successful,{{sfn|Cottrell|2009|p=15}} though the region gained a longer period of independence as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lý dynasty between AD 544 and 602.{{sfn|Thái Nguyên|Mừng Nguyẽ̂n|1958|p=33}}{{sfn|Chesneaux|1966|p=20}}{{sfn|anon.|1972|p=24}} By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not sovereignty, under the Khúc family.{{sfn|Tuyet Tran|Reid|2006|p=32}}In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam after a millennium of Chinese domination.{{sfn|Hiẻ̂n Lê|2003|p=65}}{{sfn|Hong Lien|Sharrock|2014|p=55}}{{sfn|Kiernan|2017|p=226}} Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation enjoyed a golden era under the Lý and Trần dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions.{{sfn|Cottrell|2009|p=16}}{{sfn|Hong Lien|Sharrock|2014|p=95}} Meanwhile, Buddhism of the Mahāyāna tradition flourished and became the state religion.{{sfn|Kiernan|2017|p=226}}{{sfn|Keyes|1995|p=183}} Following the 1406–7 Ming–Hồ War which overthrew the Hồ dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty.{{sfn|Hong Lien|Sharrock|2014|p=111}} The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460–1497).{{sfn|Hong Lien|Sharrock|2014|p=120}}{{sfn|Kiernan|2017|p=265}} Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as ("southward expansion"),{{sfn|Anderson|Whitmore|2014|p=158}} eventually conquering the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.{{sfn|Vo|2011|p=13}}{{sfn|Ooi|Anh Tuan|2015|p=212}}{{sfn|Phuong Linh|2016|p=39}}From the 16th century onward, civil strife and frequent political infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc dynasty challenged the Lê dynasty's power.{{sfn|Anderson|Whitmore|2014|p=174}} After the Mạc dynasty was defeated, the Lê dynasty was nominally reinstalled, but actual power was divided between the northern Trịnh lords and the southern Nguyễn lords, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s.{{sfn|Leonard|1984|p=131}} During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Central Highlands and the Khmer lands in the Mekong Delta.{{sfn|Vo|2011|p=13}}{{sfn|Phuong Linh|2016|p=39}}{{sfn|Ooi|2004|p=356}} The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers established a new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long, and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn lords, led by Nguyễn Ánh and aided by the French.{{sfn|Page|Sonnenburg|2003|p=723}} Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long.{{sfn|Ooi|2004|p=356}}

French Indochina

File:Indochine française (1913).jpg|thumb|right|French IndochinaFrench IndochinaIn the 1500s, the Portuguese became acquainted with the Vietnamese coast, where they reportedly erected a stele on the Chàm Islands to mark their presence.{{sfn|Tuấn Hoáng|2007|p=50}} By 1533, the Portuguese began to land in the Vietnamese delta but were forced to leave due to local turmoil and fighting. They also had less interest in the territory than China and Japan.{{sfn|Tuấn Hoáng|2007|p=50}} After having successfully settled Macau and Nagasaki to begin the profitable Macau-Japan trade route, the Portuguese began to involve themselves in trade with Hội An, where many Portuguese traders and Catholic missionaries set foot in the Vietnamese kingdom.{{sfn|Tuấn Hoáng|2007|p=50}} The Dutch also tried to establish contact with Vietnam through the central part of Quinam in 1601 but failed to sustain a presence there after several violent encounters with the locals. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) only managed to establish official relations with Tonkin in the spring of 1637 after leaving Dejima in Japan to establish trade for silk.{{sfn|Tuấn Hoáng|2007|p=52}} Meanwhile, the first British attempt, through the East India Company (EIC), to establish contact with Hội An, in 1613, failed following a violent incident involving their merchant. Eventually, they managed to establish relations with Tonkin by 1672, where they were allowed to reside in Phố Hiến.{{sfn|Tuấn Hoáng|2007|p=53}}Between 1615 and 1753, French traders also engaged in trade in the area around Đàng Trong and actively dispersed missionaries.{{sfn|Li|1998|p=89}}{{sfn|Lockard|2010|p=479}} Following the detention of several missionaries as the Vietnamese kingdom began to feel threatened by continuous Christianisation activities,{{sfn|McLeod|1991|p=22}} the French Navy received approval from their government to intervene in Vietnam in 1834, with the aim of freeing imprisoned Catholic missionaries from a kingdom that was perceived as xenophobic.{{sfn|Woods|2002|p=245}} Vietnam's sovereignty was gradually eroded by France, which was aided by the Spanish and large Catholic militias in a series of military conquests between 1859 and 1885.{{sfn|Cortada|1994|p=29}}{{sfn|Keith|2012|p=50}}In 1862, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina.{{sfn|McLeod|1991|p=61}} By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated in the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887.{{sfn|Ooi|2004|p=520}}{{sfn|Cook|2001|p=396}} The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society.{{sfn|Frankum Jr.|2011|p=172}} A Western-style system of modern education was developed and Catholicism was propagated widely.{{sfn|Nhu Nguyen|2016|p=37}} Most French settlers in Indochina were concentrated in Cochinchina, particularly in Saigon, and in Hanoi, the capital of the colony.{{sfn|Richardson|1876|p=269}}File:ExpositionHanoi1902 GrandPalais (1).jpg|thumb|left|Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair as HanoiHanoiGuerrillas of the royalist Cần Vương movement massacred around a third of Vietnam's Christian population during the colonial period as part of their rebellion against French rule,{{sfn|Keith|2012|p=53}}{{sfn|Anh Ngo|2016|p=71}} but were defeated in the 1890s after a decade of resistance by the Catholics as a reprisal of their earlier massacres.{{sfn|Quach Langlet|1991|p=360}}{{sfn|Ramsay|2008|p=171}} Another large-scale rebellion, the Thái Nguyên uprising was also suppressed heavily.{{sfn|Zinoman|2000}} The French developed a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee,{{sfn|Lim|2014|p=33}} however, they largely ignored the increasing demands for civil rights and self-government. File:Hanoi_Theatre.JPG|thumb|Hanoi Opera House, taken in the early 20th century, from rue Paul BertPaul BertA nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Bội Châu, Phan Châu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi, and Hồ Chí Minh fighting or calling for independence.{{sfn|Largo|2002|p=112}} This resulted in the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ) which was suppressed heavily by the French. The mutiny caused an irreparable split that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communist converts.{{sfn|Khánh Huỳnh|1986|p=98}}{{sfn|Odell|Castillo|2008|p=82}}{{sfn|Thomas|2012}}The French maintained full control over their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1940. Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro-Vichy French colonial administration to continue.{{sfn|Miller|1990|p=293}}{{sfn|Gettleman|Franklin|Young|Franklin|1995|p=4}} Japan exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945 and the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which caused up to two million deaths.{{sfn|Thanh Niên|2015}}{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2015}}

First Indochina War

File:First Indochina War map 1954 en.svg|thumb|right|Situation of the First Indochina War at the end of 1954.{{Legend|#EEA270|Areas under Việt Minh control}}{{Legend|#D3B2DB|Areas under FrenchFrenchIn 1941, the Việt Minh, a nationalist liberation movement based on a Communist ideology, emerged under the Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. The Việt Minh sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation.{{sfn|Joes|1992|p=95}}{{sfn|Pike|2011|p=192}} Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, anarchy, rioting, and murder were widespread since Saigon's administrative services collapsed.{{sfn|Gunn|2014|p=270}} The Việt Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September.{{sfn|Pike|2011|p=192}}Earlier, in July 1945, the Allies had decided to divide Indochina at the 16th parallel to allow Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China to receive the Japanese surrender in the north while Lord Louis Mountbatten of the British would receive the surrender in the south, with the Allies agreeing that Indochina belonged to France.{{sfn|Neville|2007|p=175}}{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=6}}However, as the French were weakened as a result of German occupation, the British-Indian forces together with the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France re-establish control through the 1945–1946 War in Vietnam.{{sfn|Neville|2007|p=124}} Hồ Chí Minh at the time chose a moderate stance to avoid military conflict with France by which he asked the French to withdraw their colonial administrators, and asked for aid from French professors and engineers to help build a modern independent Vietnam.{{sfn|Pike|2011|p=192}} These requests, including the idea for independence, however, could not be accepted by the Provisional Government of the French Republic, which dispatched the French Far East Expeditionary Corps instead to restore colonial rule, causing the Việt Minh to launch a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946.{{sfn|Joes|1992|p=95}}{{sfn|Pike|2011|p=192}}{{sfn|Tonnesson|2011|p=66}} Matters also turned worse when the Republic of China gradually fell to the Communists in the Chinese Communist Revolution. The resulting First Indochina War lasted until July 1954. The defeat of French and Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 battle of Điện Biên Phủ allowed Hồ Chí Minh to negotiate a ceasefire from a favourable position at the subsequent Geneva Conference.{{sfn|Pike|2011|p=192}}{{sfn|Waite|2012|p=89}}File:French Indochina post partition.png|thumb|left|Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference1954 Geneva ConferenceThe colonial administration was ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954 into three countries: Vietnam, and the kingdoms of Cambodia and Laos. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarised Zone, approximately along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956.{{#tag:ref|Neither the American government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. The non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam; however, the French accepted the Việt Minh proposal{{sfn|Gravel|1971|p=134}} that Vietnam be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions".{{sfn|Gravel|1971|p=119}} The United States, with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom, countered with the "American Plan",{{sfn|Gravel|1971|p=140}} which provided for United Nations-supervised unification elections. The plan, however, was rejected by Soviet and other communist delegations.{{sfn|Kort|2017|p=96}}|group="n"}} A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists.{{sfn|Olson|2012|p=43}}{{sfn|DK|2017|p=39}} The partition of Vietnam was not intended to be permanent by the Geneva Accords, which stipulated that Vietnam would be reunited after elections in 1956.{{sfn|van Dijk|Gray|Savranskaya|Suri|2013|p=68}} However, in 1955, the State of Vietnam's Prime Minister, Ngô Đình Diệm toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam.{{sfn|van Dijk|Gray|Savranskaya|Suri|2013|p=68}} At that point the internationally recognised State of Vietnam effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam in the south and Hồ Chí Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north.{{sfn|van Dijk|Gray|Savranskaya|Suri|2013|p=68}}

Vietnam War

Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression.{{sfn|Moïse|2017|p=56}} During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions.{{sfn|Turner|1975|p=143}} Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time.{{sfn|Turner|1975|p=143}}{{sfn|Gittinger|1959}} However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500.{{sfn|Vu|2007}} In the South, Diệm countered North Vietnamese subversion (including the assassination of over 450 South Vietnamese officials in 1956) by detaining tens of thousands of suspected communists in "political re-education centres".{{sfn|Heneghan|1969|p=160}}{{sfn|Turner|1975|p=177}} This was a ruthless program that incarcerated many non-communists, although it was also successful at curtailing communist activity in the country, if only for a time.{{sfn|Crozier|1955}} The North Vietnamese government claimed that 2,148 individuals were killed in the process by November 1957.{{sfn|Turner|1975|p=174–178}} The pro-Hanoi Việt Cộng began a guerrilla campaign in the late 1950s to overthrow Diệm's government.{{sfn|Gilbert|2013|p=292}} From 1960, the Soviet Union and North Vietnam signed treaties providing for further Soviet military support.{{sfn|Jukes|1973|p=209}}{{sfn|Olsen|2007|p=92}}{{sfn|Khoo|2011|p=27}}File:Agent Orange Cropdusting.jpg|thumb|right|Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of the overall herbicidal warfare operation called Trail Dust with the aim to deprive the food and vegetation cover of the 1962–1971}}.In 1963, Buddhist discontent with Diệm's regime erupted into mass demonstrations, leading to a violent government crackdown.{{sfn|Muehlenbeck|Muehlenbeck|2012|p=221}} This led to the collapse of Diệm's relationship with the United States, and ultimately to the 1963 coup in which Diệm and Nhu were assassinated.{{sfn|Willbanks|2013|p=53}} The Diệm era was followed by more than a dozen successive military governments, before the pairing of Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu took control in mid-1965.{{sfn|Duy Hinh|Dinh Tho|2015|p=238}} Thiệu gradually outmaneuvered Kỳ and cemented his grip on power in fraudulent elections in 1967 and 1971.{{sfn|Isserman|Bowman|2009|p=46}} Under this political instability, the communists began to gain ground. To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States began increasing its contribution of military advisers, using the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident as a pretext for such intervention.{{sfn|Alterman|2005|p=213}} US forces became involved in ground combat operations in 1965, and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000.{{sfn|Lewy|1980}}{{sfn|Gibbons|2014|p=166}} The US also engaged in a sustained aerial bombing campaign. Meanwhile, China and the Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with significant material aid and 15,000 combat advisers.{{sfn|Jukes|1973|p=209}}{{sfn|Olsen|2007|p=92}}{{sfn|Li|2012|p=67}} Communist forces supplying the Việt Cộng carried supplies along the Hồ Chí Minh trail, which passed through the Kingdom of Laos.{{sfn|Gillet|2011}}The communists attacked South Vietnamese targets during the 1968 Tết Offensive. Although the campaign failed militarily, it shocked the American establishment, and turned US public opinion against the war.{{sfn|Dallek|2018}} During the offensive, communist troops massacred over 3,000 civilians at Huế.{{sfn|Turner|1975|p=251}}{{sfn|Frankum Jr.|2011|p=209}} A 1974 US Senate subcommittee estimates nearly 1.4 million Vietnamese civilians killed and wounded between 1965 and 1974, and attributed over half as resulting from US and South Vietnamese military action.{{sfn|Dohrenwend|Turse|Wall|Yager|2018|p=69}} Facing an increasing casualty count, rising domestic opposition to the war, and growing international condemnation, the US began withdrawing from ground combat roles in the early 1970s. This process also entailed an unsuccessful effort to strengthen and stabilise South Vietnam.{{sfn|Eggleston|2014|p=1}} Following the Paris Peace Accords of 27 January 1973, all American combat troops were withdrawn by 29 March 1973.{{sfn|History|2018}} In December 1974, North Vietnam captured the province of Phước Long and started a full-scale offensive, culminating in the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.{{sfn|Tucker|2011|p=749}} South Vietnam was ruled by a provisional government for almost eight years while under military occupation by North Vietnam.{{sfn|Brigham|1998|p=86}}

Reunification and reforms

{{further|Re-education camp (Vietnam)|Vietnamese boat people|Đổi Mới}}File:Parade Unification.jpg|thumb|right|Reunification parade following the fall of Saigon, with the city being renamed as Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh CityOn 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.{{sfn|The New York Times|1976}} The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million.{{sfn|Hirschman|Preston|Manh Loi|1995}}{{sfn|Shenon|1995}}{{sfn|Obermeyer|Murray|Gakidou|2008}} In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the US and the defunct South Vietnamese government, confounding Western fears.{{sfn|Elliott|2010|p=499, 512–513}} However, up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to re-education camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labour.{{sfn|Sagan|Denny|1982}} The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivisation of farms and factories.{{sfn|Spokesman-Review|1977|p=8}} In 1978, as a response towards the Khmer Rouge who had been invading and massacring Vietnamese residents in the border villages in the districts of An Giang and Kiên Giang,{{sfn|Kissi|2006|p=144}} the Vietnamese military invaded Cambodia and removed them from power after overtaking Phnom Penh.{{sfn|Meggle|2004|p=166}} The intervention was a success, resulting in the establishment of a new pro-Vietnam socialist government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea which ruled until 1989.{{sfn|Hampson|1996|p=175}} This action, however, worsened relations with China, who had been supporting the Khmer Rouge and they later launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam in 1979 and caused Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid, while mistrust towards the Chinese government began to escalate.{{sfn|Khoo|2011|p=131}}At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.{{sfn|BBC News|1997}}{{sfn|Văn Phúc|2014}} The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.{{sfn|BBC News|1997}} Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms known as ("Renovation") which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".{{sfn|Murray|1997|p=24–25}}{{sfn|Bich Loan|2007}} Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under Đổi Mới, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation, and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.{{sfn|Bich Loan|2007}}{{sfn|Howe|2016|p=20}} The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports, and foreign investment, although these reforms have also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.{{sfn|Goodkind|1995}}{{sfn|Gallup|2002}}{{sfn|Wagstaff|van Doorslaer|Watanabe|2003}}

Geography

File:Geography of Vietnam.jpg|thumb|left|Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls.]]Vietnam is located on the eastern Indochinese Peninsula between the latitudes 8° and 24°N, and the longitudes 102° and 110°E. It covers a total area of approximately {{convert|331212|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}.{{#tag:ref|See List of countries and dependencies by area.|name="area"|group="n"}} The combined length of the country's land boundaries is {{convert|4639|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}, and its coastline is {{convert|3444|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} long.{{sfn|Nasuchon|2008|p=7}} At its narrowest point in the central Quảng Bình Province, the country is as little as {{convert|50|km|mi}} across, though it widens to around {{convert|600|km|mi}} in the north.{{sfn|Protected Areas and Development Partnership|2003|p=13}} Vietnam's land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country's land area,{{sfn|Fröhlich|Schreinemachers|Stahr|Clemens|2013|p=5}} and tropical forests cover around 42%.{{sfn|Natural Resources and Environment Program|1995|p=56}} The Red River Delta in the north, a flat, roughly triangular region covering {{convert|15000|km2|0|abbr=on}},{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development|2007}} is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta in the south. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits.{{sfn|Huu Chiem|1993|p=180}}{{sfn|Minh Hoang|van Lap|Kim Oanh|Jiro|2016}} The delta, covering about {{convert|40000|km2|0|abbr=on}}, is a low-level plain no more than {{convert|3|m|ft|1}} above sea level at any point. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances {{convert|60|to|80|m|ft|1}} into the sea every year.{{sfn|Huu Chiem|1993|p=183}}{{sfn|Hong Truong|Ye|Stive|2017|p=757}} The Exclusive economic zone of Vietnam covers {{convert|417,663|km²|sqmi|abbr=on}} in the South China Sea.{{sfn|Vietnamese Waters Zone}}File:I'm coming, PXP.jpg|thumb|right|Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, a part of the FansipanFansipanSouthern Vietnam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land.{{sfn|Cosslett|Cosslett|2017|p=13}} The soil in much of the southern part of Vietnam is relatively low in nutrients as a result of intense cultivation.{{sfn|Van De|Douglas|McMorrow|Lindley|2008}} Several minor earthquakes have been recorded in the past with most having occurred near the northern Vietnamese border in the provinces of Điện Biên, Lào Cai and Sơn La while some are recorded in the offshore of the central part of the country.{{sfn|Hong Phuong|2012|p=3}}{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2016}} The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Fansipan (also known as Phan Xi Păng) which is located in Lào Cai Province is the highest mountain in Vietnam, standing {{convert|3143|m|adj=on|abbr=on}} high.{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism|2014}} From north to south Vietnam, the country also has numerous islands with Phú Quốc being the largest.{{sfn|Boobbyer|Spooner|2013|p=173}} The Hang Sơn Đoòng Cave is considered the largest known cave passage in the world since its discovery in 2009. The Ba Bể Lake and Mekong River are the largest lake and longest river in the country respectively.{{sfn|Cosslett|Cosslett|2013|p=13}}{{sfn|Anh|2016a}}{{sfn|The Telegraph}}

Climate

File:Koppen-Geiger Map VNM present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate classificationKöppen climate classificationFile:Nha Trang skyline.jpg|thumb|right|325x325px|Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climatetropical savanna climateDue to differences in latitude and the marked variety in topographical relief, the climate tends to vary considerably for each region.{{sfn|Lap Vu|1979|p=66}} During the winter or dry season, extending roughly from November to April, the monsoon winds usually blow from the northeast along the Chinese coast and across the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up considerable moisture.{{sfn|Riehl|Augstein|1973|p=1}} The average annual temperature is generally higher in the plains than in the mountains, especially in southern Vietnam compared to the north. Temperatures vary less in the southern plains around Ho Chi Minh City and the Mekong Delta, ranging from between {{convert|21|and|35|°C|°F|1}} over the course of the year.{{sfn|Buleen|2017}} In Hanoi and the surrounding areas of Red River Delta, the temperatures are much lower between {{convert|15|and|33|°C|°F|1}},{{sfn|Buleen|2017}} while seasonal variations in the mountains and plateaus and in the northernmost are much more dramatic, with temperatures varying from {{convert|3|°C|1}} in December and January to {{convert|37|°C|1}} in July and August.{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2018a}} As Vietnam received high rain precipitation with an average amount of rainfall from 1,500 millimetres to 2,000 millimetres during the monsoon seasons; this often causes flooding, especially in the cities with poor drainage systems.{{sfn|Thi Anh}} The country is also affected by tropical depressions, tropical storms and typhoons.{{sfn|Thi Anh}} Vietnam is one of world's most vulnerable countries to climate change with 55% of the population living in low-elevation coastal areas.{{sfn|Overland|2017}}

Biodiversity

File:Wildlife of Vietnam.jpg|thumb|left|Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saolasaolaAs the country is located inside the Indomalayan realm, Vietnam is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a uniquely high level of biodiversity as also been stated in the country National Environmental Condition Report in 2005.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}} It is ranked 16th worldwide in biological diversity, being home to approximately 16% of the world's species. 15,986 species of flora have been identified in the country, of which 10% are endemic, while Vietnam's fauna include 307 nematode species, 200 oligochaeta, 145 acarina, 113 springtails, 7,750 insects, 260 reptiles, 120 amphibians, 840 birds and 310 mammals, of which 100 birds and 78 mammals are endemic.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}} Vietnam has two World Natural Heritage Sites, the Hạ Long Bay and Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park together with nine biosphere reserves including Cần Giờ Mangrove Forest, Cát Tiên, Cát Bà, Kiên Giang, the Red River Delta, Mekong Delta, Western Nghệ An, Cà Mau and Cu Lao Cham Marine Park.{{sfn|UNESCO World Heritage Convention|1994}}{{sfn|UNESCO World Heritage Convention|2003}}{{sfn|Pha Le|2016}}File:Lotus flower (978659).jpg|thumb|right|The pink lotus, widely regarded by Vietnamese as the national flower of the country, which symbolises beauty, commitment, health, honour and knowledge.{{sfn|Nhân Dân|2011}}{{sfn|Hinchey|2017|p=30}}{{#tag:ref|The national symbol of Vietnam is officially recognised in the country legal documents, including in the Constitution which establishes the national flag, national emblem and national anthem. But although Vietnam is a country with many beautiful flowers, yet until now, there has been no document recognising the national flower of Vietnam, while other Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and all of our neighbours have their own national flowers. Currently, about 70% of countries in the world have national flower in their national symbol. Lotus has been chosen by India as their national flower, but it does not affect the similar choice made by Vietnam because there are also many countries that choose the same flower as their national flower (e.g. rose is the national flower of Bulgaria, the Mạnh Cường|Ngọc Lin|2010}}|group="n"}}Vietnam is furthermore home to 1,438 species of freshwater microalgae, constituting 9.6% of all microalgae species, as well as 794 aquatic invertebrates and 2,458 species of sea fish.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}} In recent years, 13 genera, 222 species, and 30 taxa of flora have been newly described in Vietnam.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}} Six new mammal species, including the saola, giant muntjac and Tonkin snub-nosed monkey have also been discovered, along with one new bird species, the endangered Edwards's pheasant.{{sfn|BirdLife International|2016}} In the late 1980s, a small population of Javan rhinoceros was found in Cát Tiên National Park. However, the last individual of the species in Vietnam was reportedly shot in 2010.{{sfn|Kinver|2011}} In agricultural genetic diversity, Vietnam is one of the world's twelve original cultivar centres. The Vietnam National Cultivar Gene Bank preserves 12,300 cultivars of 115 species.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}} The Vietnamese government spent US$49.07 million on the preservation of biodiversity in 2004 alone, and has established 126 conservation areas, including 30 national parks.{{sfn|Vietnam National Environment Administration}}

Environment

File:Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities.jpg|thumb|left|Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities.]]In Vietnam, poaching had become a main issue for their wildlife. Since 2000, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) called Education for Nature - Vietnam has been founded to instill the importance of wildlife conservation in the country.{{sfn|Dall|2017}} Following this, the seeds of the conservation movement starting to bloom with the foundation of another NGO called GreenViet by Vietnamese youngsters for the enforcement of wildlife protection. Through collaboration between the NGO and local authorities, many local poaching syndicates managed to be crippled with the arrestment of their leaders.{{sfn|Dall|2017}} As Vietnam have also become the main destination for rhinoceros horn illegal export from South Africa, a study in 2018 found the demands are due to medical and health-related reasons.{{sfn|Dang Vu|Nielsen|2018}}The main environmental concern that persists in Vietnam until present is the chemical herbicide legacy of Agent Orange that causing birth defects and many health problems towards Vietnamese residents especially in the southern and central areas that was affected most by the chemicals with nearly 4.8 million Vietnamese have been exposed.{{sfn|Banout|Urban|Musil|Szakova|2014}}{{sfn|Cerre|2016}}{{sfn|Brown|2018}} In 2012, approximately 50 years after the war,{{sfn|Agence France-Presse|2016}} the United States began to start a US$43 million joint clean up project in the former chemical storage areas in Vietnam that was heavily affected with each clearance will be done through several phases.{{sfn|Cerre|2016}}{{sfn|MacLeod|2012}} Following the completion of the first phase in Đà Nẵng in late 2017,{{sfn|United States Agency for International Development}} the United States announced its further commitment to clean other sites especially in another heavily impact site of Biên Hòa which is four times larger than the previous site with an additional estimate cost of $390 million.{{sfn|Stewart|2018}}File:Fog in Tây Bắc.jpg|thumb|right|Natural fog in northwest Vietnam (Tây Bắc).]]The Vietnamese government spends over VNĐ10 trillion each year ($431.1 million) for monthly allowance and physical rehabilitation of the Vietnamese victims caused by the chemicals.{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2018a}} In 2018, Japanese Engineering Group, Shimizu Corporation also working with Vietnamese military to build a plant in Vietnam for the treatment of Agent Orange polluted soils with the plant construction costs to be funded by the company itself.{{sfn|Nikkei Asian Review|2018}}{{sfn|NHK World-Japan|2018}} One of the long-term plans to restore southern Vietnam damaged ecosystems is through reforestation efforts which the Vietnamese government has done since the end of the war, starting with the replantation of mangrove forests in the Mekong Delta regions and in Cần Giờ outside of the main city where mangroves are important to prevent more serious flooding during the monsoon seasons.{{sfn|Agent Orange Record}}Apart from herbicide problems, arsenic exposure to ground water in the Mekong Delta and Red River Delta has also become a major concern,{{sfn|Berg|Stengel|Pham|Pham|2007}}{{sfn|Merola|Hien|Quyen|Vengosh|2014}} along with unexploded ordnances (UXO) that pose dangers towards human and habitat life as another bitter legacy from the long wars.{{sfn|Miguel|Roland|2005}} As part of the continuous campaign for demining/removal of UXOs, various international bomb removal agencies including those from the United Kingdom,{{sfn|United Kingdom Department for International Development|2017}} Denmark,{{sfn|LM Report|2000}} South Korea{{sfn|United Nations Development Programme|2018}} as well the United States{{sfn|United States Department of State|2006}} itself have been providing help. The Vietnam government spends over VNĐ1 trillion ($44 million) annually on demining operations and additional hundreds billions of đồng for treatment, assistance, rehabilitation, vocational training and resettlement for the victims of UXOs.{{sfn|Van Thanh|2016}} Apart from the removal of explosives from the legacy of civil war, the neighbouring Chinese government also has removed 53,000 land mines and explosives from the legacy of war between the two countries in an area of 18.4 square kilometres in the Chinese province of Yunnan bordering the China–Vietnam border in 2017.{{sfn|Tao|2017}}{{wide image|Ha Long Bay panorama.jpg|1000px|Panoramic view of Hạ Long Bay}}

Government and politics

Vietnam is a unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic, one of the two communist states (the other being Laos) in Southeast Asia.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}} Although Vietnam remains officially committed to socialism as its defining creed, its economic policies have grown increasingly capitalist,{{sfn|Greenfield|1994|p=204}}{{sfn|Baccini|Impullitti|Malesky|2017}} with The Economist characterising its leadership as "ardently capitalist communists".{{sfn|The Economist|2008}} Under the constitution, the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) asserts their role in all branches of politics and society in the country.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}} The President is the elected head of state and the commander-in-chief of the military, serving as the Chairman of the Council of Supreme Defence and Security, holds the second highest office in Vietnam as well as performing executive functions and state appointments and setting policy.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}}{{multiple image| align = left| image1 = Nguyen Phu Trong.jpg| width1 = 100| alt1 = Nguyễn Phú TrọngNguyễn Phú TrọngGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam>General Secretary & President| link1 = Nguyễn Phú Trọng| image2 = Vietnamese Prime Minister Phuc.jpg| width2 = 104| alt2 = Nguyễn Xuân PhúcNguyễn Xuân PhúcPrime Minister of Vietnam>Prime Minister| link2 = Nguyễn Xuân Phúc| image3 = Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan 2012.jpg| width3 = 100| alt3 = Nguyễn Thị Kim NgânNguyễn Thị Kim NgânChairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam>National Assembly Chairperson| link3 = Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân}}The General Secretary of the CPV performs numerous key administrative functions, controlling the party's national organisation.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}} The Prime Minister is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of five deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions. Only political organisations affiliated with or endorsed by the CPV are permitted to contest elections in Vietnam. These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front and worker and trade unionist parties.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}}File:National Assembly of Vietnam.JPG|thumb|right|The National Assembly of VietnamNational Assembly of VietnamThe National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral legislature of the state, composed of 498 members.{{sfn|Embassy of Vietnam in USA}} The legislature is open to all parties. Headed by a chairman, it is superior to both the executive and judicial branches, with all government ministers being appointed from members of the National Assembly.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (II)}} The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, headed by a chief justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Assembly. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Military courts possess special jurisdiction in matters of national security. Vietnam maintains the death penalty for numerous offences.{{sfn|Vietnam Penal Code|1999}}

Foreign relations

{{multiple image| direction = vertical| image1 = Trần Đại Quang and Vladimir Putin, 2016-01.jpg| alt1 = Trần Đại Quang and Vladimir Putin| caption1 = President Trần Đại Quang with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 19 November 2016.| image2 = Secretary Tillerson Joins Commercial Deals Signing Ceremony at the Presidential Palace in Vietnam (38322247422).jpg| alt2 = Secretary Tillerson at the Presidential Palace| caption2 = US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson accompanies US President Donald Trump to a commercial deals signing ceremony with Vietnamese President on 12 November 2017.}}Throughout its history, Vietnam's main foreign relationship has been with various Chinese dynasties.{{sfn|Thayer|1994}} Following the partition of Vietnam, the relations were divided between relations with the Eastern Bloc for North Vietnam, and the Western Bloc for South Vietnam.{{sfn|Thayer|1994}} Despite the differences, Vietnam's sovereign principles and insistence on cultural independence have been laid down in numerous documents over the centuries since before its independence, such as the 11th-century patriotic poem "Nam quốc sơn hà" and the 1428 proclamation of independence "Bình Ngô đại cáo". Though China and Vietnam are now formally at peace,{{sfn|Thayer|1994}} significant territorial tensions in the South China Sea remain between the two countries.{{sfn|Thanh Hai|2016|p=177}} Vietnam holds membership in 63 international organisations, including the United Nations (UN), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), International Organisation of the Francophonie (La Francophonie), and World Trade Organization (WTO). It also maintains relations with over 650 non-government organisations.{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs|2018}} Until 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries.{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs|2013}}Vietnam’s current foreign policy is to consistently implement the policy of independence, self-reliance, peace, co-operation, and development, as well the openness and diversification/multilateralisation of international relations,{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs|2007}}{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs|2014}} with the country further declaring itself as a friend and partner of all countries in the international community, regardless of their political affiliation, by actively taking part in international and regional cooperation, especially in country development.{{sfn|Bich Loan|2007}}{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs|2007}} Since the 1990s, several key steps have been taken by Vietnam to restore diplomatic ties with Western countries.{{sfn|Dayley|2018|p=98}} Relations with the United States began to improve in August 1995 with both nations upgrading their (:wikt:liaison|liaison) offices to embassy status.{{sfn|Mitchell|1995}} As diplomatic ties between the two nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City while Vietnam opened its consulate in San Francisco. Full diplomatic relations were also restored with New Zealand, who opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995,{{sfn|Green|2012}} while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003.{{sfn|Smith|2005|p=386}} Pakistan also reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000 with Vietnam reopening their embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.{{sfn|Institute of Regional Studies|2001|p=66}}{{sfn|Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs}} In May 2016, US President Barack Obama further normalised relations with Vietnam after he announced the lifting of an arms embargo on sales of lethal arms to Vietnam.{{sfn|Garamone|2016}}

Military

File:Vietnam People's Armed Forces.jpg|thumb|right|Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.]]The Vietnam People's Armed Forces consists of the Vietnam People's Army, the Vietnam People's Public Security and the Vietnam Civil Defence Force. The Vietnam People's Army (VPA) is the official name for the active military services of Vietnam, and is subdivided into the Vietnam People's Ground Forces, the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force, the Vietnam Border Defence Force and the Vietnam Coast Guard. The VPA has an active manpower of around 450,000, but its total strength, including paramilitary forces, may be as high as 5,000,000.{{sfn|Taylor|Rutherford|2011|p=50}} In 2015, Vietnam's military expenditure totalled approximately US$4.4 billion, equivalent to around 8% of their total government spending.{{sfn|Yan|2016}} Joint military exercises and war games also being held with Brunei,{{sfn|Voice of Vietnam|2016}} India,{{sfn|The Economic Times|2018}} Japan,{{sfn|The Japan Times|2015}} Laos,{{sfn|Voice of Vietnam|2018b}} Russia,{{sfn|Sputnik News|2015}}{{sfn|Russia Ministry of Defence|2018}} Singapore{{sfn|Voice of Vietnam|2016}} and the United States.{{sfn|The Telegraph|2012}} In 2017, Vietnam signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.{{sfn|United Nations Treaty Collection}}{{sfn|Giap|2017}}

Administrative divisions

Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces (Vietnamese: tỉnh, from the Chinese (wikt:省|省), shěng).{{sfn|Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism}} There are also five municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc trung ương), which are administratively on the same level as provinces.{{Vietnam Provinces Image Map}}{| style="margin:auto;"Red River Delta
Bắc NinhHà NamHải DươngHưng YênNam ĐịnhNinh BìnhThái BìnhVĩnh PhúcHà Nội (municipality)Hải Phòng (municipality)Northeast
Bắc GiangBắc KạnCao BằngHà GiangLạng SơnLào CaiPhú ThọQuảng NinhThái NguyênTuyên QuangYên BáiNorthwest
Điện BiênHòa BìnhLai ChâuSơn LaNorth Central Coast
Hà TĩnhNghệ AnQuảng BìnhQuảng TrịThanh HóaThừa Thiên–HuếCentral Highlands
Đắk LắkĐắk NôngGia LaiKon TumLâm ĐồngSouth Central Coast
Bình ĐịnhBình ThuậnKhánh HòaNinh ThuậnPhú YênQuảng NamQuảng NgãiĐà Nẵng (municipality)Southeast
Bà Rịa–Vũng TàuBình DươngBình PhướcĐồng NaiTây NinhHồ Chí Minh City (municipality)Mekong Delta
An GiangBạc LiêuBến TreCà MauĐồng ThápHậu GiangKiên GiangLong AnSóc TrăngTiền GiangTrà VinhVĩnh LongCần Thơ (municipality)File:Tay Ho Communist propaganda posters in 2015 11.jpg|thumb|The Communist Party's propaganda poster in Hanoi]]The provinces are subdivided into provincial municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh), townships (thị xã) and counties (huyện), which are in turn subdivided into towns (thị trấn) or communes (xã). The centrally controlled municipalities are subdivided into districts (quận) and counties, which are further subdivided into wards (phường).

Human rights

{{see also|Human rights in Vietnam}}Under the current constitution, the Communist Party of Vietnam is the only party allowed to rule, the operation of all other political parties being outlawed. Other human rights issues concern freedom of association, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. In 2009, Vietnamese lawyer Lê Công Định was arrested and charged with the capital crime of subversion; several of his associates were also arrested.{{sfn|BBC News|2009}}{{sfn|Mydans|2009}} Amnesty International named him and his arrested associates prisoners of conscience.{{sfn|BBC News|2009}}

Economy

{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;" colspan="2" |Share of world GDP (PPP){{sfn|International Monetary Fund}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Share0.18%0.23%0.32%0.43%0.52%File:Viet Nam Export Treemap.png|thumb|Tree mapTree mapThroughout the history of Vietnam, its economy has been largely on agriculture based on wet rice cultivation.{{sfn|Cornell University}} There is also an industry for bauxite mining in central Vietnam, an important material for the production of aluminium.{{sfn|Kim Phuong|2014|p=1}} Since reunification, the country economy is shaped primarily by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) through the Five Year Plans which are being decided from the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses.{{sfn|Kimura|1986}} The collectivisation of farms, factories, and capital goods was carried out as components in establishing central planning, with millions of people working in state enterprises. Despite strict state control, Vietnam's economy continued to be plagued with inefficiency and corruption in state-owned enterprises, poor quality and underproduction.{{sfn|Adhikari|Kirkpatrick|Weiss|1992|p=249}}{{sfn|Ngoc Vo|Le|2014|p=7}}{{sfn|Van Tho|2003|p=11}} With the decrease of Soviet economic aid as the main trading partners for Vietnam following the erosion of the Eastern bloc in the late 1980s and subsequent Soviet Union collapse in addition to the negative impacts from the post-war trade embargo imposed by the United States,{{sfn|Litvack|Litvack|Rondinelli|1999|p=31}}{{sfn|Freeman|2002}} Vietnam began to liberalise its trade by devaluing its exchange rate to increase exports and embark on a policy of economic development.{{sfn|Litvack|Litvack|Rondinelli|1999|p=33}}File:HVNLM 2018.jpg|thumb|Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh CityIn 1986, the Sixth National Congress of the CPV introduced socialist-oriented market economic reforms as part of the Đổi Mới reform program with private ownership began to be encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture and state enterprises were restructured to operate under market constraints,{{sfn|Van Tho|2003|p=5}}{{sfn|Hoang Vuong|Dung Tran|2009}} resulting the old-fashioned five-year economic plans are being replaced with the socialist-oriented market mechanism.{{sfn|Hoang Vuong|2014}} As a result of these reforms, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual Gross domestic product (GDP) growth between 1990 and 1997,{{sfn|Largo|2002|p=66}}{{sfn|International Monetary Fund|1999|p=23}} with the United States also ended its economic embargo against Vietnam in early 1994.{{sfn|Cockburn|1994}} Despite the 1997 Asian financial crisis affecting Vietnam and causing economic slow down to 4-5% growth (:wikt:per annum|per annum), its economy began to recover in 1999,{{sfn|Van Tho|2003|p=5}} with growth at an annual rate of around 7% from 2000 to 2005 and making the country as one of the world's fastest growing economies.{{harvnb|Pincus|2015|p=27}}; this article refers to the so-called "Vent for surplus" theory of international trade.{{sfn|Quang Vinh|p=13}} According to General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), growth remained strong even in the face of the late-2000s global recession, holding at 6.8% in 2010, although Vietnam's year-on-year inflation rate hit 11.8% in December 2010 with the country currency, the Vietnamese đồng are being devalued three times.{{sfn|Asian Development Bank|2010|p=388}}{{sfn|Thanh Niên|2010}}File:Vinfast, mô hình SUV Lux SA2.0 .jpg|alt=Vinfast SVU Lux SA 2.0 at the 2018 Paris Motor Show|left|thumb|VinFastVinFastDeep poverty which defined as the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day has declined significantly in Vietnam and the relative poverty rate is now less than that of China, India and the Philippines.{{sfn|Vierra|Vierra|2011|p=5}} This decline in the poverty rate can be attributed to equitable economic policies aimed at improving living standards and preventing the rise of inequality;{{sfn|Vandemoortele|Bird|2010}} these policies have included egalitarian land distribution during the initial stages of the Đổi Mới program, investment in poorer remote areas, and subsidising of education and healthcare.{{sfn|Cuong Le|Kubo|Fujino|Minh Pham|2010|p=23}}{{sfn|H. Dang|Glewwe|2017|p=9}} Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has applied sequenced trade liberalisation, a two-track approach opening some sectors of the economy to international markets.{{sfn|Vandemoortele|Bird|2010}}{{sfn|Vandemoortele|2010}} Manufacturing, information technology and high-tech industries now form a large and fast-growing part of the national economy. Though Vietnam is a relative newcomer to the oil industry, it is currently the third-largest oil producer in Southeast Asia with a total 2011 output of {{convert|318000|oilbbl/d|m3/d}}.{{sfn|UPI.com|2013}} In 2010, Vietnam was ranked as the 8th largest crude petroleum producers in the Asia and Pacific region.{{sfn|Fong-Sam|2010|p=26}} The United States was the country that purchased the highest amount of Vietnam's exports,{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2018b}} while goods from China were the most popular Vietnamese import.{{sfn|Vietnam News Agency|2018}}According to a December 2005 forecast by Goldman Sachs, the Vietnamese economy will become the world's 21st-largest by 2025,{{sfn|Karmel|2010|p=1}} with an estimated nominal GDP of $436 billion and a nominal GDP per capita of $4,357.{{sfn|Lyimo|2016}} Based on a findings by International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2012, the unemployment rate in Vietnam stood at 4.46%.{{sfn|International Monetary Fund}} Along the same year, Vietnam's nominal GDP reached US$138 billion, with a nominal GDP per capita of $1,527.{{sfn|International Monetary Fund}} The HSBC also predicted that Vietnam's total GDP would surpass those of Norway, Singapore and Portugal by 2050.{{sfn|Lyimo|2016}}{{sfn|Tuổi Trẻ News|2012}} Another forecast by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2008 stating that Vietnam may be the fastest-growing of the world's emerging economies by 2025, with a potential growth rate of almost 10% per annum in real dollar terms.{{sfn|PWC|2008}} Apart from the primary sector economy, tourism has contributed significantly to Vietnam's economic growth with 7.94 million foreign visitors are recorded in 2015.{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2016a}}

Agriculture

File:Terraced fields Sa Pa 3.jpg|thumb|right|Terraced rice fields in Sa PaSa PaAs a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam has become a major exporter of agricultural products. It is now the world's largest producer of cashew nuts, with a one-third global share;{{sfn|Mai|2017}} the largest producer of black pepper, accounting for one-third of the world's market;{{sfn|Voice of Vietnam|2018c}} and the second-largest rice exporter in the world after Thailand since the 1990s.{{sfn|Nielsen|2007|p=1}} Subsequently, Vietnam is also the world's second largest exporter of coffee.{{sfn|Summers|2014}} The country has the highest proportion of land use for permanent crops together with other nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion.{{sfn|Truong|Vo|Nguyen|2018|p=172}} Other primary exports include tea, rubber and fishery products although agriculture's share of Vietnam's GDP has fallen in recent decades, declining from 42% in 1989 to 20% in 2006 as production in other sectors of the economy has risen.

Science and technology

File:TOPIO 3.jpg|thumb|left|A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in DigInfo|2007}}{{sfn|Borel|2010}}In 2010, Vietnam's total state spending on science and technology equalled around 0.45% of its GDP.{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2010}} Since the dynastic era, Vietnamese scholars has developed many academic fields especially in social sciences and humanities. Vietnam has a millennium-deep legacy of analytical histories, such as the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư of Ngô Sĩ Liên. Vietnamese monks led by the abdicated Emperor Trần Nhân Tông developed the Trúc Lâm Zen branch of philosophy in the 13th century.{{sfn|Różycka-Tran|Anh Tran|2014|p=123}} Arithmetics and geometry have been widely taught in Vietnam since the 15th century, using the textbook Đại thành toán pháp by Lương Thế Vinh as a basis. Lương Thế Vinh introduced Vietnam to the notion of zero, while Mạc Hiển Tích used the term số ẩn (en: "unknown/secret/hidden number") to refer to negative numbers. Vietnamese scholars furthermore produced numerous encyclopaedias, such as Lê Quý Đôn's Vân đài loại ngữ. In modern times, Vietnamese scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. Hoàng Tụy pioneered the applied mathematics field of global optimisation in the 20th century,{{sfn|Koblitz|2009|p=198}} while Ngô Bảo Châu won the 2010 Fields Medal for his proof of fundamental lemma in the theory of automorphic forms.{{sfn|CNRS|2010}}{{sfn|Koppes|2010}} Since the establishment of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) by the government in 1975, the country is working to develop its first national space flight program especially after the completion of the infrastructure of Vietnam Space Centre (VSC) in 2018.{{sfn|Vietnam National Space Centre|2016}}{{sfn|Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology|2017}} Vietnam has also made significant advances in the development of robots, such as the TOPIO humanoid model.{{sfn|DigInfo|2007}}{{sfn|Borel|2010}} Vietnam's main messaging apps, Zalo is developed by Vương Quang Khải, a Vietnamese hacker who later work with the country largest information technology service company, the FPT Group.{{sfn|Raslan|2017}}File:Svhutech nckh4.jpg|thumb|right|Vietnamese science students making an experimentexperimentAccording to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Vietnam devoted 0.19% of its GDP for science research and development in 2011.{{sfn|UNESCO Media Services|2016}} Between 2005 and 2014, the number of scientific publications recorded in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science increased at a rate well above the average for Southeast Asia, albeit from a modest starting point.{{sfn|UNESCO Publishing|p=713–714}} Publications focus mainly on life sciences (22%), (:wikt:physic|physics) (13%) and engineering (13%), which is consistent with recent advances in the production of diagnostic equipment and shipbuilding.{{sfn|UNESCO Publishing|p=713–714}} Almost 77% of all papers published between 2008 and 2014 had at least one international co-author. The autonomy which Vietnamese research centres have enjoyed since the mid-1990s has enabled many of them to operate as quasi-private organisations, providing services such as consulting and technology development.{{sfn|UNESCO Publishing|p=713–714}} Some have 'spun off' from the larger institutions to form their own semi-private enterprises, fostering the transfer of public sector science and technology personnel to these semi-private establishments. One comparatively new university, the Tôn Đức Thắng University which built in 1997 has already set up 13 centres for technology transfer and services that together produce 15% of university revenue. Many of these research centres serve as valuable intermediaries bridging public research institutions, universities, and firms.{{sfn|UNESCO Publishing|p=713–714}}

Tourism

File:Pont-pagode "japonais" de Hoi-an, vue de nuit.jpg|thumb|right|Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site is a major tourist destination.]]Tourism is an important element of economic activity in the country, contributing 7.5% of the gross domestic product. Vietnam welcomed over 12.9 million visitors in 2017, an increase of 29.1% over the previous year, making Vietnam one of the fastest growing tourist destination in recent years. The vast majority of visitors to Vietnam in 2017 came from Asia, numbering 9.7 million. China (4 million), South Korea (2.6 million) and Japan (798,119) made up half of all international arrivals in 2017.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2018}} Vietnam also attracts large numbers of visitors from Europe with almost 1.9 millions of visitors in 2017. Russia (574,164), United Kingdom (283,537), followed closely by France (255,396) and Germany (199,872) were the largest source of international arrivals from Europe. Other significant international arrivals by nationality include the United States (614,117) and Australia (370,438).{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2018}} The most visited destinations in Vietnam is Ho Chi Minh City with 5.8 million international arrivals, followed by Hanoi with 4.6 million and Hạ Long, including Hạ Long Bay with 4.4 million arrivals. All three are ranked in the top 100 most visited cities in the world.{{sfn|Quy|2018}} Vietnam is home to 8 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the equal highest by the number of sites in Southeast Asia. In 2018, Travel + Leisure ranked Hội An as the world's top 15 best destinations to visit.{{sfn|Terzian|2018}}

Infrastructure

Transport

Much of Vietnam's modern transportation network traced its roots since the French colonial era where it was used to facilitate the transportation of raw materials to main ports before being extensively expanded and modernised following the partition of Vietnam.{{sfn|Crook|2014|p=7}} Vietnam's road system includes national roads administered at the central level, provincial roads managed at the provincial level, district roads managed at the district level, urban roads managed by cities and towns and commune roads managed at the commune level.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2010}} In 2010, Vietnam road system has a total length of about {{convert|188,744|km|mi|0}} with {{convert|93,535|km|mi|0}} are asphalt road comprising national, provincial and district roads.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2010}} The national road system length is about {{convert|15,370|km|mi|0}} with {{convert|15,085|km|mi|0}} of its length are paved, the provincial road has around {{convert|27,976|km|mi|0}} paved road while district road has {{convert|50,474|km|mi|0}} paved road.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2010}}File:Cầu Long Thành, Đường cao tốc TP.HCM - Long Thành - Dầu Giây.JPG|thumb|right|HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.]]File:Tan Son Nhat International Airport.jpg|thumb|right|Tan Son Nhat International AirportTan Son Nhat International AirportBicycles, motorcycles and motor scooters remain the most popular forms of road transport in the country as one of the legacy of French through transportation although the number of privately owned cars have been rising in recent years.{{sfn|Huu Duc|Mai Hoa|Thien Huong|Ngoc Bao|2013|p=2080}} Public buses operated by private companies are the main mode of long-distance travel for much of the population. Road accidents remain the major safety issue in Vietnamese transportation with an average of 30 people lost their lives daily,{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2011}} while traffic congestion is a growing problem in both major cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City especially with the growing of individual car ownership.{{sfn|Linh Le|Anh Trinh|2016}}{{sfn|Sohr|Brockfeld|Sauerländer|Melde|2016|p=220}} Vietnam's primary cross-country rail service is the Reunification Express from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi with a distance of nearly {{convert|1726|km|mi}}.{{sfn|Chin|2018}} From Hanoi, railway lines branch out to the northeast, north, and west; the eastbound line runs from Hanoi to Hạ Long Bay, the northbound line from Hanoi to Thái Nguyên, and the northeast line from Hanoi to Lào Cai. In 2009, Vietnam and Japan signed a deal to build a high-speed railway by using the technology of Japanese Shinkansen;{{sfn|The Japan Times|2009}} numerous Vietnamese engineers were later sent to Japan to receive training in the operation and maintenance of high-speed trains.{{sfn|Vietnam+|2008}} The planned railway will be a {{convert|1,545|km|mi|0}} long express route serving a total of 23 stations including in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City with 70% of its route will running on bridges and through underground tunnels,{{sfn|The Nation|2018}}{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2018b}} while the trains will travelling at a maximum speed of {{convert|350|km|mi}} per hour.{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2018b}}{{sfn|South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute|2009}} The plan for the country first high-speed rail, however, are being postponed with the Vietnamese government made a decision to putting the main priority on the development of both Hanoi Metro and Ho Chi Minh City Metro as well the expansion of road networks instead.{{sfn|Chin|2018}}{{sfn|Chi|2017}}{{sfn|Tatarski|2017}}File:Chùa Vẽ Terminal, Port of Hải Phòng.JPG|thumb|Port of Hai PhongHai PhongVietnam operates 20 major civil airports, including three international gateways: Noi Bai in Hanoi, Da Nang International Airport in Đà Nẵng and Tan Son Nhat in Ho Chi Minh City. Tan Son Nhat is the nation's largest airport by which it handling the majority of international passenger traffic.{{sfn|Hoang|2016|p=1}} According to a state-approved plan, Vietnam will have another seven international airports by 2015, these include Vinh International Airport, Phu Bai International Airport, Cam Ranh International Airport, Phu Quoc International Airport, Cat Bi International Airport, Can Tho International Airport and Long Thanh International Airport. The planned Long Thanh International Airport will have an annual service capacity of 100 million passengers once it becomes fully operational in 2025.{{sfn|Vietnam Investment Review|2018}} Vietnam Airlines, the state-owned national airline maintains a fleet of 86 passenger aircraft and aims to operate 170 by 2020.{{sfn|Ha|Giang|Denslow|2012}} Several private airlines are also in operation in Vietnam, including Air Mekong, Bamboo Airways, Jetstar Pacific Airlines, VASCO and VietJet Air. As a coastal country, Vietnam has many major sea ports, including Cam Ranh, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, Ho Chi Minh City, Hạ Long, Qui Nhơn, Vũng Tàu, Cửa Lò and Nha Trang. Further inland, the country's extensive network of rivers play a key role in rural transportation with over {{convert|47,130|km|mi}} of navigable waterways carrying ferries, barges and water taxis.{{sfn|Index Mundi|2018}}

Energy

File:Sơn La Dam.JPG|thumb|left|Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric damlargest hydroelectric damVietnam's energy sector is largely dominated by Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) nationwide. As of 2017, EVN contributed about 61.4% of the country power generation system with a total power capacity of 25,884 MW.{{sfn|Electricity of Vietnam|2017|p=10}} Other energy source are distributed by PetroVietnam (4,435 MW), Vinacomin (1,785 MW) and by build–operate–transfer (BOT) with other investors (10,031 MW).{{sfn|Electricity of Vietnam|2017|p=12}} Most of the powers are generated from either hydropower, fossil fuel power such as coal, oil and gas while the remaining are from diesel, small hydropower and renewable energy.{{sfn|Electricity of Vietnam|2017|p=12}} The Vietnamese government also previously planning to develop their first nuclear reactor as the path to establish another source of electric energy from nuclear power but the plan was abandoned in late 2016 with a majority oppose vote through the country National Assembly due to large concerns from Vietnamese society over radioactive contamination.{{sfn|Nguyen|Binh Minh|Pham|Burmistrova|2016}} The household gas sector in Vietnam is dominated by PetroVietnam which controls nearly 70% of the country domestic market for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).{{sfn|Nikkei Asian Review}} Since 2011, the company also operating five renewable energy power plants including the Nhơn Trạch 2 Thermal Power Plant (750 MW), Phú Quý Wind Power Plant (6 MW), Hủa Na Hydro-power Plant (180 MW), Dakdrinh Hydro-power Plant (125 MW) and Vũng Áng 1 Thermal Power Plant (1,200 MW).{{sfn|Viet Trung|Quoc Viet|Van Chat|2016|p=70}} According to statistics by the British Petroleum (BP), Vietnam is listed among the 52 countries that have oil and gas potential in the world with proven crude oil reserves of the country in 2015 were approximately 4.4 billion barrels and ranked first place in Southeast Asia, while the proven gas reserves was about 0.6 trillion cubic meters (tcm) and ranked the third place in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and Malaysia.{{sfn|Viet Trung|Quoc Viet|Van Chat|2016|p=64}}

Telecommunication

Telecommunications services in Vietnam are wholly provided by the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications General Corporation (now the VNPT Group) which is a state-owned company.{{sfn|Pham|2015|p=6}} The VNPT retained its monopoly until 1986 before the telecom sector being reformed in 1995 when the Vietnamese government started to implement a competitive policy with the creation of two domestic telecommunication companies, the Military Electronic and Telecommunication Company (Viettel which is wholly owned by the Vietnamese Ministry of Defence) and the Saigon Post and Telecommunication Company (SPT or SaigonPostel), with 18% of it are owned by VNPT.{{sfn|Pham|2015|p=6}} The whole monopoly by VNPT was finally removed by the government in 2003 with the issuance of a decree.{{sfn|Pham|2015|p=7}} By 2012, the top three major telecom operators in Vietnam is Viettel, Vinaphone and MobiFone while the remaining is owned by EVNTelecom, Vietnammobile and S-Fone.{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2012}} With the shift towards a more market-orientated economy, Vietnam's telecommunications market is continuously being reformed to attract foreign investment which includes the supply of services and the establishment of telecom infrastructure nationwide.{{sfn|Oxford Business Group|2017}}

Water supply and sanitation

File:Village vietnam sapa bridge.jpg|thumb|right|In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.]]Vietnam has 2,360 rivers with an average annual discharge of 310 billion m³ by which raining season accounts for 70% of the whole year discharge.{{sfn|United Kingdom Department for International Trade|2017|p=1}} Most urban water supply systems in the country have been developed without proper management since the past 10 years. Based on a 2008 survey by Vietnam Water Supply and Sewerage Association (VWSA), the existing water production capacity even exceeded the demand but the service coverage is still very low since most of clean water supply infrastructures are not much developed where it only been delivered to a small proportion of the population with about one third of 727 district towns having some form of piped water supply.{{sfn|United Kingdom Department for International Trade|2017|p=2}} There is also concern on the safety of existing water resources for urban and rural water supply systems since domestic and industrial factories releasing their wastewater directly into the water sources without treatment where the government does not take more urgent measures to address the problem with the majority of domestic wastewater is discharged back to the environment and polluting the surface water.{{sfn|United Kingdom Department for International Trade|2017|p=2}}In recent years, there have been some efforts and collaboration between local and foreign universities to developing access to safe water in the country by introducing water filtration system with the growing concern from local population about the serious public health issues associated with water contamination caused by pollution as well the high levels of arsenic in their groundwater sources.{{sfn|University of Technology Sydney|2018}} The government of Netherlands also have been providing aid by focusing its entirety investments in the country mainly on water-related sectors including in water treatment projects.{{sfn|Government of the Netherlands|2016}}{{sfn|Government of the Netherlands|2018}}{{sfn|Anh|2018}} Regarding sanitation, 78% of the population in Vietnam had access to "improved" sanitation or 94% of the urban population and 70% of the rural population despite there are still about 21 million people in the country lacked accessed to "improved" sanitation according to a survey conducted in 2015.{{sfn|UNICEF|2015}} In 2018, the construction ministry said that the country water supply and drainage industry had been applying hi-tech methods and information technology (IT) but facing problems such as limited funding, climate change, and pollution.{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2018c}} The health ministry also have announced that water inspection units will be established in the country nationwide from June 2019 with inspections to be conducted without notice since there have been many cases involving health caused by poor and polluted water supply as well hygiene conditions are reported every year.{{sfn|Việt Nam News|2018d}}

Health

File:Cổng_bệnh_viện_Chợ_Rẫy_2016.jpg|thumb|left|Cho Ray HospitalCho Ray HospitalBy 2015, 97% of the population had access to improved water sources.{{sfn|Index Mundi|2016}} In 2016, Vietnam's national life expectancy stood at 80.9 years for women and 71.5 for men, and the infant mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births.{{sfn|World Bank|2016a}}{{sfn|World Bank|2016b}}{{sfn|World Bank|2017}} Despite these improvements, malnutrition is still common in the rural provinces.{{sfn|Wagstaff|van Doorslaer|Watanabe|2003}} Since the partition, North Vietnam has established a public health system that reached down to the hamlet level.{{sfn|The Harvard Crimson|1972}} After the national reunification in 1975, a nationwide health service was established.{{sfn|Wagstaff|van Doorslaer|Watanabe|2003}} In the late 1980s, the quality of healthcare declined to some degree as a result of budgetary constraints, a shift of responsibility to the provinces and the introduction of charges.{{sfn|Cuong Le|Kubo|Fujino|Minh Pham|2010|p=23}} Inadequate funding has also contributed to a shortage of nurses, midwives and hospital beds; in 2000, Vietnam had only 24.7 hospital beds per 10,000 people before declining to 23.7 in 2005 as stated in the annual report of Vietnamese Health Ministry.{{sfn|Trung Chien|2006|p=65}} The controversial use of herbicides as a chemical weapon by the US military during the war has left tangible, long-term impacts upon the Vietnamese people that still persists in the country until present.{{sfn|BBC News|2005}}{{sfn|Haberman|2014}} For instance, it led to 3 million Vietnamese people suffering health problems, one million birth defects caused directly by exposure to the chemical and 24% of the area of Vietnam being defoliated.{{sfn|Gustafsson|2010|p=125}}Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has made significant progress in combating malaria, with the malaria mortality rate falling to about 5% of its 1990s equivalent by 2005 after the country introduced improved antimalarial drugs and treatment.{{sfn|Van Nam|de Vries|Van Toi|Nagelkerke|2005}} Tuberculosis (TB) cases however are on the rise which become the second most infectious diseases in the country after respiratory-related illness.{{sfn|Trinh|Nguyen|Do|Nguyen|2016}} With an intensified vaccination program, better hygiene and foreign assistance, Vietnam hopes to reduce sharply the number of TB cases and annual new TB infections.{{sfn|McNeil Jr.|2016}} In 2004, government subsidies covering about 15% of health care expenses.{{sfn|Lieberman|Wagstaff|2009|p=40}} Along the same year, the United States announced that Vietnam would be one of 15 nations to receive funding as part of its global AIDS relief plan.{{sfn|Manyin|2005|p=4}} By the following year, Vietnam had diagnosed 101,291 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases, of which 16,528 progressed to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with 9,554 have died.{{sfn|Vietnam Women's Union|2005}} The actual number of HIV-positive individuals is estimated to be much higher as on average as between 40–50 new infections are reported daily in the country. In 2007, 0.4% of the population is estimated to be infected with HIV and the figure has remained stable since 2005.{{sfn|World Bank|2018a}} More global aid are being delivered through The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to fight the spread of the diseases in the country.{{sfn|McNeil Jr.|2016}} In September 2018, the Hanoi People's Committee urged the citizens of the country to stop eating dog and cat meat as it can cause other diseases like rabies and leptospirosis as more than 1,000 stores in the capital city of Hanoi are found to be selling both meats. The decision received positive comments among Vietnamese society on social media despite many still disagreed as it has been a habit that couldn't be resisted.{{sfn|BBC News|2018}}

Education

File:VNU lethanhtong 900x600.jpg|thumb|left|Indochina Medical CollegeIndochina Medical CollegeVietnam has an extensive state-controlled network of schools, colleges, and universities and a growing number of privately run and partially privatised institutions. General education in Vietnam is divided into five categories: kindergarten, elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, and universities. A large number of public schools have been constructed across the country to raise the national literacy rate, which stood at 90% in 2008.{{sfn|UNICEF}} Most universities are located in major cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City with the country education system continuously undergoing a series of reform by the government. Basic education in the country is relatively free for the poor although some families may still have trouble paying tuition fees for their children without some form of public or private assistance.{{sfn|Ha Trân|2014}} Regardless, school enrolment is among the highest in the world,{{sfn|World Bank|2013}}{{sfn|World Bank|2015}} and the number of colleges and universities increased dramatically in the 2000s from 178 in 2000 to 299 in 2005. In higher education, the government provide subsidised loans for students through national bank although there are deep concerns about its access as well the burdens among students in repaying.{{sfn|Pham|2012}}{{sfn|Chapman|Liu|2013}}Since 1995, enrolment in higher education has grown tenfold to over 2.2 million with 84,000 lecturers and 419 institutions of higher education.{{sfn|de Mora|Wood|2014|p=55}} A number of foreign universities operate private campuses in Vietnam, including Harvard University (USA) and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). The government's strong commitment to education has fostered significant growth but still need to be sustained to retain academics. In 2018, a decree on university autonomy to operate independently without a ministry control above their heads are in its final stages of approval with the government will continue to invest in education especially for the poor to have access on basic education.{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2016b}}

Demographics

File:Vietnamese cultural dance.jpg|thumb|Cultural dance performed by one of 54 recognised Vietnamese ethnic groups.]]{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{sfn|United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million 1950 style="text-align:right;"| 24.8 2000 style="text-align:right;"| 80.3 {{UN Population {{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}{{As of|{{UN Population|Year}}}}, the population of Vietnam is standing at approximately {{#expr:{{replace|{{UN Population|Viet Nam}}|,||}}/1e6 round 1}} million people.{{sfn|United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs}} The population had grown significantly from the 1979 census, which showed the total population of reunified Vietnam to be 52.7 million.{{sfn|Fraser|1980}} In 2012, the country's population was estimated at approximately 90.3 million.{{sfn|Canada Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration|2013|p=1}} Based on the 2009 census, 70.4% of the Vietnamese population are living in rural areas while only 29.6% living in urban areas although the average growth rate of the urban population have recently increasing which mainly attributed to migration and rapid urbanisation.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2009a}} The dominant Viet or Kinh ethnic group constituted nearly 73.6 million people or 85.8% of the population,{{sfn|Canada Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration|2013|p=1}} with most of their population is concentrated mainly in the alluvial deltas and coastal plains of the country. As a majority ethnic group, the Kinh possess significant political and economic influence over the country.{{sfn|Jones|1998|p=21}} Despite this, Vietnam is also home to other 54 ethnic minority groups, including the Hmong, Dao, Tày, Thai and Nùng.{{sfn|Canada Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration|2013|p=1}} Many ethnic minorities such as the Muong who are closely related to the Kinh dwell in the highlands which cover two-thirds of Vietnam's territory.{{sfn|Government of Vietnam (I)}}Other uplanders in the north migrated from southern China between the 1300s and 1800s.{{sfn|Koskoff|2008|p=1316}} Since the partition of Vietnam, the population of the Central Highlands was almost exclusively Degar (including over 40 tribal groups); however, the South Vietnamese government at the time enacted a program of resettling Kinh in indigenous areas.{{sfn|Cultural Orientation Resource Centre|p=7}}{{sfn|Montagnard Human Rights Organisation}} The Hoa (ethnic Chinese) and Khmer Krom people are mainly lowlanders.{{sfn|Jones|1998|p=21}}{{sfn|Koskoff|2008|p=1316}} Throughout Vietnam history, many Chinese people mainly from South China migrated to the country as administrators, merchants and even refugees.{{sfn|Dodd|Lewis|2003|p=531}} Since the reunification in 1976 with the increase of communist policies nationwide that resulting the nationalisation of property and subsequently causing many rich people property in the city especially among the Hoa in the south are being confiscated by the government, this has led many of them to leave Vietnam.{{sfn|Amer|1996}}{{sfn|Feinberg|2016}} Furthermore, with the deteriorating Sino-Vietnamese relations as a result of border invasion by Chinese government in 1979 which added by doubtful among Vietnamese society on the Chinese government intention had indirectly causing more Hoa people in the north to leave the country.{{sfn|Dodd|Lewis|2003|p=531}}{{sfn|Gough|1986}}

Urbanisation

{{See also|List of cities in Vietnam}}{{wide image|Ho Chi Minh City Wikivoyage banner.jpg|1000px|alt=Panorama of the Vietnamese city with high urbanisation rate|Ho Chi Minh City metro panorama, the city in Vietnam with the highest urbanisation rate.}}File:Ho Chi Minh City Skyline (night).jpg|thumb|right|300x300px|District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.]]The number of people live in urbanised area in 2017 is estimated to be around 32.753 million of people (with urbanisation rate at 35.7%).{{sfn|World Bank|2018b}} Since 1986, Vietnam's urbanisation rates have surged rapidly after the Vietnamese government implemented the Đổi Má»›i economic program, changing the system into socialist and liberalising property rights. As a result, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (the two major cities in the Red River Delta and Southeast regions respectively) increased their share of the total urban population from 8.5% and 24.9% to 15.9% and 31% respectively.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2009b|p=117}} The Vietnamese government through its construction ministry forecasts that the country will have a 45% urbanisation rates by 2020 with urbanisation is said to have a positive correlation with economic growth as any country with higher urbanisation rates would have a higher growth rate of GDP.{{sfn|World Bank|2002}} Furthermore, the urbanisation movements in Vietnam is mainly between the rural areas and the country Southeast region. Ho Chi Minh City has received a large population of in-migrants mainly due to better weather and economic opportunities.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2009b|p=102}}(File:West Hanoi.jpg|thumb|left|Urbanisation in west Hanoi)A study also shows that rural-to-urban area migrants have a higher standard of living than both non-migrants in rural areas and non-migrants in urban areas which also leads to changes in economic structures. In 1985, agriculture took up 37.2% of Vietnam's GDP; nevertheless, in 2008, that number went down to 18.5%, a decreasing of 18.7%.{{sfn|Cira|Dastur|Kilroy|Lozano|2011|p=194}} In 1985, the industry took only a small fraction of Vietnam GDP, around 26.2%. But in 2008, that number has increased up to 43.2%. Urbanisation also helps to improve basic services which increase people's standards of living. Access to electricity has increased tremendously from 14% of total households having electricity in 1993 to above 96% in 2009.{{sfn|Cira|Dastur|Kilroy|Lozano|2011|p=194}} In terms of accessing to fresh water, data from 65 utility companies show that only 12% of households in the area covered by the companies had access to the water network in 2002. By 2007, more than 70% of the population in the area was connected. Though urbanisation has many benefits, it has some drawbacks since it creates more traffic, air, and water pollution.{{sfn|Cira|Dastur|Kilroy|Lozano|2011|p=194}}Since Vietnam has a big consumption of mopeds in their transportation due to the relatively cheap and easy to commute, large numbers of mopeds have been known for causing traffic and air pollution in Vietnam. In the capital city alone, the consumption of mopeds has increased from 0.5 million in 2001 to 4.7 million in 2013.{{sfn|Cira|Dastur|Kilroy|Lozano|2011|p=194}} With the rapid development, factories have sprung up rapidly which indirectly polluting air and water as been exampled from the 2016 Vietnam marine life disaster caused by the Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Company which killing many fish and marine habitats in Vietnamese waters and directly causing major losses to the country economy.{{sfn|Tiezzi|2016}} There are some government's interventions and solutions trying to decrease air pollution by decreasing the number of motorcycles while increasing public transportation and having more regulations for factories to handle their wastes. Although the authorities also have a time schedules for collecting different types of waste, waste disposal has become another problem of urbanisation since the amount of solid waste generated in urban areas has increased unimaginably by more than 200% from 2003 to 2008. Industrial solid waste alone took up 181% of that 200%. One of the government's efforts is trying to promote campaigns to encourage the locals to sort household waste since waste sorting are still not been practised entirely by most Vietnamese society.{{sfn|TrÆ°Æ¡ng|2018|p=19}}{{Largest cities of Vietnam}}{{Clear}}

Religion

{{Pie chartBielefeldt|2014}}| label1 = Vietnamese folk religion or not religious population| value1 = 73.2| color1 = #E0FFFF| label2 = Buddhism| value2 = 12.2| color2 = #FFDEAD| label3 = Catholicism| value3 = 6.8| color3 = #DDA0DD| label4 = Caodaism| value4 = 4.8| color4 = #FF69B4| label5 = Protestantism| value5 = 1.5| color5 = #87CEFAHòa Hảo>Hoahaoism| value6 = 1.4| color6 = #FFF8DC| label7 = Others| value7 = 0.1| color7 = #F0FFF0}}Under Article 70 of the 1992 Constitution of Vietnam, all citizens enjoy freedom of belief and religion,{{sfn|Constitution of Vietnam|1992}} which means that they can follow any religion or be irreligious and that all religions are equal before the law and that each place of worship is protected under Vietnamese state law, but religious beliefs cannot be misused to undermine state law and policies.{{sfn|Constitution of Vietnam|1992}}{{sfn|Vietnam Ordinance of Beliefs and Religion|2004}} According to a survey in 2007, 81% of the Vietnamese people do not believe in a god.{{sfn|Zuckerman|2007|p=11}} Based on new government findings in 2009, the number of religious people has increased by 932,000.{{sfn|Vietnam General Statistics Office|2009a}} Through the latest official statistics presented by the Vietnamese government to the United Nations special rapporteur in 2014,{{sfn|Bielefeldt|2014}} the overall number of followers of recognised religions is about 24 million from the total population of almost 90 million.{{sfn|Bielefeldt|2014}} Formally recognised religious communities include 11 million Buddhists, 6.2 million Catholics, 1.4 million Protestants, 4.4 million Caodaisms followers, 1.3 million Hoahaoism Buddhists as well as 75,000 Muslims, 7,000 Baha'ís and 1,500 Hindus.{{sfn|Bielefeldt|2014}}Mahāyāna is the dominant branch of Buddhism among the Kinh majority who follows the religion, while Theravāda are practised in almost entirely by the Khmer minority. About 7% of the population are Christians, totalling around six million Roman Catholics and one million Protestants.{{sfn|Bielefeldt|2014}} Catholicism has been introduced to Vietnam by nearby Portuguese missionaries (Jesuits) from Portuguese Macau and Malacca towards Annam and from remnants of the persecuted Japanese Catholic between the 16th and 17th centuries before being massively propagated by French missionaries aided by Spanish missionaries (Dominicans) from neighbouring Spanish East Indies towards Tonkin in the 19th and 20th centuries.{{sfn|Woods|2002|p=34}}{{sfn|Keith|2012|p=42, 72}}{{sfn|Lamport|2018|p=898}} A significant number of Vietnamese people are also adherents of Caodaism, an indigenous folk religion which has structured itself on the model of the Catholic Church together with another Buddhist section of Hoahaoism.{{sfn|Largo|2002|p=168}} Protestantism was only recently spread by American and Canadian missionaries throughout the modern civil war,{{sfn|Van Hoang|2017|p=1}} where it was largely accepted among the highland Montagnards of South Vietnam.{{sfn|Cultural Orientation Resource Centre|p=5, 7}} The largest Protestant churches are the Southern Evangelical Church of Vietnam (SECV) and the Evangelical Church of Vietnam North (ECVN) with around 770,000 of the country Protestants come from members of ethnic minorities.{{sfn|Van Hoang|2017|p=1}} Although it is one of the country minority religion and has a shorter history than Catholicism, Protestantism is found to be the country's fastest-growing religion, expanding at a rate of 600% in recent decades.{{sfn|Van Hoang|2017|p=1}}{{sfn|United States Department of State|2005}} Several other minority faiths exist in Vietnam, these includes Bani, Sunni and non-denominational section of Islam which is primarily practised among the ethnic Cham minority,{{sfn|Kỳ Phương|Lockhart|2011|p=35}} though there were also a few Kinh adherents of Islam along with other minority adherents of Baha'is as well Hindus among the Cham's.{{sfn|Levinson|Christensen|2002|p=89}}{{sfn|Sharma|2009|p=48}}

Languages

The national language of the country is Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt), a tonal Austroasiatic language (Mon–Khmer) which is spoken by the majority of the population. In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters before a different meaning set of Chinese characters known as Chữ nôm developed between the 7th–13th century.{{sfn|Zwartjes|2011|p=292}}{{sfn|Choy|2013|p=340}}{{sfn|Dinh Tham|2018|p=67}} The folk epic ("The Tale of Kieu", originally known as ) by Nguyễn Du was written in Chữ nôm.{{sfn|Ozolinš|2016|p=130}} Quốc ngữ as the romanised Vietnamese alphabet used for spoken Vietnamese, was developed in the 17th century by the Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes and several other Catholic missionaries by using the alphabets of Romance languages, particularly the Portuguese alphabet which later became widely used through Vietnamese institutions during the French colonial period.{{sfn|Zwartjes|2011|p=292}}{{sfn|Jacques|1998|p=21}} Vietnam's minority groups speak a variety of languages, including Tày, Mường, Cham, Khmer, Chinese, Nùng and Hmong. The Montagnard peoples of the Central Highlands also speak a number of distinct languages as their language is derived from both the Austroasiatic and Malayo-Polynesian language groups.{{sfn|Cultural Orientation Resource Centre|p=10}} In recent years, a number of sign languages have developed in the major cities.File:Vietnamese calligraphy.jpg|thumb|right|Traditional Vietnamese calligraphyVietnamese calligraphyThe French language, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by many educated Vietnamese as a second language, especially among the older generation and those educated in the former South Vietnam, where it was a principal language in administration, education, and commerce. Vietnam remains a full member of the International Organisation of the Francophonie (La Francophonie) and education has revived some interest in the language.{{sfn|French Senate|1997}} Russian and to a much lesser extent German, Czech and Polish are known among some northern Vietnamese whose families had ties with the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.{{sfn|Van Van|p=8}} With improved relations with Western countries and recent reforms in Vietnamese administration, English has been increasingly used as a second language and the study of English is now obligatory in most schools either alongside or in place of French.{{sfn|Van Van|p=9}}{{sfn|United Kingdom Department for International Trade|2018}} The popularity of Japanese and Korean have also grown as the country's ties with other East Asian nations have strengthened.{{snf|Wai-ming|2002|p=3}}{{sfn|Anh Dinh|2016|p=63}}{{sfn|Hirano|2016}}

Culture

{{multiple image| align = left|direction =vertical| image1 = Hanoi Temple of Litterature.jpeg| alt1 = The Temple of Literature in Hanoi| caption1 = The Temple of Literature in Hanoi| image2 = Ópera, Ciudad Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2013-08-14, DD 02.JPG| alt2 = The Municipal Theatre in Ho Chi Minh CityMunicipal Theatre, Ho Chi Minh City>Municipal Theatre (Saigon Opera House) in Ho Chi Minh City}}Vietnam's culture has developed over the centuries from indigenous ancient Đông Sơn culture with wet rice cultivation as its economic base.{{sfn|Higham|1984}}{{sfn|Calò|2009|p=51}} Some elements of the national culture have Chinese origins, drawing on elements of Confucianism, Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism in its traditional political system and philosophy.{{sfn|Tung Hieu|2015|p=71}}{{sfn|Nhu Nguyen|2016|p=32}} Vietnamese society is structured around làng (ancestral villages);{{sfn|Endres|2001}} all Vietnamese mark a common ancestral anniversary on the tenth day of the third lunar month.{{sfn|Grigoreva|2014|p=4}}{{sfn|UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage|2012}} The influence of Chinese culture such as the Cantonese, Hakka, Hokkien and Hainanese cultures are more evidenced in the north with the national religion of Buddhism is strongly entwined with popular culture.{{sfn|Zhu|Ren|Collins|Warner|2017|p=142}} Despite this, there is also a Chinatown in the south such as in Chợ Lớn where many of the Chinese have intermarried with Kinh and are presently indistinguishable among them.{{sfn|McLeod|Thi Dieu|2001|p=8}} In the central and southern part, traces of Champa and Khmer culture are evidenced through the remains of ruins, artefacts as well within their population as the successor of the ancient Sa Huỳnh culture.{{sfn|Momoki|1996|p=36}}{{sfn|Kỳ Phương|Lockhart|2011|p=84}} In recent centuries, the influence of Western cultures have become popular among newer Vietnamese generations.{{sfn|Nhu Nguyen|2016|p=32}}File:Ao-dai-xu-Hue-2.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.]]The traditional focuses of Vietnamese culture are based on humanity (nhân nghĩa) and harmony (hòa); in which family and community values are highly regarded.{{sfn|Zhu|Ren|Collins|Warner|2017|p=142}} Vietnam reveres a number of key cultural symbols,{{sfn|Vo|2012|p=96}} such as the Vietnamese dragon which is derived from crocodile and snake imagery; Vietnam's national father, Lạc Long Quân is depicted as a holy dragon.{{sfn|Grigoreva|2014|p=4}}{{sfn|Gallop|2017}}{{sfn|Vietnamese-American Association}} The lạc is a holy bird representing Vietnamese national mother of Âu Cơ is another prominent symbol, while turtle, buffalo and horse images are also revered.{{sfn|Chonchirdsin|2016}} Many Vietnamese also believes in supernatural and spiritualism where illness could be brought on by a curse or sorcery or caused by non-observance of a religious ethic where it needs to be treated through traditional medical practitioners, amulets and other forms of spiritual protection where religious practices may be employed to treating the ill person.{{sfn|Waitemata District Health Board|2015|p=2}} In the modern era, the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and cultural programs.{{sfn|Nhu Nguyen|2016|p=32}} For many decades, foreign cultural influences especially those of Western origin were shunned. But since the recent reformation, Vietnam has seen a greater exposure to neighbouring Southeast Asian, East Asian as well to Western culture and media.{{sfn|Phuong|2012}}The main Vietnamese formal dress, the áo dài is worn for special occasions such as in weddings and religious festivals. White áo dài is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across the country. Other examples of traditional Vietnamese clothing include the áo tứ thân, a four-piece woman's dress; the áo ngũ, a form of the thân in 5-piece form, mostly worn in the north of the country; the yếm, a woman's undergarment; the áo bà ba, rural working "pyjamas" for men and women; the áo gấm, a formal brocade tunic for government receptions; and the áo the, a variant of the áo gấm worn by grooms at weddings.{{sfn|Lewandowski|2011|p=12}}{{sfn|Howard|2016|p=90}} Traditional headwear includes the standard conical nón lá and the "lampshade-like" nón quai thao.{{sfn|Howard|2016|p=90}}{{sfn|Chico|2013|p=354}} In tourism, a number of popular cultural tourist destinations include the former imperial capital of Hué, the World Heritage Sites of Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Hội An and Mỹ Sơn, coastal regions such as Nha Trang, the caves of Hạ Long Bay and the Marble Mountains.{{sfn|Pha Le|2014}}{{sfn|Vietnam Net|2017a}}

Literature

File:Dragon on Emperor Khải Định’s scroll, 1917 (British Library).png|thumb|250px|left|Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's {{circa|1917}} scroll in British LibraryBritish LibraryVietnamese literature has centuries-deep history and the country has a rich tradition of folk literature based on the typical 6–to-8-verse poetic form named ca dao which usually focuses on village ancestors and heroes.{{sfn|Huong|2010}} Written literature has been found dating back to the 10th century Ngô dynasty, with notable ancient authors including Nguyễn Trãi, Trần Hưng Đạo, Nguyễn Du and Nguyễn Đình Chiểu. Some literary genres play an important role in theatrical performance, such as hát nói in ca trù.{{sfn|Norton|2015}} Some poetic unions have also been formed in Vietnam, such as the tao đàn. Vietnamese literature has in recent times been influenced by Western styles, with the first literary transformation movement of thơ mới emerging in 1932.{{sfn|Le|2008}} Vietnamese folk literature is an intermingling of many forms. It is not only an oral tradition, but a mixing of three media: hidden (only retained in the memory of folk authors), fixed (written), and shown (performed). Folk literature usually exists in many versions, passed down orally and have unknown authors. Myths consist of stories about supernatural beings, heroes, creator gods and reflect the viewpoint of ancient people about human life.{{sfn|Vo|2012|p=4}} They consist of creation stories, stories about their origins (Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ), culture heroes (Sơn Tinh and Thủy Tinh) which is referred as a mountain and water spirit respectively and many other folklore tales.{{sfn|McLeod|Thi Dieu|2001|p=8}}{{sfn|Tran|Le|2017|p=5}}

Music

File:Ca trù performance.jpg|thumb|left|Ca trùCa trùTraditional Vietnamese music varies between the country's northern and southern regions.{{sfn|van Khè|1972}} Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest musical form and is traditionally more formal. The origins of Vietnamese classical music can be traced since the Mongol invasions in the 13th century when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe.{{sfn|Miettinen|1992|p=163}} Throughout its history, Vietnamese has been the most heavily impacted by the Chinese musical tradition as an integral part along with Japan, Korea and Mongolia.{{sfn|Van Khê|1985}} Nhã nhạc is the most popular form of imperial court music, Chèo is a form of generally satirical musical theatre while Xẩm or hát xẩm (xẩm singing) is a type of Vietnamese folk music. Quan họ (alternate singing) is popular in the former Hà Bắc Province (which is now divided into Bắc Ninh and Bắc Giang Provinces) and across Vietnam. Another form of music called Hát chầu văn or hát văn is used to invoke spirits during ceremonies. Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s while ca trù (also known as hát ả đào) is a popular folk music. "Hò" can not be thought of as the southern style of Quan họ. There are a range of traditional instruments, including the đàn bầu (a monochord zither), the đàn gáo (a two-stringed fiddle with coconut body), and the đàn nguyệt (a two-stringed fretted moon lute. In recent times, there have been some efforts to mixing Vietnamese traditional music especially folk music with modern music to revive and promote national music in the modern context and educating the younger generations about Vietnam's traditional musical instruments and singing styles.{{sfn|Voice of Vietnam|2018d}}Bolero music has gained its position in the country since the 1930s, albeit with a different style from a combination between traditional Vietnamese music with Western elements.{{sfn|Duy|2016}} However, the modern Vietnamese music industry, known as V-pop, is currently making its mark in the entertainment field. Many Vietnamese artists have started to collaborate with foreign artists and producers, especially South Korean, to facilitate the entrance of K-pop into the Vietnamese market while also promoting V-pop overseas.{{sfn|Chen|2018|p=194}} For example, in 2014, the South Korean seven-member boy band BTS (방탄소년단) collaborated with Vietnamese singer Thanh Bùi on the single called "Danger".{{sfn|Chen|2018|p=194}}{{sfn|Yan News|2014}} In 2018, South Korean artist and idol Park Ji-yeon (박지연) collaborated with (:vi:Soobin Hoàng Sơn|Soobin Hoàng Sơn) in two versions of the title track called "Between Us" (; ) to promote the two countries’ partnership in terms of the music industry.{{sfn|Phương|2018}} V Live, which is a South Korean live video streaming service also collaborated with RBW Entertainment Vietnam (a subsidiary of the Korean entertainment company) to produce Vietnamese-based shows. V Live also launched special monthly mini-concerts called "V Heartbeat Live" to connect V-pop and K-pop idols.{{sfn|Quốc Hoàng|2018}} Furthermore, South Korean entertainment company SM Entertainment signed an agreement with IPP Group to advance into the country's market and promote joint business.{{sfn|SM Entertainment Group|2018}} The company held its 2018 Global Audition in both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City in search for new talents among the Vietnamese youth.{{sfn|Dam-young|2018}}

Cuisine

File:Cuisine of Vietnam.jpg|thumb|right|Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.]]Vietnamese cuisine traditionally features a combination of five fundamental taste "elements" (Vietnamese: ngũ vị): spicy (metal), sour (wood), bitter (fire), salty (water) and sweet (earth).{{sfn|Vietnam Culture Information Network|2014}} Common ingredients include fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables. Vietnamese recipes use lemongrass, ginger, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander, Saigon cinnamon, bird's eye chilli, lime and basil leaves.{{sfn|Australia Special Broadcasting Service|2013}} Traditional Vietnamese cooking is known for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of oil and reliance on herbs and vegetables where it is considered one of the healthiest cuisines worldwide.{{sfn|Corapi|2010}} The use of such meats as pork, beef and chicken was relatively limited in the past, and as a result freshwater fish, crustaceans particularly crabs and molluscs became widely used. Fish sauce, soy sauce, prawn sauce and limes are among the main flavouring ingredients. There is an estimate of 40 Vietnamese dishes with many are usually served as a norm in the country street food culture.{{sfn|Clark|Miller|2017}} Many notable Vietnamese dishes such as bánh cuốn (ride noodle roll), bún riêu (rice vermicelli soup) and phở noodles are originated from the north and were carried to central and southern Vietnam by northern migrants.{{sfn|Nguyen|2011}}{{sfn|Thaker|Barton|2012|p=170}} Local foods in the north are often less spicy than southern dishes as the colder northern climate limits the production and availability of spices.{{sfn|Williams|2017}} Black pepper is used in place of chillis to produce spicy flavours. Vietnamese drinks in the south also are usually served cold with ice cube especially during the annual hot seasons compared to the north where hot drinks are much more preferable in colder climate. Some examples of basic Vietnamese drinks include cà phê đá (Vietnamese iced coffee), cà phê trứng (egg coffee), chanh muối (salted pickled lime juice), cơm rượu (glutinous rice wine), nước mía (sugarcane juice) and trà sen (Vietnamese lotus tea).{{sfn|Batruny|2014}}

Media

File:Vietnam Television logo from 2013.svg|thumb|left|Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state televisionstate televisionVietnam's media sector is regulated by the government in accordance with the 2004 Law on Publication.{{sfn|Vietnam National Assembly|2004}} It is generally perceived that the country media sector is controlled by the government to follow the official communist party line, though some newspapers are relatively outspoken.{{sfn|Xuan Dinh|2000}}{{sfn|Datta|Mendizabal|2018}} The Voice of Vietnam (VOV) is the official state-run national radio broadcasting service, broadcasting internationally via shortwave using rented transmitters in other countries and providing broadcasts from its website while Vietnam Television (VTV) is the national television broadcasting company. Since 1997, Vietnam has extensively regulated public internet access using both legal and technical means. The resulting lockdown is widely referred to as the "Bamboo Firewall".{{sfn|Wilkey|2002}} The collaborative project OpenNet Initiative classifies Vietnam's level of online political censorship to be "pervasive",{{sfn|OpenNet Initiative|2012}} while Reporters Without Borders (RWB) considers Vietnam to be one of 15 global "internet enemies".{{sfn|Reporters Without Borders}} Though the government of Vietnam maintains that such censorship is necessary to safeguard the country against obscene or sexual explicit content, many political and religious sensitive websites that are deemed to be undermining state authority are also being blocked.{{sfn|Berkman Klein Center|2006}}

Holidays and festivals

File:Đèn kéo quân.jpg|thumb|right|Special TếtTếtThe country has eleven national recognised holidays which includes the New Year's Day on 1 January, Vietnamese New Year (Tết) from last day of the last lunar month to fifth day of the first lunar month, Hung Kings Commemorations on 10th day of the third lunar month, Day of liberating the South for national reunification on 30 April, International Workers' Day on 1 May and National Day Celebration on 2 September.{{sfn|National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam|2012}}{{sfn|Travel|2017|p=37}}{{sfn|Loan|2018}} During Tết, many Vietnamese from the major cities will return to their villages for family reunions and praying for dead ancestors.{{sfn|Anh|2016b}}{{sfn|Trieu Dan|2017|p=92}} Older people will usually give the young a lì xì (red envelope) while special holiday food of bánh chưng (rice cake) in a square shape together with variety of dried fruits as the festival sweets are presented in the house for visitors.{{sfn|Pike|2018}} Many other festivals are celebrated throughout the seasons in a year including the Lantern Festival (Tết Nguyên Tiêu), Mid-Autumn Festival (Tết Trung Thu) and various temple and nature festivals.{{sfn|Travel|2017|p=34}} In the highlands, Elephant Race Festival are held annually during the spring where riders will ride their elephants for about 1.6 kilometres and the winning elephant will be given sugarcane.{{sfn|Englar|2006|p=23}} Traditional Vietnamese weddings remain widely popular and are often celebrated by expatriate Vietnamese in Western countries.{{sfn|Anderson|Lee|2005|p=217}} In Vietnam, dress has been influenced by Western styles with the wearing of white wedding dresses and black jackets although there were also many who still prefer to choose Vietnamese traditional wedding costumes for traditional ceremonies.{{sfn|Khanh|2008}}

Sports

The Vovinam, kim ke and bình định martial arts are widespread in Vietnam,{{sfn|Green|2001|p=548}}{{sfn|Nghia|Luan|2017}} while football is the country's most popular sport.{{sfn|FourFourTwo|2017}} Its national team won the ASEAN Football Championship twice in 2008 and 2018 and reaching the quarter-finals of 2019 AFC Asian Cup,{{sfn|China Daily|2008}}{{sfn|The Saigon Times Daily|2018}}{{sfn|Gomes|2019}} its junior team of under-23 became the runners-up of 2018 AFC U-23 Championship and reach fourth place in 2018 Asian Games while the under-20 managed to qualify the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup for the first time in their football history.{{sfn|Rick|2018}}{{sfn|Yan|Jun|Long|2018}} Its women team also dominating the Southeast Asian Games with main rival of Thailand. Other Western sports such as badminton, tennis, volleyball, ping-pong and chess are also widely popular. Vietnam has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1952 when it competed as the State of Vietnam. After the partition of the country in 1954, only South Vietnam competed in the games, sending athletes to the 1956 and 1972 Olympics. Since the reunification of Vietnam in 1976, it has competed as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, attending every Summer Olympics from 1988 onwards. The present Vietnam Olympic Committee was formed in 1976 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1979.{{sfn|International Olympic Committee}} Vietnam has never participated in the Winter Olympic Games. In 2016, Vietnam participated in the 2016 Summer Olympics where they won their first gold medal.{{sfn|Sims|2016}} In 2020, Vietnam will host the inaugural Formula One Vietnam Grand Prix in the city of Hanoi.{{sfn|Formula One|2018}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Vietnam}}

Footnotes

{{reflist|24em}}

Notes and references

Notes

{{reflist|group=n}}

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, Tayles
, Nancy
, 2006
, Bioarchaeology of Southeast Asia
, Cambridge University Press
, 978-0-521-82580-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Englar
, Mary
, 2006
, Vietnam: A Question and Answer Book
, Capstone
, 978-0-7368-6414-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Tuyet Tran
, Nhung
, Reid
, Anthony
, 2006
, Viet Nam: Borderless Histories
, Univ of Wisconsin Press
, 978-0-299-21773-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Tuấn Hoáng
, Anh
, 2007
, Silk for Silver: Dutch-Vietnamese Relations; 1637 - 1700
, Brill
, 978-90-04-15601-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Jeffries
, Ian
, 2007
, Vietnam: A Guide to Economic and Political Developments
, Routledge
, 978-1-134-16454-7
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Olsen
, Mari
, 2007
, Soviet-Vietnam Relations and the Role of China 1949-64: Changing Alliances
, Routledge
, 978-1-134-17413-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Neville
, Peter
, 2007
, Britain in Vietnam: Prelude to Disaster, 1945–46
, Routledge
, 978-1-134-24476-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Smith
, T.
, 2007
, Britain and the Origins of the Vietnam War: UK Policy in Indo-China, 1943-50
, Palgrave Macmillan UK
, 978-0-230-59166-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Koskoff
, Ellen
, 2008
, The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia
, Routledge
, 978-0-415-99404-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Ramsay
, Jacob
, 2008
, Mandarins and Martyrs: The Church and the Nguyen Dynasty in Early Nineteenth-century Vietnam
, Stanford University Press
, 978-0-8047-7954-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Calò
, Ambra
, 2009
, Trails of Bronze Drums Across Early Southeast Asia: Exchange Routes and Connected Cultural Spheres
, Archaeopress
, 978-1-4073-0396-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Sharma
, Gitesh
, 2009
, Traces of Indian Culture in Vietnam
, Rajkamal Prakashan
, 978-81-905401-4-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Isserman
, Maurice
, Bowman
, John Stewart
, 2009
, Vietnam War
, Infobase Publishing
, 978-1-4381-0015-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Koblitz
, Neal
, 2009
, Random Curves: Journeys of a Mathematician
, Springer Science & Business Media
, 978-3-540-74078-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Cottrell
, Robert C.
, 2009
, Vietnam
, Infobase Publishing
, 978-1-4381-2147-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Asian Development Bank
, 2010
, Asian Development Outlook 2010 Update
, Asian Development Bank
, 978-92-9092-181-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Lockard
, Craig A.
, 2010
, Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume 2: Since 1450
, Cengage Learning
, 978-1-4390-8536-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Elliott
, Mai
, 2010
, RAND in Southeast Asia: A History of the Vietnam War Era
, Rand Corporation
, 978-0-8330-4915-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Gustafsson
, Mai Lan
, 2010
, War and Shadows: The Haunting of Vietnam
, Cornell University Press
, 978-0-8014-5745-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Jones
, Daniel
, 2011
, Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary
, Cambridge University Press
, 978-0-521-76575-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Lewandowski
, Elizabeth J.
, 2011
, The Complete Costume Dictionary
, Scarecrow Press
, 978-0-8108-4004-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Pike
, Francis
, 2011
, Empires at War: A Short History of Modern Asia Since World War II
, I.B.Tauris
, 978-0-85773-029-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Vierra
, Kimberly
, Vierra
, Brian
, 2011
, Vietnam Business Guide: Getting Started in Tomorrow's Market Today
, John Wiley & Sons
, 978-1-118-17881-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Vo
, Nghia M.
, 2011
, Saigon: A History
, McFarland
, 978-0-7864-8634-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Khoo
, Nicholas
, 2011
, Collateral Damage: Sino-Soviet Rivalry and the Termination of the Sino-Vietnamese Alliance
, Columbia University Press
, 978-0-231-15078-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Cooke
, Nola
, Li
, Tana
, Anderson
, James
, 2011
, The Tongking Gulf Through History
, University of Pennsylvania Press, Incorporated
, 978-0-8122-4336-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Zwartjes
, Otto
, 2011
, Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800
, John Benjamins Publishing
, 978-90-272-4608-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Frankum Jr.
, Ronald B.
, 2011
, Historical Dictionary of the War in Vietnam
, Scarecrow Press
, 978-0-8108-7956-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Tucker
, Spencer C.
, 2011
, The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History
, ABC-CLIO
, 978-1-85109-961-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Tonnesson
, Stein
, 2011
, Vietnam 1946: How the War Began
, Univ of California Press
, 978-0-520-26993-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Kỳ Phương
, Trần
, Lockhart
, Bruce M.
, 2011
, The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art
, NUS Press
, 978-9971-69-459-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Thaker
, Aruna
, Barton
, Arlene
, 2012
, Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
, John Wiley & Sons
, 978-1-118-35046-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Keith
, Charles
, 2012
, Catholic Vietnam: A Church from Empire to Nation
, University of California Press
, 978-0-520-95382-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Olson
, Gregory A.
, 2012
, Mansfield and Vietnam: A Study in Rhetorical Adaptation
, MSU Press
, 978-0-87013-941-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Waite
, James
, 2012
, The End of the First Indochina War: A Global History
, Routledge
, 978-1-136-27334-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Vo
, Nghia M.
, 2012
, Legends of Vietnam: An Analysis and Retelling of 88 Tales
, McFarland
, 978-0-7864-9060-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Muehlenbeck
, Philip Emil
, Muehlenbeck
, Philip
, 2012
, Religion and the Cold War: A Global Perspective
, Vanderbilt University Press
, 978-0-8265-1852-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Rabett
, Ryan J.
, 2012
, Human Adaptation in the Asian Palaeolithic: Hominin Dispersal and Behaviour During the Late Quaternary
, Cambridge University Press
, 978-1-107-01829-7
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Li
, Xiaobing
, 2012
, China at War: An Encyclopedia
, ABC-CLIO
, 978-1-59884-415-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Gilbert
, Adrian
, 2013
, Encyclopedia of Warfare: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-1-135-95697-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Chico
, Beverly
, 2013
, Hats and Headwear around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia: A Cultural Encyclopedia
, ABC-CLIO
, 978-1-61069-063-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Boobbyer
, Claire
, Spooner
, Andrew
, 2013
, Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos Footprint Handbook
, Footprint Travel Guides
, 978-1-907263-64-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Fröhlich
, Holger L.
, Schreinemachers
, Pepijn
, Stahr
, Karl
, Clemens
, Gerhard
, 2013
, Sustainable Land Use and Rural Development in Southeast Asia: Innovations and Policies for Mountainous Areas
, Springer Science & Business Media
, 978-3-642-33377-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Willbanks
, James H.
, 2013
, Vietnam War Almanac: An In-Depth Guide to the Most Controversial Conflict in American History
, Skyhorse Publishing
, 978-1-62636-528-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Choy
, Lee Khoon
, 2013
, Golden Dragon And Purple Phoenix: The Chinese And Their Multi-ethnic Descendants In Southeast Asia
, World Scientific
, 978-981-4518-49-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, van Dijk
, Ruud
, Gray
, William Glenn
, Savranskaya
, Svetlana
, Suri
, Jeremi
, Zhai
, Qiang
, 4
, 2013
, Encyclopedia of the Cold War
, Routledge
, 978-1-135-92311-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Cosslett
, Tuyet L.
, Cosslett
, Patrick D.
, 2013
, Water Resources and Food Security in the Vietnam Mekong Delta
, Springer Science & Business Media
, 978-3-319-02198-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Lim
, David
, 2014
, Economic Growth and Employment in Vietnam
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-1-317-81859-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Gunn
, Geoffrey C.
, 2014
, Rice Wars in Colonial Vietnam: The Great Famine and the Viet Minh Road to Power
, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
, 978-1-4422-2303-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Anderson
, James A.
, Whitmore
, John K.
, 2014
, China's Encounters on the South and Southwest: Reforging the Fiery Frontier Over Two Millennia
, Brill
, 978-90-04-28248-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, de Mora
, Javier Calvo
, Wood
, Keith
, 2014
, Practical Knowledge in Teacher Education: Approaches to teacher internship programmes
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-1-317-80333-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Eggleston
, Michael A.
, 2014
, Exiting Vietnam: The Era of Vietnamization and American Withdrawal Revealed in First-Person Accounts
, McFarland
, 978-0-7864-7772-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Dennell
, Robin
, Porr
, Martin
, 2014
, Southern Asia, Australia, and the Search for Human Origins
, Cambridge University Press
, 978-1-107-72913-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Hong Lien
, Vu
, Sharrock
, Peter
, 2014
, Descending Dragon, Rising Tiger: A History of Vietnam
, Reaktion Books
, 978-1-78023-388-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Gibbons
, William Conrad
, 2014
, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part III: 1965-1966
, Princeton University Press
, 978-1-4008-6153-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Ooi
, Keat Gin
, Anh Tuan
, Hoang
, 2015
, Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1350-1800
, Routledge
, 978-1-317-55919-1
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Oxenham
, Marc
, Buckley
, Hallie
, 2015
, The Routledge Handbook of Bioarchaeology in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands
, Routledge
, 978-1-317-53401-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Duy Hinh
, Nguyen
, Dinh Tho
, Tran
, 2015
, The South Vietnamese Society
, Normanby Press
, 978-1-78625-513-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Yao
, Alice
, 2016
, The Ancient Highlands of Southwest China: From the Bronze Age to the Han Empire
, Oxford University Press
, 978-0-19-936734-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Howe
, Brendan M.
, 2016
, Post-Conflict Development in East Asia
, Routledge
, 978-1-317-07740-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Thanh Hai
, Do
, 2016
, Vietnam and the South China Sea: Politics, Security and Legality
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-1-317-39820-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Phuong Linh
, Huynh Thi
, 2016
, State-Society Interaction in Vietnam
, LIT Verlag Münster
, 978-3-643-90719-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Ozolinš
, Janis Talivaldis
, 2016
, Religion and Culture in Dialogue: East and West Perspectives
, Springer
, 978-3-319-25724-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Howard
, Michael C.
, 2016
, Textiles and Clothing of Việt Nam: A History
, McFarland
, 978-1-4766-2440-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Kiernan
, Ben
, 2017
, Việt Nam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present
, Oxford University Press
, 978-0-19-516076-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, DK
, 2017
, The Vietnam War: The Definitive Illustrated History
, Dorling Kindersley Limited
, 978-0-241-30868-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Travel
, DK
, 2017
, DK Eyewitness Travel Guide Vietnam and Angkor Wat
, Dorling Kindersley Limited
, 978-0-241-30136-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Moïse
, Edwin E.
, 2017
, Land Reform in China and North Vietnam: Consolidating the Revolution at the Village Level
, University of North Carolina Press
, 978-0-8078-7445-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Hinchey
, Jane
, 2017
, Vietnam: Discover the Country, Culture and People
, Redback Publishing
, 978-1-925630-02-2
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Kort
, Michael
, 2017
, The Vietnam War Re-Examined
, Cambridge University Press
, 978-1-107-04640-5
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Trieu Dan
, Nguyen
, 2017
, A Vietnamese Family Chronicle: Twelve Generations on the Banks of the Hat River
, McFarland
, 978-0-7864-8779-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Tran
, Tri C.
, Le
, Tram
, 2017
, Vietnamese Stories for Language Learners: Traditional Folktales in Vietnamese and English Text (MP3 Downloadable Audio Included)
, Tuttle Publishing
, 978-1-4629-1956-7
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Cosslett
, Tuyet L.
, Cosslett
, Patrick D.
, 2017
, Sustainable Development of Rice and Water Resources in Mainland Southeast Asia and Mekong River Basin
, Springer
, 978-981-10-5613-0
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Zhu
, Ying
, Ren
, Shuang
, Collins
, Ngan
, Warner
, Malcolm
, 2017
, Business Leaders and Leadership in Asia
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-1-317-56749-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Dohrenwend
, Bruce P.
, Turse
, Nick
, Wall
, Melanie M.
, Yager
, Thomas J.
, 2018
, Surviving Vietnam: Psychological Consequences of the War for US Veterans
, Oxford University Press
, 978-0-19-090444-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Lamport
, Mark A.
, 2018
, Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South
, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
, 978-1-4422-7157-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Dinh Tham
, Nguyen
, 2018
, Studies on Vietnamese Language and Literature: A Preliminary Bibliography
, Cornell University Press
, 978-1-5017-1882-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Dayley
, Robert
, 2018
, Southeast Asia in the New International Era
, Taylor & Francis
, 978-0-429-97424-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Chen
, Steven
, 2018
, The Design Imperative: The Art and Science of Design Management
, Springer
, 978-3-319-78568-4
, harv
,

Legislation, case law and government source

  • DOCUMENT


, Constitution of Vietnam
, 1992
,weblink
, Constitution [Chapter Five: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizen]
, Ministry of Justice (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181013071327weblink">weblink
, 13 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, French Senate
, 1997
,weblink
, Annexe au procès-verbal de la séance du 1er octobre 1997
, French
, Senate (France)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Penal Code
, 1999
,weblink
, Penal Code (No. 15/1999/QH10)
, Ministry of Justice (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131002004440weblink">weblink
, 2 October 2013
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam National Assembly
, 2004
,weblink
, Law on Publication (No. 30/2004/QH11)
, Ministry of Justice (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111218104027weblink">weblink
, 18 December 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ordinance of Beliefs and Religion
, 2004
,weblink
, Ordinance of Beliefs and Religion [No. 21]
, Ministry of Justice (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181014025515weblink">weblink
, 14 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, United States Department of State
, 2005
,weblink
, International Religious Freedom Report 2006
, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
, United States Department of State
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, United States Department of State
, 2006
,weblink
, U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Asia
, United States Department of State
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Trung Chien
, Tran Thi
, 2006
,weblink
, Vietnam Health Report
, Ministry of Health (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181009113634weblink">weblink
, 9 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Nielsen
, Chantal Pohl
, 2007
,weblink
, Vietnam's Rice Policy: Recent Reforms and Future Opportunities
, AgroInfo
, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181005074015weblink">weblink
, 5 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
, 2007
,weblink
, Vietnamese general company of rubber-prospect of being a foremost Vietnamese agriculture group
, AgroViet Newsletter
, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080221184058weblink">weblink
, 21 February 2008
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs
, 2007
,weblink
, Vietnam Foreign Policy
, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090118165608weblink">weblink
, 18 January 2009
, yes
, harv
,
, 25 February 2009
, dmy-all
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2009a
,weblink
, MEDIA RELEASE: The 2009 Population and Housing Census
, General Statistics Office of Vietnam
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
,weblink
, 13 November 2010
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Mạnh Cường
, Nguyá»…n
, Ngọc Lin
, Nguyá»…n
, 2010
,weblink
, Giới thiệu Quốc hoa của một số nước và việc lựa chọn Quốc hoa của Việt Nam
, Introducing the national flower of some countries and the selection of national flower of Vietnam
, Vietnamese
, National Archives of Vietnam
,weblink
, 12 April 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2010
,weblink
, Transport, Postal Services and Telecommunications
, General Statistics Office of Vietnam
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181006104535weblink">weblink
, 6 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Fong-Sam
, Yolanda
, 2010
,weblink
, 2010 Minerals Yearbook [The Mineral Industry of Vietnam]
, United States Geological Survey
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130302030501weblink">weblink
, 2 March 2013
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Taylor
, Claire
, Rutherford
, Tom
, 2011
,weblink
, Military Balance in Southeast Asia [Research Paper 11/79]
, House of Commons Library
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2011
,weblink
, Monthly statistical information – Social and economic situation, 8 months of 2011 [Traffic accidents]
, General Statistics Office of Vietnam
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181006121519weblink">weblink
, 6 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Green
, Michael
, 2012
,weblink
, Foreign policy and diplomatic representation
, (Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam
, 2012
,weblink
, Bộ Luật Lao Động (No. 10/2012/QH13)
, Ministry of Justice (Vietnam)
, Vietnamese
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181016070557weblink">weblink
, 16 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Australia Special Broadcasting Service
, 2013
,weblink
, Key ingredients: Vietnamese
, Special Broadcasting Service, Government of Australia
,weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Canada Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration
, 2013
,weblink
, Vietnam [The Full Picture of Vietnam]
, Ministry of Citizenship, Immigration and International Trade, Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (Canada), Government of Ontario
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181011021028weblink">weblink
, 11 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs
, 2013
,weblink
, General Information about Countries and Regions [List of countries which maintains diplomatic relations with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (as April 2010)]
, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Culture Information Network
, 2014
,weblink
, Nha Trang city: Vietnamese cultural cuisine festival 2014 opens
, Centre of Information and Technology - Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
, 2014
,weblink
, Conquering the Fansipan
, VIR
, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181002053919weblink">weblink
, 2 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs
, 2014
,weblink
, Continue moving forward with intensive international integration
, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2015
,weblink
, Số liệu thống kê - Danh sách
, Vietnamese
, General Statistics Office of Vietnam
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Government of the Netherlands
, 2016
,weblink
, Minister Schultz signs agreement on water treatment project in Vietnam
, Government of the Netherlands
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Garamone
, Jim
, 2016
,weblink
, Lifting Embargo Allows Closer U.S., Vietnam Cooperation, Obama, Carter Say
, United States Department of Defense
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, United Kingdom Department for International Development
, 2017
,weblink
, UK aid helps clear lethal landmines in war-torn countries following generosity of British public
, Government of the United Kingdom
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Government of the Netherlands
, 2018
,weblink
, Speech by Cora van Nieuwenhuizen, Minister of Infrastructure and Water Management, at the celebration of 45 years of bilateral relations with Vietnam, Hilton Hotel The Hague, 26 March 2018
, Government of the Netherlands
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Russia Ministry of Defence
, 2018
,weblink
, Russia and Vietnam draft International Military Activity Plan 2020
, Ministry of Defence (Russia)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, United Kingdom Department for International Trade
, 2018
,weblink
, UK trade with Vietnam - looking to the next 45 years
, Government of the United Kingdom
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Anh
, Van
, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam and Netherlands reaffirm economic relations
, Vietnam Investment Review
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
,weblink
, 16 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Investment Review
, 2018
,weblink
, Contract signed for feasibility study for Long Thanh airport
, Vietnam Investment Review
, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Vietnam)
,weblink
, 7 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs
, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam and International Organizations
, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2018
,weblink
, International visitors to Viet Nam in December and 12 months of 2017
, General Statistics Office of Vietnam
, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190108061659weblink">weblink
, 8 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Government of Vietnam (I)
,weblink
, Overview on Vietnam geography
, Government of Vietnam
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Government of Vietnam (II)
,weblink
, About Vietnam (Political System)
, Government of Vietnam
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
,weblink
, An Overview of Spatial Policy in Asian and European Countries
, Local Governments and Spatial Planning System
, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Japan)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, United States Agency for International Development
,weblink
, Environmental Remediation [Agent Orange]
, United States Agency for International Development
, harv
, 3 December 2018
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs
,weblink
, Tài Liệu Cơ Bản Nước Cộng Hoà Hồi Giáo Pa-kít-xtan
, Vietnamese
, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Vietnam)
, harv
,
  • DOCUMENT


, Vietnam National Environment Administration
,weblink
, Báo cáo Hiện trạng môi trường quốc gia 2005 Chuyên đề Đa dạng sinh học
, Vietnamese
, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Vietnam)
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090223065322weblink">weblink
, 23 February 2009
, yes
, harv
,

Academic publications

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, Crozier
, Brian
, 1955
, The Diem Regime in Southern Vietnam
, Far Eastern Survey, Institute of Pacific Relations
, 24
, 4
, 49–56
, 3023970
, harv
, 10.2307/3023970
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, Gittinger
, J. Price
, 1959
, Communist Land Policy in North Viet Nam
, Far Eastern Survey, Institute of Pacific Relations
, 28
, 8
, 113–126
, 3024603
, harv
, 10.2307/3024603
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, van Khè
, Tran
, 1972
, Means of Preservation and Diffusion of Traditional Music in Vietnam
, Asian Music, University of Texas Press
, 3
, 1
, 40–44
, 834104
, harv
, 10.2307/834104
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  • JOURNAL


, Riehl
, Herbert
, Augstein
, Ernst
, 1973
, Surface interaction calculations over the Gulf of Tonkin
, Tellus Institute
, 25
, 10.3402/tellusa.v25i5.9694
, 5
, 424–434
, harv
,
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, Fraser
, SE
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,weblink
, Vietnam's first census
, Intercom
, POPLINE
, 8
, 8
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Higham
, C.F.W.
, 1984
, Prehistoric Rice Cultivation in Southeast Asia
, Scientific American, A Division of Nature America, Inc.
, 250
, 4
, 138–149
, 24969352
, harv
, 1984SciAm.250d.138H
, 10.1038/scientificamerican0484-138
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, Van Khê
, Trân
, 1985
, Chinese Music and Musical Traditions of Eastern Asia
, The World of Music, Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung
, 27
, 1
, 78–90
, 43562680
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,
  • JOURNAL


, Gough
, Kathleen
, 1986
, The Hoa in Vietnam
, Contemporary Marxism, Social Justice/Global Options
, 12/13
, 81–91
, 29765847
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Kimura
, Tetsusaburo
, 1986
, Vietnam--Ten Years of Economic Struggle
, Asian Survey, University of California Press
, 26
, 10
, 1039–1055
, 2644255
, harv
, 10.2307/2644255
,
  • JOURNAL


, Quach Langlet
, Tâm
, 1991
,weblink
, Charles Fourniau : Annam-Tonkin 1885-1896. Lettrés et paysans vietnamiens face à la conquête coloniale. Travaux du Centre d'Histoire et Civilisations de la péninsule Indochinoise
, French
, Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême-Orient
, Persée (web portal), Persée
, 78
, harv
, {{free access}}
  • JOURNAL


, Huu Chiem
, Nguyen
, 1993
,weblink
, Geo-Pedological Study of the Mekong Delta
, Southeast Asian Studies
, Kyoto University
, 31
, 2
,weblink
, 2 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Thayer
, Carlyle A.
, 1994
, Sino-Vietnamese Relations: The Interplay of Ideology and National Interest
, Asian Survey
, 34
, 6
, 513–528
, 2645338
, harv
, 10.2307/2645338
,
  • JOURNAL


, Greenfield
, Gerard
, 1994
,weblink
, The Development of Capitalism in Vietnam
, Socialist Register
,weblink
, 30 September 2018
, yes
, harv
, 8 November 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Hirschman
, Charles
, Preston
, Samuel
, Manh Loi
, Vu
, 1995
, Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate
, Population and Development Review, Population Council
, 21
, 4
, 783–812
, 2137774
, harv
, 10.2307/2137774
,
  • JOURNAL


, Goodkind
, Daniel
, 1995
, Rising Gender Inequality in Vietnam Since Reunification
, Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia
, 68
, 3
, 342–359
, 2761129
, harv
, 10.2307/2761129
,
  • JOURNAL


, Amer
, Ramses
, 1996
, Vietnam's Policies and the Ethnic Chinese since 1975
, Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute
, 11
, 1
, 76–104
, 41056928
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Momoki
, Shiro
, 1996
,weblink
, A Short Introduction to Champa Studies
, Kyoto University Research Information Repository, Kyoto University
, COnnecting REpositories
,weblink
, 18 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Jacques
, Roland
, 1998
,weblink
, Le Portugal et la romanisation de la langue vietnamienne. Faut- il réécrire l'histoire ?
, French
, Outre-Mers. Revue d'Histoire
, Persée
, 318
, harv
, {{free access}}
  • JOURNAL


, Zinoman
, Peter
, 2000
, Colonial Prisons and Anti-Colonial Resistance in French Indochina: The Thai Nguyen Rebellion, 1917
, Modern Asian Studies
, 34
, 1
, 57–98
, 313112
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, 10.1017/S0026749X00003590
,
  • JOURNAL


, Xuan Dinh
, Quan
, 2000
, The Political Economy of Vietnam's Transformation Process
, Contemporary Southeast Asia, ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute
, 22
, 2
, 360–388
, 25798497
, harv
, 10.1355/CS22-2G
,
  • JOURNAL


, Matsumura
, Hirofumi
, Lan Cuong
, Nguyen
, Kim Thuy
, Nguyen
, Anezaki
, Tomoko
, 2001
, Dental Morphology of the Early Hoabinian, the Neolithic Da But and the Metal Age Dong Son Civilized Peoples in Vietnam
, Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung
, 83
, 1
, 59–73
, 25757578
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Endres
, Kirsten W.
, 2001
, Local Dynamics of Renegotiating Ritual Space in Northern Vietnam: The Case of the "Dinh"
, Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute
, 16
, 1
, 70–101
, 41057051
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, McLeod
, Mark W.
, Thi Dieu
, Nguyen
, 2001
, Culture and Customs of Vietnam
, Greenwood Press
, 978-0-313-30485-9
, 1097-0738
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Gallup
, John Luke
, 2002
,weblink
, The wage labor market and inequality in Viet Nam in the 1990s
, Policy Research Working Paper Series, World Bank
, Research Papers in Economics
, harv
, 10.1596/1813-9450-2896
, Policy Research Working Papers
,
  • JOURNAL


, Wai-ming
, Ng
, 2002
,weblink
, The Impact of Japanese Comics and Animation in Asia
, Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry
, Chinese University of Hong Kong
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Freeman
, Nick J.
, 2002
, United States's economic sanctions against Vietnam: International business and development repercussions
, The Columbia Journal of World Business
, 28
, 10.1016/0022-5428(93)90038-Q
, 2
, 12–22
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Wilkey
, Robert Neil
, 2002
,weblink
, Vietnam's Antitrust Legislation and Subscription to E-ASEAN: An End to the Bamboo Firewall Over Internet Regulation
, The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology and Privacy Law
, 20
, 4
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Wagstaff
, Adam
, van Doorslaer
, Eddy
, Watanabe
, Naoko
, 2003
, On decomposing the causes of health sector inequalities with an application to malnutrition inequalities in Vietnam
, Journal of Econometrics
, 112
, 10.1016/S0304-4076(02)00161-6
, 1
, 207–223
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Van Tho
, Tran
, 2003
,weblink
, Economic development in Vietnam during the second half of the 20th century: How to avoid the danger of lagging behind
, The Vietnamese Economy: Awakening the Dorming Dragon
, Waseda University
, 2
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181005050943weblink">weblink
, 5 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Miguel
, Edward
, Roland
, Gérard
, 2005
,weblink
, The Long Run Impact of Bombing Vietnam
, University of California, Berkeley
,weblink
, 3 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Manyin
, Mark E.
, 2005
,weblink
, U.S. Assistance to Vietnam
, Congressional Research Service reports
, Federation of American Scientists
,weblink
, 9 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Van Nam
, Nguyen
, de Vries
, Peter J.
, Van Toi
, Le
, Nagelkerke
, Nico
, 2005
, Malaria control in Vietnam: the Binh Thuan experience
, Tropical Medicine & International Health
, 10
, 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01387.x
, 15807800
, 4
, 357–365
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Berg
, M
, Stengel
, C
, Pham
, TK
, Pham
, HV
, Sampson
, ML
, Leng
, M
, Samreth
, S
, Fredericks
, D
, 4
, 2007
, Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas--Cambodia and Vietnam
, Science of the Total Environment
, 372
, 2–3
, 413–25
, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.010
, 17081593
, harv
, 2007ScTEn.372..413B
,
  • BOOK


, Zuckerman
, Phil
, 2007
,weblink
, Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns
, Cambridge Companion to Atheism
, Pitzer College
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090612114443weblink">weblink
, 12 June 2009
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Odell
, Andrew L.
, Castillo
, Marlene F.
, 2008
,weblink
, Vietnam in a Nutshell: An Historical, Political and Commercial Overview
, NYBSA International Law Practicum
, Duane Morris
, 21
, 2
,weblink
, 12 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Matsumura
, Hirofumi
, Yoneda
, Minoru
, Yukio
, Dodo
, Oxenham
, Marc
, Lan Cuong
, Nguyen
, Kim Thuy
, Nguyen
, My Dung
, Lam
, The Long
, Vu
, Yamagata
, Mariko
, Sawada
, Junmei
, Shinoda
, Kenichi
, Takigawa
, Wataru
, 4
, 2008
,weblink
, Terminal Pleistocene human skeleton from Hang Cho Cave, northern Vietnam: implications for the biological affinities of Hoabinhian people
, Anthropological Science
, 116
, 3
, 201–217
, J-STAGE
, PDF
,weblink
, 24 September 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
, 10.1537/ase.070416
,
  • JOURNAL


, Van De
, Nguyen
, Douglas
, Ian
, McMorrow
, Julia
, Lindley
, Sarah
, Thuy Binh
, Dao Kim Nguyen
, Thi Van
, Tranh
, Huu Thanh
, Le
, Tho
, Nguyen
, 4
, 2008
, Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Sloping Land under Intense Cultivation in Southern Vietnam
, Geographical Research
, 46
, 10.1111/j.1745-5871.2007.00487.x
, 1
, 4–16
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Nasuchon
, Nopparat
, 2008
,weblink
, Coastal Management and Community Management in Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand, with a case study of Thai Fisheries Management
, United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellow Research Presentation
, United Nations
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181002033819weblink">weblink
, 2 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Obermeyer
, Ziad
, Murray
, Christopher J L
, Gakidou
, Emmanuela
, 2008
, Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme [Table 3]
, BMJ
, 336
, 10.1136/bmj.a137
, 7659
, 1482–6
, 2440905
, 18566045
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Hoang Vuong
, Quan
, Dung Tran
, Tri
, 2009
, The Cultural Dimensions of the Vietnamese Private Entrepreneurship
, The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development
, Social Science Research Network
, 1442384
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Lieberman
, Samuel S.
, Wagstaff
, Adam
, 2009
, Health financing and delivery in Vietnam
, World Bank
, 10.1596/978-0-8213-7782-6
, harv
, 978-0-8213-7782-6
,
  • JOURNAL


, Cuong Le
, Duc
, Kubo
, Tatsuhiko
, Fujino
, Yoshihisa
, Minh Pham
, Truong
, Matsuda
, Shinya
, 4
, 2010
,weblink
, Health Care System in Vietnam: Current Situation and Challenges
, Asian Pacific Journal of Disease Management
, J-STAGE
, 4
, 2
,weblink
, 5 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Cira
, Dean
, Dastur
, Arish
, Kilroy
, Austin
, Lozano
, Nancy
, Gun-wang
, Hyoung
, 4
, 2011
, Vietnam Urbanization Review
, World Bank
, ResearchGate
, 10.13140/2.1.5100.6249
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Buiter
, Willem
, Rahbari
, Ebrahim
, 2011
,weblink
, Global growth generators: Moving beyond emerging markets and BRICs
, Centre for Economic Policy Research
,weblink
, 17 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Pincus
, Jonathan
, 2015
,weblink
, Why Doesn't Vietnam Grow Faster?: State Fragmentation and the Limits of Vent for Surplus Growth
, Journal of Southeast Asian Economies
, Flanders Investment and Trade
, 10.1355/ae32-1c
, 32
, 1
, 26
,weblink
, 17 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
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, Thomas
, Martin
, 2012
, Rubber, coolies and communists: In Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Critical Perspectives on Empire from Part II - Colonial case studies: French, British and Belgian)
,
, 141–176
, 10.1017/CBO9781139045643.009
, harv
, 978-1-139-04564-3
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, Hong Phuong
, Nguyen
, 2012
,weblink
, Seismic Hazard Studies in Vietnam
, GEM Semi-Annual Meeting – Academia Sinica
, Taiwan Earthquake Research Center
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181010113105weblink">weblink
, 10 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, McCaig
, Brian
, Pavcnik
, Nina
, 2013
,weblink
, Moving out of agriculture: structural change in Vietnam
, Dartmouth College
,weblink
, 9 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Chapman
, Bruce
, Liu
, Amy Y.C.
, 2013
, Repayment Burdens of Student Loans for Vietnamese Higher Education
, Crawford School Research Paper
, Social Science Research Network
, 2213076
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Huu Duc
, Nguyen
, Mai Hoa
, Duong Thi
, Thien Huong
, Nguyen
, Ngoc Bao
, Nguyen
, 2013
,weblink
, On Various Essential Data Related to Status Quo of Motorcycles in Vietnam
, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
, J-STAGE
, 10
,weblink
, 6 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Ngoc Vo
, Anne
, Le
, V
, 2014
,weblink
, Governmental influences on the evolution of agricultural cooperatives in Vietnam: an institutional perspective with case studies
, Faculty of Business, University of Wollongong Research Online
, University of Wollongong
, 20
, 3
,weblink
, 4 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 8 November 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Banout
, Jan
, Urban
, Ondrej
, Musil
, Vojtech
, Szakova
, Jirina
, Balik
, Jiri
, 4
, 2014
, Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam
, Journal of Environmental and Public Health
, 2014
, 1–10
, 10.1155/2014/528965
, 3930020
, 24639878
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Różycka-Tran
, Joanna
, Anh Tran
, Quan
, 2014
,weblink
, Self-regulation techniques in Vietnamese Zen Truc Lam Monastery
, Terebess Online
,weblink
, 8 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Crook
, Joe
, 2014
,weblink
, Traveling Through Space: A Look at the Evolution of Transportation in Vietnam and its Implications
, Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection
, SIT Digital Collections
,weblink
, 6 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Grigoreva
, Nina V.
, 2014
,weblink
, Legendary Ancestors, National Identity, and the Socialization of Children in Contemporary Vietnam
, Centre for Asian and African Studies
,weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Merola
, R. B.
, Hien
, T. T.
, Quyen
, D. T. T.
, Vengosh
, A.
, 2014
, Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta
, Science of the Total Environment
, 511
, 544–552
, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.091
, 25585157
, harv
, 2015ScTEn.511..544M
,
  • JOURNAL


, Ha Trân
, Thi Thai
, 2014
,weblink
, Education financing in Vietnam
, Revue Internationale d'Éducation de Sèvres
, OpenEdition Journals
, harv
, {{free access}}
  • JOURNAL


, Kim Phuong
, Tran
, 2014
,weblink
, Vietnam: Highland bauxite Projects and initial economic effects
, Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources
, Metal Bulletin
,weblink
, 4 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Pham
, Alice
, 2015
,weblink
, The Vietnam Telecommunications Sector: Good Practices in Regulatory Reform in Relation to Competition Policy & Law Issues
, Toronto, Geneva and Brighton
, CUTS International
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190225033214weblink">weblink
, 25 February 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Tung Hieu
, Ly
, 2015
,weblink
, Confucian Influences on Vietnamese Culture
, Vietnam Social Sciences
, Vietnam Journals Online
, 5
, 169
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181015044859weblink">weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Sohr
, Alexander
, Brockfeld
, Elmar
, Sauerländer
, Anke
, Melde
, Eric
, 2016
, Traffic Information System for Hanoi
, Procedia Engineering
, 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.035
, 142
, 221–228
, harv
, 2017ProEn.204...69B
,
  • JOURNAL


, BirdLife International
, 2016
, Lophura edwardsi
, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T45354985A95145107.en
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Anh Ngo
, Lan
, 2016
,weblink
, Nguyá»…n-Catholic History (1770s-1890s) and the Gestation of Vietnamese Catholic National Identity
, Georgetown University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
, DigitalGeorgetown
, PDF
,weblink
, 28 September 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Viet Trung
, Le
, Quoc Viet
, Tran
, Van Chat
, Pham
, 2016
,weblink
, An Overview of Vietnam's Oil and Gas Industry
, Petroleum Economics & Management
, Vietnam Petroleum Institute
, 10
,weblink
, 10 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Trinh
, Q. M.
, Nguyen
, H. L.
, Do
, T. N.
, Nguyen
, V. N.
, Nguyen
, B. H.
, Nguyen
, T. V. A.
, Sintchenko
, V.
, Marais
, B. J.
, 4
, 2016
, Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam
, International Journal of Infectious Diseases
, 46
, 2
, 12–22
, 10.1016/0022-5428(93)90038-Q
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Nhu Nguyen
, Quynh Thi
, 2016
,weblink
, The Vietnamese Values System: A Blend of Oriental, Western and Socialist Values
, International Education Studies
, Institute of Education Sciences
, 9
, 12
,weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Feinberg
, Richard E.
, 2016
, Principles and Power
, Problems of Post-Communism
, 63
, 2
, 75–83
, Taylor & Francis
, 10.1080/10758216.2015.1083377
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Linh Le
, Thi Phuong
, Anh Trinh
, Tu
, 2016
, Encouraging Public Transport Use to Reduce Traffic Congestion and Air Pollutant: A Case Study of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
, Procedia Engineering
, 142
, 236–243
, 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.037
, harv
, 2017ProEn.204...69B
,
  • JOURNAL


, Anh Dinh
, Thuy
, 2016
,weblink
, The Causes and Effects of Korean Pop Culture on Vietnamese Consumer Behavior
, Thammasat University
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181012063519weblink">weblink
, 12 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Minh Hoang
, Truong
, van Lap
, Nguyen
, Kim Oanh
, Ta Thi
, Jiro
, Takemura
, 2016
, The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene–Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta
, Heliyon
, 2
, 11
, e00165
, 10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00165
, 5114594
, 27882357
, harv
,
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, Shaofei
, YE
, Guoqing
, Zhang
, 2016
,weblink
, The relationship between Nanyue and Annam in the ancient historical records of China and Vietnam
, Honghe Prefecture Center for Vietnamese Studies, Honghe University
, CNKI Journal Translation Project
, harv
,
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, Van Hoang
, Chung
, 2017
,weblink
, Evangelizing Post-Đổi Mới Vietnam: The Rise of Protestantism and the State's Response
, Perspective
, ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute
, 34
, 2335-6677
,weblink
, 14 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, H. Dang
, Hai-Anh
, Glewwe
, Paul W.
, 2017
,weblink
, Well Begun, but Aiming Higher: A Review of Vietnam's Education Trends in the Past 20 Years and Emerging Challenges
, Research on Improving Systems of Education
,weblink
, 5 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Overland
, Indra
, 2017
, Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier
, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS)
, ResearchGate
, 1894-650X
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,
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, Baccini
, Leonardo
, Impullitti
, Giammario
, Malesky
, Edmund J.
, 2017
, Globalization and State Capitalism: Assessing Vietnam's Accession to the WTO
, CESifo Working Paper Series
, Social Science Research Network
, 3036319
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Hong Truong
, Son
, Ye
, Qinghua
, Stive
, Marcel J. F.
, 2017
, Estuarine Mangrove Squeeze in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
, Journal of Coastal Research
, BioOne
, 33
, 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-16-00087.1
, 4
, 747–763
, harv
,
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, Nang Chung
, Trinh
, Giang Hai
, Nguyen
, 2017
,weblink
, Dong Son Culture in First Ten Centuries AD
, Institute of Archaeology, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181018032546weblink">weblink
, 18 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Dang Vu
, Hoai Nam
, Nielsen
, Martin Reinhardt
, 2018
, Understanding utilitarian and hedonic values determining the demand for rhino horn in Vietnam
, Human Dimensions of Wildlife
, 23
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, 417–432
, Taylor & Francis
, 10.1080/10871209.2018.1449038
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, TrÆ°Æ¡ng
, Ngân
, 2018
,weblink
, Solid Waste Management in Vietnam
, Degree Programme in Environmental Engineering
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, 8 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Truong
, Nhu
, Vo
, Dang H.
, Nguyen
, Dzung
, 2018
,weblink
, Mekong State of Land
, Mekong Region Land Governance
,weblink
, 6 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • JOURNAL


, Quang Vinh
, Bui
,weblink
, Vietnam 2035: Toward Prosperity, Creativity, Equity, and Democracy
, George Washington University
,weblink
, 17 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Cornell University
,weblink
, Rice in Vietnamese Culture and Economy
, Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies - Southeast Asia Program
, harv
,
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, Van Van
, Hoang
,weblink
, The Current Situation and Issues of the Teaching of English in Vietnam
, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
, 22
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, 12 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,

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, 2 Parts of Vietnam Officially Reunited; Leadership Chosen
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,
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, Spokesman-Review
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, Vietnam outlines collectivization goals
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,
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, Vietnamese Celebrate 'Women's Day' in Old and New Ways
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, 20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate
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,weblink
, Opening to Vietnam: The Overview; U.S. Grants Vietnam Full Ties; Time for Healing, Clinton Says
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, Vietnam: changing of the guard
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, Vietnam's new-look economy
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, harv
,
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, BBC News
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, The legacy of Agent Orange
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, TOSY TOPIO - Table Tennis Playing Robot
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,
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, China Daily
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, Vietnam win first int'l title
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,
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, The Economist
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, A bit of everything [Vietnam's quest for role models]
, The Economist
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, 21 October 2012
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, harv
, 16 October 2018
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,
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, Vietnam+
, 2008
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, High speed railway engineers to be trained in Japan
, Vietnam+
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,
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, Khanh
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, 2008
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, Cultural values of traditional Vietnamese wedding
, Sài Gòn Giải Phóng
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,
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, BBC News
, 2009
,weblink
, Vietnam lawyer charged with subversion
, BBC News
, harv
,
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, Mydans
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, 24 December 2009
,weblink
, Vietnam Charges Lawyer With Capital Crime
, The New York Times
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, The Japan Times
, 2009
,weblink
, Vietnam opts for Japanese bullet trains
, The Japan Times
, The Japan Times Online
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,
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, Corapi
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, 2010
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, The 10 healthiest ethnic cuisines
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,
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, Borel
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, 2010
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, A Ping-Pong-Playing Terminator
, Popular Science
, harv
,
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, Huong
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, 2010
,weblink
, Folk poetry preservation a labour of love
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Thanh Niên
, 2010
,weblink
, Vietnam's 2010 growth fastest in three years
, Thanh Niên
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2010
,weblink
, Tech, science spending too low
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Nguyen
, Andrea
, 2011
,weblink
, Heaven in a Bowl: The Original *Pho*
, Saveur
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,
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, Gillet
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, 2011
,weblink
, Riding Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh trail
, The Guardian
,
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, Kinver
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, 2011
,weblink
, Javan rhino 'now extinct in Vietnam'
, BBC News
, harv
,
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, Nhân Dân
, 2011
,weblink
, Pink lotus leads vote for Vietnam's national flower
, Nhân Dân
, harv
,
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, Ha
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, Giang
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, Denslow
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, 2012
,weblink
, Vietnam Air Aims to Win Southeast Asia's No. 2 Title by 2020
, Bloomberg L.P.
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, 29 October 2013
, yes
, harv
,
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, MacLeod
, Calum
, 2012
,weblink
, Fifty years later, U.S., Vietnam deal with Agent Orange
, USA Today
, harv
,
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, Pham
, Hiep
, 2012
,weblink
, Government's student loan scheme inadequate to ensure access
, University World News
, harv
,
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, Phuong
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, 2012
,weblink
, Vietnam's cultural integration seen by researchers
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, The Telegraph
, 2012
,weblink
, Vietnam begins naval exercises with the US
, The Daily Telegraph
, harv
,
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, Cham
, Tran
, 2012
,weblink
, China continues its plot in the East Sea
, VNE
, Vietnam Net
, harv
,
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, Tuổi Trẻ News
, 2012
,weblink
, Vietnam to be listed top economies by 2050: HSBC
, Tuổi Trẻ
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, 16 January 2012
, yes
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2012
,weblink
, Top three telecoms control 95 per cent of market share
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, UPI.com
, 2013
,weblink
, Oil production starts offshore Vietnam
, United Press International
, harv
,
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, Summers
, Chris
, 2014
,weblink
, How Vietnam became a coffee giant
, BBC News
, harv
,
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, Haberman
, Clyde
, 12 May 2014
,weblink
, Agent Orange's Long Legacy, for Vietnam and Veterans
, The New York Times
, harv
,
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, Constitution of Vietnam
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,weblink
, The constitution of the socialist republic of Viet Nam
, XIIIth National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
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,
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, Batruny
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, 2014
,weblink
, 20 Vietnamese dishes and drinks you need to try
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,
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, Le
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, Marble Mounts – The 'rockery' masterpiece in the heart of Da Nang
, Vietnam Net
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,
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, Yan News
, 2014
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, Nhóm nhạc Hàn Quốc tiết lộ lý do hợp tác cùng Thanh Bùi
, Korean music group revealed the reason for co-operation with Thanh Bùi
, Vietnamese
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, harv
,
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, Norton
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, 2015
,weblink
, Ca Trù Singing in Vietnam
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,
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, Minh Do
, Anh
, 2015
,weblink
, Vietnam's chat app Zalo challenges Facebook with 30 million registered users
, Tech in Asia
, harv
,
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, Sputnik News
, 2015
,weblink
, Russia, Vietnam WIll Hold 1st Joint Drills on Vietnamese Territory in 2016
, Sputnik (news agency), Sputnik News
, harv
,
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, Thanh Niên
, 2015
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, Horrific photos recall Vietnamese Famine of 1945
, Vo An Ninh
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, The Japan Times
, 2015
,weblink
, Japan defense vessel to stop at Vietnam naval base in South China Sea
, The Japan Times
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,
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, Vietnam Net
, 2015
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, Rare photos of Vietnam's famine in 1945
, Vo An Ninh
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,
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, Agence France-Presse
, 2016
,weblink
, The US is helping to clean up Agent Orange residue, 50 years since the Vietnam War
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,
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, Sims
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, Rio 2016: Vietnam wins first ever Olympic gold medal
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, Duy
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, The Revival of Boléro in Vietnam
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, 15 October 2018
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, harv
,
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, McNeil Jr.
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, Vietnam's Battle With Tuberculosis
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, Lyimo
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, Africa: Lessons From Vietnam's March to Progress
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, 8 March 2016
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • NEWS


, Hirano
, Ko
, 2016
,weblink
, Japanese language studies taking root in Vietnam elementary schools
, The Japan Times
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,
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, Anh
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, 2016a
,weblink
, Ba Be, the biggest mountain lake in Vietnam
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,
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, Anh
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, 2016b
,weblink
, Vietnamese family reunion during Tet
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, Nguyen
, Mai
, Binh Minh
, Ho
, Pham
, My
, Burmistrova
, Svetlana
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, John
, Fenton
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, 2016
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, Vietnam abandons plan for first nuclear power plants
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, Cerre
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, 2016
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, Agent Orange's legacy continues to haunt Vietnam and Veterans
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, Le
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, Top national parks in Vietnam
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, Tiezzi
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, 2016
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, It's Official: Formosa Subsidiary Caused Mass Fish Deaths in Vietnam
, The Diplomat
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, 8 January 2019
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, harv
,
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, Yan
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, Vietnam Net
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, Tourism contributes significantly to Vietnam's economy
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, Vietnam Net
, 2016b
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, Decree on university autonomy in final stages
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, Van Thanh
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, Vietnam draws up danger-zone map of unexploded bombs
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, Việt Nam News
, 2016
,weblink
, Seismologists predict potential earthquakes
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, harv
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, Voice of Vietnam
, 2016
,weblink
, Vietnam joins int'l naval exercise in Brunei and Singapore
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, Buleen
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, Average Temperature in Vietnam
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, FourFourTwo
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, The time has come for Vietnam to turn beautiful football into real success
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, Vietnamese food: 40 delicious dishes you'll love
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, Raslan
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, How Vietnam's answer to Whatsapp, Zalo, began with a hack
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, Vietnam builds north-south highway, but not a railway
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, Tatarski
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, 2017
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, Vietnam's tale of two metros, one built by the Japanese and the other by the Chinese
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, Dall
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, 2017
,weblink
, How Vietnam learned to stop poaching and love its beasts
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, Nghia
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, 2017
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, Unique Fighting-Cock Martial Arts
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, Mai
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, Vietnam remains world's No 1 exporter of cashews
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, Giap
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, Vietnam signs global treaty to ban nuclear weapons
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, Why a Vietnamese food journey is sure to tantalise diners from north to south
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, Vietnam Net
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, Vietnam Net
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, Bird watching in Thung Nham bird sanctuary
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, Tao
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, Deadly relics: "Mine village" on China-Vietnam border
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, Rick
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, How Vietnamese Soccer Upset The Odds That China Is Banking On
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, BBC News
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, Vietnamese capital Hanoi asks people not to eat dog meat
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, Loan
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, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam's 2019 holiday plan includes 9-day Tet break
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, Quốc Hoàng
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, 2018
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, Ji Yeon và Soobin lần đầu song ca trong đêm nhạc Việt - Hàn tại TP.HCM
, Ji Yeon and Soobin first duet in the night of Vietnamese-Korean music in Ho Chi Minh City
, Vietnamese
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, Dam-young
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, 2018
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, S.M. Entertainment to hold K-pop auditions in 10 countries
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, 8 January 2019
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, harv
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, PhÆ°Æ¡ng
, Lan
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, Jiyeon (T-ara) chủ động diễn cảnh tình cảm với Soobin Hoàng Sơn
, Jiyeon (T-ara) took the initiative to act out a love scene with Soobin Hoàng Sơn
, Vietnamese
, Zing.vn
, harv
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, Pike
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, 2018
,weblink
, 11 Traditional Vietnamese Tết Dishes
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,
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, Quy
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, 2018
,weblink
, Three Vietnam hotspots among 100 most visited cities
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, NHK World-Japan
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, Japan, Vietnam to launch dioxin cleanup project
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, Nikkei Asian Review
, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam's Agent Orange cleanup enlists Japanese tech
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, Terzian
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, 2018
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, The World's Top 15 Cities
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, Chin
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, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam plays catch up with high speed rail
, The ASEAN Post
, harv
,
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, Stewart
, Phil
, 2018
,weblink
, U.S. prepares for biggest-ever Agent Orange cleanup in Vietnam
, Reuters
, harv
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, The Economic Times
, 2018
,weblink
, Indian, Vietnamese armies hold first military exercise
, The Economic Times
, harv
,
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, The Nation
, 2018
,weblink
, Major Vietnam high speed railway to be elevated, tunnelled: draft report
, Việt Nam News/Asia News Network
, The Nation (Thailand)
, harv
,
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, The Saigon Times Daily
, 2018
,weblink
, Wild celebrations in Hanoi as Vietnam win regional title
, The Saigon Times Daily
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, Brown
, Vanessa
, 2018
,weblink
, Dark side of Vietnam reveals cost of war
, news.com.au
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2018a
,weblink
, Monsanto court ruling bolsters the hope for millions of Vietnamese Agent Orange victims
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2018b
,weblink
, US continues to be key export market for Việt Nam
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2018c
,weblink
, Water industry needs smart tech
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Việt Nam News
, 2018d
,weblink
, Water quality inspections to be held nationwide
, Việt Nam News
, harv
,
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, Vietnam Net
, 2018a
,weblink
, Northern mountain frozen as temperatures drop
, Dân Trí News
, Vietnam Net
, harv
,
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, Vietnam Net
, 2018b
,weblink
, $58b for North-South high speed train: consultants
, VNS
, Vietnam Net
, harv
,
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, Voice of Vietnam
, 2018a
,weblink
, Vietnam celebrates International Women's Day
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, Voice of Vietnam
, 2018b
,weblink
, Chief of General Staff of Lao People's Army visits Vietnam
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, Voice of Vietnam
, 2018c
,weblink
, Vietnam's pepper industry about to burst
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, Voice of Vietnam
, 2018d
,weblink
, Vietnam's folk music treasure promoted
, Voice of Vietnam
, harv
,
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, Yan
, Jun
, Tao
, Long
, Bui
, 2018
,weblink
, Feature: Football mania spreads after Vietnam makes history at Asiad
, Xinhua News Agency
, harv
,
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, Gomes
, Alaric
, 2019
,weblink
, Asian Cup: Vietnam continue to chase their dream with quarters berth
, Gulf News
, harv
,
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, Nikkei Asian Review
,weblink
, Petrovietnam Gas JSC
, Nikkei Asian Review
, harv
,
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, The Telegraph
,weblink
, In pictures: Inside Hang Son Doong, the world's largest caves in Vietnam
, The Daily Telegraph
, harv
,

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, Communist Party of Vietnam
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, Vietnamese
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, Vietnam Women's Union
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, Vietnam set priorities for HIV/AIDS prevention in 2006
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, harv
,
  • WEB


, Berkman Klein Center
, 2006
,weblink
, OpenNet Initiative Vietnam Report: University Research Team Finds an Increase in Internet Censorship in Vietnam
, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Bich Loan
, Hoang Thi
, 2007
,weblink
, Consistently pursuing the socialist orientation in developing the market economy in Vietnam
, Ministry of Culture and Information (Vietnam)
, Communist Review
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510005305weblink">weblink
, 10 May 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vu
, Tuong
, 2007
,weblink
, Newly released documents on the land reform
, Naval Postgraduate School
, University of Washington Libraries
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110420044800weblink">weblink
, 20 April 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, PWC
, 2008
,weblink
, Vietnam may be fastest growing emerging economy
, PricewaterhouseCoopers
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111162358weblink">weblink
, 11 January 2012
, yes
, harv
, 20 October 2011
, dmy-all
,
  • WEB


, Le
, Thomas D.
, 2008
,weblink
, Vietnamese Poetry
, Le World
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090915001201weblink">weblink
, 15 September 2009
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, McKinney
, Brennan
, 2009
,weblink
, The Human Migration: Homo Erectus and the Ice Age
, Yahoo! Voices
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121112203432weblink">weblink
, 12 November 2012
, yes
, harv
, 22 January 2013
, dmy-all
,
  • WEB


, South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute
, 2009
,weblink
, Japan-Vietnam alliance to advise high-speed railway project
, Thanh Niên
, South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnam General Statistics Office
, 2009b
,weblink
, Migration and Urbanization in Vietnam: Patterns, Trends and Differentials
, Vietnam Population and Housing Census 2009
, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Population Fund Vietnam
,weblink
, 8 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, CNRS
, 2010
,weblink
, 2010 Fields Medal awarded to mathematician Ngô Bao Châu
, Centre national de la recherche scientifique
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181009044409weblink">weblink
, 9 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Intellasia
, 2010
,weblink
, Huge hydro plant starts operation in Vietnam, says official
, Intellasia
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723160004weblink">weblink
, 23 July 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vandemoortele
, Milo
, Bird
, Kate
, 2010
,weblink
, Viet Nam's Progress on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Impressive improvements
, Development Progress Stories
, Overseas Development Institute
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514200140weblink">weblink
, 14 May 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vandemoortele
, Milo
, 2010
,weblink
, The MDG fundamentals: improving equity for development
, ODI Briefing Papers
, Overseas Development Institute
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100515181557weblink">weblink
, 15 May 2010
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Karmel
, Roberta S.
, 2010
,weblink
, The Vietnamese Stock Market
, Financial Women's Association
,weblink
, 5 October 2018
, yes
, harv
, 7 May 2010
, dmy-all
,
  • WEB


, Koppes
, Steve
, 2010
,weblink
, Ngô Bao Châu receives Fields Medal, highest honor in mathematics
, University of Chicago
,weblink
, 9 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, OpenNet Initiative
, 2012
,weblink
, Country Profiles [Vietnam]
, OpenNet Initiative
, harv
,
  • WEB


, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage
, 2012
,weblink
, Worship of Hùng kings in Phú Thọ
, Intangible cultural heritage
, UNESCO
,weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2013
,weblink
, School enrollment, primary (% net)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Bielefeldt
, Heiner
, 2014
,weblink
, Press Statement on the visit to the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief
, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief
, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
,weblink
, 13 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Hoang Vuong
, Quan
, 2014
,weblink
, Vietnam's Political Economy in Transition (1986-2016)
, Stratfor
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Văn Phúc
, VÅ©
, 2014
,weblink
, Reform policy of the Communist Party of Vietnam after nearly 30 years of renewal
, Ministry of Culture and Information (Vietnam)
, Communist Review
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180929120213weblink">weblink
, 29 September 2018
, yes
, harv
, 16 October 2018
, dmy-all
,
  • WEB


, UNICEF
, 2015
,weblink
, Viet Nam [Sanitation]
, UNICEF
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Waitemata District Health Board
, 2015
,weblink
, Vietnamese Culture
, Waitemata District Health Board, New Zealand
,weblink
, 9 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2015
,weblink
, Progression to secondary school (%)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Chonchirdsin
, Sud
, 2016
,weblink
, Mythical creatures in Vietnamese culture
, British Library
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Hoang
, Hai
, 2016
,weblink
, [Listing Note] Riding the boom of passenger traffic growth
, Airports Corporation of Vietnam (ACV)
, Viet Capital Securities
,weblink
, 7 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Index Mundi
, 2016
,weblink
, Vietnam - Improved water source (% of population with access)
, Index Mundi
, harv
,
  • WEB


, UNESCO Media Services
, 2016
,weblink
, ASEAN Economic Community likely to spur scientific co-operation, says report
, UNESCO
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181008095742weblink">weblink
, 8 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnam National Space Centre
, 2016
,weblink
, History of Establishment and Development [The period of 2016 – 2020]
, Vietnam National Space Center
,weblink
, 8 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2016a
,weblink
, GINI index (World Bank estimate)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2016b
,weblink
, Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2016c
,weblink
, Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Gallop
, Annabel
, 2017
,weblink
, Vietnam and Dragons
, British Library
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Electricity of Vietnam
, 2017
,weblink
, Vietnam Electricity [Annual Report]
, Electricity of Vietnam
,weblink
, 7 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Oxford Business Group
, 2017
,weblink
, Operators in Vietnam bolster infrastructure and introduce new products and services in telecoms sector
, Oxford Business Group
,weblink
, 25 February 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, United Kingdom Department for International Trade
, 2017
,weblink
, Vietnam Water Sector Briefing
, United Kingdom Department for International Trade
, British Business Group Vietnam
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190111034221weblink">weblink
, 11 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
, 2017
,weblink
, Recent development and implementation plan 2017-2022 of Vietnam Space Center Project
, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181008101506weblink">weblink
, 8 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2017
,weblink
, Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Datta
, Ajoy
, Mendizabal
, Enrique
, 2018
,weblink
, Political and economic transition in Vietnam and its impact on think tank traditions
, Medium (website), Medium
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper
, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnamese women in Romania mark International Women's Day
, Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Formula One
, 2018
,weblink
, Vietnam to host Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2020
, Formula One
, harv
,
  • WEB


, History
, 2018
,weblink
, U.S. withdraws from Vietnam [1973]
, History
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Human Development Report
, 2018
,weblink
, Human Development Indices and Indicators
, Human Development Report
, United Nations Development Programme
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181017040238weblink">weblink
, 17 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Index Mundi
, 2018
,weblink
, Waterways [km]
, Index Mundi
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Dallek
, Matthew
, 2018
,weblink
, How the Tet Offensive Shocked Americans into Questioning if the Vietnam War Could be Won
, History (U.S. TV network), History
, harv
,
  • WEB


, SM Entertainment Group
, 2018
,weblink
, SM ENTERTAINMENT Signs MOU for Strategic Alliance and Collaboration with IPP Group, Vietnam's Largest Retail & Lifestyle Company
, SM Entertainment, SM Entertainment Group
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190108050950weblink">weblink
, 8 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, United Nations Development Programme
, 2018
,weblink
, Viet Nam: Mine Action Project launched with support from Korea
, United Nations Development Programme
, harv
,
  • WEB


, University of Technology Sydney
, 2018
,weblink
, Hundreds of Vietnamese children access safe water
, University of Technology Sydney
,weblink
, 11 January 2019
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnam News Agency
, 2018
,weblink
, China tops Vietnam's list of importers
, VEN.vn
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2018a
,weblink
, Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, World Bank
, 2018b
,weblink
, Urban population (% of total)
, World Bank
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Agent Orange Record
,weblink
, Dealing With the Damage
, Agent Orange Record
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181011112526weblink">weblink
, 11 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Cultural Orientation Resource Centre
,weblink
, The Montagnards – Culture Profile [Language and Literacy]
, Cultural Orientation Resource Center
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181012040902weblink">weblink
, 12 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Embassy of Vietnam in USA
,weblink
, Government Structure
, Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the United States of America
, harv
,
  • WEB


, International Monetary Fund
,weblink
, World Economic Outlook Database, January 2019
, International Monetary Fund
, harv
,
  • WEB


, International Olympic Committee
,weblink
, Vietnam
, International Olympic Committee
, 22 August 2018
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Montagnard Human Rights Organisation
,weblink
, Under South Vietnam Rule (1955–1975)
, Montagnard Human Rights Organization
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121006164804weblink">weblink
, 6 October 2012
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Reporters Without Borders
,weblink
, Internet Enemies [Vietnam]
, Reporters Without Borders
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110317075418weblink">weblink
, 17 March 2011
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Thi Anh
, Thu Do
,weblink
, Flood in Vietnam
, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
,weblink
, 10 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, UNESCO Publishing
,weblink
, UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030
, UNESCO
, harv
,
  • WEB


, UNICEF
,weblink
, At a glance: Viet Nam [Statistics]
, UNICEF
,weblink
, 11 January 2008
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
,weblink
, Data Query
, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
, harv
,
  • WEB


, United Nations Treaty Collection
,weblink
, Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons [Vietnam]
, United Nations Treaty Collection
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnamese-American Association
,weblink
, Lạc Long Quân & Âu Cơ
, Vietnamese-American Association of Raleigh, North Carolina
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181015054226weblink">weblink
, 15 October 2018
, yes
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Vietnamese Waters Zone
,weblink
, Catches by Taxon in the waters of Viet Nam
, Sea Around Us (organization), Sea Around Us
, harv
,

Free content

{{free-content attribution
| author = UNESCO
| title = UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030
| publisher = UNESCO Publishing
| page numbers = 713–714
| documentURL =weblink
| licence = CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
}}{{US DOS Background Notes|url=https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4130.htm|title=(U.S. Relations With Vietnam)}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Vietnam}} Government Media and censorship
  • Robert N. Wilkey. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120719190536weblink"> "Vietnam's Antitrust Legislation and Subscription to E-ASEAN: An End to the Bamboo Firewall Over Internet Regulation?" The John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information Law. Vol. XX, No. 4. Summer 2002. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
Tourism {{Vietnam topics}}{{Navboxes|list ={{Countries and territories of Southeast Asia}}{{Countries of Asia}}}}{{Authority control}}

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