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{{other uses}}{{short description|Animals kept for production of meat, eggs, milk, wool, etc.}}File:20150728 xl P1000804 Leck mich Zaertlichkeit der Rinder.JPG|thumb|Cattle on a pasture in GermanyGermanyLivestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats.WEB,weblink livestock,, Horses are considered livestock in the United States.WEB,weblink Congress Clarifies That Horses are Not "Pets," Advances Landmark Livestock Health Measures, American Horse Council, en-US, 2019-01-19, The USDA classifies pork, veal, beef, and lamb as livestock and all livestock as red meat. Poultry and fish are not included in the category.WEB,weblink Fresh Pork from Farm to Table,, The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods, and continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous communities.Livestock farming practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming"; over 99% of livestock in the US are now raised in this way.WEB,weblink NASS - Census of Agriculture - Publications - 2012, USDA, 2017-11-29, Intensive animal farming increases the yield of the various commercial outputs, but has also led to negative impacts on animal welfare, the environment, and public health.JOURNAL, Anomaly, Jonathan, 2015-11-01, What’s Wrong With Factory Farming?,weblink Public Health Ethics, en, 8, 3, 246–254, 10.1093/phe/phu001, 1754-9973, Due to these negative impacts, but also for reasons of farming efficiency (see Food vs. feed), one projection mentions a large decline of livestock at least some animals (i.e. cattle) in certain countries by 2030.Rethink X: food and agricultureRethinking agriculture report


(File:Give_Way_To_Stock_(6759026099).jpg|thumb|This Australian road sign uses the less common term "stock" for livestock.)Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a compound word combining the words "live" and "stock".WEB,weblink Livestock definition, 23 November 2015,, In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines, while livestock has a wider sense.WEB,weblink Merriam-Webster: Definition of Livestock, Merriam-Webster, January 18, 2019, United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-78, Title IX) defines livestock only as cattle, swine, and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, and other animals designated by the Secretary."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2011-02-12, Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005, 2011-12-10, Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness or disease". It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human "Police launch investigation into Aylmer Meat Packers", 28 Aug 2003


{{further |History of agriculture}}Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, lifecycle and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild.The dog was domesticated early; dogs appear in Europe and the Far East from about 15,000 years ago.JOURNAL, Larson, G., Bradley, D. G., 2014, How Much Is That in Dog Years? The Advent of Canine Population Genomics, PLOS Genetics, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004093, 24453989, 3894154, 10, 1, e1004093, Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia.JOURNAL, Chessa, B., Pereira, F., Arnaud, F., Amorim, A., Goyache, F., Mainland, I., Kao, R. R., Pemberton, J. M., Beraldi, D., Stear, M. J., Alberti, A., Pittau, M., Iannuzzi, L., Banabazi, M. H., Kazwala, R. R., Zhang, Y.-p., Arranz, J. J., Ali, B. A., Wang, Z., Uzun, M., Dione, M. M., Olsaker, I., Holm, L.-E., Saarma, U., Ahmad, S., Marzanov, N., Eythorsdottir, E., Holland, M. J., Ajmone-Marsan, P., Bruford, M. W., Kantanen, J., Spencer, T. E., Palmarini, M., Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations, Science, 324, 5926, 2009-04-24, 10.1126/science.1170587, 19390051, 3145132, 532–536, 2009Sci...324..532C, Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near EastJOURNAL, Vigne, J. D., Zazzo, A., Saliège, J. F., Poplin, F., Guilaine, J., Simmons, A., Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 38, 16135–8, 2009, 19706455, 2752532, 10.1073/pnas.0905015106, 2009PNAS..10616135V, and 6,000 BC in China.JOURNAL, Larson, Greger, Liu, Ranran, Zhao, Xingbo, Yuan, Jing, Fuller, Dorian, Barton, Loukas, Dobney, Keith, Fan, Qipeng, Gu, Zhiliang, Liu, Xiao-Hui, Luo, Yunbing, Lv, Peng, Andersson, Leif, Li, Ning, Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 17, 2010-04-19, 10.1073/pnas.0912264107, 20404179, 7686–7691, 2867865, 2010PNAS..107.7686L, Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC.WEB,weblink Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University,, 2011-12-10, Cattle have been domesticated since approximately 10,500 years ago.JOURNAL, McTavish, E.J., Decker, J. E., Schnabel, R. D., Taylor, J. F., Hillis, D. M., 2013, New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110, 15, E1398–406, 10.1073/pnas.1303367110, 23530234, 3625352, 2013PNAS..110E1398M, Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC.WEB,weblink History of chickens – India and China, 2017-06-12,


{{unreferenced section|date=April 2018}}The term "livestock" is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.{| class="wikitable"! Animal! Wild ancestor! Domestication! Utilization! Picture
| Horse| Przewalski’s horse| Mongolia| Riding, racing, carrying and pulling loads
| Donkey| African wild ass| Africa| Beast of burden and draught
| Cattle| Aurochs| Eurasia| Meat, milk, draught
| Brahmin| Aurochs| Eurasia| Milk, meat and draught.
| Bali cattle| Banteng| SE Asia| Meat, milk and draught
| Yak| Wild yak| Tibet| Pack animal, milk, meat and hide
| Water buffalo| Wild water buffalo| India and SE Asia| Meat, milk and beast of burden
| Gayal| Gaur| India and Malaysia| Beast of burden and draught
| Sheep| Mouflon| Iran and Asia Minor| Meat, milk and fleece.
| Goat| Bezoar ibex| Greece and Pakistan| Meat, milk and fleece
| Reindeer| Reindeer| Eurasia| Draught, milk, flesh and hide
| Bactrian camel| Wild Bactrian camel| Central Asia| Riding and racing
| Dromedary| Arabian camel| North Africa and SW Asia| Riding and racing
| Llama| Guanaco| Andes| Pack animal and fleece
| Alpaca| South America| Andes| Fleece
| Pig| Wild boar| Eurasia| Meat
| Rabbit| European rabbit| Europe| Meat

Farming practices

(File:Goat family.jpg|thumb|Goat family with 1-week-old kid)File:Paridera Cueva del Río Piedra.jpg|thumb|Farrowing site in a natural cave in northern SpainSpainTraditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but also the fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transport and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood (by the Maasai) were harvested while the animal was still alive.BOOK, Webster, John, Animal Husbandry Regained: The Place of Farm Animals in Sustainable Agriculture,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-84971-420-4, 4–10, In the traditional system of transhumance, people and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures; in montane regions the summer pasture was up in the mountains, the winter pasture in the valleys.BOOK, Blench, Roger, 'You can't go home again' – Pastoralism in the new millennium, Overseas Development Institute, 17 May 2001, 12,weblink Animals can be kept extensively or intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands.BOOK, Starrs, Paul F., Let the Cowboy Ride: Cattle Ranching in the American West,weblink 2000, JHU Press, 978-0-8018-6351-6, 1–2, Similar cattle stations are found in South America, Australia and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Ranching systems have been used for sheep, deer, ostrich, emu, llama and alpaca.BOOK, Levinson, David, Christensen, Karen, Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World,weblink 2003, Sage, 978-0-7619-2598-9, 1139, In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.BOOK, The Shepherd's Life, Rebanks, James, 2015, Penguin: Random House, 978-0141-97936-6, 286, In rural locations, pigs and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, and in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, and still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are often intensively managed; dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them; beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots;JOURNAL, Silbergeld, Ellen K, Graham, Jay, Price, Lance B, Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health, Annual Review of Public Health, 2008, 29, 151–69, 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090904, 18348709, pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors;WEB,weblink Swine Growing-Finishing Units, Meyer, Vernon M., Driggers, L. Bynum, Ernest, Kenneth, Ernest, Debra, Pork Industry handbook, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 17 May 2017, poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside.BOOK, Blount, W.P., Intensive Livestock Farming,weblink 2013, Elsevier, 978-1-4831-9565-0, 360–62,


Livestock farmers have suffered from wild animal predation and theft by rustlers. In North America, animals such as the gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. In Eurasia and Africa, predators include the wolf, leopard, tiger, lion, dhole, Asiatic black bear, crocodile, spotted hyena, and other carnivores. In South America, feral dogs, jaguars, anacondas, and spectacled bears are threats to livestock. In Australia, the dingo, fox, and wedge-tailed eagle are common predators, with an additional threat from domestic dogs that may kill in response to a hunting instinct, leaving the carcass uneaten.Northern Daily Leader, 20 May 2010, Dogs mauled 30 sheep (and killed them), p.3, Rural PressWEB, Simmons, Michael,weblink Dogs seized for killing sheep - Local News - News - General - The Times,, 2009-09-10, 2011-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-01-11,


Good husbandry, proper feeding, and hygiene are the main contributors to animal health on the farm, bringing economic benefits through maximised production. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines, by the farmer and the veterinarian. In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given.WEB, Farmers,weblink European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals, 18 May 2017, 2010, Animals are susceptible to a number of diseases and conditions that may affect their health. Some, like classical swine feverWEB,weblink Classical swine fever, The Center for Food Security and Public Health, 20 May 2017, and scrapieWEB,weblink Scrapie Fact Sheet, 2001, National Institute for Animal Agriculture, 20 May 2017, are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease affect all cloven-hoofed animals.WEB,weblink Foot-and-mouth, The Cattle Site, 20 May 2017, Where the condition is serious, governments impose regulations on import and export, on the movement of stock, quarantine restrictions and the reporting of suspected cases. Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used where appropriate. At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance.WEB,weblink feed (agriculture) {{!, Antibiotics and other growth stimulants | |accessdate=29 April 2018}} Animals living under intensive conditions are particularly prone to internal and external parasites; increasing numbers of sea lice are affecting farmed salmon in Scotland.NEWS, Scottish salmon farming's sea lice 'crisis', Fraser, Douglas,weblink BBC, 14 February 2017, 20 May 2017, Reducing the parasite burdens of livestock results in increased productivity and profitability.WEB,weblink Parasite control, Animal Health Ireland, 20 May 2017,

Transportation and marketing

(File:Animal transport 6.jpg|thumb|Pigs being loaded into their transport){{further|Agricultural show}}Since many livestock are herd animals, they were historically driven to market "on the hoof" to a town or other central location. The method is still used in some parts of the world.BOOK, Bonser, K. J., The Drovers. Who They Were and How They Went: An Epic of the English Countryside, 1972, Country Book Club, Truck transport is now common in developed countries.WEB, Chambers, Philip G., Grandin, Temple, Heinz, Gunter, Srisuvan, Thinnarat, Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock {{!, CHAPTER 6: Transport of livestock |url=|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization |accessdate=29 April 2018 |date=2001}}Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock.In other areas, livestock may be bought and sold in a bazaar, such as may be found in many parts of Central Asia.In developing countries, providing access to markets has encouraged farmers to invest in livestock, with the result being improved livelihoods. For example, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has worked in Zimbabwe to help farmers make their most of their livestock herds.Markets from research to outcomes {{webarchive|url= |date=2014-05-01 }}, Farming Matters, Challenge Program on Water and Food, June 2013In stock shows, farmers bring their best livestock to compete with one another.Australian Screen: Agricultural shows

Environmental impact

(File:Bezerros de IATF.jpg|thumb|Livestock production requires large areas of land.)Animal husbandry has a significant impact on the world environment. It is responsible for somewhere between 20 and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world,WEB, A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products,weblink Water Footprint Network, 2012, Mesfin M., Mekonnen, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth's ice-free land.WEB, Livestock a major threat to environment,weblink Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations, Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification,BOOK, Whitford, Walter G., Ecology of desert systems, Academic Press, 2002, 978-0-12-747261-4, 277,weblink and habitat destruction.WEB, Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences,, Annenberg Learner, Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in various ways. Habitat is destroyed by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, while predators and herbivores are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits; for example, animal husbandry is responsible for up to 91% of the deforestation in the Amazon region.WEB, Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest,weblink Washington: World Bank Publications, Sergio, Margulis, 2003, In addition, livestock produce greenhouse gases. Cows produce some 570 million cubic metres of methane per day,WEB, Philip, Ross, Cow farts have 'larger greenhouse gas impact' than previously thought; methane pushes climate change,weblink International Business Times, 2013, that accounts for from 35 to 40% of the overall methane emissions of the planet.WEB, Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, Steinfeld H., Gerber P., Wassenaar T., Castel V., Rosales M., de Haan C., 2006, FAO, 13 December 2017,weblink Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of the powerful and long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. As a result, ways of mitigating animal husbandry's environmental impact are being studied. Strategies include using biogas from manure.JOURNAL, Monteny, Gert-Jan, Andre Bannink, David Chadwick, Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies for Animal Husbandry, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2006, 112, 2–3, 163–170, 10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.015,

Economic and social benefits

(File:Livestock of the World (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, chickens, ducks).jpg|thumb|300px|Global distribution data for cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens and ducks in 2010.)The value of global livestock production in 2013 has been estimated at about 883 billion dollars, (constant 2005-2006 dollars).FAOSTAT. (Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.) weblink Livestock provide a variety of food and nonfood products; the latter include leather, wool, pharmaceuticals, bone products, industrial protein, and fats. For many abattoirs, very little animal biomass may be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be recovered for use as fertilizer. Livestock manure helps maintain the fertility of grazing lands. Manure is commonly collected from barns and feeding areas to fertilize cropland. In some places, animal manure is used as fuel, either directly (as in some developing countries), or indirectly (as a source of methane for heating or for generating electricity). In regions where machine power is limited, some classes of livestock are used as draft stock, not only for tillage and other on-farm use, but also for transport of people and goods. In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the world's irrigated systems, and that 300 million draft animals were used globally in small-scale agriculture.BOOK, de Haan, Cees, Steinfeld, Henning, Blackburn, Harvey, 1997, Livestock & the environment: finding a balance, European Commission Directorate-General for Development,weblink Although livestock production serves as a source of income, it can provide additional economic values for rural families, often serving as a major contributor to food security and economic security. Livestock can serve as insurance against riskSwanepoel, F., A. Stroebel and S. Moyo. (eds.) 2010. The role of livestock in developing communities: Enhancing multifunctionality. African Sun Media. and is an economic buffer (of income and/or food supply) in some regions and some economies (e.g., during some African droughts). However, its use as a buffer may sometimes be limited where alternatives are present,JOURNAL, Fafchamps, Marcel, Udry, Christopher, Czukas, Katherine, Drought and saving in West Africa: are livestock a buffer stock?, Journal of Development Economics, 55, 2, 1998, 273–305, 0304-3878, 10.1016/S0304-3878(98)00037-6,weblink 12 May 2018,, harv, which may reflect strategic maintenance of insurance in addition to a desire to retain productive assets. Even for some livestock owners in developed nations, livestock can serve as a kind of insurance.JOURNAL, Johannesen, Anne Borge, Skonhoft, Anders, Livestock as Insurance and Social Status: Evidence from Reindeer Herding in Norway, Environmental and Resource Economics, 48, 4, 2011, 679–694, 0924-6460, 10.1007/s10640-010-9421-2,weblink 12 May 2018, harv, Some crop growers may produce livestock as a strategy for diversification of their income sources, to reduce risks related to weather, markets and other factors.JOURNAL, Bell, Lindsay W., Moore, Andrew D., Integrated crop–livestock systems in Australian agriculture: Trends, drivers and implications, Agricultural Systems, 111, 2012, 1–12, 0308-521X, 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.04.003,weblink 12 May 2018, harv, JOURNAL, Kandulu, John M., Bryan, Brett A., King, Darran, Connor, Jeffery D., Mitigating economic risk from climate variability in rain-fed agriculture through enterprise mix diversification, Ecological Economics, 79, 2012, 105–112, 0921-8009, 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.04.025,weblink 12 May 2018, harv, Many studies{{which|date=August 2018}} have found evidence of the social, as well as economic, importance of livestock in developing countries and in regions of rural poverty, and such evidence is not confined to pastoral and nomadic societies.JOURNAL, Asresie, A., Zemedu, L., Contribution of livestock sector in Ethiopian economy: a review, Adv Life Sci Technol, 2015, 29, 79–90,weblink 12 May 2018, 2225-062X, harv, JOURNAL, 10174/9347, The Economic and Sociocultural Role of Livestock in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste, 2013, Bettencourt, Elisa Maria Varela, Tilman, Mário, Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa, Narciso, Vanda, Carvalho, Maria Leonor da Silva, harv, JOURNAL, Khan, Nizamuddin, Rehman, Anisur, Salman, Mohd. Sadiq, Impactul creșterii animalelor asupra dezvoltării socio-economice în Nordul Indiei, Forum Geografic, XII, 1, 2013, 75–80, 1583-1523, 10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2013.084.i,weblink ro, 12 May 2018, harv, JOURNAL, Ali, A., Khan, M.A., Livestock ownership in ensuring rural household food security in Pakistan, J. Animal Plant Sci., 2013, 23, 1, 313–318,weblink 12 May 2018, 1018-7081, harv, Social values in developed countries can also be considerable. For example, in a study of livestock ranching permitted on national forest land in New Mexico, USA, it was concluded that "ranching maintains traditional values and connects families to ancestral lands and cultural heritage", and that a "sense of place, attachment to land, and the value of preserving open space were common themes". "The importance of land and animals as means of maintaining culture and way of life figured repeatedly in permittee responses, as did the subjects of responsibility and respect for land, animals, family, and community."McSweeney, A. M and C. Raish. 2012. Social, cultural and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests. USDA Forest Service RMRS-GTR 276.In the US, profit tends to rank low among motivations for involvement in livestock ranching.JOURNAL, Gentner, B.J., Tanaka, J.A., Classifying federal public land grazing permittees, Journal of Range Management, 55, 1, 2006, 0022-409X, 10.2458/azu_jrm_v55i1_gentner, harv, Instead, family, tradition and a desired way of life tend to be major motivators for ranch purchase, and ranchers "historically have been willing to accept low returns from livestock production."CONFERENCE, Torell, L. Allen, Rimbey, Neil R., Tanaka, John A., Bailey, Scott A., 2001, THE LACK OF A PROFIT MOTIVE FOR RANCHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS, Torell, L. A., Bartlett, E. T., Larranaga, R., Current issues in rangeland economics, Proc. Symp. Western Regional Coordinating Committee on Rangeland Economics: WCC-55, N. M. State Univ. Res. Rep., 737,weblink 30 November 2018, harv,

See also

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{{reflist| colwidth=30em}}

External links

{{Wiktionary|livestock}}{{Commons category|Livestock management}} {{Agriculture footer}}{{Working animals}}{{Authority control}}

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